Sample records for vegetable oil properties

  1. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.; Heakin, A.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Schwab, A.W.

    1982-11-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions.

  2. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

  3. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  4. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  5. Tribological Properties of Sulfide-Modified Vegetable Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous reports we described the synthesis of sulfide modified vegetable oil (SMVO) by radical addition of butanethiol to the double bonds of corn and canola oils. Corn and canola oils differ in the degree of the unsaturation. The modification resulted in eliminating the double bonds, introduc...

  6. Modification of thermal and oxidative properties of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. El Diwani; S. El Rafie

    Trans esterification of three vegetable oils, sunflower oil, linseed oil and mixed oils as; sunflower- soyabean and olein were carried out using methanol, and potasium hydroxide as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol and characterized by physical-chemical methods to evaluate their thermal properties. This methods are determination of densities, cloud points, pour

  7. Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity. PMID:24144052

  8. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O. [Oil Chemical Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  9. The effects of vegetable oil properties on injection and combustion in two different diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Ryan; L. G. Dodge; T. J. Callahan

    1984-01-01

    Four different vegetable oils, each in at least 3 different stages of processing, have been characterized according to their\\u000a physical and chemical properties, their injection and atomization characteristics, and their performance and combustion characteristics\\u000a in both a direct-injection and an indirect-injection diesel engine. The injection and atomization characteristics of the vegetable\\u000a oils are significantly different than those of petroleum-derived diesel

  10. Modeling Vegetable Oil Viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Balat

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of their environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Vegetable oils do not contain any sulfur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, or crude oil residues. Short-term engine tests indicate good potential for vegetable oil fuels. Long-term endurance tests may show serious problems in injector coking, ring sticking, gum formation,

  11. Relationships derived from physical properties of vegetable oil and biodiesel fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirbas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate mathematical relationships between higher heating value (HHV) and viscosity, density or flash point measurements of various biodiesel fuels. The HHV is an important property defining the energy content and thereby efficiency of fuels, such as vegetable oils and biodiesels. The biodiesels were characterized for their physical and main fuel properties including viscosity,

  12. Mechanical properties of photo-polymerized sustainable epoxy materials from vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew; Yang, Zheqin; Crivello, James

    2014-03-01

    Our research program aimed at advancing our ability to tailor the photocationic polymerization and physical properties of sustainable epoxy materials derived from crosslinked epoxidized vegetable oils using onium salt photoinitiators. Specifically, we developed solventless, photopolymerizable epoxy monomer and oligomer systems derived from sustainable biorenewable sources as alternatives to existing highly polluting and energy-intensive thermal curing of epoxy resin chemistry. Two sustainable epoxy network polymer systems will be presented to investigate how the network formation can be controlled. The first system is a series of epoxidized vegetable oils that offer various degrees of crosslinking densities, and the second system represents the blends of epoxidized vegetable oils with epoxidized terpenes to tailor their photocuring and mechanical properties for the potential usage in ``green'' coating, adhesive, 3D printing, and composite applications. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  13. Vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

  14. Vegetable oils-based microemulsions: Formation, properties, and application for \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia Bragato; Günter Subklew; Milan J. Schwuger; Omar A. El Seoud

    2002-01-01

    Methyl esters of coconut oil (CME) and the saturated fraction of palm oil (PME) were prepared from precursor oils by transesterification. Phase diagrams of oil (CME or PME)\\/water\\/non-ionic surfactant (Synperonic 91\\/4) were studied as a function of system composition and temperature. Rheology measurements and X-ray diffraction of the monophases obtained indicated that they are free of cubic liquid crystals. Quasi-elastic

  15. Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( ?) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both ? and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.

  16. Tribological Properties of Vegetable Oils Modified by Reaction with Butanethiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girma BiresawGrigor; Grigor B. Bantchev; Steven C. Cermak

    2011-01-01

    Corn, canola, and castor-lauric estolide oils were chemically modified by photochemical direct reaction of butanethiol with\\u000a the double bonds on the hydrocarbon chains. The effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index (VI), pour\\u000a point (PP), cloud point (CP), oxidation stability (RPVOT), 4-ball anti-wear (AW), and extreme pressure (EP) were investigated.\\u000a The sulfide modified (SM) corn and canola oils showed

  17. Tribological properties of vegetable oils modified by reaction with Butanethiol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, canola and castor-lauric estolide oils were chemically modified by direct reaction of butanethiol with the double bonds on the hydrocarbon chains. The effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index (VI), pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), oxidation stability (OS), rotating pres...

  18. Vegetable oils as core of cationic polymeric nanocapsules: influence on the physicochemical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata V. Contri; Kênia L. F. Ribeiro; Luana A. Fiel; Adriana R. Pohlmann; Silvia S. Guterres

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable oils might be alternatives to mineral or synthetic oils used in nanostructured systems for cutaneous application, due to their advantages with regard to skin care and protection. In this study, we propose the use of vegetable oils (Brazil nut, sunflower seed, olive, rose hip, grape seed and carrot oils) as oily core of Eudragit RS100® nanocapsules and determine their

  19. Antioxidants for vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Sherwin

    1976-01-01

    Several chemical compounds having antioxidant efficacy in food fats and oils and cleared for food use by governmental regulatory\\u000a agencies are available for such use by vegetable oil processors in many nations of the world. These antioxidants are reviewed\\u000a with particular attention to major benefits and possible shortcomings they may afford when added to vegetable oils. Some guidelines\\u000a in selecting

  20. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  1. Low-temperature flow properties of vegetable oil\\/cosolvent blend diesel fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Dunn

    2002-01-01

    Vegetable oils are an attractive renewable source for alternative diesel fuels. However, the relatively high kinematic viscosity\\u000a of vegetable oils must be reduced to make them more compatible with conventional compression-ignition engines and fuel systems.\\u000a Cosolvent blending is a low-cost and easy-to-adapt technology that reduces viscosity by diluting the vegetable oil with a\\u000a low-M.W. alcohol (methanol or ethanol). The cosolvent

  2. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of Tecoma stans Linn. seed oil: a new crop for vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Mokbli, Sadok; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Tecoma stans Linn. is known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding their seed oils. In this study, the fatty acid (FA) compositions, physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of T. stans seed oils (TSOs) were investigated. The oil content of the seeds was 15%. The FAs of the TSOs were analysed by GC-MS. ?-Linolenic (45.47%), oleic (23.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%) and stearic (4.12%) acids were the major detected FAs. ?-Linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, unusually FAs, were also present (1.04% and 6.65%, respectively). The total tocol content in the TSOs was found to be 266.06 mg/100 g. The main component was ?-tocopherol (78.93%). The total phenolic content (168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil) and total flavonoid content (5.54 mg CE/g oil) were also determined in the TSOs. PMID:25813239

  4. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Dmytryshyn; A. K. Dalai; S. T. Chaudhari; H. K. Mishra; M. J. Reaney

    2004-01-01

    Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud

  5. VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BASE STOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Vegetable Oil-Based Base Stocks" is a study of a series of vegetable oils selected for potential use as base fluids for industrial and automotive applications. Their thermal-oxidative stabilities and low-temperature properties are evaluated. Effects of diluents and additives on selected vegetable...

  6. Heat Transfer Properties of a Series of Oxidized and Unoxidized Vegetable Oils in Comparison with Petroleum Oil-Based Quenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Ester Carvalho; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Sarmiento, G. Sánchez; Agaliotis, Eliana; Carrara, Juan C.; Schicchi, Diego S.; Totten, George E.

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable oils, especially soybean oil, exhibit substantially poorer thermal-oxidative stability than commercially available petroleum oil quenchant formulations. Therefore, to achieve any commercially interesting performance, vegetable oils must be stabilized by the addition of antioxidant inhibitors. This work describes the ability of two commercially available antioxidants, Irganox L 57 and Irganox L 109, to stabilize soybean oil against thermal-oxidative degradation. In addition, the effect of antioxidant stabilization on quenching performance was evaluated by determining the profile of heat transfer coefficient variation throughout the quenching process at different times after being subjected to an accelerated thermal-oxidation aging test. The results of this work are discussed here.

  7. Formation, properties, and “ ex situ ” soil decontamination by vegetable oil-based microemulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia Bragato; Omar A. El Seoud

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated soil decontamination by vegetable oil-based fluids. Methyl esters of babassu oil (BME) and the unsaturated\\u000a fraction of palm oil (UPME) were prepared by transesterification of precursor oils. Phase diagrams of each fatty ester\\/water\\/nonionic\\u000a surfactant (Synperonic 91\\/4) were studied as a function of system composition and temperature. Measurements of solution rheology,\\u000a quasi-elastic light scattering, and interfacial tension were

  8. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  9. Polymerization of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Mousetis, T.L.; Lloyd, L.

    1982-01-01

    The addition of antioxidants and dispersants is not sufficient to eliminate gum formation in vegetable oils. Even with relatively unsaturated oils like rapeseed the extent of unsaturation overwhelms these additives. Fuel deterioration during storage will be minimized in an anaerobic storage environment and, to a lesser extent, with a lower degree of oil unsaturation. Gum formation and carbon coking can also occur immediately preceding and during combustion. Thermal polymerization may be the dominant gum forming reaction under combustion conditions since thermal polymerization has a higher activation energy than oxidative polymerization and anaerobic conditions can occur within atomized fuel droplets. Carbon coking can be reduced with a lower degree of oil unsaturation and with better atomization of the fuel. 4 figures, 1 table.

  10. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  11. Economics of vegetable oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Scheithauer, R.; Dripchak, K.

    1988-05-01

    Vegetable oils offer great promise as a diesel fuel substitute, given the similarity in their physical and chemical properties. This report examines the cost of converting oilseeds to oil, as a first step in evaluating the potential competitiveness of vegetable oil fuels. Processing costs for typical existing US facilities - including solvent, prepress-solvent, and mechanical extraction technologies - were reviewed. The capital costs of a dedicated rapeseed oil processing facility in the southeastern US were also estimated. A third objective was to estimate the costs of modifying existing processing facilities to crush multiple oilseeds, since the oilseed industry has considerable excess capacity. Using existing excess capacity to crush oilseeds for 60 days per year resulted in savings for each of the three extraction technologies with prepress-solvent extraction being the minimum cost technology. The 17 southeastern prepress-solvent facilities identified could produce over 34 million gallons of rapeseed oil per year if each are operated for an additional 60 days per year. This would require over 312,000 acres of winter rapeseed production, providing an excellent opportunity for early introduction of this crop for energy purposes. 57 figs.

  12. USE OF VEGETABLE OILS IN FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils have a series of advantages which can be beneficial for a number of lubricant applications. They are readily biodegradable and essentially nontoxic, properties that are not exhibited by lubricants based on mineral oils. Volatility is very low due to high molecular weight triglycerid...

  13. Improving the low-temperature properties of alternative diesel fuels: Vegetable oil-derived methyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Dunn; M. W. Shockley; M. O. Bagby

    1996-01-01

    This work explores near-term approaches for improving the low-temperature properties of triglyceride oil-derived fuels for\\u000a direct-injection compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Methyl esters from transesterified soybean oil were evaluated as a\\u000a neat fuel and in blends with petroleum middle distillates. Winterization showed that the cloud point (CP) of methyl soyate\\u000a may be reduced to ?16C. Twelve cold-flow additives marketed for distillates were

  14. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  15. Vegetable oil fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, D.

    1981-04-01

    In this article, the future role of renewable agricultural resources in providing fuel is discussed. it was only during this century that U.S. farmers began to use petroleum as a fuel for tractors as opposed to forage crop as fuel for work animals. Now farmers may again turn to crops as fuel for agricultural production - the possible use of sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil as substitutes for diesel fuel is discussed.

  16. VEGETABLE OIL-BASED SUNSCREENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an environmentally friendly method for making ultraviolet (UV) absorbing lipids by enzymatically esterifying vegetable oil with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is a compound of the cinnamon family that is found in oat, rice, and corn bran, and occurs naturally in our food supply. The ...

  17. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  18. Modification of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Bailey; G. S. Fisher

    1946-01-01

    Summary  From the analysis of several series of hydrogenated cottonseed, soybean, and linseed oils, made by the spectral and other\\u000a methods, estimates have been made of the relative readiness of hydrogenation of oleic, iso-oleic, linoleic, and linolenic\\u000a acids, and an isomer of linoleic acid which presumably has its double bonds in the 9:10 and 15:16 positions.\\u000a \\u000a The conclusions reached are as

  19. Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil 

    E-print Network

    Lin, Lan

    1997-01-01

    Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who...

  20. Modification of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Feuge; A. E. Bailey

    1946-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a An investigation has been made of the composition of mixtures of mono-, di-, and triglycerides formed by the reaction of hydrogenated\\u000a cottonseed oil with glycerol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a At temperatures below about 200?C., at equilibrium, and within the range of glycerol concentration in which the reaction product\\u000a becomes homogeneus, the proportions of free

  1. Performance evaluation of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Agarwal; Lokesh Kumar; Avinash Kumar Agarwal

    2008-01-01

    Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, etc. are potentially effective

  2. Vegetable oil production in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. de Moraes Carvalho

    1929-01-01

    Summary  From this short description it may be concluded that in Brazil there already exist good factories for the extraction of cottonseed\\u000a oil by the American process, good refineries and factories for vegetable butter and similar products, and that it would be\\u000a in the interests of American capitalists to study the possibilities of this industry in Brazil. In 1928 Brazil exported

  3. Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

  4. Laboratory Bioassays of Vegetable Oils as Kairomonal Phagostimulants for Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    E-print Network

    Latchininsky, Alexandre

    Laboratory Bioassays of Vegetable Oils as Kairomonal Phagostimulants for Grasshoppers (Orthoptera + Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract Vegetable oils have kairomonal attractant properties to grasshoppers essentials for grasshoppers and, once volatilized, can be detected by the insects' olfactory receptors

  5. Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

    2014-04-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials. PMID:24012607

  6. Recent advances in vegetable oil-based polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Daniel P; Xia, Ying; Larock, Richard C

    2011-06-20

    Polyurethanes are among the most versatile polymers because of the wide range of monomers, particularly diols or polyols, that can be utilized in their synthesis. This Review focuses on the most recent advances made in the production of polyurethane materials from vegetable oils. Over the past several years, increasing attention has been given to the use of vegetable oils as feedstocks for polymeric materials, because they tend to be very inexpensive and available in large quantities. Using various procedures, a very broad range of polyols or diols and in some cases, poly- or diisocyanates, can be obtained from vegetable oils. The wide range of vegetable oil-based monomers leads to a wide variety of polyurethane materials, from flexible foams to ductile and rigid plastics. The thermal and mechanical properties of these vegetable oil-based polyurethanes are often comparable to or even better than those prepared from petroleum and are suitable for applications in various industries. PMID:21598405

  7. Properties of margarine and spread from wax-vegetable oil organogel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food products such as margarine and spread need solid fats for a desired texture and typically these solid fats contain high contents of saturated fats and trans-fats. In this research organogels formed by plant wax and soybean oil were utilized to produce trans-fat free margarine and spread. Base...

  8. Vegetable oils for liquid-filled transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Oommen

    2002-01-01

    Several billion litres of transformer oil are used in transformers worldwide. To meet the challenges posed by environmental concerns, fully biodegradable vegetable oils have been developed for use in electrical equipment, particularly in transformers. Against this background the author discusses the development of vegetable oils for transformer use, their biodegradability, decomposition products, functional life test, fire hazard tests and the

  9. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  10. Modification of Vegetable Oils for Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current talk deals with a partial review of research for developing improved lubricants from vegetable oils through modifications of the chemical structure. The typical vegetable oil is a mixture of triesters of glycerin with linear fatty acids, most of them with one or more double bonds. The ...

  11. PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLE OIL AS FUEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Kyyt; Jyri Olt

    2009-01-01

    There are two options for using liquid biofuel: vegetable oil or the transesterificated form, biodiesel. The chemical processing of biodiesel from vegetable oil is highly energy consuming and therefore is not a suitable option for farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate, analyze and provide explanations about the issues concerning the selection of productions appliances that are the

  12. VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The uncertainty in petroleum supply along with pollution and environmental health concerns is making a way for vegetable oils to be used as fuel and lubricants. The vegetable oils have some advantages like naturally renewable resource, environmentally safe, good lubricity and viscosity-temperature ...

  13. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  14. Epoxy thermoset networks derived from vegetable oils and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVOs), such as epoxidized soybean oil and linseed oils were prepared by the partial oxidation of the unsaturated double bonds in vegetable oils and used as monomers for preparing epoxy thermoset materials based on the cationic polymerization. These EVOs have been used to prepare epoxy thermosets of different network densities by cationic polymerization using onium salt catalyst. The crosslinked epoxy thermosets provide an ideal platform to study the structure-property-relationships of networked polymers. In particular, rheological studies on the epoxidized vegetable oil thermosets have been performed to measure the molecular weights between crosslinks (Mx) in the epoxy thermosets and to ultimately elucidate the role of functionality of epoxy groups in EVO on the mechanical and thermophysical properties of the epoxy thermoset materials. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  15. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives — Symposium overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Pryde

    1984-01-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information\\u000a presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests\\u000a will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more\\u000a research

  16. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40,...

  17. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40,...

  18. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40,...

  19. Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

  20. Research on Biodiesel and Vegetable Oil Fuels - Then and Now

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vegetable oil was used as diesel fuel for the first time in 1900 and the first biodiesel dates from the 1930's. Significant insights into fuel properties were already gained in those times. This article briefly discusses such results and relates the author's own recent work on biodiesel fuel pro...

  1. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  2. Sterol composition of 19 vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Itoh; T. Tamura; T. Matsumoto

    1973-01-01

    The unsaponifiables from 19 vegetable oils were divided into a sterol and three other fractions by thin-layer chromatography.\\u000a All except olive and palm kernel oils gave the sterol fraction in a large quantity. Compositions of the sterol fractions were\\u000a determined by gas liquid chromatography. Identification of each sterol was carried out by gas liquid chromatography and combined\\u000a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry.

  3. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

  4. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

  5. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

  6. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

  7. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

  8. What correlation is appropriate to evaluate biodiesels and vegetable oils higher heating value (HHV)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanignon Ferdinand Fassinou; Laurent Van de Steene; Siaka Toure; Eric Martin

    2011-01-01

    The heating value is one of the most important properties of animal fats, vegetable oils and biodiesels for their use as fuels in stead of petroleum.There are lots of formulae or correlations encountered in the literature to evaluate biomass fuels’ higher heating value (HHV). Lots of them are not specially established for vegetable oils, animal fats and their derivatives. In

  9. Practical aspects of analyzing vegetable oils in fire debris.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Lisa M; Reardon, Michelle R

    2009-07-01

    Vegetable oils undergo burning, self-heating, and spontaneous ignition, resulting in their presence in fire debris. As these processes can affect the fatty acid content of vegetable oils, it is important that debris be properly handled in order to obtain reliable and informative data. This research investigated changes in vegetable oil content as a result of storage conditions and different types of burning. Material spiked with vegetable oils and burned was stored under various long-term conditions, and debris was tested by heating overnight using passive headspace concentration. Results indicated that refrigeration is ideal for fire debris samples suspected of containing vegetable oils and that including passive headspace concentration in the analytical scheme would not affect oils. Spontaneous ignition experiments were conducted to compare the effects of various burning processes on vegetable oil content. Vegetable oils that experienced nonpiloted ignition, self-heating, and spontaneous ignition produced noticeably different chromatograms from those that underwent piloted ignition. PMID:19467135

  10. Preparation of high hydroxyl equivalent weight polyols from vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pim-pahn Kiatsimkul; Galen J. Suppes; Fu-hung Hsieh; Zuleica Lozada; Yuan-Chan Tu

    2008-01-01

    Multiple novel vegetable oil-based polyols were synthesized from the reaction-addition to epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) by a series of acid acyl moieties derived from vegetable oils. The acid acyl moieties were linoleic acid (LA), ricinoleic acid (RC), ricinoleic acid estolide (RC estolide) and hydrolyzed bodied soybean oil (HBSBO). LA and RC were commercially available but RC estolide and HBSBO were

  11. Beyond Biodiesel Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    on straight veg- etable oil." Rudolf Diesel's first engine ran on peanut oil at the World Exhibition in Paris in agriculture and for the environ- ment. But he died before his vision of vegetable-oil powered engines became20 Beyond Biodiesel ­ Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) The green tree has many branches

  12. Comparison Between Jojoba Oil and Other Vegetable Oils as a Substitute to Petroleum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OMAYMA EL KINAWY

    2004-01-01

    Jojoba oil and other vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and castor oils, were evaluated to be used as lubricants. Three standard mineral lubricating oils were considered in this study as reference. The essential parameters tested for comparison were the oil viscosity, viscosity index, and viscosity—temperature and shear rate—shear stress relationships. The effect of excessive heating on the vegetable oils

  13. New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

  14. Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

    2002-12-01

    The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps). PMID:12523544

  15. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

  16. Triterpene alcohols and sterols of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fedeli; A. Lanzani; P. Capella; G. Jacini

    1966-01-01

    Triterpene alcohols and sterols were separated by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography from the unsaponifiable\\u000a fractions of the following 18 vegetable oils: linseed, peanut, olive, rice bran, palm kernel, corn, sesame, oiticica, palm,\\u000a coconut, rapeseed, grape seed, sunflower, poppy seed, castor, tea seed, cocoa butter and soybean. Two triterpene alcohols,\\u000a cycloartenol and 24-methylene cycloartanol, were found in all of the

  17. Viscosities of vegetable oils and fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Noureddini; B. C. Teoh; L. Davis Clements

    1992-01-01

    Data for viscosity as a function of temperature from 24 to 110C (75 to 230F) have been measured for a number of vegetable\\u000a oils (crambe, rapeseed, corn, soybean, milk-weed, coconut, lesquerella) and eight fatty acids in the range from C9 to C22. The viscosity measurements were performed according to ASTM test methods D 445 and D 446. Several correlations were

  18. Thermal analysis of alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert O. Dunn

    1999-01-01

    The relatively poor cold-flow properties of monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats (biodiesel) present a major\\u000a obstacle to their development as alternative fuels and extenders for combustion in direct injection compressionignition (diesel)\\u000a engines. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating and cooling curves of methyl soyate (SME), methyl tallowate\\u000a (TME), SME\\/TME admixtures, and winterized SME were analyzed.

  19. Chicken Noodle Soup 3 T. canola or vegetable oil

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    Chicken Noodle Soup 3 T. canola or vegetable oil 3# chicken bone-in (thigh meat or legs and chop in large chunks for stock. Get a soup/stock pot on medium high heat and heat 2 T. of oil. Place-3 minutes. Then add your large chopped vegetables and vegetable scraps to the pot and pour in only enough

  20. Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanignon Ferdinand Fassinou; Aboubakar Sako; Alhassane Fofana; Kamenan Blaise Koua; Siaka Toure

    2010-01-01

    High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude and deodorized vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Larsson; A. T. Eriksson; M. Cervenka

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency of the refining process in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from crude vegetable oils was studied.\\u000a Samples of the crude oils (coconut, soybean and rapeseed oils) and the corresponding refined, deodorized oil were taken on-line\\u000a in three Swedish oil refineries and margarine manufacturing plants and analyzed for 20 different PAHs. Of the crude oils,\\u000a coconut oil had by

  2. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels.

  3. Delivery of vegetable oil suspensions in a shear thinning fluid for enhanced bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Truex, M J; Kananizadeh, N; Li, Y; Lea, A S; Yan, X

    2015-01-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising type of substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and maintain good longevity. Because they are non-aqueous phase liquids, distribution of vegetable oils in the subsurface has typically been approached by creating emulsified oil solutions for injection into the aquifer. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a shear-thinning xanthan gum solution as an alternative approach for delivery of vegetable oil to the subsurface. The stability, oil droplet size distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and the oil distribution in a porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil with xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into a porous medium. This study provides evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan gum solutions have favorable injection properties and are a potential substrate for in situ anaerobic bioremediation. PMID:25720668

  4. Thiol-ene Reaction of Vegetable Oils with Butanethiol: Sulfide Derivatized Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils and their FA, renewable raw materials, are firmly established components in many industrial products, and their use continues to be of interest to many researchers. The development of new approaches to functionalize fatty ester compounds and to derive novel oleochemicals with unique ...

  5. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the growing global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial uses.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C; Napier, JA; Clemente, TE; Cahoon, EB

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of oilseed metabolism and in the development of new oilseed platforms and metabolic engineering technologies.

  6. Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Glória Pereira; Stephen M. Mudge

    2004-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in

  7. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  8. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food...

  9. ForPeerReview From vegetable oils to polyurethanes: synthetic routes to

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ForPeerReview Only From vegetable oils to polyurethanes: synthetic routes to polyols and main Auvergne, Remi; ICGM CAILLOL, Sylvain; ICGM, IAM Boutevin, Bernard; ICGM Keywords: vegetable oils, biobased polyols, polyurethanes, epoxidized vegetable oils, commercial polyols URL: http

  10. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food...

  11. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food...

  12. Treatment and reuse of wastes of a vegetable oil refinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A Pandey; P. B Sanyal; N Chattopadhyay; S. N Kaul

    2003-01-01

    An industry manufacturing refined vegetable oil and hydrogenated vegetable oil (vanaspati) with a capacity of 58.5 tonnes\\/day generated wastewaters and solid wastes (viz. spent earth, spent catalyst, chemical and biological sludges). The wastewater streams were mainly from vat house after soap splitting, floor washing, cooling tower, boiler and filter press. The chemical composition of the wastewater from cooling tower and

  13. Biodiesel production from vegetable oils by supercritical methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirbas

    Transesterification of vegetable oils in supercritical methanol are carried out without using any catalyst. Methyl esters of vegetable oils or biodiesels have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives and can be used in any diesel engine without modification. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are molar ratio of

  14. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recep Alt?n; Selim Çetinkaya; Hüseyin Serdar Yücesu

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean

  15. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip H. Henna

    2008-08-18

    Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if there are two degrees of unsaturation, then at carbon 15 (C15), if there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the synthesis and characterization of biobased

  16. Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

    2012-12-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

  17. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils olive, corn, soybean, canola century as base lubricants, vegetable oils were gradually replaced by mineral oils mainly for economic in environmental issues.2 A vegetable oil is a complex mixture of chemical substances3 with fatty acids among

  18. Extraction, derivatization, and analysis of vegetable oils from fire debris.

    PubMed

    Gambrel, Abby K; Reardon, Michelle R

    2008-11-01

    Vegetable oils have the ability to spontaneously heat under certain conditions, which may lead to spontaneous ignition. While the oils are not often encountered in forensic casework, they may be suspected in some fire cases. As these oils are not effectively analyzed using traditional fire debris analysis methods, a protocol must be established for extracting vegetable oils from fire debris. In this study, a protocol was developed for the extraction, derivatization, and analysis of vegetable oils from fire debris. Three derivatization methods were compared to establish an optimal derivatization procedure to convert the fatty acids found in vegetable oils to the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) used in analysis. Three different gas chromatograph columns and programs were examined to determine which was best suited for the separation and analysis of FAMEs. The procedure was tested and refined using a variety of neat and burned vegetable oils, in addition to extractions from oils burned on commonly encountered fire debris materials. The findings of this research will serve as a starting point for further understanding and research of vegetable oils in fire debris. PMID:18808371

  19. Cointegration and Causality Analysis of World Vegetable Oil and Crude Oil Prices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tun-Hsiang Yu; David A. Bessler; Stephen W. Fuller

    2006-01-01

    Because of the recent soaring petroleum price and growing environmental concerns, biodiesel has become an important alternative fuel. Biodiesel is the mono alky esters made from a vegetable oil, such as soybean or rapeseed oil, or sometimes from animal fats. The escalation in world petroleum price has stimulated the demand for biodiesel, which consequently expanded the use of vegetable oils.

  20. Performance of vegetable oils as a heat treat quenchant

    SciTech Connect

    Honary, L.A.T. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Waverly, IA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to establish as a reference the base line performance of several vegetable oils as a quench medium. Furthermore, the project was funded by the Iowa Soybean Promotion Board to investigate the potential use of soybean oil as a quench medium. Several commodity and genetically modified seed oils (high oleic) were first tested in a {open_quotes}quenchalizer{close_quotes}. Also, 300 pieces of SAE 1524 steel bars were heat treated and quenched in a chemically modified (partially hydrogenated) soybean oil and in a control (paraffin) oil. Results included changes in the oil in terms of viscosity and cooling rate and in the steel in terms of hardness. Vegetable oils can perform as quench media, but they would require treatment to improve oxidative stability among others. Advantages of vegetable-based quenchants include: renewability, environmental-friendliness and potential benefits in terms of human safety and higher flash point.

  1. Elastohydrodynamic study of vegetable oil-polyalphaolefin blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two polyalphaolefins (PAOs), of higher and lower viscosity than vegetable oils, were used to make binary blends of varying compositions with soybean and canola oils. The pure oils and the blends were used in viscosity and film thickness investigations. The effect of composition and temperature on ...

  2. Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

  3. Use of vegetable oils and fatty acid methyl esters in the production of spherical activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gryglewicz; K Grabas; G Gryglewicz

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of using vegetable oils, i.e., rapeseed oil, soybean oil, linseed oil, tung oil, castor oil and dehydroxylated castor oil, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from them, for the agglomeration of bituminous coals was investigated. Both vegetable oils and FAMEs were found to be suitable bridging liquids for the production of spherical agglomerates-precursor of spherical activated

  4. Microemulsions from vegetable oil and lower alcohol with octanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

    1984-08-08

    The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles that are powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes. Deterrents to this concept are the generally inferior fuel properties of crude vegetable oils as compared to those of diesel oil. Of particular concern is the inherently high viscosity which causes poor atomization in direct-injected diesel engines. This results in fouling of the injectors and cylinders as well as a buildup of noncombusted fuel in the crankcase causing a thickening of the lubricating oil. This invention relates to a blended vegetable oil fuel which circumvents many of these problems.

  5. Biodegradation Behavior of Some Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randal L. Shogren; Zoran Petrovic; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

    2004-01-01

    The potential biodegradability of several vegetable oil-based polymers was assessed by respirometry in soil for 60–100 days at temperatures of 30–58°C. Films of soybean oil and linseed oil which were oxidatively polymerized (Co catalyst) on a kraft paper support were 90%–100% mineralized to CO2 after 70 days at 30°C. Mineralization of polymerized tung oil to CO2 was much slower than

  6. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  7. Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farines, Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

  8. Analysis of free and esterified sterols in vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Verleyen; M. Forcades; R. Verhe; K. Dewettinck; A. Huyghebaert; W. De Greyt

    2002-01-01

    In vegetable oils, phytosterols occur as free sterols or as steryl esters. Few analytical methods report the quantification\\u000a of esterified and free sterols in vegetable oils. In this study, esterified and free sterols were separated by silica gel\\u000a column chromatography upon elution with n-hexane\\/ethyl acetate (90?10 vol\\/vol) followed by n-hexane\\/diethyl ether\\/ethanol (25?25?50 by vol). Both fractions were saponified separately and

  9. RESEARCH ON BIODIESEL AND VEGETABLE OIL FUELS - THEN AND NOW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of vegetable oils as diesel fuel is nearly as old as the diesel engine itself. The first biodiesel, in form of ethyl esters of palm oil, was described in the late 1930s. Significant technical insights on these fuels were gained up to the late 1940s. Beginning in the late 1970s, these "alt...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of sulfide modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterize...

  11. ENHANCEMENT OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AGAINST GRASSHOPPERS WITH VEGETABLE OIL CARRIERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria bassiana is registered in the U.S. for control of grasshoppers, but efficacious use rates and product costs have been serious deterrents of adoption. Canola and certain other vegetable oils contain the fatty acids that stimulate necrophily and necrophagy in grasshoppers. Using these oils ...

  12. A New Approach to Prepare Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, were prepared by cationic polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) was selected as catalyst. The resulting polymers have molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nu...

  13. Correlations of flavor score with volatiles of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Dupuy; E. T. Rayner; J. I. Wadsworth

    1976-01-01

    A simple, direct, gas chromatograph (GC) technique is described for eluting flavor-related volatile components from commercially\\u000a produced vegetable oils. A sample of oil was placed onto glass wool contained in a GC liner, and the liner was inserted in\\u000a the heated inlet of the GC. Volatiles from the oils were rapidly eluted by heat and carrier gas onto the GC

  14. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-02-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels. Performance and durability at low engine ratings are essentially the same as expected for operation on diesel fuel. However, at high engine ratings piston ring and cylinder linear wear are greater than expected for operation on diesel fuel. A laboratory program was successfully completed which resulted in a combustion system that would allow the higher rated prechamber engines to achieve normal life when burning 100% soybean oil. Fluid model tests utilizing high speed photography, single-cylinder engine tests utilizing fuel tracers, and a 200-hour multicylinder durability test were included. Extended endurance tests and experience with other vegetable oils are still required.

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

  16. Vegetable Oil Spills On Salt Marshes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M. Mudge; Ian D. Goodchild; Matthew Wheeler

    1995-01-01

    Following the wreck of the M.V. Kimya during which 1500 tonnes of sunflower oil was spilled, sandy sediments bound together with sunflower oil were discovered on the beach. These are still present 2½ years later. Sunflower and linseed oil were applied to salt marsh sediments to reproduce potential spills. Cores were taken and the vertical migration and degradation rates determined.

  17. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. PMID:26190602

  18. Volatility and boiling points of biodiesel from vegetable oils and tallow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Goodrum

    2002-01-01

    Quality control of fuel-related properties of Biodiesel, such as volatility, is needed to obtain consistent engine performance by fuel users. The vapor pressures and boiling points of selected methyl esters and vegetable oils are proposed as quality control metrics for Biodiesel. This type of data was obtained by a rapid new method using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). One atmosphere boiling points

  19. Rapid screening of biologically modified vegetable oils for fuel performance

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, D.P.; Goodrum, J.W.; Campbell, C.C.

    1999-08-01

    A process for the rapid screening of alternative diesel fuel performance was applied to analogues of genetically modified vegetable oils and a mixture with no. 2 diesel fuel. The oils examined contained 60 to 70% of low molecular weight, short-chain, saturated triglycerides compared to the 1 to 2% found in traditional vegetable oils. These oils have relatively low viscosity that is predicted to enhance their performance as alternative diesel fuels. The screening process utilizes an engine torque test sequence that accelerates the tendency of diesel fuels to coke fuel injectors, a key indicator of fuel performance. The results of the tests were evaluated using a computer vision system for the rapid quantification of injector coking. The results of the screen were compared to those using no. 2 diesel fuel as a baseline. Coke deposition from the modified vegetable oil analogues was not found to be significantly different than deposition from diesel fuel. Suggestions are made to guide further modification of vegetable oil biosynthesis for the production of alternative diesel fuel.

  20. Deacidification of Vegetable Oils by Solvent Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christianne E. C. Rodrigues; Cintia B. Gonçalves

    2007-01-01

    The refining of edible oils requires a series of purification steps, with the most important being the decrease of the free fatty acid level of the crude oil. This step is very important for the quality of the final product and has a major impact on the economic feasibility of the whole process. Several techniques, alternative to the conventional caustic

  1. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), ?-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and ?-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  2. Vegetable oil blends with ?-linolenic acid rich Garden cress oil modulate lipid metabolism in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Umesha, S S; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2012-12-15

    Vegetable oil blends with modified fatty acid profile are being developed to improve n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) ratio in edible oils. The objective of this study is to develop vegetable oil blends with ?-linolenic acid (ALA) rich Garden cress oil (GCO) and assess their modulatory effect on lipid metabolism. Sunflower oil (SFO), Rice bran oil (RBO), Sesame oil (SESO) were blended with GCO at different ratios to obtain n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2.3-2.6. Native and GCO blended oils were fed to Wistar rats at 10% level in the diet for 60 days. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), LDL-C levels in GCO and GCO blended oil fed rats compared to native oil fed rats. ALA, EPA, DHA contents were significantly increased while linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in different tissues of GCO and GCO blended oils fed rats. In conclusion, blending of vegetable oils with GCO increases ALA, decreases n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio and beneficially modulates lipid profile. PMID:22980881

  3. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably...Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...

  4. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably...Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...

  5. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably...Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...

  6. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably...Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...

  7. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably...Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...

  8. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana V Lara Pizarro; Enoch Y Park

    2003-01-01

    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content,

  9. Predicting oxidative stability of vegetable oils using neural network system and endogenous oil components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Przybylski; Rui C. Zambiazi

    2000-01-01

    The usefulness of Artificial Neural Network Systems (ANNW) to predict the stability of vegetable oil based on chemical composition\\u000a was evaluated. The training set, comprised of a composition of major and minor components of vegetable oil as inputs and as\\u000a outputs, induction period and values of slopes for initiation and propagation, was measured by oxygen consumption. The best\\u000a predictability was

  10. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Schröder; A Munack; J Schaak; C Pabst; L Schmidt; J Bünger; J Krahl

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as

  11. Coconut oil as base oil for industrial lubricants—evaluation and modification of thermal, oxidative and low temperature properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. H. Jayadas; K. Prabhakaran Nair

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of coconut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil and a commercial 2T oil under nitrogen and oxygen environment to study their thermal and oxidative degradation and the analysis of the low-temperature properties of the vegetable oils using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A molecular dynamics simulation software (Spartan 02, Wavefunction Inc.) has been used to

  12. Production and applications of ferulate-modified vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse health and ecological effects of the commonly used sunscreen active ingredients. A sunscreen active ingredient can be derived from two natural plant components, ferulic acid and vegetable oil triglycerides. Transesterification of ferulic acid e...

  13. Margarine from organogel of healthy vegetable oils and plant wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogelator that can turn vegetable oil into a gel with a small quantity has drawn a lot of interests as a potential alternative for saturated fats and trans fat-containing solid fats in margarine and spread products. However, it is not practically used in those products yet. This research shows...

  14. Some important aspects of sterol analysis of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkki Mäeorga; Peeter Läänistea; Juhan Jõudua; Uno Mäeorgb

    The content and composition of the sterol fraction is an important indicator of the value of vegetable oils, mainly due to the cholesterol-lowering effect of certain sterol compounds. Although many methods have been described in the literature, various steps may still cause errors during sample preparation. The present article covers some of the key steps in sterol analysis that are

  15. Cationic Polymerization of Vegetable Oils in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers derived from vegetable oils have been prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium by cationic polymerization. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H2)2 are used as initiator. Influences of polymerization temperature, initiator amount, and carbon dioxide pressure on the m...

  16. Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

  17. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  18. NEW USES OF VEGETABLE OILS: NOVEL OXYGENATED FATTY ACIDS BY BIOTRANSFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to find new uses for surplus vegetable oils, we are looking for new value-added products produced from vegetable oils by bioprocesses. We have discovered many new oxygenated fatty acids produced from converting vegetable oils by microbial enzymes, which may be useful as starting materi...

  19. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AND ITS METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES IN OIL-ENRICHED FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of oil, but the presence of ferric hydroxide relieves the inhibition. The effect of ferric hydroxide is not due to physical or chemical interactions with long-chain fatt...

  20. HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

  1. Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, V [1]: Gas chromatographic determination of free glycerol in transesterified vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mittelbach

    1993-01-01

    A GC method for the determination of free glycerol in vegetable oil methyl esters used as diesel fuel is described. The sample preparation includes dissolving in dimethylformamide, silylation with bistrimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and separation on a methyl silicone capillary column using either FID or MS detection. The recovery was tested using standard samples containing known amounts of glycerol. The results of

  2. Formation of headspace volatiles by thermal decomposition of oxidized fish oils vs. oxidized vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Frankel

    1993-01-01

    To understand the reasons for differences in oxidative stability among edible oils, the temperature dependence was investigated\\u000a for the development of volatile lipid oxidation products in fish oils and in vegetable oils. A rapid headspace capillary gas\\u000a chromatographic method was developed to determine volatile oxidation products of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fats (pentane\\u000a and hexanal) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fats (propanal)

  3. Membrane processing of crude vegetable oils: Pilot plant scale remoyal of solvent from oil miscellas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Köseoglu; J. T. Lawhon; E. W. Lusas

    1990-01-01

    The recovery of solvents used in the extraction step of edible oil processing is required for economical, environmental, and\\u000a safety considerations. The miscella (mixture of extracted oil and solvent) exits the extractor at 70 to 75 wt% solvent content.\\u000a Currently, the solvent is recovered by distillation.\\u000a \\u000a This paper reports the results of a study on separation of vegetable oils from

  4. Oxidative stabilities of engine oils contaminated by vegetable oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boles?aw Kowalski

    1995-01-01

    Samples of engine oils of CC or CD API grades contaminated with edible rapeseed oil (2–;10%) have been oxidized in the cell of a pressure differential scanning calorimeter (PDSC). The PDSC experiments were carried out under 1400 kPa oxygen pressure at 190°C. From the resulting PDSC exotherms their extrapolated onset and peak maximum times have been determined and compared with

  5. Impact of vegetable oils on ear-feeding insect damage in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impact of applying vegetable oils onto sweet corn silks on corn earworm damage and sap beetle population at harvest was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six vegetable oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean oils. Two commercial plant-based oils (Sun-spray' and...

  6. Physical properties of oils and mixtures of oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Timms

    1985-01-01

    The physical properties of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils are reviewed and compared and contrasted with the properties\\u000a of other oils and fats. More information is available for palm oil than for the other two. The properties of mixtures of the\\u000a oils also are considered, especially mixtures of palm and palm kernel oils in which a eutectic interaction occurs.

  7. Microemulsion-Based Vegetable Oil Detergency Using an Extended Surfactant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tri T. Phan; Anuradee Witthayapanyanon; Jeff H. Harwell; David A. Sabatini

    2010-01-01

    This work examined the use of a single extended surfactant in the microemulsion-based detergency of vegetable oils. The results\\u000a showed that good canola oil detergency (>80%) was achieved at 25 °C using a single extended surfactant (C14,15–8PO–SO4Na) at concentrations as low as 125 ppm, i.e., significantly lower than the surfactant concentration range of 500–2,500 ppm\\u000a reported in other microemulsion-based detergency work. It was

  8. Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Micah [University of Southern Mississippi, The; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Rawlins, James [University of Southern Mississippi, The

    2011-01-01

    Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

  9. Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hak-Joo Kim; Bo-Seung Kang; Min-Ju Kim; Young Moo Park; Deog-Keun Kim; Jin-Suk Lee; Kwan-Young Lee

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils (VOs) is a promising alternative fuel to diesel regarding the limited resources of fossil fuel and the environmental concerns. In this work, an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel from VOs using heterogeneous catalyst was developed. Na\\/NaOH\\/?-Al2O3 heterogeneous base catalyst was firstly adopted for the production of biodiesel. A study

  10. Capillary gas chromatographic analyses of headspace volatiles from vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Snyder; E. N. Frankel; E. Selke

    1985-01-01

    Eight different vegetable oils obtained commercially were analyzed for volatiles by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Volatiles\\u000a generated in a GC static headspace sampler at 180 C were injected automatically onto a chemically bonded capillary column.\\u000a Only a small number of GC peaks of low intensity were observed in the fresh samples, which varied in peroxide values from\\u000a 0.2 to 3.

  11. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  12. Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Knothe, G.; Bagby, M.O. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as {open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Several problems, however, remain, which include economics, combustion, some emissions, lube oil contamination, and low-temperature properties. An overview on all the mentioned aspects of biodiesel will be presented.

  13. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  14. Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

    2013-02-01

    Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m?³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

  15. Optimization of surface roughness in drilling using vegetable-based cutting oils developed from sunflower oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babur Ozcelik; Emel Kuram; Erhan Demirbas; Emrah ?ik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of four cutting oils, two different vegetable-based cutting fluids developed from refined sunflower oil and two commercial types (semi-synthetic and mineral), for surface roughness during drilling of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with HSSE tool. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – L9 (33) orthogonal array was used for the experiment plan. Spindle

  16. Discrimination of olive oil adulterated with vegetable oils using dielectric spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Lizhi; K. Toyoda; I. Ihara

    2010-01-01

    The study focused on application of dielectric spectroscopy to identify the adulteration of olive oil. The dielectric properties of binary mixture of oils were investigated in the frequency range of 101Hz–1MHz. A partial least squares (PLS) model was developed and used to verify the concentrations of the adulterant. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify olive oil

  17. Use of hydrogen to enhance the performance of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Senthil Kumar; A. Ramesh; B. Nagalingam

    2003-01-01

    Use of vegetable oils in unmodified diesel engines leads to reduced thermal efficiency and increased smoke levels. In this work, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance while using small quantities of hydrogen in a compression ignition engine primarily fuelled with a vegetable oil, namely Jatropha oil. A single cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine designed to develop a power output

  18. Total antioxidant activity of selected vegetable oils and their influence on total antioxidant values in vivo: a photochemiluminescence based analysis.

    PubMed

    Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils. PMID:24996369

  19. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  20. A review of the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples: spontaneous ignition, vegetable oils, and the forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the analysis of vegetable (and animal) oil residues from fire debris samples. The process of self-heating and spontaneous ignition is well-known by fire investigators and causes many fires. Vegetable oils are often the chemicals that originate such phenomenon. Vegetable oils are composed of lipids, which contain fatty acids. The autooxidation of the double bonds present in unsaturated fatty acids is the exothermic reaction at the origin of the self-heating process. The degree of unsaturation of fatty acids directly influences the propensity of an oil to undergo self-heating and, eventually, spontaneous ignition. When fire debris samples are collected, it is possible to examine them at the laboratory to extract and identify vegetable oil residues. This is typically performed by solvent extraction, followed by gas chromatographic(-mass spectrometric) analysis of the extract. Such analyses differ from ignitable liquid residue analyses, so a different forensic approach is necessary. PMID:16225213

  1. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward ensuring global food security for high-oleic vegetable oils. PMID:22790166

  2. On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?erban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

    Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

  3. Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirba?

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable oil fuels have not been acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for Diesel engines. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, but some engine performance problems still exist. The purpose of

  4. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil. PMID:26041212

  5. METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF UNUSUAL FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS FOR ENHANCED VEGETABLE OIL QUALITY AND PLANT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of unusual fatty acids occur in plants, and many of these fatty acids have chemical, physical, or nutritional properties that make them attractive targets for the biotechnological enhancement of vegetable oils. My lab has maintained a long research interest in the identification of genes a...

  6. A Rapid, Micro FAME Preparation Method for Vegetable Oil Fatty Acid Analysis by Gas Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul K. Lall; Andrew Proctor; Vishal P. Jain

    2009-01-01

    A 30-min, micro-base-catalyzed method for vegetable oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) preparation was developed using only\\u000a 1 mg of oil sample by limiting the solvent volumes used. This method was primarily developed to quickly analyze fatty acid\\u000a composition of CLA-rich soy oil but can be further applicable to pure vegetable oils. Existing base-catalyzed FAME preparation\\u000a methods are not appropriate to

  7. Lubrication properties of new crop oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oils from new crops such as lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.), and cuphea PSR-23 (Cuphea viscosissima × Cuphea lanceolata) were investigated and compared with vegetable oils from commodity crops such as castor, corn, and soybea...

  8. ETC Spills Technology Databases: Oil Properties Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fieldhouse, B.

    The Environmental Technology Center of Environment Canada provides a database which contains various properties of crude oils and petroleum products. In addition to the listing of oils, the database reports properties "which will likely determine the environmental behavior and effects of spilled oil." The user may select an oil from a pull-down menu that lists 412 oils. The data are organized into tables in the following areas: Origin, API Gravity, Density, Pour Point, Dynamic Viscosity, Hydrocarbon Groups, and Distillation.

  9. Manufacturing of vegetable oils-based epoxy and composites for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongpeng

    Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T g) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower Tg, versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs.

  10. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  11. Antioxidant properties of essential oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Misharina; M. B. Terenina; N. I. Krikunova

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography, we studied the antioxidant properties and stability during the storage\\u000a of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniper berry (Juniperus communis L.), fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum

  12. Analysis of biodiesel and frying vegetable oils by means of FTIR photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, S. M.; Izida, T.; Figueiredo, M. S.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Del Ré, P. V.; Jorge, N.; Buba, E.; Aristone, F.

    2008-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy was used to determine the mid-infrared vibrational modes of biodiesel and vegetable oils. Our results indicate that this method can contribute significantly to the biodiesel wash process during the sample preparation. Besides, by analyzing the spectra of vegetable oils used to fry snacks we could to monitor the degradation in function of the fried time.

  13. Transport of textile dye in vegetable oils based supported liquid membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Muthuraman; K. Palanivelu

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory study on supported liquid membrane (SLM) system has been investigated for removal and recovery of textile dye from the aqueous solution using renewable, non-toxic, natural vegetable oils, never used before as a liquid membrane. A flat sheet polypropylene (PP) supported Teflon membrane impregnated with vegetable oils has been tested for transport of Astacryl golden yellow a cationic dye.

  14. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: Self-assemblies and dynamic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: Self your paper to) Keywords: Amphiphilic copolymer; polyoxazoline; grape seed vegetable oil; self-013-1626-1 #12;- 2 - The behavior in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers

  15. Taxonomic perspective of plant species yielding vegetable oils used in cosmetics and skin care products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Athar; Syed Mahmood Nasir

    A search conducted to determine the plants yielding vegetable oils resulted in 78 plant species with potential use in cosmetics and skin care products. The taxonomic position of these plant species is described with a description of vegetable oils from these plants and their use in cosmetics and skin care products. These species belonged to 74 genera and 45 plant

  16. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svajus Joseph Asadauskas; Girma Biresaw; Ted G. McClure

    2010-01-01

    Concentration effects of chlorinated paraffin and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate on boundary lubrication properties were\\u000a tested in vegetable and mineral base stocks. Solvent refined low sulfur paraffinic mineral oil (150 N oil) and conventional\\u000a food grade soybean oil (soy oil) with EP additive concentration of 0–20% (w\\/w) were used in ASTM D2783 four-ball extreme pressure\\u000a (4-ball EP) and Twist Compression Tribotests

  17. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Background There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed. PMID:21691461

  18. Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

    2009-01-01

    Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

  19. Some problems involved in the water wash of neutralized vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Braae; Ulla Brimberg; Marianne Nyman

    1957-01-01

    Summary  An investigation of the removal of soap from neutralized vegetable oils by washing with water has shown that some oils are\\u000a obtained practically soap-free after only one water wash whereas the soap in other oils cannot be removed even by repeated\\u000a washing. Coconut, palm, and olive oils are easily washed whereas linseed and rapeseed oils are not. Peanut, sunflowerseed,\\u000a soybean,

  20. Effects of thermal oxidation on the constitution of butterfat, butterfat fractions and certain vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Kupranycz; M. A. Amer; B. E. Baker

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal oxidative behavior of butterfat in comparison to selected vegetable oils, samples of winter and summer\\u000a butterfat, liquid and solid butterfat fractions, and selected vegetable oils were heated at 185 C in the presence of air (30\\u000a ml\\/min) for 8 and 16 hr. The resultant heated fats and oils, as well as the methyl esters of their

  1. Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Appelbaum, H.R.; McClure, T.A.; Otis, J.L.; Trayser, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the production, processing, and end use of the new fuels on a basis that is both technically attractive and economically rewarding to all of the elements of the system. The three subsystems, the farms that produce oilseed crops, the production of triglycerides and protein, and the manufacturers of the diesel engines and the owners of the present stock of auto-ignition engines, are discussed. It was concluded that vegetable oils and animal fats have substantial prospects as long-term substitutes for diesel fuels. If special auto-ignition engines were developed to handle vegetable oils, on-farm production and use might succeed. In the absence of such engine development, it is likely that large, centralized facilities to manufacture vegetable oils and their methylesters will be the successful processing route. Vegetable oils are likely to succeed first in geographical areas with benign climates. Vegetable oils and animal fats have limited prospects as diesel fuels for acute emergencies. The high viscosity of vegetable oils and the necessity to make substantial capital investments to obtain oils from oilseeds render the system relatively inflexible. 4 tables. (DP)

  2. Economic implications for the potential development of a vegetable oil fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Schneeberger, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes in this paper were to (1) summarize the domestic and international oilseed situation with emphasis on trends which will affect the long-run supply and demand for oilseeds; (2) describe the existing oilseeds processing sector so as to focus on the existing linkage between food and potential fuel markets for vegetable oils; and (3) present a basic framework for analyzing the supply, demand, and price effects of significant use of vegetable oil as a fuel. The major determinants of demand worldwide for vegetable oils are price, incomes, and population. Government programs of taxes, quotas, or subsidies could affect vegetable oil supply and/or demand. International trade practices could change; altering the flow of oils between markets. The likely impact of a developing vegetable oils fuel market would be to increase vegetable oil prices. The size of the increase will depend on how large the fuel market demand ultimately becomes, and thus on the price of diesel fuel. It will also depend on how well oilseed production can be adapted, technologically, and in acreage, to meet the needs of a large fuels market while maintaining its critical role in the foods sector. There are many uncertainties in assessing the economic picture for vegetable oil use as a diesel fuel substitute. 1 figure, 3 tables. (DP)

  3. Lightning Impulse Breakdown Characteristics and Electrodynamic Process of Insulating Vegetable Oil-Based Nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhao-Tao; Zou, Ping; Du, Bin; Liao, Rui-Jin

    2012-06-01

    Insulating vegetable oils are considered environment-friendly and fire-resistant substitutes for insulating mineral oils. This paper presents the lightning impulse breakdown characteristic of insulating vegetable oil and insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids. It indicates that Fe3O4 nanoparticles can increase the negative lightning impulse breakdown voltages of insulating vegetable oil by 11.8% and positive lightning impulse breakdown voltages by 37.4%. The propagation velocity of streamer is reduced by the presence of nanoparticles. The propagation velocities of streamer to positive and negative lightning impulse breakdown in the insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids are 21.2% and 14.4% lesser than those in insulating vegetable oils, respectively. The higher electrical breakdown strength and lower streamer velocity is explained by the charging dynamics of nanoparticles in insulating vegetable oil. Space charge build-up and space charge distorted filed in point-sphere gap is also described. The field strength is reduced at the streamer tip due to the low mobility of negative nanoparticles.

  4. Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale modelling of magmatic intrusion in a deforming brittle crust

    E-print Network

    Galland, Olivier

    Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale modelling of magmatic intrusion in a deforming. The model magma is a vegetable oil, which solidifies at room temperature. Its viscosity when molten is =2. Keywords: physical modelling; magma emplacement; brittle tectonics; vegetable oil; silica powder 1

  5. Diesel-like fuel obtained by pyrolysis of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela G. Lima; Valerio C. D. Soares; Eric B. Ribeiro; Daniel A. Carvalho; Érika C. V. Cardoso; Flávia C. Rassi; Kleber C. Mundim; Joel C. Rubim; Paulo A. Z. Suarez

    2004-01-01

    The pyrolysis reactions of soybean, palm tree, and castor oils were studied. The pyrolytic products were analyzed by CG-FID, CG–MS, and FTIR, showing the formation of olefins, paraffins, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The adequate choice of distillation temperature (DT) ranges made it possible to isolate fuels with physical–chemical properties comparable to those specified for petroleum based fuels. The catalytic upgrading

  6. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  7. A conductivity method for the determination of soap in refined vegetable oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Goff; F. E. Blachly

    1957-01-01

    NE OF THE II~'IPI.TRITIES found in refined vegetable oil is soap. The alkalies in refining reagents react with the fatty acids present in the crude oil to produce sodium soaps. The soap concentration in the oil will vary throughout the refining process and is dependent upon the crude stock, the stage of the refining, the efficiency of the soap separation,

  8. Analyses of Vegetable Oil Triacylglycerols by Silver Ion High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Neff; R. O. Adlof; G. R. List; M. El-Agaimy

    1994-01-01

    Silver ion high performance liquid chromatography with a commercially available column with a simple isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile in hexane and flame ionization detection was employed to separate and quantitate triacylglycerol species of vegetable oils. Coconut, palm, cottonseed, olive, safflower, sunflower, corn, pumpkinseed, linseed, soybean, and canola oils were analyzed, as well as randomized corn and soybean oils, and

  9. Effects of unrefined vegetable oil addition on the flavor acceptability and oil oxidation of tuna oil enriched emulsion under singlet oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sojin An; Eunok Choe

    2011-01-01

    Addition effects of unrefined vegetable oil on the fishy flavor and singlet oxygen oxidation of tuna oil enriched O\\/W emulsion\\u000a were studied by sensory evaluation and determining hydroperoxide contents and headspace oxygen consumption. Emulsion consisted\\u000a of canola and tuna oil (2:1, w\\/w), acetic acid, egg yolk, and with\\/without unrefined oil (olive, sesame, mustard, or perilla\\u000a oil). Singlet oxygen was produced

  10. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  11. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  12. Experimental study of the effects of vegetable oil methyl ester on DI diesel engine performance characteristics and pollutant emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bai-Fu Lin; Jyun-Han Huang; Dao-Yi Huang

    2009-01-01

    Vegetable oil methyl ester (VOME) is produced through the transesterification of vegetable oil and can be used as biodiesel in diesel engines as a renewable, nontoxic, and potentially environmentally friendly fossil fuel alternative in light of growing concerns regarding global warming and increasing oil prices. This study used VOME fuels produced from eight commonly seen oil bases to conduct a

  13. Basic fuel properties of rapeseed oil-higher alcohols blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Laza; Á. Bereczky

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils are becoming a promising alternative to diesel fuel because they are renewable in nature, can be produced locally and are environmentally friendly. But the major disadvantage of vegetable oils is their inherently high viscosity. There are different approaches to handling this problem. In this study, rapeseed oil (RSO) was blended with the higher alcohols (1-propanol, 2-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol

  14. Wetland Vegetation Monitoring within Barataria Basin, Louisiana Following Exposure to Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyer, G.; Piazza, S.; Kokaly, R. F.; Patton, B.; Heckman, D.

    2011-12-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon explosion and subsequent oil spill in April 2010 coastal wetlands in Louisiana were directly oiled, exposing vegetation and marsh soils to petroleum hydrocarbons. Oiling was observed at the marsh/water interface as well as within coastal marshes. The physical and chemical effects of oil spills can have both short and long term effects on wetland vegetation. These effects can include reductions in primary productivity and direct plant mortality. Even in the absence of this oiling event, the coastal landscape of Louisiana experiences high rates of land loss resulting from natural and anthropogenic causes. This additional stress has the potential to further reduce the extent and health of coastal marshes in this fragile ecosystem. We conducted a field study to document the impact of oiling on above and belowground vegetation biomass, plant species composition, and vegetation cover at sites within Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Six sampling sites were established, three within obviously oiled marshes and three where oiling was not readily apparent. Four sampling events occurred between October 2010 and October 2011. The preliminary results of the field study will be presented along with how these data helped validate remotely sensed data observations (AVIRIS) and calibrate ground reflectance in oiled and non-oiled marshes.

  15. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    PubMed

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy. PMID:25528233

  16. Influence of fatty acids on the tocopherol stability in vegetable oils during microwave heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Yoshida; Mikiko Tatsumi; Goro Kajimoto

    1992-01-01

    Effects of 0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% levels of fatty acids (caproic, caprylic, capric and lauric) or hydrocarbons (decane\\u000a and dodecane) on tocopherol stability in vegetable oils during microwave heating were determined by measuring tocopherol losses\\u000a and carbonyl and anisidine values. The fatty acids showed similar prooxidant activities toward tocopherols in purified vegetable,\\u000a oils when heated in a microwave

  17. A quick discrimination of vegetable oil by solid-phase microextraction method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyasu Mikuma; Tsuyoshi Kaneko

    2010-01-01

    A trace amount of vegetable oil was picked up with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber and identified using a gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). Unsaponifiable constituents such as sterols could be detected by an injection of the SPME fiber, with the fiber touching the vegetable oil and then leading directly into the port of the GC–MS. After thermal desorption of unsaponifiable constituents,

  18. A simple method for estimation of cetane index of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanit Krisnangkura

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates a simple method for estimation of cetane indexes of vegetable oil methyl esters from their saponification\\u000a and iodine numbers. The range of the calculated values covers all the cetane numbers of vegetable oil methyl esters determined\\u000a experimentally. when it was applied to individual fatty acid methyl esters from C8 to C24, a straight line parallel to that

  19. Lipase-catalyzed incorporation of n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuan-hsiang Huang; Casimir C. Akoh

    1994-01-01

    The ability of immobilized lipases IM60 fromMucor miehei and SP435 fromCandida antarctica to modify the fatty acid composition of selected vegetable oils by incorporation of n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into\\u000a the vegetable oils was studied. The transesterification was carried out in organic solvent with free acid and ethyl esters\\u000a of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as acyl donors.

  20. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the cis\\/trans isomer composition of edible vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen F. Bailey; Robert J. Horvat

    1972-01-01

    A new method is presented for determining thecis\\/trans isomer content of edible vegetable oils. The intensities of Raman lines near 1656 and 1670 cm?1 are associated with thecis andtrans configuration, respectively. A precision of ca. 1% can be obtained in thecis\\/trans isomer analysis of binary mixtures of methyl esters and triglycerides of monoenes and dienes and of hydrogenated vegetable\\u000a oils.

  1. First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, L.M. (Mercedes-Benz do Brazil, Sao Paulo); Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

    1982-01-01

    In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

  2. Assessment of vegetation performance on semicoke dumps of Kohtla-Järve oil shale industry, Estonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riina Vaht; Margus Pensa; Mait Sepp; Aarne Luud; Helen Karu; Tiina Elvisto

    2010-01-01

    The performance of vegetation was assessed at semicoke dumping sites of Kohtla-Järve oil shale industry in summers 2004 and 2006. The condition of tree species and the presence of herbaceous species were recorded in areas where the vegetation had been planted or had developed naturally. Betula pendula and Populus balsamifera were the most abundant tree species on the semicoke dumps

  3. Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

  4. A comparative study of vegetable oil methyl esters (biodiesels)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Satyanarayana; C. Muraleedharan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, rubber seed oil, coconut oil and palm kernel oil, which are locally available especially in Kerala (India), are chosen and their transesterification processes have been investigated. The various process variables like temperature, catalyst concentration, amount of methanol and reaction time were optimized. Biodiesel from rubber seed oil (with high free fatty acid) was produced by employing

  5. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non-regulated exhaust gas components, some deviations from this linear trend were detected.

  6. Algae, Canola, or Palm Oils—Diesel Microemulsion Fuels: Phase Behaviors, Viscosity, and Combustion Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linh D. Do; Vinay Singh; Lixia Chen; Tohren C. G. Kibbey; Sub. R. Gollahalli; David A. Sabatini

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils are being considered as a renewable energy alternative for diesel. The high viscosity of vegetable oils causes injector fouling and durability problems in compression–ignition engines. Microemulsification can be used to reduce vegetable oil viscosity without complex chemical transformation processes. The goal of our work is to formulate reverse micellar microemulsions of vegetable oils and No. 2 diesel fuel

  7. Low carbon flower buildup, low smoke, and efficient diesel operation with vegetable oils by conversion to mono-esters and blending with diesel oil or alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Nobukazu, T.; Itow, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated DI Diesel engine is evaluated. Means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion is found. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits are measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. Both of the vegetable oil fuels generate an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they cause carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation. Practical solutions to overcome the problems are: increasing the fuel temperature to over 200/sup 0/C, blending 25 vol % diesel fuel in the vegetable oil, blending 20 vol % ethanol in the fuel, or converting the vegetable oils into methylesters.

  8. Vegetable Oil-based Diesel Fuels From 1900 to the Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diesel engine, invented and developed by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890's, was displayed at the Paris World Exposition in 1900. At that occasion, one of the displayed diesel engines ran on peanut oil. This event marks the beginning of the use of vegetable oils and, later, derivatives thereof as die...

  9. Is it true that polymerization of vegetable oil occurs through Diels-Alder reaction?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diels-Alder reaction mechanism is known to be one of the major reaction mechanisms to produce dimers and polymers during heating process of vegetable oil. However, our NMR study showed no evidence for Diels-Alder products. Soybean oil oxidized at 180 °C for 24 hrs with 1.45 surface area-to-volume ...

  10. Agricultural land use in life cycle assessment (LCA): case studies of three vegetable oil crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berit Mattsson; Christel Cederberg; Lisa Blix

    2000-01-01

    A method for environmental assessment of agricultural land use is outlined. Environmental objectives and indicators of the land use quality are defined. The method is tested in case studies of cultivated vegetable oil crops: Swedish rape seed, Brazilian soybean and Malaysian oil palm. The results from this study lead us to believe that the indicators soil erosion, soil organic matter,

  11. The uses and properties of almond oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeeshan Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Almond oil [Oleum amygdalae] has long been used in complementary medicine circles for its numerous health benefits. Although no conclusive scientific data exists currently, almonds and almond oil have many properties including anti-inflammatory, immunity-boosting and anti-hepatotoxicity effects. Further, associations between almond oil and improved bowel transit have been made, which consequently reduces irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Further, some studies show

  12. Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

    1997-02-01

    Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

  13. Bioremediation of Chlorate or Perchlorate Contaminated Water Using Permeable Barriers Containing Vegetable Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Hunter

    2002-01-01

    A scale model of an in situ permeable barrier, formed by injecting vegetable oil onto laboratory soil columns, was used to remove chlorate and perchlorate\\u000a from flowing groundwater. The hypothesis that trapped oil would serve as a substrate enabling native microorganisms to reduce\\u000a chlorate or perchlorate to chloride as water flowed through the oil-rich zone had merit. Approximately 96% of

  14. Utilization of ethyl ester of waste vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamad I Al-Widyan; Ghassan Tashtoush; Moh'd Abu-Qudais

    2002-01-01

    Jordan relies heavily on expensive and unreliable imported oil. Therefore, this study was initiated to investigate the potential of ethyl ester used as vegetable oil (VO; biodiesel) to substitute oil-based diesel fuel. The fuels tested were several ester\\/diesel blends including 100% ester in addition to diesel fuel, which served as the baseline fuel. Variable-speed tests were run on all fuels

  15. Determination of antioxidant capacities of vegetable oils by ferric-ion spectrophotometric methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Szyd?owska-Czerniak; Csilla Dianoczki; Katalin Recseg; György Karlovits; Edward Sz?yk

    2008-01-01

    Two ferric-ion-based total antioxidant capacity methods: 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used for determination of antioxidant capacities (AC) of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of vegetable oils. The obtained mean Phen and FRAP values for acetonic extracts of olive oils, rapeseed, rice and four sunflower oils (39.3–336.5 and 39.5–339.6?mol Fe\\/100g) were higher than for methanolic extracts

  16. Determination of trace elements in some Nigerian vegetable based oils by neutron activation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Umar; S. A. Jonah

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of some essential micronutrient elements leadingto short-lived activation products in four Nigerian vegetable based oils (palmoil, palm kernel oil, sheabutter and groundnut oil) have been determined byneutron activation analysis using a small research reactor. One sample ofeach material was analysed and presented as an introduction for further investigations.Results indicate that the concentration range of the elements are 19.4–44.0µg\\/g

  17. Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale-waste lands

    E-print Network

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil community structure and soil aluminum (Al) content in different vegetated aluminum-rich ecosystems. Our. The concentration of water- soluble Al was normally greater in vegetated than non- vegetated soil. The residual Al

  18. Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives

    E-print Network

    Sambandan, T. G.

    Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products ...

  19. Reaction pathways for the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and related model compounds.

    PubMed

    Gosselink, Robert W; Hollak, Stefan A W; Chang, Shu-Wei; van Haveren, Jacco; de Jong, Krijn P; Bitter, Johannes H; van Es, Daan S

    2013-09-01

    Vegetable oil-based feeds are regarded as an alternative source for the production of fuels and chemicals. Paraffins and olefins can be produced from these feeds through catalytic deoxygenation. The fundamentals of this process are mostly studied by using model compounds such as fatty acids, fatty acid esters, and specific triglycerides because of their structural similarity to vegetable oils. In this Review we discuss the impact of feedstock, reaction conditions, and nature of the catalyst on the reaction pathways of the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and its derivatives. As such, we conclude on the suitability of model compounds for this reaction. It is shown that the type of catalyst has a significant effect on the deoxygenation pathway, that is, group?10 metal catalysts are active in decarbonylation/decarboxylation whereas metal sulfide catalysts are more selective to hydrodeoxygenation. Deoxygenation studies performed under H2 showed similar pathways for fatty acids, fatty acid esters, triglycerides, and vegetable oils, as mostly deoxygenation occurs indirectly via the formation of fatty acids. Deoxygenation in the absence of H2 results in significant differences in reaction pathways and selectivities depending on the feedstock. Additionally, using unsaturated feedstocks under inert gas results in a high selectivity to undesired reactions such as cracking and the formation of heavies. Therefore, addition of H2 is proposed to be essential for the catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil feeds. PMID:23913576

  20. Effects of mixing energy on the sedimentation of vegetable oil spills by clay.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, B A; Downer, R J; Venosa, A D

    2010-11-01

    The effects of clay dose and mixing energy on the efficiency of vegetable oil sedimentation by clay are investigated. The sedimentation efficiency increased with increasing clay dose to a maximum of about 80% of added oil. The maximum sedimentation efficiency was achieved at a lower clay dose, and the sedimentation efficiency was greater for a given clay dose when the oil was present as a thick oil film rather than as a thinner film. Sedimentation efficiency was relatively constant for mixing energies less than about 0.01 m2 s(-3) (0.01 W kg(-1)) but decreased dramatically at higher energy dissipation rates. Mixing energy may not be an important factor in determining the effectiveness of this response alternative because energy dissipation rates in natural surface water bodies under most typical conditions are less than 0.01 m2 s(-3). The effects of oil film thickness and mixing energy on the efficiency of vegetable oil sedimentation suggests that vegetable oil-mineral aggregates (VOMA) form through a different mechanism to that of petroleum oil-mineral aggregates (OMA). One consequence of the different formation mechanisms is that VOMA are much larger than petroleum OMA. PMID:21121454

  1. Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, T.

    2001-09-12

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors.

  2. The use of saponified vegetable oil distillates/ethanol microcellular solution as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, L.D.; Birell, S.; Goering, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Vegetable oils are considered possible replacement fuels for diesel engines; however, past research has shown that long term engine durability is adversely affected by the use of these fuels. Most researchers have attempted to reduce the problems associated with vegetable oil fuels either by the formation of vegetable oil/diesel blends or the esterfication of the vegetable oils. In this investigation of an alternative approach, the performance of saponified soybean oil/aqueous ethanol microcellular solutions were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The products of the pyrolytic distillation of crude soybean oil were mixed with 150 proof ethanol in the ratio of 4:1 by volume and saponified with anhydrous ammonia gas. This ''parent fuel'' was then diluted with 150 proof ethanol to obtain two test fuels, one with 30 percent ethanol concentration and the other with 40 percent ethanol concentration. The fuels were used in the engine under various loads at two speeds, and the performance was compared to the performance using No. 2-D commercial diesel fuel.

  3. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m?2 to 5.3 g m?2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg?1 to 652 mg kg?1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R2?=?0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE?=?104.2 mg kg?1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg?1 to 106.8 mg kg?1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R2?=?0.70 and RMSE?=?110.1 mg kg?1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  4. Prooxidant activity of oxidized alpha-tocopherol in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Timothy M; Kim, Hyun Jung; Min, David B

    2009-09-01

    The effect of oxidized alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative stabilities of soybean, corn, safflower, and olive oils and the oxidation of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were studied. The 0, 650, 1300, and 2600 ppm oxidized alpha-tocopherol were added to soybean, corn, safflower, and olive oils and 10000 ppm oxidized alpha-tocopherol to the mixture of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. Samples in the gas-tight vials were stored in the dark for 6 or 35 d at 55 degrees C. The oxidative stabilities of oils were determined by headspace oxygen with GC and peroxide value. Fatty acids were determined by GC. As the concentration of oxidized alpha-tocopherol in soybean, corn, safflower, and olive oils increased, the depletion of headspace oxygen and the peroxide values of oils increased during storage. The prooxidant effects of oxidized alpha-tocopherol on soybean and corn oils with about 55% linoleic acid were greater than those on safflower and olive oils with about 12% linoleic acid, respectively (P < 0.05). The changes of fatty acids during storage showed that the oxidation ratios of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were 1 : 2 : 3, 1 : 12 : 26, and 1 : 8 : 16 after 5, 30, and 35 d of storage, respectively. The oxidation of alpha-tocopherol in oil should be prevented and the oxidized alpha-tocopherol should be removed to improve the oxidative stability of oils. PMID:19895457

  5. Unusual effects of some vegetable oils on the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, M Z; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Nagatsu, A; Sakakibara, J; Okuyama, H

    1997-07-01

    Preliminary experiments have shown that a diet containing 10% rapeseed oil (low-erucic acid) markedly shortens the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats under 1% NaCl loading as compared with diets containing perilla oil or soybean oil. High-oleate safflower oil and high-oleate sunflower oil were found to have survival time-shortening activities comparable to that of rapeseed oil; olive oil had slightly less activity. A mixture was made of soybean oil, perilla oil, and triolein partially purified from high-oleate sunflower oil to adjust the fatty acid composition to that of rapeseed oil. The survival time of this triolein/mixed oil group was between those of the rapeseed oil and soybean oil groups. When 1% NaCl was replaced with tap water, the survival time was prolonged by approximately 80%. Under these conditions, the rapeseed oil and evening primrose oil shortened the survival time by approximately 40% as compared with n-3 fatty acid-rich perilla and fish oil; lard, soybean oil, and safflower oil with relatively high n-6/n-3 ratios shortened the survival time by roughly 10%. The observed unusual survival time-shortening activities of some vegetable oils (rapeseed, high-oleate safflower, high-oleate sunflower, olive, and evening primrose oil) may not be due to their unique fatty acid compositions, but these results suggest that these vegetable oils contain factor(s) which are detrimental to SHRSP rats. PMID:9252963

  6. Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

  7. Fatty acid profile of milk from Saanen goats fed a diet enriched with three vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Matsushita; N. M. Tazinafo; R. G. Padre; C. C. Oliveira; N. E. Souza; J. V. Visentainer; F. A. F. Macedo; N. P. Ribas

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of fatty acid profiles and physico-chemical parameters of milk samples from Saanen goats fed diets enriched with 3% of three different vegetable oils (soybean, canola and sunflower) were carried out. Animals were arranged in a double 3×3 Latin square design and each pair of goats received diets containing one of the oils for 21 days—14 days for animal adaptation

  8. Oxidative stability of fat substitutes and vegetable oils by the oxidative stability index method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casimir C. Akoh

    1994-01-01

    Oxidative Stability Index (OSI) of carbohydrate fatty acid polyesters, fat substitutes and vegetable oils were measured with\\u000a the Omnion Oxidative Stability Instrument according to the new AOCS Standard Method Cd 12 B-92 (The Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, edited by D. Firestone, AOCS, Champaign, 1991). The stability of crude and refined, bleached and deodorized

  9. Sources of Methyl Ester Yield Reduction in Methanolysis of Recycled Vegetable Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    András Fröhlich; Bernard Rice

    2009-01-01

    Recycled vegetable oil (RVO) is a relatively cheap raw material for biodiesel production, but biodiesel grade methyl ester\\u000a yields from RVO were found to be considerably lower than those from pure plant oil. The present paper investigates sources\\u000a of yield loss during methanolysis of RVOs with free fatty acids (FFA) contents of 0.4–3.3%, and makes suggestions for the\\u000a improvement of

  10. Performance studies of a low heat rejection engine operated on non-volatile vegetable oils with exhaust gas recirculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Banapurmath; P. G. Tewari

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, considerable effort has been expended world-wide to reduce dependency on petroleum fuels for power generation and transportation through the search for suitable alternative fuels that are environmentally friendly. In this respect, vegetable oils are a promising alternative to diesel fuel. However, the high viscosity, poor volatility and cold flow characteristics of vegetable oils can cause some problems

  11. Solid base catalysis of calcium glyceroxide for a reaction to convert vegetable oil into its methyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Kouzu; Jyu-suke Hidaka; Kanako Wakabayashi; Michito Tsunomori

    2010-01-01

    When calcium oxide is employed for transesterification of vegetable oil at reflux of methanol, calcium oxide is turned into calcium glyceroxide by combining with glycerol of the by-product. As well as calcium oxide, calcium glyceroxide seemed to catalyze the vegetable oil transesterification. In the present paper, the solid base catalysis of calcium glyceroxide was investigated by IR spectroscopy using methanol

  12. Environmentally Friendly Vegetable Oil Microemulsions Using Extended Surfactants and Linkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linh D. Do; Anuradee Withayyapayanon; Jeffrey H. Harwell; David A. Sabatini

    2009-01-01

    Microemulsion formation of triglyceride oils at ambient conditions (temperature and pressure) and without the addition of\\u000a co-oil and\\/or alcohols is challenging at best. Undesirable phases, such as macroemulsions, liquid crystals and sponge phases,\\u000a are often encountered when formulating triglyceride microemulsions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of\\u000a extended surfactants, lipophilic linkers, and hydrophilic linkers in enhancing

  13. Minor component fatty acids of common vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Kuemmel; Miami Valley

    1964-01-01

    A combination of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and oxidative cleavage on fractions isolated by mercury derivative chromatography\\u000a has shown the presence of previously unreported minor component fatty acids in olive, soybean, cottonseed, corn, peanut, rapeseed\\u000a and safflower oil. All of the oils examined contain small amt of saturated acids above arachidic, some as high as hexacosanoic\\u000a acid.Cis-11-octadecenoic acid was found in

  14. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  15. VEGETATIVE STABILIZATION OF SPENT OIL SHALES: VEGETATION MOISTURE SALINITY AND RUNOFF, 1973-76

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of massive amounts of spent shale will be required if an oil shale industry using surface retorting is developed. Field studies were initiated in 1973 on two types of spent oil shale--coarse-textured (USBM), and fine-textured (TOSCO). The objectives of these studies were...

  16. Genetically improved farmed Nile tilapia and red hybrid tilapia showed differences in fatty acid metabolism when fed diets with added fish oil or a vegetable oil blend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaiw-Yee Teoh; Giovanni M. Turchini; Wing-Keong Ng

    2011-01-01

    A 2×2 factorial 14-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid metabolism in two different tilapia genotypes [Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, GIFT strain) and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)] fed a fish oil (FO)- or blended vegetable oil (BVO)-based semipurified diet. The BVO was formulated using olive oil (15%), sunflower oil (15%), linseed oil (30%) and refined, bleached,

  17. Effects of essential oil treatment, gas atmosphere, and storage temperature on Listeria monocytogenes in a model vegetable system.

    PubMed

    Scollard, Johann; Francis, Gillian A; O'Beirne, David

    2009-06-01

    Natural antimicrobials such as plant essential oils (EOs) may be useful for controlling pathogenic bacteria on fresh-cut vegetables. The antilisterial properties of EOs (thyme, oregano, and rosemary), in combination with different storage atmospheres (air, 5% CO2-2% O2-93% N2, and 20% CO2-1% O2-79% N2) and temperatures (4 and 80C), were examined using a gas flow-through system combined with a vegetable agar model. The antimicrobial effects of the EOs varied depending on the oil, the Listeria strain and species, the method of application, and the storage conditions tested. Using the disk diffusion assay, the antilisterial effectiveness of the oils was in the following order: thyme EO > oregano EO > rosemary EO. Volatiles released from the EOs resulted in very small antilisterial effects, indicating that the oils needed to be in direct contact with cultures in order to be effective. There were strain and species effects, with L. innocua NCTC 11288 exhibiting the strongest resistance to EOs, and L. monocytogenes NCTC 7973 being the most sensitive strain. In addition, the effectiveness of the EOs was influenced by storage atmosphere and temperature. Use of EOs in combination with a gas atmosphere of 20% CO2-1% O2-79% N2 had the greatest antilisterial effect, suggesting that high CO2 atmospheres enhanced the antilisterial properties of EOs. Lowering the storage temperature from 8 to 4OC improved the antilisterial activity of thyme oil. It is concluded that thyme and oregano EOs display strong inhibitory effects against Listeria and that increasing CO2 levels and lowering storage temperatures further enhance these antilisterial effects. PMID:19610331

  18. Vegetarian Chili 2 tbsp. olive or vegetable oil

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    oz) can of garbanzo beans 1 (14oz) can of dark red kidney beans 1 (14oz) can of green lentils or uncooked and rinsed lentils ½ cup pearled barley 1 tbsp. ground cumin 2 tbsp. chili powder 1 tsp. cayenne-5 minutes to soften vegetables. Deglaze pan with broth and water, add tomatoes, beans, lentils, and barley

  19. Evaluation of the thermal diffusivity of vegetable oils during frying by Thermal Lens Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, S. M.; Bannwart, E. S.; Oliveira, R. G.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Del Ré, P. V.; Jorge, N.; Pedrochi, F.; Constantini, R.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on the use of the Thermal Lens method to verify the evolution of the thermal diffusivity of sunflower and soybean vegetable oils utilized in preparation of twenty five snacks portions. Our results show that the thermal diffusivity for sunflower oil does not change between 1 and 25 portions of fried snacks. By another hand, the soybean thermal diffusivity exhibits a little decrease for higher portion of fried snacks, indicating that for this oil the triglyceride level is reduced as a degradation process.

  20. The use of isotope ratios (13C/12C) for vegetable oils authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, G.; Magdas, D. A.; Mirel, V.

    2012-02-01

    Stable isotopes are now increasingly used for the control of the geographical origin or authenticity of food products. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. In this study 22 vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, palm, maize) commercialized on Romanian market were investigated by mean of ?13C in bulk oil and the obtained results were compared with those reported in literature in order to check the labeling of these natural products. The obtained results were in the range of the mean values found in the literature for these types of oils, thus providing their accurate labeling.

  1. Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf A. Yousef; Alaa B. Abbas; Bassam Sh. Badawi; Wafaa Y. Al-Jowhar; Esam A. Zain; Seham A. El-Mufti

    2012-01-01

    A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5

  2. Continuous production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil using supercritical methanol process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huayang He; Tao Wang; Shenlin Zhu

    2007-01-01

    A system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using supercritical methanol was developed using a tube reactor. Increasing the proportion of methanol, reaction pressure and reaction temperature can enhance the production yield effectively. However, side reactions of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) occur when the reaction temperature is over 300°C, which lead to much loss of material. There is

  3. APPLE SCAB MANAGEMENT ASSISTED BY TREE DEFOLIATION WITH VEGETABLE OIL EMULSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) was applied to 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apple trees after harvest to induce defoliation and reduce apple scab. Applied in the fall at 2%, 4% or 6%, VOE induced leaf abscission, with the highest concentration causing the most defoliation. At the same concentrations, VOE applie...

  4. Consumer purchase motives and product perceptions: a laddering study on vegetable oil in three countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A Nielsen; T Bech-Larsen; K. G Grunert

    1998-01-01

    A means-end approach is proposed to analyse cross-cultural differences in product preferences, product perception and purchase motives. Using a modified version of the laddering technique, data on consumer preference, perception and purchase motives concerning vegetable oil were collected in Denmark, England and France. The results show considerable differences between the three consumer groups both with regard to general knowledge about

  5. Use of straight vegetable oil mixtures of rape and camelina as on farm fuels in agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Marten Paulsen; V. Wichmann; U. Schuemann; B. Richter

    2011-01-01

    Possibilities for using straight vegetable oil (SVO) from Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (camelina or false flax) and its mixtures with Brassica napus (rape) SVO as fuel in adapted diesel engines are described with chemical parameters, measurements in a test engine and a field test in a tractor. Camelina as a crop is attracting attention in organic farming and is often

  6. Antifungal activity of essential oils against three vegetative-compatibility groups of Verticillium dahliae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Arslan; Sibel Dervis

    2010-01-01

    The antifungal activities of volatile phase effects of essential oils from Origanum onites, O. syriacum, O. minutiflorum, O. vulgare, O, marjorana, Thymus vulgaris, T. serpyllum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Micromeria fruticosa were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of three vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of Verticillium dahliae. Carvacrol was the main component of O. onites, O. minutiflorum and

  7. High resolution GC of unsaponifiable matter and sterol fraction in vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Frega; F. Bocci; G. Giovannoni; G. Lercker

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of both the total unsaponifiable matter and the sterol fractions in vegetable oils has been performed with a new polar column (TAP, Chrompack). The use of a polar column, which is characterized by high thermal stability, has led to the identification of a greater number of constituents than the use of a nonpolar column (i.e. SE 52, SE

  8. Reduction of diesel smoke opacity from vegetable oil methyl esters during transient operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Octavio Armas; Juan J. Hernández; María D. Cárdenas

    2006-01-01

    This work is focused on the measurement and analysis of the smoke opacity resulting from a Diesel engine fuelled with conventional fuel and biofuels under transient conditions. Methyl esters obtained from used cooking and unused vegetable oils were tested as diesel fuels, pure and blended with 30% and 70% of a commercial diesel fuel which was also used pure. A

  9. Synthesis, droplet combustion, and sooting characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. X. Li; D. L. Zhu; N. K. Akafuah; K. Saito; C. K. Law

    2011-01-01

    In light of the potential of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) as a renewable energy source, an innovative acid catalyzed process was developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. The synthesized biodiesels were analytically characterized for their major components, molar fraction and molecular weight of each component, the average molecular weight, and the heat of

  10. Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Goodrum; Daniel P. Geller

    2005-01-01

    Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may

  11. Vegetable Oil Derived Solvent, and Catalyst Free “Click Chemistry” Thermoplastic Polytriazoles

    PubMed Central

    Floros, Michael C.; Leão, Alcides Lopes; Narine, Suresh S.

    2014-01-01

    Azide-alkyne Huisgen “click” chemistry provides new synthetic routes for making thermoplastic polytriazole polymers—without solvent or catalyst. This method was used to polymerize three diester dialkyne monomers with a lipid derived 18 carbon diazide to produce a series of polymers (labelled C18C18, C18C9, and C18C4 based on monomer chain lengths) free of residual solvent and catalyst. Three diester dialkyne monomers were synthesized with ester chain lengths of 4, 9, and 18 carbons from renewable sources. Significant differences in thermal and mechanical properties were observed between C18C9 and the two other polymers. C18C9 presented a lower melting temperature, higher elongation at break, and reduced Young's modulus compared to C18C4 and C18C18. This was due to the “odd-even” effect induced by the number of carbon atoms in the monomers which resulted in orientation of the ester linkages of C18C9 in the same direction, thereby reducing hydrogen bonding. The thermoplastic polytriazoles presented are novel polymers derived from vegetable oil with favourable mechanical and thermal properties suitable for a large range of applications where no residual solvent or catalyst can be tolerated. Their added potential biocompatibility and biodegradability make them ideal for applications in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25032224

  12. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed impetus to the agricultural sector and rural development.

  13. Novel approach to evaluate the oxidation state of vegetable oils using characteristic oxidation indicators.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Deng, Long; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Fan, Yawei; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Li, Jing; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2014-12-31

    Four vegetable oils with typical fatty acid compositions were chosen to determine their indicators of lipid oxidation under the conditions of accelerated oxidation. Good linear correlations were observed between the total nonpolar carbonyl amount and the total oxidation value (TOTOX, R(2) = 0.89-0.97) or peroxide value (POV, R(2) = 0.92-0.97) during 35 days of accelerated oxidation. Additionally, nonanal in camellia oil (oleic acid mainly) increased significantly, and correlated linearly with TOTOX (21.6 TOTOX - 595, R(2) = 0.92); propanal increased significantly in perilla oil (linolenic acid mainly) and correlated linearly with TOTOX (8.10 TOTOX + 75.0, R(2) = 0.90). Hexanal (9.56 TOTOX + 913, R(2) = 0.90, and 7.10 TOTOX + 342, R(2) = 0.78, respectively) and nonenal (10.5 TOTOX + 691, R(2) = 0.95, and 6.65 TOTOX + 276, R(2) = 0.84, respectively) in sunflower oil (linoleic acid mainly) and palm oil (palmitic and oleic acids mainly) also had good linear correlations with TOTOX. Considering the change patterns of these four aldehydes, it was found that the oxidation stability was in the order sunflower oil < camellia oil < perilla oil < palm oil, which was same as POV, TOTOX, and total nonpolar carbonyls. It was concluded that the four aldehydes nonanal, propanal, hexanal, and nonenal could be used as oxidation indicators for the four types of oils. PMID:25487776

  14. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

  15. Hydrogenated soy ethyl ester (HySEE) from ethanol and waste vegetable oil

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel is gaining recognition in the United States as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel without any modifications to the engine. Currently the cost of this fuel is the factor that limits its use. One way to reduce the cost of biodiesel is to use a less expensive form of vegetable oil such as waste oil from a processing plant. These operations use mainly hydrogenated soybean oil, some tallow and some Canola as their frying oils. It is estimated that there are several million pounds of waste vegetable oil from these operations. Additional waste frying oil is available from smaller processors, off-grade oil seeds and restaurants. This paper reports on developing a process to produce the first 945 liters (250 gallons) of HySEE using recipes developed at the University of Idaho; fuel characterization tests on the HySEE according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552; short term injector coking tests and performance tests in a turbocharged, DI, CI engine; and a 300 hour screening test in a single cylinder, IDI, CI engine.

  16. Effect Of Iron On The Sensitivity Of Hydrogen, Acetate, And Butyrate Metabolism To Inhibition By Long-Chain Fatty Acids In Vegetable-Oil-Enriched Freshwater Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial c...

  17. A Fully Biobased Epoxy Resin from Vegetable Oils: From the Synthesis of the Precursors by Thiol-ene Reaction to the Study of the Final Material

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Fully Biobased Epoxy Resin from Vegetable Oils: From the Synthesis of the Precursors by Thiol online 8 April 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). ABSTRACT: A novel vegetable oil on the vegetable oil prop- erties were also studied using viscosimetry. Then, AGSO was employed as a novel curing

  18. Direct use of sunflower oil as a heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Kurt, G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1998-11-01

    Vegetable oils in particular have exceptional importance since they can be used as a fuel oil (heating oil type) alternative. In this research evaluation, the possibilities of sunflower oil as a heating oil candidate have been investigated. The fuel oil property tests of sunflower oil were performed according to standard methods. An overall evaluation of data indicates that sunflower oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for heating oil.

  19. Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

  20. Water-Blown Polyisocyanurate Foams From Vegetable Oil Polyols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Stirna; U. Cabulis; I. Beverte

    2008-01-01

    Polyols with the hydroxyl value OHV from 290 to 318 mg KOH\\/g are synthesized from rapeseed, sunflower seed, flaxseed, or coconut oils by the way of their: (1) transesterification with triethanolamine or (2) amidization with diethanolamine. The influence of water as the blowing agent on the storage stability of the polyol premix system is assessed from values of the polyol

  1. Vegetable Oil Deodorizer Distillate: Characterization, Utilization and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Setiyo Gunawan

    2009-01-01

    Depending on the sources, deodorizer distillates usually have significantly different characteristics, uses, and value. Soybean oil deodorizer distillate has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as natural source of squalene and as a good raw material for the production of fatty acid steryl esters, tocopherols, free phytosterols and fatty acids. The aim of this review paper is to

  2. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

  3. GC\\/MS evaluation of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) oil composition and variations during the vegetative cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Hudaib; Ester Speroni; Anna Maria Di Pietra; Vanni Cavrini

    2002-01-01

    Capillary GC\\/MS analysis based on polar and non-polar columns has been applied to evaluation of the volatile oils hydrodistilled from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) plants. The adopted methodology has been used to monitor seasonal variations in the composition of the oil obtained from thyme herbs harvested at different periods during the plant vegetative and life cycles. Oils from thyme plants

  4. Comparison and analysis of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in eight vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Li, Changmo; Yao, Yunping; Zhao, Guozhong; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Yao; Wang, Shuo

    2011-12-14

    The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils. PMID:22054411

  5. Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, R.L.; King, J.W.; List, G.R. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)] [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater than 97% after 15--20 min. Some geometric isomerization of the linolenic acids was observed at reaction temperatures as low as 250 C. Reactions carried out at higher temperatures and pressures, up to the critical point of water, produced either/or degradation, pyrolysis, and polymerization, of the oils and resultant fatty acids.

  6. Biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil by various supercritical alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichiro Warabi; Dadan Kusdiana; Shiro Saka

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel was prepared in various supercritical alcohol treatments with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, or 1-octanol\\u000a to study transesterification of rapeseed oil and alkyl esterification of fatty acid at temperatures of 300 and 350C. The\\u000a results showed that in transes terification, the reactivity was greatly correlated to the alcohol: the longer the alkyl chain\\u000a of alcohol, the longer the reaction treatment.

  7. Ethoxylation of Fatty Acids Fractions of Overused Vegetable Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youssef Aly El-Shattory; Ghada A. Abo El-Wafa; Saadia M. Aly

    2011-01-01

    Unsaturated and saturated fatty acids fractions were separated from overused sunflower and olein oils, which are considered\\u000a to be a waste, in order to use them in the preparation of valuable ethoxylated fatty derivatives with low cost of preparation.\\u000a Fatty acid fractions were ethoxylated using ethylene oxide gas in the presence of 1% K2CO3 catalyst at 120 and 180 °C for

  8. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  9. Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. III. Safflower oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Scholfield; H. J. Dutton

    1958-01-01

    Summary  Safflower oil was fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent distribution apparatus, and the oil was also fractionated after\\u000a interesterification with C14-labelled palmitic acid. The glyceride composition of the interesterified oil was similar to that of the natural oil. The\\u000a glycerides were separated on the basis of both unsaturation and chain length of the constituent fatty acids, and the palmitoglycerides\\u000a had only

  10. A quick discrimination of vegetable oil by solid-phase microextraction method.

    PubMed

    Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi

    2010-05-20

    A trace amount of vegetable oil was picked up with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber and identified using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Unsaponifiable constituents such as sterols could be detected by an injection of the SPME fiber, with the fiber touching the vegetable oil and then leading directly into the port of the GC-MS. After thermal desorption of unsaponifiable constituents, the remaining triacylglycerols or oil that was freshly added to the fiber were recovered with a little organic solvent, and the profiles of the fatty acids that had been constructing the acylglycerols were determined using a base-catalyzed trans-esterification method which produced fatty acid methyl esters. The simple and rapid techniques that make up this method make it possible to significantly reduce the preparation time and as well as the required sample volume. When urgent discrimination is required with high accuracy, this technique could serve as a useful and powerful tool for identification of vegetable oil. PMID:20144515

  11. Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

  12. Degumming of vegetable oils by a novel phospholipase B from Pseudomonas fluorescens BIT-18.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangyan; Wang, Jinmei; Kaleem, Imdad; Dai, Dazhang; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Chun

    2011-09-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens BIT-18 was isolated from soil near a vegetable oil factory and shown to produce a B-type phospholipase. The enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Gas chromatography demonstrated that the enzyme preparation hydrolyzed both the 1- and 2-ester bonds of phosphatidylcholine. When degumming of soybean, rapeseed, and peanut oil was performed with this enzyme preparation, oils with phosphorous contents lower than 5mg/kg were obtained after 5h of enzyme treatment at 40°C. The enzyme preparation did not show lipase activity, thus free fatty acids were only generated from the phospholipids. Therefore, this novel phospholipase B is potentially useful for the refining of high-quality oils with attractive yields. PMID:21715159

  13. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils. PMID:19544589

  14. Quantitative high resolution 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance of the olefinic and carbonyl carbons of edible vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt F. Wollenberg

    1990-01-01

    The acyl distribution and acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of triacylglycerols derived from edible vegetable\\u000a oils has been examined by13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acyl profile of three natural oils (corn, peanut, canola) and one specialty\\u000a oil (high oleic sunflower oil, Trisun 80) has been defined from the high resolution (medium field 75.4 MHz) spectrum of the

  15. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  16. Conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats into paraffinic cetane enhancers for diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Feng, Y. [Arbokem, Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Hogan, E. [CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The two principal methods of producing biodiesel fuels are (a) transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with a monohydric alcohol, and (b) direct hydrotreating of tree oils, vegetable oils and animal fats. The patented hydrotreating technology is based on the catalytic processing of biomass oils and fats with hydrogen, under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The typical mix of hydrotreated products is as follows: 5-15% light distillate (naphta), 40-60% middle distillate (cetane), 5-15% heavy distillate and 5-10% burner gas. The naptha fraction may be used as a gasoline supplement. The middle distillate is designed for use as a cetane booster for diesel fuels. Both heavy distillate and light hydrocarbon gases are usable as power boiler fuels. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This new diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of the basic diesel fuel, for direct use in diesel engines without any modifications. The basic hydrotreatment technology has been evaluated further in the laboratory on degummed soya oil, yellow grease and animal tallow. The preliminary findings suggest that the technology can provide efficient conversion of these materials into cetane enhancers for diesel fuels.

  17. Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

    1997-10-01

    For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

  18. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. PMID:25151071

  19. Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    1999-12-01

    Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

  20. Fast one-phase oil-rich processes for the preparation of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. B. Boocock; Samir K. Konar; Vinnie Mao; Hanif Sidi

    1996-01-01

    A re-evaluation of kinetic data shows that the methoxide base-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil at 40°C (6:1 methanol:oil molar ratio) to form methyl esters proceeds approximately 15 times more slowly than butanolysis at 30°C. This is interpreted to be the result of a two-phase reaction in which methanolysis occurs only in the methanol phase. Low oil concentration in methanol causes

  1. The viability of pure vegetable oil as an alternative fuel for large ships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Jiménez Espadafor; M. Torres García; J. Becerra Villanueva; J. Moreno Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Heavy fuels are likely to remain the dominant fuel source for two-stroke, low-speed diesel engines for large ship propulsion for the next decade or more. There is however, potential for increased use of pure vegetable oils (PVO) as an alternative and, by emitting lower levels of several pollutants, this can help the attainment of Annex VI of the MARPOL 73\\/78

  2. Pyrolysis–GC\\/MS studies of vegetable oils from Macauba fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. C. P. Fortes; P. J. Baugh

    2004-01-01

    Pyrolysates obtained from vegetable oils of the Macauba tree (Acrocomia sclerocarpa M.) and from components of the fruit, namely, (1) the endocarp in combination with the mesocarp and (2) the epicarp have been investigated by pyrolysis–CG\\/MS technique under different conditions of gas atmosphere: inert (He) and oxidative [O2\\/N2 (1:1)]. The differences in pyrolysate profiles and features have also been studied

  3. Tubular microporous alumina structure for demulsifying vegetable oil\\/water emulsions and concentrating macromolecular suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sérgio R. Fontes; Viviane M. Silva Queiroz; Elson Longo; Marcus V. Antunes

    2005-01-01

    A microstructure composed of alumina–silica (mullite, 3Al2O3·2SiO2) was molded into tubes to be used in a microfiltration process for separating water\\/vegetable oil emulsions and to concentrate macromolecular suspensions. The microporous tubes were produced by the precipitation method using raw material supplied by Rhodia do Brasil Ltda, and sintered at a final temperature of 1450°C. The microporous medium was characterized by

  4. A multivariate study of the correlation between tocopherol content and fatty acid composition in vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afaf Kamal-Eldin; Roger Andersson

    1997-01-01

    The main biochemical function of the tocopherols is believed to be the protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against\\u000a peroxidation. A critical question that must be asked in reference to this is whether there is a biochemical link between the\\u000a tocopherol levels and the degree of unsaturation in vegetable oils, the main source of dietary PUFA and vitamin E. We

  5. Fast formation of high-purity methyl esters from vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. B. Boocock; Samir K. Konar; V. Mao; C. Lee; Sonia Buligan

    1998-01-01

    Experiments have confirmed that the base-catalyzed methanolysis of vegetable oils occurs much slower than butanolysis because\\u000a of the two liquid phases initially present in the former reaction. For the same reason, second-order kinetics are not followed.\\u000a The use of a cosolvent such as tetrahydrofuran or methyl tertiary butyl ether speeds up methanolysis considerably. However,\\u000a like one-phase butanolysis, one-phase methanolysis initially

  6. Quantitative fatty acid analysis of vegetable oils by gas-liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Craig; N. L. Murty

    1959-01-01

    Summary  The fatty acid composition of a number of vegetable oils and of two synthetic mixtures of methyl esters are compared by gas-liquid\\u000a chromatography and by standard methods. The calculated iodine values from G.L.P.C. results are in good agreement with measured\\u000a iodine values and are indicative of the reliability of the G.L.P.C. values. Standard methods gave lower values for linoleic\\u000a acid

  7. A rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger A. Korus; Jaiduk Jo; Charles L. Peterson

    1985-01-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic\\u000a and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control\\u000a Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable\\u000a oil blends

  8. A new application of X-ray scattering using principal component analysis – classification of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisele G. Bortoleto; Luiz Carlos M. Pataca; Maria Izabel M. S. Bueno

    2005-01-01

    This work describes an innovative technique based on X-ray scattering applied to classify complex organic matrices of different vegetable oils. This new, very simple and rapid procedure is based on taking a 1mL aliquot of sample, depositing it on the thin Mylar™ film of a sample cell and submitting it to irradiation for 100s in a conventional EDXRF equipment. The

  9. Recovery of solubilized rhodium from hydroformylated vegetable oils and their methyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Dufek; G. R. List

    1977-01-01

    and summary  Procedures were developed to extract rhodium from hydroformylated vegetables oils and methyl esters. Among the numerous reagents\\u000a surveyed, aqueous hydrogen cyanide with triethanolamine (TEA) was found to be most effective. The effects of time, temperature,\\u000a and concentration of reagents were studied. Over 98% of the solubilized rhodium was removed from crude methyl formylstearate\\u000a at 100 C for 1 hr

  10. Transesterification processes for vegetable oils: A simple control method of methyl ester content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. De Filippis; C. Giavarini; M. Scarsella; M. Sorrentino

    1995-01-01

    One of the main problems in the study or industrial application of transesterification processes for vegetable oils is how\\u000a to measure the methyl ester content. In this work, a quick analytical method was developed for assessing the methyl ester\\u000a content of purified “fuel grade” transesterification products by applying a simple correlation with viscosity. The correlation\\u000a was tested on a wide

  11. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. Technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.

    1995-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During the second quarter, working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S, 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different extraction solvents were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 100[degrees]C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents. During this third quarter the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different temperatures, and different reaction times were completely examined. The effects of alkali on sulfur removal were further investigated. Best organic sulfur removal reaches 34% using ammonia pretreatment, then oil and finally aqNA2CO3 extraction.

  12. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  13. Beneficial effects of vegetable oils (corn, olive and sunflower oils) and ?-tocopherol on anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal profiles of indomethacin in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fehmi Odabasoglu; Zekai Halici; Ahmet Cakir; Mesut Halici; Hayati Aygun; Halis Suleyman; Elif Cadirci; Fadime Atalay

    2008-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin are widely used in the treatment of inflammation, fever and pain. However, NSAIDs cause gastric damage as a major adverse reaction. In this study, the effects of vegetable oils (corn, olive and sunflower oils) and ?-tocopherol on anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal profiles of indomethacin were evaluated in rats. Results showed that indomethacin given with

  14. [Simultaneous analysis of multi-elements in vegetation oils by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Xie, Ming-Yong; Yan, Ai-Ping; Xiahou, Jian-Yun

    2007-11-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of eleven trace elements (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, Al, Zn, Cd, Cr, Mn and Mg) in vegetation oils by ICP-AES has been developed. The oils were digested by H2 SO4 ashing method. The detection limits (MDLs) of the method for the eleven elements were in the range of 0.1-3.6 microg x kg(-1). The average recoveries at three concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) were between 70.4% and 113% with the RSD in the range of 1.01%-10.6%. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of the above elements in soy, peanut, sesame, rape, tea and blended oils with satisfactory results. PMID:18260428

  15. Effect of an olive phenolic extract on the quality of vegetable oils during frying.

    PubMed

    Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Di Maio, I; Urbani, S; Veneziani, G; Selvaggini, R; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential of a phenolic extract (PE) from olive vegetation water (OVW) to limit the negative effects of frying was tested after adding it at different concentrations to a refined olive oil (RO). Its efficacy was also compared to ROs containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with a high polyphenol content. Analyses of the oils collected after 30min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h of frying at 180°C, demonstrated that degradation of the polyphenols was proportional to the original content; at a concentration of at least 400mg/kg of polyphenols, PE was able to reduce oxidation of the tocopherols and the emission of low-molecular-weight aldehydes better than BHT and with similar results to the EVOO. In addition, secoiridoid oxidative compounds were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation. PMID:25624222

  16. Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor for the Oxidation Stability of Korean Vegetable Oils with or without Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-Mi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the fatty acid composition could make a significant contribution to the oxidation stability of vegetable oils marketed in Korea. Ten kinds, 97 items of vegetable oils that were produced in either an industrialized or a traditional way were collected and analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and lipid oxidation products, in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Peroxidability index (PI) calculations based on the fatty acid composition ranged from 7.10 to 111.87 with the lowest value found in olive oils and the highest in perilla oils. In the absence of induced oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), the secondary lipid oxidation product, was generated more in the oils with higher PI (r=0.890), while the tendency was not observed when the oils were subjected to an oxidation-accelerating system. In the presence of the oxidative stress, the perilla oils produced in an industrialized manner generated appreciably higher amounts of MDA than those produced in a traditional way, although both types of oils presented similar PIs. The results implicate that the fatty acid compositions could be a predictor for the oxidation stability of the vegetable oils at the early stage of oil oxidation, but not for those at a later stage of oxidation. PMID:24471078

  17. EFFECTS OF FERRIC HYDROXIDE ON THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION KINETICS AND TOXICITY OF VEGETABLE OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments exhibits self-inhibitory characteristics when it occurs under methanogenic conditions but not under iron-reducing conditions. The basis of the protective effect of iron was investigated by comparing its effects on oil biodeg...

  18. Lipase-catalyzed irreversible transesterification of vegetable oils for fatty acid methyl esters production with dimethyl carbonate as the acyl acceptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Er-Zheng Su; Min-Jie Zhang; Jian-Guo Zhang; Jian-Feng Gao; Dong-Zhi Wei

    2007-01-01

    Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used in the enzymatic transesterification of vegetable oils, which resulted in an irreversible reaction benefiting fatty acid methyl esters production. Among the tested lipases, Novozym435 (lipase B from Candida antarctica) led to a higher conversion for all tested vegetable oils in the initial screening. DMC used as the acyl acceptor, the conversions of cottonseed oil, soybean

  19. Presence of phytosterol oxides in crude vegetable oils and their fate during refining.

    PubMed

    Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Cordaro, Francesca; Pizzale, Lorena; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2003-04-01

    The content of phytosterol oxidation products was determined in samples of crude vegetable oils: peanut, sunflower, maize, palm nut, and lampante olive oils that were intended for refining and not for direct consumption. The 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxy derivatives of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol and the 7-keto-beta-sitosterol were the principal phytosterol oxides found in almost all of the oils analyzed. In some oils, the epoxy and dihydroxy derivatives of beta-sitosterol were also found at very low levels. The highest total concentrations of phytosterol oxides, ranging from 4.5 to 67.5 and from 4.1 to 60.1 ppm, were found in sunflower and maize oils, respectively. Lower concentrations were present in the peanut oils, 2.7-9.6 ppm, and in the palm nut oil, 5.5 ppm, whereas in the lampante olive oils, only three samples of the six analyzed contained a low concentration (1.5-2.5 ppm) of oxyphytosterols. No detectable levels of phytosterol oxides were found in the samples of palm and coconut oils. Bleaching experiments were carried out on a sample of sunflower oil at 80 degrees C for 1 h with 1 and 2% of both acidic and neutral earths. The bleaching caused a reduction of the hydroxyphytosterol with partial formation of steroidal hydrocarbons with three double bonds in the ring system at the 2-, 4-, and 6-positions (steratrienes). The same sunflower oil was deodorized at 180 degrees C under vacuum for 1 h, and no dehydration products were formed with a complete recovery of the hydroxyphytosterols. A bleaching test with acidic earths was carried out also with an extra virgin olive oil fortified with 7-keto-cholesterol, dihydroxycholesterol, and alpha-epoxy-cholesterol. There was no formation of steratrienes from these compounds, but dihydroxycholesterol underwent considerable decomposition and alpha-epoxycholesterol underwent ring opening with formation of the dihydroxy derivative, whereas 7-ketocholesterol was rather stable PMID:12670187

  20. Constraining the retrieval of vegetation properties from remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lines, Emily; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Radiative transfer models of vegetation canopies describe the interaction between incoming radiation and the land surface, and therefore provide a direct physical link between Earth observation data and the state of vegetation. Radiative transfer models may be inverted against optical Earth observation data such as broadband albedo to retrieve canopy biophysical properties, but the limited information content of the observations, computational complexity and high number of parameters of these models has historically made this approach impractical. Assimilation approaches, where extra information is used to further constrain the inverse problem are a pragmatic way of improving this situation. However, the assimilation of remote sensing data through the use of physically-based radiative transfer models is attractive because it allows quantification of errors and the use of multiple data sources. In this study we assimilate broadband visible and near infra-red albedo products which contain information on the absorptance of the surface, driven primarily by vegetation. We assimilate the MODIS albedo product using the biophysically-based radiative transfer model PROSAIL to retrieve a time-series of leaf area index and a set of leaf traits such as leaf chlorophyll and leaf water content that influence optical reflectance. To address the impracticality of inverting the radiative transfer model, we use statistical emulators in its place, a method which significantly speeds up the inversion process and provides a highly flexible approach to assimilation. We further constrain the optimisation by coupling the emulator of the radiative transfer model to a phenology model, to smooth temporal leaf dynamics. We also present the impact of including ground-based measurements of key leaf properties as prior information on inversions, and suggest that the use of existing large scale leaf trait databases to inform inversion could improve the accuracy of data assimilation.

  1. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of herbicides in vegetable oil with metal-organic framework MIL-101.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Cao, Bocheng; Wang, Zhibing; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Sui, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    Dispersive microsolid-phase extraction based on metal-organic framework has been developed and applied to the extraction of triazine and phenylurea herbicides in vegetable oils in this work. The herbicides were directly extracted with MIL-101 from diluted vegetables oils without any further cleanup. The separation and determination of herbicides were carried out on high performance liquid chromatography. The effects of experimental parameters, including volume ratio of n-hexane to oil sample, mass of MIL-101, extraction time, centrifugation time, eluting solvent, and elution time were investigated. The Student's t test was applied to evaluate the selected experimental conditions. The limits of detection for the herbicides ranged from 0.585 to 1.04 ?g/L. The recoveries of the herbicides ranged from 87.3 to 107%. Our results showed that the present method is rapid, simple, and effective for extracting herbicides in vegetable oils. PMID:25665636

  2. Brassica rapa is one of most important oilseed crops distributed worldwide with a large ecological amplitude. In addition to its use in vegetable oil industry, it

    E-print Network

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    ecological amplitude. In addition to its use in vegetable oil industry, it provides daily food and Aspergillus niger is a common human pathogen that also infects some other vegetables and fruits. The host

  3. Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. II. Soybean oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Scholfield; Mary A. Hicks

    1957-01-01

    Summary  Soybean oil has been fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent distribution apparatus. Fractions have been obtained with iodine\\u000a values both too high and too low to conform to an even distribution. From the weight distribution curve, iodine value, and\\u000a spectrophotometric analyses the oil is estimated to contain 5.2% dilinoleo-linolenin, 13.7% trilinolein, 9.2% oleolinoleo-linolenin,\\u000a and 25.2% oleo-dilinolein. This composition is in agreement

  4. Physical Properties as Indicators of Oil Penetration in Soils Contaminated with oil Lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al-Sarawi; M. S. Massoud; S. A. Wahba

    1998-01-01

    Measurements were made on 60 samples to determine the physical properties of the soil profiles contaminated with oil lakes in Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields which include 80% of the Greater Burgan oil wells in southern Kuwait. The two soil profiles have similar saturation percentages, field capacities, wilting coefficients, low available water capacities due to statification and very low matric

  5. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components. PMID:20122175

  6. Elastohydrodynamic properties of biobased heat-bodied oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-bodied oils were prepared by thermal treatment of soybean oil under inert atmosphere. Different viscosity grades of heat-bodied oils synthesized by varying the reaction time were investigated for various properties including viscosity, viscosity index, elastohydrodynamic film thickness, and pre...

  7. Antioxidant properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is relatively rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds thought to co...

  8. 1 INTRODUCTION Oil sand has unique properties exhibits performance

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Tim Grain

    1 INTRODUCTION Oil sand has unique properties exhibits performance akin to sandstone in winter seated on oil sand can sink after a number of cycles with ground softening oc- curring rapidly due true for unconsolidated sands such as oil sand. 2 ASSUMPTIONS Following the work of Sharif-Abadi (2006

  9. Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare and Pimpinella anisum of the essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Pimpinella anisum L. has been tested against PVX (potato Chenopodium ama!a!!icolo!. Both the essential oils totally inhibit the formation of local lesions at a concen

  10. Fire flood recovery process effects upon heavy oil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reichert, C.; Fuhr, B. (Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Research Dept.); Sawatzky, H.; Lafleur, R. (Canmet/ERL, 555 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario (CA)); Verkoczy, B.; Soveran, D.; Jha, K. (Petroleum Div., Saskatchewan Research Council, 515 Henderson Dr., Regina Saskatchewan (CA))

    1989-01-01

    Heavy oil produced under primary and fire flood conditions was fractionated and analyzed to determine the changes occurring in the oil as a result of the recovery process. Oil produced under primary conditions showed a gradual increase in density, viscosity and other properties over time indicating fractionation during flow through the formation. Oil produced under fire flood conditions showed a decrease in viscosity and density and other properties as a result of the products of thermal cracking of the oil. GC-MS analyses indicate the formation of smaller straight chain alkanes and small aromatics molecules.

  11. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

    2011-11-23

    Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil. PMID:22007968

  12. Cuphea oil as a potential source of biodiesel with improved properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from common vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), and palm as well as other feedstocks such as animal fats and used cooking oils. To enhance feedstock supply, other vegetable oils such as jatropha are of increasing interest. However, most of these feedsto...

  13. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  14. Thermal properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/vegetable fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, Maria B. C.; Reul, Lízzia T. A.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Canedo, Eduardo L.

    2015-05-01

    The present work studies the thermal properties of composites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) - a fully biodegradable semi-crystalline thermo-plastic obtained from renewable resources through low-impact biotechno-logical process, biocompatible and non-toxic - and vegetable fiber from the fruit (coconut) of babassu palm tree. PHB is a highly crystalline resin and this characteristic leads to suboptimal properties in some cases. Consequently, thermal properties, in particular those associated with the crystallization of the matrix, are important to judge the suitability of the compounds for specific applications. PHB/babassu composites with 0-50% load were prepared in an internal mixer. Two different types of babassu fibers with two different particle size ranges were compounded with PHB and test specimens molded by compression. Melting and crystallization behavior were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at heating/cooling rates between 2 and 30°C/min. Several parameters, including melting point, crystallization temperature, crystallinity, and rate of crystallization, were estimated as functions of load and heating/cooling rates. Results indicate that fibers do not affect the melting process, but facilitate crystallization from the melt. Crystallization temperatures are 30 to 40°C higher for the compounds compared with the neat resin. However, the amount of fiber added has little effect on crystallinity and the degree of crystallinity is hardly affected by the load. Fiber type and initial particle size do not have a significant effect on thermal properties.

  15. Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, III. Emission tests using methyl esters of used frying oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Mittelbach; Peter Tritthartb

    1988-01-01

    The preparation of methyl esters of used frying oil, available as waste from restaurants and households, is described. Fuel\\u000a specifications of this fuel are given, and values for gaseous (HC, CO, NOx) and particulate emissions, measured with a vehicle powered by a turbocharged, direct injection diesel engine, are shown.\\u000a The ester fuel shows slightly lower HC and CO emissions but

  16. Effects of an oil spill on the regrowth of emergent vegetation in a northern Alberta Lake.

    PubMed

    Wernick, Barbara G; deBruyn, Adrian M H; Patterson, Luanne; Chapman, Peter M

    2009-11-01

    Following a train derailment in August 2005, Wabamun Lake (Alberta, Canada) was exposed to approximately 149,500 L of bunker "C" oil, much of which became entrained in the abundant Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus validus) beds in the eastern basin of the lake. We assessed the regrowth of emergent macrophytes during the subsequent two growing seasons. Postspill measures of productivity, including transect length, total cover, and biomass were within the variability of prespill data collected in 2001, with the exception of a few specific areas in which biomass appeared to be affected. We conclude that exposure to oil during the late growing season in August 2005 and through the winter senescent period and regrowth in the summers of 2006 and 2007 did not cause large-scale changes to S. tabernaemontani communities. Physical factors such as cleanup activities and vegetation management appeared to be responsible for the reduced regrowth observed at some locations. Few previous studies have been published on the effects of oil spilled into freshwater on macrophyte communities; thus, the results of this study are expected to provide useful information for the assessment of future freshwater oil spills. PMID:19333646

  17. Synthesis of sustainable polymers from vegetable oil: Applications in coatings and nanoparticle surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Harjyoti

    Polymeric materials are increasing being used in many household, industrial, and health and personal care products. These materials, being either non-degradable or slow degradable, remain in the environment for a long time and are posing increasingly significant threats to the ecosystem components including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and crustaceans. Renewable resource based materials are the best raw materials for the development of sustainable products. Vegetable oil and polyglycol based novel copolymers have been synthesized in this research. Poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers were synthesized from 2-(vinyloxyethyl) soyate (2-VEOS) and tri(ethylene glycol) ethyl vinyl ether (TEGEVE) via cationic polymerization. They were used in waterborne coating as self-dispersible polymers and as surfmers. Four different copolymers were synthesized having 2-VOES wt% as 10, 15, 25, 50 and rest being TEGEVE. In addition to that water insoluble poly(2-VOES) copolymers were synthesized from soybean oil. All copolymers were used as self-dispersible polymers and their coating property were analyzed by measuring glass transition temperature, drying time, gloss, transparency, contact angle, hysteresis, tensile strength, and hardness. Results showed that the coatings can be cured by autoxidation drying process within 6.1 to 8.2 h. Results also showed high transparency (coated in glass panel) with maximum 2% absorbance which is comparable to uncoated substrate (clean glass). Copolymer having 2-VOES wt% 15 and 50 were used as surfmers to disperse poly(2-VOES) and they were cured using autoxidation method. Results showed that the curing of film can be achieved within 2.6 to 8.0 h. High gloss and transparency confirmed that the surfmers get copolymerized with poly(2-VOES). Another set of poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers with 2-VOES wt% 15, 25, 50, 75 and 85 were synthesized and then functionalized with a carboxyl group. These carboxyl functionalized polymer were used to coat nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) to enhance their colloidal stability in aqueous media with an objective of using the coated particles for groundwater remediation. Structure property analysis of the coated NZVI showed that carboxyl functional copolymer with 15 wt% 2-VOES and 85 wt% TEGEVE had the best colloidal stability of the coated NZVI (CNZVI). Treatability study with CNZVI was carried out using trichloroethylene (TCE) and arsenic [As(V)] as model contaminants. Treatability data indicated that CNZVI can degrade 85 % of TCE (initial concentration 15 mgL-1 ) within 6 h and remove 99% of As(V) (initial concentration 15 mgL -1) within 0.5 h. Results also showed that CNZVI has higher contaminant (TCE and arsenic) removable rate compared to NZVI. The biodegradation behaviors of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES- r-TEGEVE) copolymers were analyzed by respirometric, microbial growth, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies. Respirometic test confirmed 90% degradations of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers within 28 d. Microbial growth and GPC studies also support the data obtained from respirometic tests.

  18. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques. PMID:26041214

  19. Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. I. Linseed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Dutton; J. A. Cannon

    1956-01-01

    Summary  Linseed oil has been fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent-distribution apparatus. Iodine values of fractions ranged from\\u000a 51 to 261. As determined by the weight distribution curve, iodine values and spectrophotometric analyses, 18.2% trilinolenin,\\u000a 12.3% linoleo-dilinolenin, and 19.5% oleo-dilinolenin combined with 4.1% dilinoleo-linolenin were isolated. Based upon this\\u000a type of data and upon several methods of analysis and collation of the

  20. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC–TOFMS

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC–TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

  1. Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method will be investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. During this first quarter the selection of base for pretreatment and extraction (Task 1) has been completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. About 40% of sulfur is removed from IBC-108 coal using 5% NaOH for pretreatment followed by linseed oil oxidation in air and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction.

  2. Thiol–ene UV-curable coatings using vegetable oil macromonomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micah Black; James W. Rawlins

    2009-01-01

    Allyl, acrylate, and vinyl ether derivatives of castor oil were synthesized and blended with multifunctional thiols for evaluation as thiol–ene ultraviolet (UV) curable systems. The UV cured films were characterized and evaluated via ASTM tests, gel content, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) as a function of time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and DMA studies established that property advancement resulted from

  3. Impact of plant essential oils on microbiological, organoleptic and quality markers of minimally processed vegetables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Gutierrez; Paula Bourke; Julien Lonchamp; Catherine Barry-Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of plant essential oils (EOs) for control of the natural spoilage microflora on ready-to-eat (RTE) lettuce and carrots whilst also considering their impact on organoleptic properties. Initial decontamination effects achieved using EOs were comparable to that observed with chlorine and solution containing oregano recorded a significantly lower initial TVC level

  4. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Soil and Vegetation and Their Estimation From Spaceborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. Craig; McDonald, Kyle C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is largely tutorial in nature and provides an overview of the microwave dielectric properties of certain natural terrestrial media (soils and vegetation) and recent results in estimating these properties remotely from airborne and orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  5. Field studies on USBM and TOSCO II retorted oil shales: vegetation, moisture, salinity, and runoff, 1977-1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkelly, M.K.; Berg, W.A.; Harbert, H.P. III

    1981-08-01

    Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cover treatments were established at two locations: low-elevation (Anvil Points) and high-elevation (Piceance Basin) in western Colorado. Vegetation was established by intensive management including leaching, N and P fertilization, seeding, mulching, and irrigation. After seven growing seasons, a good vegetative cover remained with few differences between treatments, with the exception of the TOSCO retorted shale, south-aspect, which consistently supported less perennial vegetative cover than other treatments. With time, a shift from perennial grasses to dominance by shrubs was observed. Rodent activity on some treatments had a significantly negative effect on vegetative cover.

  6. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  7. The effect of elevated fuel inlet temperature on performance of diesel engine running on neat vegetable oil at constant speed conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M. I Nwafor

    2003-01-01

    The concept that engine design is all important in the use of vegetable oils as a diesel fuel has been pointed out by many researchers. One hundred percent of vegetable oil can be used safely in an indirect injection engine, but not in a direct injection engine due to the high degree of atomization required for this type. This problem

  8. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid particles present in diverse organisms. PMID:1560029

  9. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  10. Free fatty acid fractions from some vegetable oils exhibit reduced survival time-shortening activity in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Huang, M Z; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Okuyama, H

    1998-07-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that several vegetable oils that included low-erucic rapeseed oil markedly shortened the survival time (by approximately 40%) of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats as compared with perilla oil, soybean oil, and fish oil. We considered that a factor other than fatty acids is toxic to SHRSP rats, because the survival time-shortening activity could not be accounted for by the fatty acid compositions of these oils. In fact, a free fatty acid (FFA) fraction derived from lipase-treated rapeseed oil was found to be essentially devoid of such activity. A high-oleate safflower oil/safflower oil/perilla oil mixture exhibited a survival time-shortening activity comparable to that of rapeseed oil, but the activity of this mixed oil was also reduced by lipase treatment. A partially hydrogenated soybean oil shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, but a FFA fraction derived from lipase-treated partially hydrogenated soybean oil shortened it by 13% compared with soybean oil. Fatty acid compositions of the rapeseed oil and a FFA fraction derived from lipase-treated rapeseed oil were similar, but those of hepatic phospholipids of rats fed the oil and FFA were slightly but significantly different. These results support the interpretation that the survival time-shortening activity exhibited by some vegetable oils is due to minor components other than fatty acids, and that an active component(s) were produced in or contaminated soybean oil during the partial hydrogenation processes. PMID:9688167

  11. Some correlation of diesel engine performance with injection characteristics using vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Varde, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    It is known that the performance of a DI diesel engine is greatly affected by the injection and spray characteristics. These are influenced by the injection system design and by the properties of the fuel used. The effect of some of the physical properties of diesel fuel and soybean oil on the injection and spray parameters were measured and compared in the study. The injection system used in this investigation was the same as the one used in the engine performance evaluation using the two fuels. The performance of the engine is correlated with some of the spray parameters but it seems that the chemical composition and properties of the oil play important role in the emissions area of the engine. 7 figures, 2 tables.

  12. A versatile splitless injection GC-FID method for the determination of mineral oil paraffins in vegetable oils and dried fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Fiorini; Alberto Paciaroni; Flavia Gigli; Roberto Ballini

    2010-01-01

    A splitless injection GC-FID method for determining mineral paraffins in food was set up. The method has been developed on vegetable oils and subsequently adjusted and applied to dried fruits, a food matrix not yet investigated from this point of view. The method avoids the saponification step foreseeing only a clean-up on silica gel SPE, and allows the quantification of

  13. Organochlorine pesticide residues in different Indian cereals, pulses, spices, vegetables, fruits, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils.

    PubMed

    Kaphalia, B S; Takroo, R; Mehrotra, S; Nigam, U; Seth, T D

    1990-01-01

    A total of 244 samples of cereals (wheat flour, rice, and maize), pulses (arhar, moong, gram, lentil, and black gram), spices (turmeric, chili, coriander, and black pepper), vegetables (potato, onion, spinach, cabbage, brinjal, and tomato), fruits (mango, guava, apple, and grape), milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils (vegetable, mustard, groundnut, and sesame) collected from different cities of Northern Province (Utter Pradesh) were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography for the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues. Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) were detected in about 85% of the total samples of cereals, spices, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils analyzed in the present study. However, the residue levels were either very small (less than 0.06 ppm) or not detected at all in pulses, vegetables, and fruits as compared with very high concentrations in wheat flour (4.42 and 0.12 ppm), butter (1.19 and 4.85 ppm), mustard oil (1.26 and 2.42 ppm), Deshi ghee (1.10 and 3.84 ppm), vegetable oil (1.02 and 0.59 ppm), groundnut oil (0.51 and 1.49 ppm), and chili (0.48 and 1.92 ppm). The levels of HCH and DDT residues detected in rice, maize, turmeric, corlander, black pepper, and all the vegetables and fruits were also lower than those found in wheat flour, oil, and fat samples analyzed in the present study. These findings suggest that a restricted and controlled use of such persistent pesticides may be useful for decreasing their contamination levels in different food items. PMID:1698760

  14. Oil decolorization properties of the Emirler clinoptilolite (Bigadiç, Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Girgin; M. N. Gündo?du; S. Ata; A. Yörükoglu

    1996-01-01

    Oil decolorization properties of the Emirler clinoptilolite and its acid-activated forms were studied using neutralized cottonseed oil. Although the oil decolorization capacity of natural clinoptilolite is low, it can be improved by a factor of 1.8 after HCl activation under the optimized conditions (1M HCl, solid\\/liquid ratio = 1\\/20, T = 25°C, t = 1 hour). Acid activation increases the

  15. FIELD STUDIES ON USBM AND TOSCO II RETORTED OIL SHALES: VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cov...

  16. The effects of cooking oil fume condensates (COFCs) on the vegetative growth of Salvinia natans (L.) All

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinchuang Jiang; Shengnan Zhu; Yawen Wu; Huyin Huai

    2009-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes (COF) and their condensates (COFCs), which are suspected of causing human lung cancers, are hazardous materials to environments. The effects of COFCs on the vegetative growth of Salvinia natans (L.) All., a free-floating aquatic fern, are discussed in this paper. The results showed that there were no differences of the number of floating leaves and the mean

  17. HPLC and HPLC-MS as tools to monitor the quality of vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HPLC and HPLC-MS have become valuable tools to analyze the “functional lipids” in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, functional foods, and conventional foods. These functional lipids include phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. These analytical methods have provided a means to id...

  18. Health risk assessment of eight heavy metals in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils consumed in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fangkun; Fan, Wenxiu; Wang, Xuejing; Qu, Li; Yao, Shuwen

    2011-12-01

    Eight heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and As, in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from China were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) after microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (GBW10018 and GBW08551). The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.214-0.875, 0.742-2.56, 16.2-45.3, 0.113-0.556, 0.026-0.075, 0.009-0.018 and 0.009-0.019 ?g g(-1), respectively. Cadmium was found to be 2.64-8.43 ?g/kg. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in the investigated edible vegetable oils. Comparing with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), the dietary intakes of the eight heavy metals from weekly consumption of 175 g of edible vegetable oils or daily consumption 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no risk to human health. PMID:21964195

  19. Combustion performance and emissions of ethyl ester of a waste vegetable oil in a water-cooled furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghassan Tashtoush; Mohamad I Al-Widyan; Ali O Al-Shyoukh

    2003-01-01

    Food consumption around the world produces large amounts of waste vegetable oils and fats that, in many world regions, are disposed of in harmful ways. Consequently, this study intended to investigate the feasibility of utilizing this renewable and low cost fuel raw material as a diesel fuel replacement in small-scale applications such as in residential heating boilers. Specifically, the study

  20. Simultaneous determination of glycerol, and mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters by capillary gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Plank; Eberhard Lorbeer

    1995-01-01

    A gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of glycerol, mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters has been developed. Quantitative information about this group of organic contaminants is very important for the quality of these oleochemical products when used as automotive diesel fuel substitutes.Trimethylsilylation of glycerol, mono- and diglycerides, followed by GC using a 10-m capillary column

  1. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF SOY-BASED POLYSOAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are obtained from abundantly available and renewable agricultural products. They are also biodegradable and safe to use. These properties make vegetable oils the preferred raw materials over petroleum-based oils for the manufacture of various consumer and industrial products. Veget...

  2. Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, Keiji; Ishihara, Masami; Shimauchi, Toshitsugu; Harayama, Shigeaki [Marine Biotechnology Inst., Kamaishi City (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction being more susceptible to biodegradation than the aromatic fraction in all the crude oil samples. The extent of biodegradation by acinetobacter and SM8 was found to be in the order of Arabian light > Dubai > Maya = Shengli; the crude oil samples with higher APl gravity being more susceptible to biodegradation. Saturated compounds of smaller molecular weight were preferentially degraded by both cultures. Acinetobacter could not degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples such as (alkyl)naphthalenes, (alky)phenanthrenes, (alkyl)fluorenes, and (alkyl)dibenzothiophenes. However, this strain was capable of degrading more than 10% of the molecules in the aromatic fraction of Arabian light crude oil. An NMR analysis demonstrated that the alkyl side chain of some aromatic molecules was degraded by this organism. In contrast, SM8 degraded the polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples, the extent of degradation being in the order of Maya > Shengli > Arabian light > Dubai. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Transesterification of vegetable oils: Simulating the replacement of batch reactors with continuous reactors.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Felipe A S; Vidal-Vieira, José A; Ravagnani, Sergio P

    2010-11-01

    A kinetic model was employed to represent biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils. Reaction rate constants found in the open literature were used in order to compare the behavior of batch and continuous processes. A single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under the usual operation conditions was not capable of achieving the same productivity as a batch process. However, when reactors in series were used, the continuous process presented a behavior similar to batch processes. As a result, it was evidenced that a series of CSTRs can be an industrially feasible choice for replacing batch transesterification reactors in large scale biodiesel plants. Further, it was shown that the loss in productivity caused by changing from batch to continuous process can be compensated by means of using higher catalyst concentrations. PMID:20566283

  4. Synthesis, droplet combustion, and sooting characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T. X.; Zhu, D. L.; Akafuah, N.; Saito, K.; Law, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    In light of the potential of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) as a renewable energy source, an innovative acid catalyzed process was developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. The synthesized biodiesels were analytically characterized for their major components, molar fraction and molecular weight of each component, the average molecular weight, and the heat of combustion. Their droplet combustion characteristics in terms of the burning rate, flame size, and sooting tendency were subsequently determined in a high-temperature, freely-falling droplet apparatus. Results show that the biodiesel droplet has higher burning rate, and that biodiesel in general has a lower propensity to soot because its molecular oxygen content promotes the oxidation of the soot precursors.

  5. Differences in Sediment Organic Matter Composition and PAH Weathering between Non-Vegetated and Recently Vegetated Fuel Oiled Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel T. Gregory III; Elizabeth Guthrie Nichols

    2008-01-01

    We examined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation in contaminated field sediments after only 2 years of plant growth. We collected sediments from vegetated and non-vegetated areas at the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC), an industrialized area with historic petroleum contamination of soils and sediments. PAH concentrations, PAH weathering indices, and organic matter composition in sediments colonized by Phragmites, cattails, or willow

  6. Free fatty acid fractions from some vegetable oils exhibit reduced survival time-shortening activity in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Miyazaki; Min-Zhao Huang; Naoya Takemura; Shiro Watanabe; Harumi Okuyama

    1998-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that several vegetable oils that included low-erucic rapeseed oil markedly shortened the survival\\u000a time (by ?40%) of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats as compared with perilla oil, soybean oil, and fish\\u000a oil. We considered that a factor other than fatty acids is toxic to SHRSP rats, because the survival time-shortening activity\\u000a could not be accounted for by

  7. Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

  8. Properties of refined milkweed press oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Holser

    2003-01-01

    The seed floss from Asclepias is currently harvested as a hypoallergenic fiber fill material for use in pillows and comforters. Milkweed seed is harvested with the floss although the oil contained in the seed is not used commercially. Milkweed oil was investigated as an alternative source of triglycerides for potential industrial applications. Processing conditions were investigated to produce degummed, refined,

  9. Microwave measurement and modeling of the dielectric properties of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Bijay Lal

    Some of the important applications of microwaves in the industrial, scientific and medical sectors include processing and treatment of various materials, and determining their physical properties. The dielectric properties of the materials of interest are paramount irrespective of the applications, hence, a wide range of materials covering food products, building materials, ores and fuels, and biological materials have been investigated for their dielectric properties. However, very few studies have been conducted towards the measurement of dielectric properties of green vegetations, including commercially important plant crops such as alfalfa. Because of its high nutritional value, there is a huge demand for this plant and its processed products in national and international markets, and an investigation into the possibility of applying microwaves to improve both the net yield and quality of the crop can be beneficial. Therefore, a dielectric measurement system based upon the probe reflection technique has been set up to measure dielectric properties of green plants over a frequency range from 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture contents from 12%, wet basis to 79%, wet basis, and temperatures from -15°C to 30°C. Dielectric properties of chopped alfalfa were measured with this system over frequency range of 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture content from 11.5%, wet basis, to 73%, wet basis, and density over the range from 139 kg m-3 to 716 kg m-3 at 23°C. The system accuracy was found to be +/-6% and +/-10% in measuring the dielectric constant and loss factor respectively. Empirical, semi empirical and theoretical models that require only moisture content and operating frequency were determined to represent the dielectric properties of both leaves and stems of alfalfa at 22°C. The empirical models fitted the measured dielectric data extremely well. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (r2) for dielectric constant and loss factor of leaves were 0.89 and 0.99, and 0.52 and 0.99 respectively. The RMSE and r2 values for dielectric constant and loss factor of stems were 0.89 and 0.99, and 0.77 and 0.99 respectively. Among semi empirical or theoretical models, Power law model showed better performance (RMSE = 1.78, r2 = 0.96) in modeling dielectric constant of leaves, and Debye-ColeCole model was more appropriate (RMSE = 1.23, r2 = 0.95) for the loss factor. For stems, the Debye-ColeCole models (developed on an assumption that they do not shrink as they dry) were found to be the best models to calculate the dielectric constant with RMSE 0.53 and r2 = 0.99, and dielectric loss factor with RMSE = 065 and r2 = 0.95. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Ivo S.; Montagnolli, Renato N.; Lopes, Paulo R. M.; Bidoia, Ederio D.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms. PMID:24031989

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glucosides, major contaminants of vegetable oil-derived biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Andres; Peiru, Salvador; Eberhardt, Florencia; Vetcher, Leandro; Cabrera, Rodolfo; Menzella, Hugo G

    2014-05-01

    Biodiesels are mostly produced from lipid transesterification of vegetable oils, including those from soybean, jatropha, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, and others. Unfortunately, transesterification of oil produces various unwanted side products, including steryl glucosides (SG), which precipitate and need to be removed to avoid clogging of filters and engine failures. So far, efficient and cost-effective methods to remove SGs from biodiesel are not available. Here we describe for the first time the identification, characterization and heterologous production of an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing SGs. A synthetic codon-optimized version of the lacS gene from Sulfolobus solfataricus was efficiently expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and used to treat soybean derived biodiesel containing 100 ppm of SGs. After optimizing different variables, we found that at pH 5.5 and 87 °C, and in the presence of 0.9 % of the emulsifier polyglycerol polyricinoleate, 81 % of the total amount of SGs present in biodiesel were hydrolyzed by the enzyme. This remarkable reduction in SGs suggests a path for the removal of these contaminants from biodiesel on industrial scale using an environmentally friendly enzymatic process. PMID:24265025

  13. Increasing the energy density of vegetative tissues by diverting carbon from starch to oil biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sanjaya; Durrett, Timothy P; Weise, Sean E; Benning, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Increasing the energy density of biomass by engineering the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetative tissues is synergistic with efforts to produce biofuels by conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Typically, TAG accumulates in developing seeds, and little is known about the regulatory mechanisms and control factors preventing oil biosynthesis in vegetative tissues in most plants. Here, we engineered Arabidopsis thaliana to ectopically overproduce the transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) involved in the regulation of seed oil biosynthesis. Furthermore, we reduced the expression of APS1 encoding a major catalytic isoform of the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in starch biosynthesis using an RNAi approach. The resulting AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines accumulated less starch and more hexoses. In addition, these lines produced 5.8-fold more oil in vegetative tissues than plants with WRI1 or AGPRNAi alone. Abundant oil droplets were visible in vegetative tissues. TAG molecular species contained long-chain fatty acids, similar to those found in seed oils. In AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines, the relative expression level of sucrose synthase 2 was considerably elevated and correlated with the level of sugars. The relative expression of the genes encoding plastidic proteins involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, biotin carboxyl carrier protein isoform 2 and acyl carrier protein 1, was also elevated. The relative contribution of TAG compared to starch to the overall energy density increased 9.5-fold in one AGPRNAi-WRI1 transgenic line consistent with altered carbon partitioning from starch to oil. PMID:22003502

  14. Borehole Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment Emplacement and Geochemical Changes During Vegetable Oil Biostimulation, Anoka County Riverfront Park, Fridley, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.; Kochiss, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of geophysical investigations to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient from the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The pilot project was undertaken by the U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division, for the purpose of evaluating biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil was introduced to the subsurface to serve as substrate for naturally occurring microbes, which ultimately break down chlorinated hydrocarbons into chloride, carbon dioxide, and water through oxidation-reduction reactions. In support of this effort, the USGS collected cross-borehole radar data and conventional borehole geophysical data in five site visits over 1.5 years to evaluate the effectiveness of geophysical methods for monitoring emplacement of the vegetable oil emulsion and for tracking changes in water chemistry. Radar zero-offset profile (ZOP) data, radar traveltime tomograms, electromagnetic (EM) induction logs, natural gamma logs, neutron porosity logs, and magnetic susceptibility logs were collected and analyzed. In order to facilitate data interpretation and to test the effectiveness of radar for monitoring oil-emulsion placement and movement, three injection mixtures with different radar signatures were used: (1) vegetable oil emulsion, (2) vegetable oil emulsion with a colloidal iron tracer, and (3) vegetable oil emulsion with a magnetite tracer. Based on petrophysical modeling, mixture (1) was expected to increase radar velocity and decrease radar attenuation relative to background?a water-saturated porous medium; mixtures (2) and (3) were expected to increase radar velocity and increase radar attenuation because of their greater electrical conductivity compared to background ground water. Radar ZOP data and tomograms show increased EM velocity in the vicinity of injection wells. Comparison of pre- and post-injection datasets shows that velocity anomalies are observed only in planes connected to injection wells, indicating that the emulsified vegetable oil does not migrate far after injection. In contrast to the localization of velocity anomalies, radar attenuation anomalies are observed in all zero-offset profiles, particularly those downgradient from the injection wells. Despite the expected signatures of different tracers, increases in attenuation are observed downgradient from all three injection wells; thus, we infer that the attenuation changes do not result from the iron tracers alone. Over the period of data collection, the slowness (reciprocal velocity) anomalies are relatively stable, whereas the attenuation anomalies generally increase in magnitude and extent. One explanation for the attenuation changes is that products of vegetable oil-enhanced biodegradation (for example, chloride) increase the specific conductance of ground water and thus bulk electrical conductivity and radar attenuation. This interpretation is supported by the results of EM-induction and magnetic susceptibility logs, which indicate increases in electrical conductivity in the absence of magnetic anomalies that might result from the iron and magnetite. Based on the geophysical data, conceptual models of the distributions of emulsified vegetable oil and ground water with altered chemistry were developed. The field data indicate that, in several cases, the plume of ground water with altered chemistry would not be detected by direct chemical sampling given the construction of monitoring wells; hence the geophysical data provide valuable site-specific insights for the interpretation of water samples and monitoring of biostimulation projects. Application of geophysical methods to data from the ACP demonstrated the utility of radar for monitoring biostimulation injections.

  15. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly progress report], December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.; Ho, K.K.

    1995-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During this second quarter working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S. 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different extraction solvents, and different temperatures were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 1OO{degree}C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents.

  16. Erratum to “Genetically improved farmed Nile tilapia and red hybrid tilapia showed differences in fatty acid metabolism when fed diets with added fish oil or a vegetable oil blend”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaiw-Yee Teoh; Giovanni M. Turchini; Wing-Keong Ng

    2011-01-01

    A 2×2 factorial 14-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid metabolism in two different tilapia genotypes [Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, GIFT strain) and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)] fed a fish oil (FO)- or blended vegetable oil (BVO)-based semipurified diet. The BVO was formulated using olive oil (15%), sunflower oil (15%), linseed oil (30%) and refined, bleached,

  17. Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of esters of monochloropropanediol in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Empl, Anna Maria; Donaubauer, Alfred; Seefelder, Walburga

    2012-05-01

    The presence of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MEs) in food is a recent concern raised due to the carcinogenicity of their hydrolysable moieties 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD). Several indirect methods for the quantification of MEs have been developed and are commonly in use until today, however significant discrepancies among analytical results obtained are challenging their reliability. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the trueness of an indirect method by comparing it to a newly developed direct method using palm oil and palm olein as examples. The indirect method was based on ester cleavage under acidic conditions, derivatization of the liberated 2- and 3-MCPD with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole and GC-MS determination. The direct method was comprised of two extraction procedures targeting 2-and 3-MCPD mono esters (co-extracting as well glycidyl esters) by the use of double solid phase extraction (SPE), and 2- and 3-MCPD di-esters by the use of silica gel column, respectively. Detection was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). Accurate quantification of the intact compounds was assured by means of matrix matched standard addition on extracts. Analysis of 22 palm oil and 7 palm olein samples (2- plus 3-MCPD contamination ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 ?g/g) by both methods revealed no significant bias. Both methods were therefore considered as comparable in terms of results; however the indirect method was shown to require less analytical standards, being less tedious and furthermore applicable to all type of different vegetable oils and hence recommended for routine application. PMID:22444428

  18. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Safieva, Ravilya Z

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000cm(-1)) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E=6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification. PMID:21397073

  19. Novel bio-based thermoset resins based on epoxidized vegetable oils for structural adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Shivshankar

    Conventional engineered wood composites are bonded for the most part through formaldehyde-based structural adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF). Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen; the occupational exposure and emission after manufacturing of these binders is raising more and more concern. With increasing emphasis on environmental issues, there is clear incentive to replace these hazardous conventional formaldehyde-based binders with cco-friendly resins having similar properties but derived from renewable sources, bearing in mind the economics of the structural wood composite industry. In this thesis, the curing reaction of bio-derived epoxy thermosets with inexpensive, low-toxicity precursors, including polyimines and amino acids was investigated. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were successfully crosslinked with both branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and triethylenetetramine (fETA). Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) was crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI), having different molecular weights. Curing conditions were optimized through solvent uptake and soluble fraction analysis. Finally, the mechanical properties of the optimized compositions of rigid bioepoxies were evaluated using dynamic mechanical rheological testing (DMRT). While not as stiff as conventional materials, optimized materials have sufficient room temperature moduli to show promise for coatings and as binders in engineered wood products.

  20. Determination of ?-tocopherol in vegetable oils using a molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Fang; Chen, Zhiwen; Grant, Edward; Kitts, David D; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2013-11-01

    We report the development of a novel hybrid "capture-detection" molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (MIPs-SERS) biosensor for the detection and quantification of ?-tocopherol (?-Toc) in vegetable oils. ?-Toc served as the template for MIPs synthesis. Methacrylic acid formed as the functional monomer. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the cross-linking agent, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile was used as the initiator. The synthesized MIPs functioned to rapidly and selectively adsorb and separate ?-Toc from oil components. We validated a dendritic silver nanostructure synthesized by a displacement reaction to be a suitable SERS substrate for the enhancement of Raman signals. Second-derivative transformations and chemometric models based upon SERS spectral features confirmed the possibility of a rapid and precise detection and quantification of different spiking levels of ?-Toc in four different sources of vegetable oils (Mahalanobis distance from 15.93 to 34.01 for PCA model; R > 0.92, RMSE < 0.41 for PLSR model). The MIPs-SERS biosensor had a high sensitivity as well as a good recovery for ?-Toc analysis in vegetable oils. The entire analysis required 15 min or less to complete with limited sample preparation. PMID:24099154

  1. FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for analysis of lard adulteration in some vegetable oils Espectroscopia FTIR combinada con quimiometría para el análisis de adulteración con grasa de cerdo de aceites vegetales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rohman; Yaakob B. Che Man; P. Hashim; A. Ismail

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to develop a fast technique of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for detection and quantification of lard adulteration in some vegetable oils, namely canola oil (Ca?O), corn oil (CO), extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), soybean oil (SO), and sunflower oil (SFO). The FTIR spectra associated with Ca?O, CO, EVOO, SO, and SFO as well as their

  2. Terahertz spectroscopy properties of the selected engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shouming; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Tian; Zhao, Songqing; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Cunlin

    2010-11-01

    Engine oil, most of which is extracted from petroleum, consist of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of molecular weights in the range of 250-1000. Variable amounts of different additives are put into them to inhibit oxidation, improve the viscosity index, decrease the fluidity point and avoid foaming or settling of solid particles among others. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy contains rich physical, chemical, and structural information of the materials. Most low-frequency vibrational and rotational spectra of many petrochemicals lie in this frequency range. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the THz spectroscopic studies of petroleum products. In this paper, the optical properties and spectroscopy of selected kinds of engine oil consisting of shell HELIX 10W-40, Mobilube GX 80W-90, GEELY ENGINE OIL SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 5W-30, SMA engine oil SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 75W-90 have been studied by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the spectral range of 0.6-2.5 THz. Engine oil with different viscosities in the terahertz spectrum has certain regularity. In the THz-TDS, with the increase of viscosity, time delay is greater and with the increase of viscosity, refractive indexes also grow and their rank is extremely regular. The specific kinds of engine oil can be identified according to their different spectral features in the THz range. The THz-TDS technology has potentially significant impact on the engine oil analysis.

  3. Chemical Properties of Virgin Coconut Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Marina; Y. B. Che Man; S. A. H. Nazimah; I. Amin

    2009-01-01

    A study on the commercial virgin coconut oil (VCO) available in the Malaysian and Indonesian market was conducted. The paper\\u000a reported the chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of VCO. There was no significant difference in lauric acid\\u000a content (46.64–48.03%) among VCO samples. The major triacylglycerols obtained for the oils were LaLaLa, LaLaM, CLaLa, LaMM\\u000a and CCLa (La, lauric; C,

  4. Coenzyme Q 10 and Q 9 contents in 6 commercial vegetable oils and their average daily intakes in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Hee Pyo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the concentration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and Q9 (CoQ9) in 6 commercial vegetable oils commonly consumed in Korea and estimated the average daily intake of CoQ9 and CoQ10 from oils selected. The analytical method employed saponification before solvent extraction and quantification using high\\u000a performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Contents of CoQ9 and CoQ10

  5. 24 Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Did you read chapter 24

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    (obtained from animals) & Oils (obtained from vegetables) Minerals Silicate Mineral Family Primarily Ionic24 Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Did you read chapter 24 before coming to class? A. Yes B. No IT'S ALL CHEMISTRY Atomic-Level Structure of Complex Materials Determines Properties Animals & Vegetables Fats

  6. Influence of vegetation on acoustic properties of soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. M. Heijden; V. Claessen; N. Cock

    1983-01-01

    Possible influences of vegetation on acoustically relevant soil parameters, such as porosity and soil structure, were considered. In situ measurements of sound interference patterns were performed in seven plant communities by means of an inclined track method. Normal acoustical specific impedances were calculated with a plane wave outdoor sound propagation model. The impedances found generally showed a real part constant

  7. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

  8. Metabolism and Fatty Acid Profile in Fat and Lean Rainbow Trout Lines Fed with Vegetable Oil: Effect of Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPAR? was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies. PMID:24124573

  9. Determination of trace elements in biodiesel and vegetable oil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry following alcohol dilution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo S. Chaves; Margaretha T. C. de Loos-Vollebregt; Adilson J. Curtius; Frank Vanhaecke

    A method for the simultaneous determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S and Zn in biodiesels and vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) has been developed. The method – based on the use of an ICP-OES instrument outfitted with a spectrometer in Paschen–Runge mount, equipped with linear charge coupled device detectors monitoring the

  10. Health risk assessment of eight heavy metals in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils consumed in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fangkun Zhu; Wenxiu Fan; Xuejing Wang; Li Qu; Shuwen Yao

    2011-01-01

    Eight heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and As, in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from China were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) after microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (GBW10018 and GBW08551). The relative standard deviations

  11. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III). Finally, chapter III covers an extraction method that is more than 95% efficient in removing the tocopherolquinone from the oil waste prior to the reduction process.

  12. Feeding vegetable oils to lactating ewes modifies the fatty acid profile of suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Bodas, R; Vieira, C; Mantecón, A R; Castro, T

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vegetable oil supplementation of ewe diets on the performance and fatty acid (FA) composition of their suckling lambs. Forty-eight pregnant Churra ewes (mean BW 64.3±0.92 kg) with their 72 newborn lambs (prolificacy=1.5) were assigned to one of four experimental diets, supplemented with 3% of hydrogenated palm (PALM), olive (OLI), soya (SOY) or linseed (LIN) oil. Lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling from their respective mothers. Ewes were milked once daily, and milk samples were taken once a week. When lambs reached 11 kg, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from musculus longissimus dorsi (intramuscular fat) and subcutaneous fat tissue. No changes were observed in milk yield, proximal composition or lamb performance (P>0.10). Milk and lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular fat samples from the PALM diet had the highest saturated fatty acid concentration, whereas those of the OLI, SOY and LIN diets had the lowest (P<0.05). The greatest monounsaturated fatty acid concentration was observed in milk from ewes fed OLI, and the least in milk and in lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular fat samples from LIN and PALM diets. Milk and lamb fat from ewes fed PALM displayed the highest 16:0 proportion and the lowest 18:0 (P<0.05). There were higher concentrations of cis-9 18:1 in OLI samples (P<0.05), more 18:2n-6 in SOY lambs and milk fat (P<0.001) and the highest levels of 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 in LIN samples (P<0.01). Milk and lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular samples from SOY and LIN diets contained the most cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, whereas PALM samples had the least (P<0.01). Sheep diet supplementation with different oils, constituting up to 3% of their diets, resulted in changes in the FA composition of milk and the subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of suckling lambs, but did not affect either milk production or lamb performance. PMID:22440359

  13. Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total microbial community. Bacterial richness rebounded after nine months, although community composition remained distinct from the pre-amendment conditions. Subsequent to the experiment we have isolated several of these organisms into pure culture including representatives of probable new species of Geobacter, Desulforegula and Desulfovibrio. A hypothesized model for the functioning of these limited communities will be verified in the laboratory using defined combinations of isolates from the field where possible. These results demonstrated EVO serves as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction, and subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction was likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

  14. The Use of Cottonseed Oil Methyl Ester on a Diesel Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. ?lkiliç; H. S. Yücesu

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. High viscosity of the vegetable oil and its tendency to polymerize within the cylinder were major chemical and physical problems that were encountered. Chemical and physical properties of the raw cotton seed oil were improved by transesterification. In general, the physical and chemical properties and the performance of the

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; de Cássia de Souza Schneider, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

  16. Studies in interesterification. II. Acidolysis of some vegetable oils with lauric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Chakrabarty; K. Talapatra

    1968-01-01

    Acidolysis reactions of cottonseed oil, peanut oil, mahua oil (Madhuca latifolia), and palm oil with lauric acid were investigated with special reference to the influence of catalysts and the relative proportions\\u000a of oil and lauric acid on the extent and type of fatty acids displaced from an oil. Catalysts such as sulfuric acid, zinc\\u000a oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum

  17. Simultaneous detection of tocopherols, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in vegetable oils by direct injection C 30 RP-HPLC with coulometric electrochemical array detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ni Luh Puspitasari-Nienaber; Mario G. Ferruzzi; Steven J. Schwartz

    2002-01-01

    Detection and quantification of tocopherols, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in vegetable oil have been used to aid their authentication.\\u000a Their importance in influencing the oxidative stability of vegetable oils and their possible health benefits have been shown\\u000a in numerous studies. Therefore, the need for a rapid and reliable analysis method has become increasingly important. This\\u000a study demonstrates the application of C30

  18. Effect of oxidation products on service properties of motor oils

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitova, T.Yu.; Polipanov, I.S.

    1995-01-01

    One of the most urgent problems in chemmotology is how to create in an engine - lube oil system a controllable tribochemical process for the purpose of stabilizing the service properties of the oil and forming protective surface structures on the engine parts in order to minimize wear. The complexity of this problem reflects the diversity of the processes taking place in the tribological system. It is impossible to elucidate the mechanism of tribochemical reactions without studying the influence of changes in the oil composition and structure on its service properties during the course of operation. If the relationships involved in this influence are defined, it will become possible to change the structure of the oil in the desired direction and to achieve the desired service properties. For our studies we selected the motor oil M-10-G{sub 2}, conforming to GOST 8581-78. Samples of this oil were drawn during test-stand evaluations of D-144 and D-144-60 tractor diesels without any oil changes these tests were conducted jointly by the Institute of Problems in Mechanical Engineering of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Scientific-Research and Design-Technology Institute of Tractor and Combine Engines (NIKTID), and the Vladimir Tractor Plant Production Association. Tests were run for 1000 h with the standard conditions and test sequence, and for 1500 and 2300 h under conditions of a {open_quotes}constantly acting tribochemical regime{close_quotes}. Oil samples were drawn at 50-100 h intervals and tested by standard methods to determine the following physico-chemical characteristics: kinematic viscosity, acid and base numbers, ash, carbon residue, content of insoluble sludge, and content of particulate contaminant.

  19. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 ?g/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 ?g/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  20. Oil decolorization properties of the Emirler clinoptilolite (Bigadiç, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, I.; Gündo?du, M. N.; Ata, S.; Yörüko?lu, A.

    1996-09-01

    Oil decolorization properties of the Emirler clinoptilolite and its acid-activated forms were studied using neutralized cottonseed oil. Although the oil decolorization capacity of natural clinoptilolite is low, it can be improved by a factor of 1.8 after HCl activation under the optimized conditions (1M HCl, solid/liquid ratio=1/20, T=25 °C, t=1 hour). Acid activation increases the total specific surface area from 40 to 70 m2/g which is mostly realized with a pore diameter range smaller than 15 nm. The bleaching capacity of acid-activated clinoptilolite is comparable to that of natural bentonitic clays but it is 1.6 times lower than the capacity of activated bleaching earths such as Tonsil and others. However, the amount of oil absorbed by clinoptilolite during the bleaching process is almost half that compared with the commonly used natural and acid-activated clays.

  1. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  2. A new breed of racing car runs on vegetable oil and chocolate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2009-05-15

    Recycling Masterpiece: British Racing Team Creates F3 Car That Runs on Chocolatehttp://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/News/articleId=147889The Chocolate-Powered Carhttp://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/may2009/bw2009057_934211.htm?chan=top+news_top+news+index+-+temp_lifestyleWorld First Racinghttp://www.worldfirstracing.co.uk/Fuel Economyhttp://www.fueleconomy.gov/Chocolate Recipeshttp://www.godiva.com/recipes/default.aspxRacing a car around a track isn't exactly the most environmentally friendly activity, but it may be getting a bit better with the arrival of this rather unusual car. Designed by a British team, this Formula 3 car is powered by vegetable oil and chocolate. The WorldFirstRacing car is constructed out of recycled carbon fiber, along with plastic bottles and other organic materials. The car is sponsored by Warwick University and the Warwick Innovative Manufacturing Research Center, and their work is inspired by the general movement to "green" the technology used in racing cars. Interestingly enough, the lubricants used are all derived from plant oil and the radiators use a catalyst that reduces ground-level ozone by converting ozone molecules to oxygen. The team is still tweaking some aspects of the car, and it is scheduled to make a few test runs at the Goodwood Festival of Speed in Britain in early July.The first link will take users to an informative piece from Wired magazine's "Autopia" weblog that talks a bit more about this rather innovative racing car. The second link leads to an article from Edmunds.com, which talks in greater detail about the Formula 3 car's particulars. Moving on, the third article is from BusinessWeek magazine, and it includes a video of the car in action. The fourth link will whisk users away to the homepage of the WorldFirstRacing car, complete with a photo gallery, flying carrots, and a list of events where the car will appear. The fifth link leads to the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Economy website. Here visitors can learn about the importance of fuel economy and read up on gas mileage tips and hybrid vehicles. Finally, those who wish to use chocolate for a more conventional use will appreciate the last link, as it leads to some rather fine chocolate recipes, offered courtesy of Godiva Chocolates.

  3. Heat treatment of vegetable oils I. Isolation of the cyclic fatty acid monomers from heated sunflower and linseed oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Sebedio; J. Prevost; A. Grandgirard

    1987-01-01

    Linseed and sunflower oils were heated at 275 C for 12 hr under nitrogen. The sunflower oil was also heated in a commercial\\u000a fryer at 200 C for 48 hr using a 2-hr daily cycle. The cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) formed during the heat treatment\\u000a of the linseed oil were isolated by a combination of saponification, esterification, column chromatography

  4. Syntheses of novel protein products (milkglyde, saliglyde, and soyglyde) from vegetable epoxy oils and gliadin.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Mohamed, Abdellatif; Gordon, Sherald H; Xu, James

    2012-02-22

    The aqueous alcohol-soluble fraction of wheat gluten is gliadin. This component has been implicated as the causative principle in celiac disease, which is a physiological condition experienced by some infants and adults. The outcome of the ingestion of whole wheat products by susceptible individuals is malabsorption of nutrients resulting from loss of intestinal vili, the nutrient absorption regions of the digestive system. This leads to incessant diarrhea and weight loss in these individuals. Only recently has this health condition been properly recognized and accurately diagnosed in this country. The culprit gliadin is characterized by preponderant glutamine side-chain residues on the protein surface. Gliadin is commercially available as a wheat gluten extract, and in our search for new biobased and environmentally friendly products from renewable agricultural substrates, we have exploited the availability of the glutamine residues of gliadin as synthons to produce novel elastomeric nonfood products dubbed "milkglyde", "saliglyde", and soyglyde from milkweed, salicornia and soybean oils. The reaction is an amidolysis of the oxirane groups of derivatized milkweed, salicornia, and soybean oils under neat reaction conditions with the primary amide functionalties of glutamine to give the corresponding amidohyroxy gliadinyl triglycerides, respectively. The differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analyses, and rheological data from a study of these products indicate properties similar to those of synthetic rubber. PMID:22250811

  5. Basestock Oils for Lubricants from Mixtures of Corn Oil and Synthetic Diesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loredana Pop; Cosmina Pu?ca?; Geza Bandur; Gabriela Vlase; Remus Nu?iu

    2008-01-01

    Environmentally friendly vegetable oils and their derivatives represent alternatives to mineral-based lubricants. Vegetable\\u000a oils have high biodegradability and low production costs. Their poor thermo-oxidative stability and poor low temperature properties\\u000a are disadvantages in their use as lubricant basestocks. In our study we used corn oil and diester mixtures, which become lubricants\\u000a when additives are introduced. These mixtures of corn oil

  6. Kapok oil methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specificati...

  7. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J; Ustin, Susan L; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F; Roberts, Dar A

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill. PMID:24223872

  8. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

  9. In situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 1. Vegetation recovery and soil temperature as a function of water depth, oil type, and marsh type.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

    2005-03-15

    In-situ burning of oiled wetlands potentially provides a cleanup technique that is generally consistent with present wetland management procedures. The effects of water depth (+10, +2, and -2 cm), oil type (crude and diesel), and oil penetration of sediment before the burn on the relationship between vegetation recovery and soil temperature for three coastal marsh types were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a key factor controlling marsh plant recovery. Both the 10- and 2-cm water depths were sufficient to protect marsh vegetation from burning impacts, with surface soil temperatures of <35 and 48 degrees C, respectively. Plant survival rate and growth responses at these water depth burns were not significantly different from the unburned control. In contrast, a water table 2 cm below the soil surface during the burn resulted in high soil temperatures, with 90-200 degrees C at 0-0.5 cm soil depth and 55-75 degrees C at 1-2 cm soil depth. The 2-cm soil exposure to fire significantly impeded the post-burn recovery of Spartina alterniflora and Sagittaria lancifolia but did not detrimentally affect the recovery of Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. Oil type (crude vs diesel) and oil applied to the marsh soil surface (0.5 L x m(-2)) before the burn did not significantly affect plant recovery. Thus, recovery is species-specific when no surface water exists. Even water at the soil surface will most likely protect wetland plants from burning impact. PMID:15819246

  10. Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

  11. Changes in Marsh Vegetation, Stability and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Barataria Bay Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, J. M.; Aiken, G.; Kokaly, R. F.; Heckman, D.; Butler, K.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.; Piazza, S.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal wetlands in Southern Louisiana were contaminated by the release of record volumes of oil between April and July 2010. Barataria Bay was extensively impacted, resulting in the oiling and dieback of marsh grasses along a discontinuous margin up to 30m into the marshes. Shoreline stability and biogeochemistry have been monitored over three site visits between between July 10 and August 25, 2010. Initial observations in early July were that grasses, dominantly shape Spartina alterniflora and shape Juncus roemerianus, were bent over under the weight of a thick oil coating. The bent-over grasses were broken off along some reaches, leaving a stubbled shoreline more susceptible to erosion. Repeated site visits in mid and late August found visible erosion along some of the effected shorelines. Water samples were collected from the shoreline marsh remnants and from visibly unaffected marshes to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). In spite of visible oil sheens in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on vegetation in the “control” sites with no visible oil on vegetation, DOC concentrations were similar in impacted and visibly unimpacted sites in Barataria Bay. Subsequent samples in mid- and late-August had increased DOC concentrations relative to previous sample events regardless of whether the site was visibly impacted. There was a general increase in specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an index of aromaticity, with increasing DOC concentrations, either due to seasonal effects or continued dissolution of petroleum compounds. Further chemical characterization using fluorescence and gas chromatography will be used to confirm the presence of petroleum compounds. The ratio of DOC to TDN also increased over time, which may have implications for vegetation regrowth and plant community structure, including the shift of grass species dominating effected marshes. These initial findings suggest that while some shorelines have overtly visible impacts from the oil slick that reached Barataria Bay, there are also less visible indications that there may be a more comprehensive biogeochemical effect from the oil incursion throughout Barataria Bay.

  12. Modeling the backscattering and transmission properties of vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. T.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.

  13. Interactions between protein and vegetable oils in the maternal diet determine the programming of the insulin axis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Christopher A; Lilley, Christina; Czopek, Alicja; Hay, Susan M; Rees, William D

    2007-05-01

    The available evidence suggests that metabolic control mechanisms are programmed early in life. Previous studies of pregnant rats fed low-protein diets have suggested that the vegetable oils used in the experimental diets influence the outcome. The present study investigated the offspring of female rats fed semi-synthetic diets containing either 180 or 90g casein/kg with 70 g/kg (w/w) of either corn oil or soya oil during gestation. During lactation, the dams received stock diet, and the offspring were subsequently weaned onto the stock diet. The offspring of dams fed the low-protein diets were smaller at birth. At 25 weeks of age, the offspring were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test. In the offspring of dams fed the diet containing soya oil, the area under the insulin curve was affected by the protein content of the maternal diet. There was no effect of protein on the area under the insulin curve in the offspring of dams fed the diet prepared with corn oil. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentrations. The levels of mRNA for acetyl-CoA carboxylase- in the livers of female offspring were affected by the protein and oil content of the maternal diet. The level of carnitine palmitoyl transferase mRNA was affected by the protein content of the maternal diet. The present study suggests that PUFA in the maternal diet can interact with protein metabolism to influence the development of the offspring. This may involve the higher content of alpha-linolenic acid in soya oil compared with corn oil. PMID:17408526

  14. Low Temperature Properties and Thermal Stability of Oligomerized Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil polymers with lower molecular weight prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) by cationic polymerization were investigated for their applications as lubricants and hydraulic fluids. The low-temperature properties were studied by measuring their cloud and pour points; while therm...

  15. Basic properties of palm oil biodiesel–diesel blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Benjumea; John Agudelo; Andrés Agudelo

    2008-01-01

    The basic properties of several palm oil biodiesel–diesel fuel blends were measured according to the corresponding ASTM standards. In order to predict these properties, mixing rules are evaluated as a function of the volume fraction of biodiesel in the blend. Kay’s mixing rule is used for predicting density, heating value, three different points of the distillation curve (T10, T50 and

  16. Vegetable fuel potential. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Solly, R.K.

    1983-08-01

    The possible contribution to Defence fuels from vegetable sources is considered. Only two categories, ethyl alcohol from fermentation of carbohydrate material and vegetable oils directly from oil crops, can currently be produced with present technology in sufficient amounts to contribute to energy requirements. Liquid hydrocarbons from tree and shrub crops or microorganisms have not been produced in sufficient quantity to carry out even short-term engine trails. Ethyl alcohol is an effective gasoline extender for spark-ignition engines, but these are a minor part of Defence power units. Vegetable oils may be directly substituted for middle-distillate fuels, but a number of technical difficulties are outlined. Chemical reaction of the vegetable oils with ethyl alcohol produces a liquid fuel that has similar physical properties to petroleum distillate. Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests these vegetable-oil esters have better combustion properties in compression-ignition power units than petroleum distillate. Significant amounts could be produced in a strategic situation within a short lead time.

  17. Multivariate analysis relating oil shale geochemical properties to NMR relaxometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Washburn, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry has been used to provide insight into shale composition by separating relaxation responses from the various hydrogen-bearing phases present in shales in a noninvasive way. Previous low-field NMR work using solid-echo methods provided qualitative information on organic constituents associated with raw and pyrolyzed oil shale samples, but uncertainty in the interpretation of longitudinal-transverse (T1–T2) relaxometry correlation results indicated further study was required. Qualitative confirmation of peaks attributed to kerogen in oil shale was achieved by comparing T1–T2 correlation measurements made on oil shale samples to measurements made on kerogen isolated from those shales. Quantitative relationships between T1–T2 correlation data and organic geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales were determined using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Relaxometry results were also compared to infrared spectra, and the results not only provided further confidence in the organic matter peak interpretations but also confirmed attribution of T1–T2 peaks to clay hydroxyls. In addition, PLSR analysis was applied to correlate relaxometry data to trace element concentrations with good success. The results of this work show that NMR relaxometry measurements using the solid-echo approach produce T1–T2 peak distributions that correlate well with geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales.

  18. A review of the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples: analytical scheme, interpretation of the results, and future needs.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the analysis of vegetable (and animal) oil residues from fire debris samples. The examination sequence starts with the solvent extraction of the residues from the substrate. The extract is then prepared for instrumental analysis by derivatizing fatty acids (FAs) into fatty acid methyl esters. The analysis is then carried out by gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The interpretation of the results is a difficult operation seriously limited by a lack of research on the subject. The present data analysis scheme utilizes FA ratios to determine the presence of vegetable oils and their propensity to self-heat and possibly, to spontaneously ignite. Preliminary work has demonstrated that it is possible to detect chemical compounds specific to an oil that underwent spontaneous ignition. Guidelines to conduct future research in the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples are also presented. PMID:17018078

  19. Profiling fatty acids in vegetable oils by reactive pyrolysis-gas chromatography with dimethyl carbonate and titanium silicate.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Daniele; Baravelli, Valentina; Chiavari, Giuseppe; Prati, Silvia

    2005-12-30

    A novel methodology in on-line pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) for the fast analysis of fatty acids in vegetable oils with minimal sample treatment and the use of non-toxic reagents is described. Pyrolysis at 500 degrees C for 10 s of sub-microgram quantity of vegetable oil dissolved in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and in the presence of nanopowder titanium silicon oxide resulted in the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as unique products. Pyrolysis performed by means of a resistively heated filament pyrolyser interfaced to a GC-MS apparatus enabled the direct analysis of evolved FAMEs. The DMC/Py-GC-MS analysis was tested on soybean, coconut, linseed, walnut and olive oil and the results compared to the classical BF(3)-methanol as reference methodology. The DMC method exhibited a lower precision and was biased towards lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in comparison to the BF(3)-methanol method, but was more advantageous in terms of reduced sample treatment, waste generation and risk factors of employed chemicals. PMID:16216255

  20. Effects of a fish-oil and vegetable-oil formula on aggregation and ethanolamine-containing lysophospholipid generation in activated human platelets and on leukotriene production in stimulated neutrophils13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco E Turini; William S Powell; Stephen R Behr; Bruce J Holub

    The effects of consuming a liquid formula con- taming either fish oil enriched in w-3 fatty acids or vegetable oil enriched in oleic acid was evaluated in 20 male subjects ran- domly allocated into two groups over a 42-d period. A decrease in collagen-induced aggregation by using washed platelet sus- pensions was found in both groups after nutritional supplemen- tation.

  1. Evaluation of vegetable oils for deep frying of batter-breaded meat nuggets 

    E-print Network

    Housson, Shirley Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    . , University of Texas- Austin Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ki Soon Rhee Restructured beef nuggets were batter-breaded with 100% commercial coating mix and fried in either soybean oil, soybean liquid shortening, cottonseed oil, or cottonseed liquid... shortening. The extent of lipid oxidation before storage was significantly less for nuggets fried in either cottonseed oil or cottonseed liquid shortening than for those nuggets fried in soybean oil or soybean liquid shortening. When fried nuggets were...

  2. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis with vegetable oils as co-solvent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sontaya Krichnavaruk; Artiwan Shotipruk; Motonobu Goto; Prasert Pavasant

    2008-01-01

    Soybean oil and olive oil were investigated as continuous co-solvents for supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Without co-solvents, only 25.40±0.79% efficiency was achieved with SC-CO2 extraction at 70°C and 40MPa at a continuous flow rate of 3mLmin?1 for 5h. In the presence of soybean oil or olive oil as a co-solvent, the extraction efficiency was

  3. Edible spreads of wide plastic range from vegetable oils and monoglycerides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin P. Jones; Herbert J. Dutton; John C. Cowan

    1953-01-01

    Summary A specimen of coffee oil has been examined with the objective of determining its composition in the light of possible uses of the oil which is recoverable as a byproduct in the soluble coffee industry. The oil, as obtained by extraction of the coffee grounds with solvent, contains over 5% of unique unsaponifiable material which, without preliminary removal, makes

  4. Oil Reservoir Properties Estimation Using Neutal Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, N. B.; Barhen, J.; Glover, C. W.; Aminzadeh, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. Our approach relies on JPL's adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. We believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

  5. Essential oils: Toxicity and antimicrobial properties. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic properties of essential oils, and the use of essential oils in preventing development of microbes. These essential oils are derived from plants and other living organisms. Citations included cover the toxicological testing of essential oils, and the identification and testing of essential oils and their components for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. (Contains a minimum of 81 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-01-01

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

  7. Vegetation clutter spectral properties in VHF\\/UHF bistatic doppler radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sizov; Cheng Hu; M. Antoniou; M. Cherniakov

    2008-01-01

    A simple model of vegetation clutter creation mechanism is discussed for the bistatic and forward scattering Doppler radar configuration. The foliage is considered as a set of separate pendulums oscillating with different resonance frequencies. On the basis of this model, predictions of clutter spectral properties are made and compared with clutter data measured on different frequencies in the VHF and

  8. Effects of acid, salt and soaking time on the dielectric properties of acidified vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to design a continuous microwave process for pasteurization of acidified vegetables, equilibration phenomena in acid and salt solutions must be examined with regards to changes in dielectric properties. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of acid and salt concentration o...

  9. Experimental research at the EMSL on scattering properties of non vegetated terrains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Nesti; P. Pampaloni; P. Coppo; M. Hallikainen; M. Mancini; P. Troch; M. Von Shonermark

    1995-01-01

    An experimental research programme on the scattering properties of non-vegetated terrains has been established at the European Microwave Signature Laboratory (EMSL), integrating different proposals from external users. The programme concerns the investigation of different aspects, including validation of surface scattering models, retrieval of soil moisture profiles, radar response of frozen\\/thawed soil and wave penetration in low lossy media. Mono and

  10. Impact of Foot Traffic from Military Training on Soil and Vegetation Properties1

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    and other heavy equipment are used, but foot traffic can also disturb sites. Past research on human foot, trails, and picnic ar- eas). Human foot traffic has been shown to increase bulk densities on recreationalImpact of Foot Traffic from Military Training on Soil and Vegetation Properties1 CAPTAIN (USAF

  11. Thiolated silicone oil: synthesis, gelling and mucoadhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Partenhauser, Alexandra; Laffleur, Flavia; Rohrer, Julia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was the development of novel thiolated silicone oils and their evaluation with regard to gelling and mucoadhesive properties. A thiol coupling of 220 ± 14 and 127 ± 33 ?mol/g polymer for 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)- and cysteine-coupled silicone oil was determined, respectively. The dynamic viscosity of MPA-silicone raised significantly (p<0.000001) after oxidation with iodine to a maximum of 523-fold within 1h. During tensile studies, MPA-silicone showed both the highest results for total work of adhesion (TWA) and maximum detachment force (MDF) with a 3.8- and 3.4-fold increase, respectively, compared to the control. As far as the residence time on small intestinal mucosa is concerned, both silicone conjugates were detectable in almost the same quantities for up to 8h with 56.9 ± 3.3 and 47.8 ± 8.9% of the initially applied conjugated silicone oil. Thiolated silicone oils can be regarded superior in comparison to commonly used silicone oils due to a prolonged retention time in the small intestine as site of action. Gelling and mucoadhesive features are advantageous for antiflatulent as well as mucoprotective biomaterials. Thus, these novel thiomers seem promising for an upgrade of currently available products for the treatment of dyspepsia, reflux oesophagitis and even inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. PMID:25660565

  12. Stratigraphic variations in oil-shale fracture properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C.; Patti, N. C.; Trent, B. C.

    1982-09-01

    The proper design and evaluation of in situ oil shale fracture and retorting experiments which require that both the extreme values and spatial distribution of the controlling rock properties be adequately known are discussed. The prediction, control and evaluation of explosive oil shale fracturing require a detailed knowledge of tensile strength behavior as a function of shale grade and stratigraphic position. Direct pull tensile tests, point load pinch tests, and four point bend fracture toughness tests are utilized to develop detailed logs of the relevant fracture properties for the 37 m thick Mahogany Zone section of the Green River Formation near Anvil Points, Colorado and for the rich, upper 13 m of the Tipton Member near Rock Springs, Wyoming. Statistical analyses were performed on these data and on Fischer assay oil yield data to establish the correlations between them. Data from both tensile strength and fracture energy tests correlate well with lithologic and oil yield characteristics of the Mahogany Zone shale while poor correlations were found for the Tipton shale.

  13. The association of selected soil properties with the distribution of native vegetation 

    E-print Network

    Yantis, James H

    1991-01-01

    of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Najor Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE ASSOCIATION OF SELECTED SOIL PROPERTIES WITH THE DISTRIBUTION OF NATIVE VEGETATION A Thesis by JAMES HUGH YANTIS Approved as to style and content by: Nova J. Shelvy... (Chair of Committee) H E. William E. Grant (Merrber) Michael T Longnecker (Menber) Charles T. Hallmark (Member) id J. Schmidly ( ead of Department) August 1991 111 ABSTRACT The Association of Selected Soil Properties with the Distribution...

  14. COMMENTARY - SPATIAL VARIATION OF SOIL PROPERTIES RELATING TO VEGETATION CHANGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bekele and Hudnall provide an interesting perspective on the spatial variation of soil chemical properties in a natural area undergoing transition from prairie to forest. Their focus is on the unique calcareous prairie ecosystem of Louisiana where prairie remnants are being encroached upon by the f...

  15. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

  16. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

  17. Dietary vegetable oils: effects on the expression of immune-related genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) intestine.

    PubMed

    Montero, Daniel; Benitez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María José; Ponce, Marian; Torrecillas, Silvia; Izquierdo, Marisol; Zamorano, María Jesús; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The decreased availability of fish oil, traditionally used as oil source in marine aquafeeds, has lead to the search for alternatives oils. Vegetable oils (VO) are being extensively used as lipid sources in marine fish diets, inducing an imbalance on certain dietary fatty acids. Alteration on the dietary ratio of w-6/w-3 has been described to have detrimental effects on fish immunity. Senegalese sole has high susceptibility to stress and diseases, and little is known on the effects of dietary VO on its immunity. In this study, Senegalese sole juveniles were fed diets (56% crude protein, 12% crude lipid) containing linseed (100LO), soybean (100SO) or fish (100FO) oils as unique oil source. Growth, cortisol and intestinal fatty acid composition were determined after 90 days. Moreover, at the final of the experiment a stress test (5 min of net chasing) was carried out. To evaluate the effect of diets and stress on intestine immunology, expression profiles of a set of 53 immune-related genes using RT-qPCR was also performed. The use of VO did not induced changes in fish growth, but affected fatty acid profile of intestine and expression of immune-related genes. The use of SO (rich in n-6 fatty acids) induced an over-expression of those genes related to complement pathway, recognizing pathogen associated to molecular patterns, defensive response against bacteria, defensive response against viruses, antigen differentiation, cytokines and their receptors. This general over-expression could indicate an activation of inflammatory processes in fish gut. When a stress was applied, a decrease of mRNA levels of different immune-related genes with respect to the unstressed control could be observed in fish fed 100FO. However, fish fed 100LO, with a higher ALA/LA ratio, seemed to ameliorate the effects of combined effects of FO substitution plus stressful situation whereas fish fed 100SO did not show this type of response. PMID:25655325

  18. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ate?, Ay?e; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses. PMID:17201644

  19. Ethyl esters from the single-phase base-catalyzed ethanolysis of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiyang Zhou; Samir K. Konar; David G. B. Boocock

    2003-01-01

    The effects of alcohol\\/oil molar ratio, base concentration, and temperature on the single-phase base-catalyzed ethanolyses\\u000a of sunflower and canola oils were determined. The use of tetrahydrofuran as co-solvent, as well as higher than usual alcohol\\/substrate\\u000a molar ratios, prevented glycerol separation. This allowed each reaction to reach equilibrium rather than just steady-state\\u000a conditions. High conversions of oil lowered the concentrations of

  20. Sterols, methylsterols, and triterpene alcohols in three Theaceae and some other vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiro Itoh; Toshitake Tamura; Taro Matsumoto

    1974-01-01

    The unsaponifiables from threeTheaceae (Camellia japonica L.,Camellia Sasanqua Thunb., andThea sinensis L.) oils and alfalfa, garden balsam, and spinach seed oils and shea fat were separated into four fractions: sterols, 4-methylsterols,\\u000a triterpene alcohols, and less polar compounds by thin layer chromatography. While the sterol fraction was the major one for\\u000a the unsaponifiables from alfalfa and spinach seed oils, the triterpene

  1. The properties and cointegration of oil spot and futures prices during financial crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Leia; Zeng Yonga

    2011-01-01

    Oil price is always influenced by market events and thus shakes continually. Especially, recent financial crisis shocks oil price heavily. However, current studies rarely discuss the property of oil price during financial crisis. Since oil price has excess volatility and it can not be described by standard unit root process, this paper adopts stochastic unit root (STUR) to examine the

  2. Microwave heating of different commercial categories of olive oil: Part II. Effect on thermal properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Chiavaro; Carlo Barnaba; Elena Vittadini; Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada; Lorenzo Cerretani; Alessandra Bendini

    2009-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating of commercial categories of olive oil for human consumption (extra virgin olive oil [EVOo], olive–pomace oil [Po] and olive oil [Oo]) on DSC thermal properties was evaluated at different times of microwave treatment.Marked changes of DSC cooling profiles were found for EVOo and Po subjected to microwaving, with the major exotherm that shifted towards lower

  3. Cuphea Oil as Source of Biodiesel with Improved Fuel Properties Caused by High Content of Methyl Decanoate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, is an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous common vegetable oils or fats as well as new or less common feedstocks. Major issues facing biodiesel include seve...

  4. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  5. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID EPOXIDES FROM VEGETABLE OILS AND FATS USING ENZYMES IN OAT SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat seeds contain lipase and peroxygenase enzymes that are potentially useful for the modification of fats and oils and their derivatives. We have investigated the use of ground oat seeds as an inexpensive carrier of these enzymes for the chemical modification of oils and fats. We found that, in t...

  6. Continuous Production of Biodiesel via Transesterification from Vegetable Oils in Supercritical Methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunchana Bunyakiat; Sukunya Makmee; Ruengwit Sawangkeaw; Somkiat Ngamprasertsith

    2006-01-01

    The continuous production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) by the transesterification reaction of coconut oil and palm kernel oil was studied in supercritical methanol without using any catalyst. Experiments were carried out in a tubular flow reactor, and reactions were studied at 270, 300, and 350 °C at a pressure of 10 and 19 MPa with various molar ratios

  7. Impacts and recovery of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on vegetation structure and function of coastal salt marshes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill on two dominant coastal saltmarsh plants, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the processes controlling differential species-effects and recovery. Seven months after the Macondo MC 252 oil made landfall along the shoreline salt marshes of northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the surface 2 cm of heavily oiled marsh soils were as high as 510 mg g(-1). Heavy oiling caused almost complete mortality of both species. However, moderate oiling impacted Spartina less severely than Juncus and, relative to the reference marshes, had no significant effect on Spartina while significantly lowering live aboveground biomass and stem density of Juncus. A greenhouse mesocosm study supported field results and indicated that S. alterniflora was much more tolerant to shoot oil coverage than J. roemerianus. Spartina recovered from as much as 100% oil coverage of shoots in 7 months; however, Juncus recovered to a much lesser extent. Soil-oiling significantly affected both species. Severe impacts of the Macondo oil to coastal marsh vegetation most likely resulted from oil exposure of the shoots and oil contact on/in the marsh soil, as well as repeated oiling events. PMID:22369124

  8. Effect of demulsifiers on interfacial properties governing crude oil demulsification

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S.; Kushnick, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how various parameters such as interfacial tension, interfacial shear viscosity, dynamic interfacial tension gradient, dilational elasticity and demulsifier clustering affect the demulsification effectiveness. The authors believe such an understanding is needed for developing more effective demulsifiers. At small thicknesses, an interfacial oil film can rupture if a continuous hydrophilic pathway exists between the droplets. Such a pathway can be provided by a demulsifier by forming water swollen reverse micelle-like clusters. They believe the differences in the effectiveness between P1 and P2 at low concentrations may be related to this phenomenon. The authors found that with both P1 and P2, the crude oil-brine interfacial shear viscosity is less than 0.1 surface poise. The interfacial dilational measurements also do not reveal any significant differences in their dynamic tension properties. But the interfacial tension vs. concentration curves show significant differences. The leveling of interfacial tension implies formation of clusters. The data indicate that the demulsifier P1 will form such clusters in the crude oil at a lower concentration than P2. Thus, other parameters being equal, the demulsifier P1 will be more efficient at a lower concentration than P2 for this crude oil emulsion.

  9. A comparison of soil properties under four vegetation units from six metalliferous hills in Katanga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Donato; Gregory, Mahy; Michel, Ngongo; Gilles, Colinet

    2013-04-01

    In Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo), numerous metalliferous hills are distributed along what is called the copperhill belt from Kolwezi to Lubumbashi. Very specific vegetation developed on these hills within the miombo forest in response to very specific soil conditions, among which the copper content. Previous studies have already shown the existence of gradients of copper from the mineralized rocks outcropping at the top of the hills to the foot slopes on colluviums. After a characterization of the vertical variability of soil properties in pits distributed along the main slopes, we investigated the soil-vegetation relationships in six hills located between the towns of Tenke and Fungurume. Observation 1-square meter plots were installed in four vegetation units and sixty of them were selected according to their relative importance on the six hills. The soil from the top 10cm was sampled and analyzed for pH, Total Organic Carbon, available P, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Co and Mn and soluble Cu and Co. Analysis of variance was performed in order to assess whether the effects of the "Hill" and of the "Vegetation Unit" were significant to explain soil chemical variability. Additionally, short transects were sampled at the boundaries from adjacent vegetation units in order to evaluate the gradual or rough nature of change in soil properties under these units. The results indicate that the six hills can not be considered as different for pH and available nutrients, excepted K, nor for the available Cu and Mn. Only TOC and Co contents were differing, mainly from one hill compared to the other five. The vegetation effect is significant for almost every studied soil characteristics, to the exception of Ca and Mn. Soluble Cu and Co significantly correlate to available Cu and Co, respectively. The pH variations however explain local departures from linear regression. The ANOVA models take into account 30 to 60% of the variations of soil properties. The study of the boundaries indicate that most changes of vegetation types may be related to abrupt changes in soil properties. These changes do not only occur along the slope as a result of malachite deposition by erosion but the surface processes seem to be predominant in the context of the hills.

  10. Irradiation Effect on Oxidative Condition and Tocopherol Content of Vegetable Oils

    PubMed Central

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Tsaknis, John; Sflomos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    The effect on induction period and tocopherol content after ?-irradiation on samples of olive oil and seed oils (sunflower and soybean) was determined. In seed oil samples 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of ?-tocopherol were added before irradiation with 1, 2 and 3kGy. The results of induction period showed that, after irradiation, all samples presented a significant decreased in resistance to oxidation. However, this decrease was minimized when ?-tocopherol was added. Irradiation significantly decreased the level of tocopherols. ?-Tocopherol appeared more sensitive in irradiation process than ?- and ?-tocopherol. The addition of ?-tocopherol significantly reduced, in most cases, the depletion of the other tocopherols.

  11. Impact of spruce forest and grass vegetation cover on soil micromorphology and hydraulic properties of organic matter horizon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radka Kodešová; Lenka Pavl?; Vít Kodeš; Anna Žigová; Antonín Nikodem

    2007-01-01

    Two organic matter horizons developed under a spruce forest and grass vegetation were chosen to demonstrate the impact of\\u000a a different vegetation cover on the micromorphology, porous system and hydraulic properties of surface soils. Micromorphological\\u000a studies showed that the decomposed organic material in the organic matter horizon under the grass vegetation was more compact\\u000a compared to the decomposed organic material

  12. Methyl esters from a partially hydrogenated vegetable oil is a better infrared external standard than methyl elaidate for the measurement of total trans content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. N. Ratnayake; G. Pelletier

    1996-01-01

    An infrared spectrophotometric procedure, based on the fatty acid methyl ester mixture derived from a partially hydrogenated\\u000a vegetable oil as the calibration standard, has been developed for accurate analysis of the totaltrans content of hydrogenated fats. This procedure produces more accurate results than the current official methods of Association\\u000a of Official Analytical Chemists and American Oil Chemists’ Society, both of

  13. Comprehension of direct extraction of hydrophilic antioxidants using vegetable oils by polar paradox theory and small angle X-ray scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Ruiz, Karine; Rossignol Castera, Anne; Bauduin, Pierre; Diat, Olivier; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    Since the polar paradox theory rationalised the fact that polar antioxidants are more effective in nonpolar media, extractions of phenolic compounds in vegetable oils were inspired and achieved in this study for obtaining oils enriched in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the influence of surfactants on the extractability of phenolic compounds was experimentally studied first, followed by the small angle X-ray scattering analysis for the oil structural observation before and after extraction so as to better understand the dissolving mechanism underpinning the extraction. The results showed a significant difference on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds among oils, which was mainly dependent on their composition instead of the unsaturation of fatty acids. Appropriate surfactant additions could significantly improve extraction yield for refined sunflower oils, which 1% w/w addition of glyceryl oleate was determined as the optimal. Besides, 5% w/w addition of lecithin performed the best in oil enrichments compared with mono- and di-glycerides. PMID:25466101

  14. Experimental investigations of a four-stroke single cylinder direct injection diesel engine operated on dual fuel mode with producer gas as inducted fuel and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) as injected fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Banapurmath; P. G. Tewari; R. S. Hosmath

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. Vegetable oils present a very promising alternative to diesel oil since they are renewable and have similar properties. Vegetable oils offer almost the

  15. Physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adawiyah Norzali, Nor Rabbi'atul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil have been studied. The phosphate ester was synthesized via ring-opening of epoxidized palm kernel oil with phosphoric acid. The amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was varied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%. Acid values of PKO and EPKO were 1.85 and 1.87 mg KOH/g respectively. However, the acid values increased with increasing amount of H3PO4 with values of 10.62 mg KOH/g, 31.34 mg KOH/g and 110.95 mg KOH/g respectively. The hydrolysis of the EPKO has successfully converted it to PEPKO with hydroxyl value of 16.16 mg KOH/g, 26.90 and 35.33 mg KOH/g at H3PO4 of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5wt%.

  16. Removal of Bioremediation Residues by Vegetable Oil Extraction and Slurry Phase Biotreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Xu; M. Lu; F. He; Y. Li

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation residues in a highly petroleum-contaminated soil were characterized by Fourier transform–ion cyclotron resonance–mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Naphthenic acids (O2 species) dominated the residues. Rapeseed oil was used to extract the residues from the soil. Extraction efficiency was approximately 80% when the oil–soil (v\\/m) ratio was 2:1. Total mass removal of the residues was more than 90% when the resulting contaminated

  17. Rate of the vegetable oil extraction with supercritical CO 2—III. Extraction from sea buckthorn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bártlová; H. Sovová

    1996-01-01

    Oil from the seed and pulp of sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) was extracted with carbon dioxide at pressures 9.6–27 MPa and temperatures 25–60°C. Influence of extraction conditions on solubility and mass transfer rate was studied. No marked changes in composition of extracted oil in the course of extraction were observed. Experimental extraction curves were evaluated using a model

  18. Geometrical isomerization of linolenic acid during heat treatment of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Grandgirard; J. L. Sebedio; J. Fleury

    1984-01-01

    Heat treatment of rapeseed (primor) and soybean oils resulted in the geometrical isomerization of linolenic acid. The geometrical\\u000a isomers were isolated from a rapeseed oil heated at 240 C for 10 hr by a combination of thin layer chromatography (TLC) of\\u000a the methoxy bromomercuric adducts of the total methyl esters and AgNO3-TLC. Three major isomers were identified after hydrazine reduction

  19. CAPILLARY ELECTROCHROMATOGRAPHIC STUDY OF ANTIOXIDATIVE MINOR OIL CONSTITUENTS AND RELATED TOCOPHEROLQUINONES IN FRYING OILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E-active antioxidants are important minor constituents of vegetable oils for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The content and composition of the antioxidant components affect oil properties, quality and stability. In frying oils, these substances partially convert to quinonoidal oxida...

  20. Changes in Soil Properties and Vegetable Growth in Preparation for Organic Farming in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria E. Ortiz-Escobar; N. V. Hue

    2011-01-01

    Changes in soil properties and vegetable growth were quantified on a low-fertility tropical soil. Four treatments (two composts, urea, and control) were applied to an Oxisol (Rhodic Haplustox, Wahiawa series) in a field on Oahu, Hawaii. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa, Chinensis group) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) were grown sequentially as test crops. Soil quality as measured by hot-water-soluble carbon, dehydrogenase

  1. Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirbas

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the production and characterization of biodiesel (BD or B) as well as the experimental work carried out by many researchers in this field. BD fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel (PD) fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. BD fuel can be used in any mixture with PD fuel as it has

  2. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a fivefold variation in tundra LUE was observed. LUE calculated from the functional type cover fractions was also correlated to a spectral vegetation index developed to detect vegetation chlorophyll content. The concurrence of these alternate methods suggest that hyperspectral remote sensing can distinguish functionally distinct vegetation types and can be used to develop regional estimates of photosynthetic LUE in tundra landscapes.

  3. Fingerprinting of vegetable oil minor components by multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2015-01-01

    The potentiality of a multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatographic (GC?×?GC) method, employing a simultaneous dual detection (FID and mass spectrometer), to generate peculiar two-dimensional chromatograms to be used as a chemical fingerprint, was investigated to characterize minor compounds in edible oil, particularly olive oil. The best column combination for this application was investigated comparing two column sets (orthogonal or reverse-type), equivalent in terms of theoretical plate number, but differing in stationary phase combination. The apolar?×?mid-polar set gave a superior separation power, thus was used for further characterization. Different levels of information were extrapolated from the two-dimensional chromatogram. Using the FID, reliable quantification of the alkyl esters fatty acids and waxes was obtained, comparable to the results obtained using the official method, as required by the European legislation. However, thanks to a slight modification of the sample preparation method, the increased separation power obtained using the GC?×?GC method, and the support of the mass spectrometer detector, further diagnostic information was extrapolated considering the free sterol and tocopherol fractions. In particular, the profiles of extra virgin olive oil samples were compared with a hazelnut oil sample, highlighting that the latter was characterized by a larger number of compounds, completely absent in the extra virgin olive oil samples, which can be used to detect illegal admixtures. PMID:25209809

  4. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  5. Feasibility of using LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    Research activities conducted from February 1, 1985 to July 31, 1985 and preliminary conclusions regarding research objectives are summarized. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using LANDSAT data to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils. The general approach is to apply the climatic-climax hypothesis (Ealgeson, 1982) to natural water-limited vegetation systems using canopy cover estimated from LANDSAT data. Natural water-limited systems typically consist of inhomogeneous vegetation canopies interspersed with bare soils. The ground resolution associated with one pixel from LANDSAT MSS (or TM) data is generally greater than the scale of the plant canopy or canopy clusters. Thus a method for resolving percent canopy cover at a subpixel level must be established before the Eagleson hypothesis can be tested. Two formulations are proposed which extend existing methods of analyzing mixed pixels to naturally vegetated landscapes. The first method involves use of the normalized vegetation index. The second approach is a physical model based on radiative transfer principles. Both methods are to be analyzed for their feasibility on selected sites.

  6. Vegetable oil based versus wood based stanol ester mixtures: effects on serum lipids and hemostatic factors in non-hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jogchum Plat; Ronald P Mensink

    2000-01-01

    A pine wood based stanol ester mixture-composed of sitostanol (92%) and campestanol (8%) effectively lowers cholesterol absorption and consequently LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It has been postulated that the less absorbable plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption more effectively. As sitostanol is absorbed less than campestanol, we decided to examine if a vegetable oil based stanol ester mixture with 68% sitostanol and 32%

  7. Impact of straight vegetable oil–diesel blends application on vehicle regulated and non-regulated emissions over legislated and real world driving cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios Fontaras; Marina Kousoulidou; Georgios Karavalakis; Evangelos Bakeas; Zissis Samaras

    2011-01-01

    Straight vegetable oil (SVO) has been considered as a possible alternative to fossil diesel-engine fuel since the development of diesel engines. In Europe, SVOs achieved a measurable share in biofuels market reaching 4%. This study attempts to identify the impact of untreated SVO application on fuel consumption and emissions, regulated and non-regulated, on a Euro 3 common rail diesel passenger

  8. The Use of Vegetation For Estimating Broken-Cloud Optical Properties From Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Davis, A. B.; Wiscombe, W.

    2000-01-01

    It is known that because of complex three-dimensional (3D) radiative effects of broken clouds, the retrieval of cloud optical properties from upward measurements based on a one-dimensional (1D) inversion technique almost surely fails. To remove radiative effects of 3D cloud structure, we have developed a new technique that retrieves cloud optical thickness for broken clouds above green vegetation from simultaneous surface measurements in the VIS and Near Infrared (NIR) spectral regions. The theoretical basis of the method is the very different spectral behavior of cloud liquid water drops and green vegetation. For example, cloud optical properties, and hence cloud reflectivities, change little between 650 and 860 nm, while the vegetated surface albedo changes from 0.05 to 0.5 between the same two wavelengths. This spectral contrast in surface albedo suggests using ground measurements at both wavelengths not independently, but as an algebraic combination (a spectral index). For a spectral band in the NIR region, the green vegetation acts as a powerful reflector that "illuminates" horizontally inhomogeneous clouds from below. This provides the extra information needed to largely remove the 3D radiative effects, especially in the case of broken clouds; this in turn allows the retrieval of cloud optical depth using traditional 1D radiative transfer theory. This approach is similar to the so-called Green's function problem for radiative transfer where a laser beam illuminates clouds and the resulting "spot-size" of the reflected light around the beam characterizes cloud properties. We generalize Green's function theory to surf ace-cloud interaction and develop new spectral indices from which broken-cloud optical depth can be retrieved.

  9. Evaluation of vegetable oils for deep frying of batter-breaded meat nuggets

    E-print Network

    Housson, Shirley Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    . Sliced nuggets were packaged in high-oxygen barrier bags (30-40 cc ~m&f24 hr) and held at -25'C until used for batter-breading. Beef nuggets were batter-breaded with 100% commercial coating mix (Fig. I) and deep-fat fried in a commercial-type deep.... , University of Texas- Austin Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ki Soon Rhee Restructured beef nuggets were batter-breaded with 100% commercial coating mix and fried in either soybean oil, soybean liquid shortening, cottonseed oil, or cottonseed liquid...

  10. Stimulation of Yield in the Cultivated Mushroom by Vegetable Oils1

    PubMed Central

    Schisler, Lee C.

    1967-01-01

    Supplementation of mushroom compost at spawning and at casing with various refined and crude seed oils resulted in 1 to 1.5 lb/ft2 increases in mushroom yield. Supplementation at casing with ground seeds or protein-oil combinations caused 2 to 2.5 lb/ft2 increases in mushroom yield. Further evidence is presented for a relationship between lipid metabolism and the initiation of fruiting in the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Preliminary results suggest the possible involvement of sterols in the fruiting stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16349718

  11. Rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 4-hydroxynonenal for the assessment of oxidative degradation and safety of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Gabbanini, Simone; Matera, Riccardo; Valvassori, Alice; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-04-15

    A novel method for the UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of (E)-4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is described. The method is based on derivatization of 4-HNE with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (1) or 4-trifluoromethylphenylhydrazine (2) in acetonitrile in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid as catalyst at room temperature and allows complete analysis of one sample of vegetable oil in only 21 min, including sample preparation and chromatography. The method involving hydrazine 1, implemented in an ion trap instrument with analysis of the transition m/z 337?154 showed LOD=10.9 nM, average accuracy of 101% and precision ranging 2.5-4.0% RSD intra-day (2.7-4.1% RSD inter-day), with 4-HNE standard solutions. Average recovery from lipid matrices was 96.3% from vaseline oil, 91.3% from sweet almond oil and 105.3% from olive oil. The method was tested on the assessment of safety and oxidative degradation of seven samples of dietary oil (soybean, mixed seeds, corn, peanut, sunflower, olive) and six cosmetic-grade oils (avocado, blackcurrant, apricot kernel, echium, sesame, wheat germ) and effectively detected increased 4-HNE levels in response to chemical (Fenton reaction), photochemical, or thermal stress and aging, aimed at mimicking typical oxidation associated with storage or industrial processing. The method is a convenient, cost-effective and reliable tool to assess quality and safety of vegetable oils. PMID:25818139

  12. Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection for the profiling of fatty acids in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Siang, Gan Hui; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin; Lim, Boey Peng

    2010-12-24

    The development of a two phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction technique, followed by gas-chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the profiling of the fatty acids (FAs) (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic) in vegetable oils is described. Heptadecanoic acid methyl ester was used as the internal standard. The FAs were transesterified to their corresponding methyl esters prior to the extraction. Extraction parameters such as type of extracting solvent, temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt addition were studied and optimized. Recommended conditions were extraction solvent, n-tridecane; extraction time, 35 min; extraction temperature, ambient; without addition of salt. Enrichment factors varying from 37 to 115 were achieved. Calibration curves for the nine FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.994) within the range of 10-5000 ?g L(-1). The limit of detection (signal:noise, 3) was 4.73-13.21 ng L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the profiling of the FAs in palm oils (crude, olein, kernel, and carotino cooking oil) and other vegetable oils (soybean, olive, coconut, rice bran and pumpkin). The encouraging enrichments achieved offer an interesting option for the profiling of the minor and major FAs in palm and other vegetable oils. PMID:21081239

  13. Long-term recovery of a Louisiana brackish marsh plant community from oil-spill impact: vegetation response and mitigating effects of marsh surface elevation.

    PubMed

    Hester, M W; Mendelssohn, I A

    2000-04-01

    Oil spills can have significant, short-term, negative impacts on coastal marshes, but the long-term effects and eventual recovery are not well documented, particularly in brackish marshes. The goals of this investigation were to: (1) document the long-term recovery of a Louisiana brackish marsh plant community impacted by a 1985 oil spill; (2) separate the effect of the oil spill on marsh deterioration from ambient rates of marsh deterioration; and (3) assess the relative importance of residual oil in the sediment and decreased marsh surface elevation in the failure of certain areas to recover. A total of 68 permanent plots previously established in 1985 were re-surveyed for plant and soil recovery in the fall of 1989. Although substantial (and near total) vegetative recovery was evident by significant increases in live and total vegetative cover, many of the plots that were initially heavily impacted by oil still displayed elevated levels of total saturated hydrocarbons in the soil. August 1990 measurements of plant photosynthetic response and edaphic variables revealed no significant differences between control plots and plots heavily impacted by oil that displayed vegetative regrowth. Rates of wetland land loss in the oiled marsh during an 8-year period that bracketed the time of the spill were within the historical range measured for this site and similar to the land loss rates of adjacent reference marshes. Results from a manipulative field transplant experiment indicated that the long-term failure of certain small areas to revegetate was primarily due to a decrease of marsh surface elevation (increased flooding stress), not a residual oil effect. PMID:11285728

  14. OXIDATION AND LOW TEMPERATURE STABILITY OF VEGETABLE OIL-BASED LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for environmentally friendly materials that has potential to substitute mineral oil in various industrial applications is currently being considered a top priority research in the fuel and energy sector. This emphasis is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves an...

  15. Purification and Identification of Endogenous and Exogenous Minor Constituents from Vegetable Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Novy S. Kasim; Lien-Huong Huynh; Yi-Hsu Ju

    2012-01-01

    Minor constituents are ubiquitous in plant origin sources, particularly plant derived oils. According to the origins of the minor constituents, factors that are responsible for their occurrence can be categorized into endogenous and exogenous factors. To date, extensive researches have been carried out to separate, purify, identify and analyze them to further asses their value as well as advise their

  16. Determination of Trace Elements in Vegetable Oils and Biodiesel by Atomic Spectrometric Techniques---A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fábio G. Lepri; Eduardo S. Chaves; Mariana A. Vieira; Anderson S. Ribeiro; Adilson J. Curtius; Lígia C. C. DeOliveira; Reinaldo C. DeCampos

    2011-01-01

    The determination of trace elements in edible oils and biodiesel using atomic spectrometric methods is reviewed. Problems related to sample pretreatment for appropriate sample introduction and calibration are addressed as well as the strategies to overcome them. Recent trends aimed at simplifying sample manipulation are presented. The applications and scope of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), flame optical emission spectrometry (F-OES),

  17. Customized system for vegetable oils quality control based on dielectric spectroscopy analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Cannazza; A. Cataldo; E. De Benedetto; E. Piuzzi; F. Attivissimo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a dielectric permittivity measurement system, to be used for quality control of edible oils, is presented. The proposed system relies both on low-frequency and high- frequency measurements (performed through and LCR meter and through a time-domain reflectometer, respectively), thus allowing a \\

  18. Evidence contrary to the accepted Diels-Alder mechanism in the thermal modification of vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A transesterified oleochemical product has been made using two routes. Soybean oil was thermally polymerized anaerobically at 330 deg C. and the material was then transesterified using base catalyst and methanol. Alternatively, a similar product can be obtained by heating methyl linoleate to the sam...

  19. Synchronized Analysis of FTIR Spectra and GCMS Chromatograms for Evaluation of the Thermally Degraded Vegetable Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Irwan Lu, Nurul Aida Lu; Samling, Benedict

    2014-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) are two common instruments used for analysis of edible oils. The output signal is often analysed on the software attached to the workstations. The processing software is usually individualised for a specific source. The output of GCMS cannot be analysed on the FTIR hence analysts often need to juggle between instruments when multiple techniques are employed. This could become exhaustive when a large dataset is involved. This paper reports a synchronised approach for analysis of signal from FTIR and GCMS. The algorithm is demonstrated on a dataset of edible oils to investigate the thermal degradation of seven types of edible oils treated at 100°C and 150°C. The synchronised routines identify peaks present in FTIR and GCMS spectra/chromatograms where the information is subsequently extracted onto peak tables for further analysis. In this study, it is found that palm based products and corn oils were relatively more stable with higher content of antioxidants tocopherols and squalene. As a conclusion, this approach allows simultaneous analysis of signal from multiple sources and samples enhancing the efficiency of the signal processing process. PMID:24563804

  20. Performance evaluation of vegetable-based oils in drilling austenitic stainless steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Belluco; L De Chiffre

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency of six cutting oils was evaluated in drilling AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel using conventional HSS-Co tools by measurements of tool life, tool wear, cutting forces and chip formation. Seven tools were tested with each fluid to catastrophic failure. Cutting forces and chip breaking were recorded for each bore, and tool wear was measured at constant intervals. A

  1. VEGETATIVE REHABILITATION OF ARID LAND DISTURBED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL SHALE AND COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field experiments were established on sites disturbed by exploratory drilling in the oil shale region of northeastern Utah and on disturbed sites on a potential coal mine in south central Utah. Concurrently, greenhouse studies were carried out using soil samples from disturbed si...

  2. Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, VI: Specifications and quality control of biodiesel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Mittelbach

    1996-01-01

    Due to the rising importance of biodiesel as alternative fuel in many countries, it is absolutely necessary to establish standards for the description of the quality of the product. The parameters and the corresponding threshold values defining the quality of rapeseed-oil methyl esters (RME) used as biodiesel according to the latest Austrian standardization (Ö-NORM) are presented and discussed. The difference

  3. Modeling and simulation of the supercritical CO 2 extraction of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Reverchon; C Marrone

    2001-01-01

    The model of broken and intact cells has been applied to the experimental results on oil seed supercritical extraction obtained by various authors and on several species of seeds. The results analyzed are related to various extraction apparatus ranging from very low laboratory scale to pilot plants. Moreover, a wide range of operating conditions has been covered, CO2 flow rates

  4. Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

  5. Study on the thermal degradation of 3-MCPD esters in model systems simulating deodorization of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Ermacora, Alessia; Hrncirik, Karel

    2014-05-01

    The establishment of effective strategies for the mitigation of 3-MCPD esters in refined vegetable oils is restricted by limited knowledge of their mechanisms of formation and decomposition. In order to gain better understanding on the thermal stability of these compounds, a model system for mimicking oil refining conditions was developed. Pure 3-MCPD esters (3-MCPD dipalmitate and 3-MCPD dilaurate) were subjected to thermal treatment (180-260°C) and the degradation products where monitored over time (0-24h). After 24h of treatment, both 3-MCPD esters showed a significant degradation (ranging from 30% to 70%), correlating with the temperature applied. The degradation pathway, similar for both compounds, was found to involve isomerisation (very rapid, equilibrium was reached within 2h at 260°C), dechlorination and deacylation reactions. The higher relative abundance of non-chlorinated compounds, namely acylglycerols, in the first stages of the treatment suggested that dechlorination is preferred over deacylation with the conditions applied in this study. PMID:24360433

  6. Characterization of a novel thermophilic phospholipase B from Thermotoga lettingae TMO: applicability in enzymatic degumming of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Xu, Chunping; Yu, Xuan; Jia, Weiwei; Yang, Kunpeng; Jia, Chunxiao; Mao, Duobin

    2015-04-01

    A novel phospholipase B (TLPLB) from Thermotoga lettingae TMO has been cloned, functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Gas chromatography indicated that the enzyme could efficiently hydrolyze both the sn-1 and sn-2 ester bonds of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine as phospholipase B. TLPLB was optimally active at 70 °C and pH 5.5, respectively. Its thermostability is relatively high with a half-life of 240 min at 90 °C. TLPLB also displayed remarkable organic solvent tolerance and maintained approximately 91-161 % of its initial activity in 20 and 50 % (v/v) hydrophobic organic solvents after incubation for 168 h. Furthermore, TLPLB exhibited high degumming activity towards rapeseed, soybean, peanut and sunflower seed oils, where the phosphorus contents were decreased from 225.2, 189.3, 85.6 and 70.4 mg/kg to 4.9, 4.7, 3.2 and 2.2 mg/kg within 5 h, respectively. TLPLB could therefore be used for the degumming of vegetable oils. PMID:25578305

  7. Antioxidant and sensory properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds that confer health benef...

  8. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from Algeria

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from-Industrielles'', 17042 La Rochelle, France Abstract: Essential oils of thyme (Thymus numidicus (Poiret)) from Algeria.5 minutes of extraction were tested using the filter paper method. Analysis of the essential oil made

  9. Effect of Soot Properties in Diesel Engine Oils on Frictional Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Congmin Liu; Shuzo Nemoto; Satoshi Ogano

    2003-01-01

    Physical and chemical characterizations of soot in diesel engine oils are conducted to investigate the impact of soot properties on friction coefficient between reciprocating rubbing metal surfaces. In SRV friction tests, soot in an engine oil categorized in API CC-4 appeared to act as friction modifiers, since a higher content of soot in the oil caused lower friction, especially in

  10. Combustion of hydrotreated vegetable oil and jatropha methyl ester in a heavy duty engine: emissions and bacterial mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Rosenkranz, Nina; Schröder, Olaf; Schaak, Jens; Pabst, Christoph; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    Research on renewable fuels has to assess possible adverse health and ecological risks as well as conflicts with global food supply. This investigation compares the two newly developed biogenic diesel fuels hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) with fossil diesel fuel (DF) and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) for their emissions and bacterial mutagenic effects. Samples of exhaust constituents were compared after combustion in a Euro III heavy duty diesel engine. Regulated emissions were analyzed as well as particle size and number distributions, carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and bacterial mutagenicity of the exhausts. Combustion of RME and JME resulted in lower particulate matter (PM) compared to DF and HVO. Particle numbers were about 1 order of magnitude lower for RME and JME. However, nitrogen oxides (NOX) of RME and JME exceeded the Euro III limit value of 5.0 g/kWh, while HVO combustion produced the smallest amount of NOX. RME produced the lowest emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) followed by JME. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several other carbonyls were found in the emissions of all investigated fuels. PAH emissions and mutagenicity of the exhausts were generally low, with HVO revealing the smallest number of mutations and lowest PAH emissions. Each fuel showed certain advantages or disadvantages. As proven before, both biodiesel fuels produced increased NOX emissions compared to DF. HVO showed significant toxicological advantages over all other fuels. Since jatropha oil is nonedible and grows in arid regions, JME may help to avoid conflicts with the food supply worldwide. Hydrogenated jatropha oil should now be investigated if it combines the benefits of both new fuels. PMID:23647143

  11. Main fatty acid classes in vegetable oils by SB-ATR-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. H. Sherazi; M. Younis Talpur; S. A. Mahesar; Aftab A. Kandhro; Sarfraz Arain

    2009-01-01

    The prospect of using single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a rapid quantitative tool to determine the main fatty acid groups present in different edible oils was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS) calibrations were developed using SB-ATR-FTIR spectra which were associated with fatty acid groups (saturated, trans, mono- and polyunsaturated) using quantitative data obtained by

  12. Effects of an Oil Spill on the Regrowth of Emergent Vegetation in a Northern Alberta Lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara G. Wernick; Adrian M. H. deBruyn; Luanne Patterson; Peter M. Chapman

    2009-01-01

    Following a train derailment in August 2005, Wabamun Lake (Alberta, Canada) was exposed to ~149,500 L of bunker “C” oil, much\\u000a of which became entrained in the abundant Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus validus) beds in the eastern basin of the lake. We assessed the regrowth of emergent macrophytes during the subsequent two growing\\u000a seasons. Postspill measures of productivity, including transect length, total

  13. Progress report Idaho on-road test with vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Biodiesel is among many biofuels being considered in the US for alternative fueled vehicles. The use of this fuel can reduce US dependence on imported oil and help improve air quality by reducing gaseous and particulate emissions. Researchers at the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University of Idaho have pioneered rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Although UI has conducted many laboratory and tractor tests using raw rapeseed oil and rape methyl ester (RME), these fuels have not been proven viable for on-road applications. A biodiesel demonstration project has been launched to show the use of biodiesel in on-road vehicles. Two diesel powered pickups are being tested on 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent diesel. One is a Dodge 3/4-ton pickup powered by a Cummins 5.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled engine. This engine is direct injected and is being run on 20 percent RME and 80 percent diesel. The other pickup is a Ford, powered by a Navistar 7.3 liter, naturally aspirated engine. This engine has a precombustion chamber and is being operated on 20 percent raw rapeseed oil and 80 percent diesel. The engines themselves are unmodified, but modifications have been made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. In order to give maximum vehicle range, fuel mixing is done on-board. Two tanks are provided, one for the diesel and one for the biodiesel. Electric fuel pumps supply fuel to a combining chamber for correct proportioning. The biodiesel fuel tanks are heated with a heat exchanger which utilizes engine coolant circulation.

  14. Oxidative stability of vegetable oils as affected by sesame extracts during accelerated oxidative storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel A. Abdelazim; Awad Mahmoud; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan-Hassanien

    In vitro antioxidant activities and protective effects of sesame cake extract in stabilising sunflower and soybean oils were\\u000a tested. Total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents in the extract of sesame cake were 1.94?±?0.02 (mg gallic acid equivalent\\u000a (GAE) g?1 dry weight (DW)), 0.88?±?0.02 (mg quercetin equivalent (QE) g?1 DW), and 0.40?±?0.02 (mg QE g?1 DW), respectively. Protective effects of sesame

  15. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Bünger; Jürgen Krahl; Axel Munack; Yvonne Ruschel; Olaf Schröder; Birgit Emmert; Götz Westphal; Michael Müller; Ernst Hallier; Thomas Brüning

    2007-01-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to\\u000a reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable\\u000a reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed\\u000a oil as fuel

  16. Effects of Plant Essential Oils and Oil Compounds on Mechanical, Barrier and Antimicrobial Properties of Alginate-Apple Puree Edible Films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated mechanical, barrier and antimicrobial properties of 0.1-0.5% suspensions of the following essential oils (EOs)/oil compounds (OCs) against the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 in alginate-apple puree edible film (AAPEF): oregano oil/carvacrol; cinnamon oil/cinnamaldehyde; and...

  17. Corrosion properties of bio-oil and its emulsions with diesel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Lu; Jian Zhang; XiFeng Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Bio-oil is a new liquid fuel but very acidic. In this study, bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk and two bio-oil\\/diesel emulsions\\u000a with bio-oil concentrations of 10 wt% and 30 wt% were prepared. Tests were carried out to determine their corrosion properties\\u000a to four metals of aluminum, brass, mild steel and stainless steel at different temperatures. Weight loss of the metals

  18. Effects of ?-Tocopherol on Oxidative Stability and Phytosterol Oxidation During Heating in Some Regular and High-Oleic Vegetable Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elham Tabee; Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi; Margaretha Jägerstad; Paresh C. Dutta

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study evaluated oxidative stability in high-oleic rapeseed oil, palm olein, refined olive oil, low\\u000a erucic acid rapeseed oil and sunflower oil. The results showed oxidative stability in the order: palm olein > high-oleic rapeseed\\u000a oil > refined olive oil > low erucic acid rapeseed oil > sunflower oil, as determined by the Rancimat method. Addition of\\u000a ?-tocopherol at high levels of up to

  19. Detection of Salt Marsh Vegetation Stress after the Deepwater Horizon BP Oil Spill Along the Shoreline of Gulf of Mexico Using Aviris Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S.; Ustin, S.; Hestir, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal wetlands and aquatic environments are highly productive ecosystems that are rich in biodiversity. They also provide critically important habitat for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, many of which have significant economic and recreational importance. The United States Gulf of Mexico coastline is riddled with oil wells (~50,000 wells of which ~30,000 are decommissioned or abandoned), that are subject to frequent oil spills. Oil spills have both short-term and long-term detrimental effects on the coastal environment. Brackish and salt marshes are among the most vulnerable of coastal ecosystems to oil spill impacts because oil tends to have a much longer residence time in marches compared to other environments. Remote sensing has been used extensively to directly map the oil and indirectly to detect wetland plant stress in oil spill impact zones. Using AVIRIS hyperspectral data flown over the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill in July and September of 2010, we tested if oil had any impact on the health of the wetland plant community. Two difference indices, NDVI and NDI, two angle indices, ANIR and ARed, and two continuum removals over water absorption bands, all showed that oiled shoreline index values were significantly lower than that from unoiled shoreline in September. The impact was significant at least 10-12m inland from the shoreline. In the July dataset, the effect of oil stress was not as pronounced. A comparison of the green vegetation fraction between July and September showed no significant difference indicating that there was no significant loss of wetland area between July and September. This study illustrates the use of hyperspectral remote sensing in detecting ecosystem stress and monitoring recovery after a catastrophic event such as an oil spill.

  20. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huemmrich, Karl F.; Gamon, John; Tweedie, Craig; Campbell, Petya K.; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013+/-0.001, 0.0018+/-0.0002, and 0.0012+/-0.0001 mol C/mol absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals.

  1. Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

  2. Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene in Vegetable Oils Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid Phase Extraction (MISPE) Coupled with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    PubMed Central

    Pschenitza, Michael; Hackenberg, Rudolf; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase extraction (MISPE) method coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in vegetable oils. Different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using non-covalent 4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene co-polymerization at different ratios and dichloromethane as porogen. Imprinting was done with a template mixture of phenanthrene and pyrene yielding a broad-specific polymer for PAHs with a maximum binding capacity (Q) of ?32 ?g B[a]P per 50 mg of polymer. The vegetable oil/n-hexane mixture (1:1, (v/v)) was pre-extracted with acetonitrile, the solvent evaporated, the residue reconstituted in n-hexane and subjected to MISPE. The successive washing with n-hexane and isopropanol revealed most suitable to remove lipid matrix constituents. After elution of bound PAHs from MISPE column with dichloromethane, the solvent was evaporated, the residue reconstituted with dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted 100-fold with methanol/water (10:90, (v/v)) for analysis of B[a]P equivalents with an ELISA. The B[a]P recovery rates in spiked vegetable oil samples of different fatty acid composition were determined between 63% and 114%. The presence of multiple PAHs in the oil sample, because of MIP selectivity and cross-reactivity of the ELISA, could yield overestimated B[a]P values. PMID:24887045

  3. Preparation and properties of copper-oil-based nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by surface modification method to improve their dispersion stability in hydrophobic organic media. The oil-based nanofluids were prepared with the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles. The transport properties, viscosity, and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids have been measured. The viscosities and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids with the surface-modified nanoparticles have higher values than the base fluids do. The composition has more significant effects on the thermal conductivity than on the viscosity. It is valuable to prepare an appropriate oil-based nanofluid for enhancing the heat-transfer capacity of a hydrophobic system. The effects of adding Cu nanoparticles on the thermal oxidation stability of the fluids were investigated by measuring the hydroperoxide concentration in the Cu/kerosene nanofluids. The hydroperoxide concentrations are observed to be clearly lower in the Cu nanofluids than in their base fluids. Appropriate amounts of metal nanoparticles added in a hydrocarbon fuel can enhance the thermal oxidation stability. PMID:21711900

  4. Production of cocoa butter-like fat from interesterification of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-K. Chang; G. Abraham; V. T. John

    1990-01-01

    Cocoa butter-like fat was prepared from completely hydrogenated cottonseed and olive oils by enzymatic interesterification.\\u000a The optimum reaction time to produce the major-component of cocoa butter, 1(3)-palmitoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-2-monoolein (POS),\\u000a was 4 hr. The cocoa butter-like fat was isolated from the reaction mixture by two filtration steps. The yield of cocoa butter-like\\u000a fat was 19%, based on the weight of the original

  5. Modeling the flow resistance of woody vegetation using physically based properties of the foliage and stem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Västilä, Kaisa; Järvelä, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Both the foliage and stem essentially influence the flow resistance of woody plants, but their different biomechanical properties complicate the parameterization of foliated vegetation for modeling. This paper investigates whether modeling of flow resistance caused by natural woody vegetation can be improved using explicit description of both the foliage and stem. For this purpose, we directly measured the drag forces of Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Salix viminalis, and Salix x rubens twigs in a laboratory flume at four foliation levels, parameterized with the leaf-area-to-stem-area ratio AL/AS. The species differed in the foliage drag but had approximately equal stem drag. For the foliated twigs, increasing AL/AS was found to increase the reconfiguration and the share of the foliage drag to the total drag. The experiments provided new insight into the factors governing the flow resistance of natural woody vegetation and allowed us to develop a model for estimating the vegetative friction factor using the linear superposition of the foliage and stem drag. The model is novel in that the foliage and stem are separately described with physically based parameters: drag coefficients, reconfiguration parameters, and leaf area and frontal-projected stem area per ground area. The model could satisfactorily predict the flow resistance of twig to sapling-sized specimens of the investigated species at velocities of 0.05-1 m/s. As a further benefit, the model allows exploring the variability in drag and reconfiguration associated with differing abundance of the foliage in relation to the stem.

  6. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. PMID:20060714

  7. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. PMID:25766816

  8. Correlation between electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Juliusz B.; G?ogowski, Marek J.; Paszkowski, Maciej; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogus?awa

    2011-06-01

    In this paper the results are presented of measurements of electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils. Oils were used in a four-stroke aircraft engine and their samples were taken after the 50-hour work of the engine. The resistivity, permittivity and viscosity of oils were measured as a function of temperature. Additionally, some measurements of the absorbance spectra and size of particles contained in the oils were carried out. The significant reduction in the resistivity of the used Total oil was observed. The relative permittivity of both used oils was slightly increased. The oil's relative viscosity depends on temperature of oil and given time that elapsed from the very first moment when the shear force was applied in a rheometer. The results obtained allowed one to identify more precisely the chemical and physico-chemical interactions occurring in the tested samples, as compared with a typical infrared spectroscopy.

  9. A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry methodology for the determination of non-protein amino acids in vegetable oils as novel markers for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Marina, Maria Luisa; Crego, Antonio L

    2011-07-29

    A new analytical methodology based on capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS(2)) is presented in this work, enabling the identification and determination of six non-protein amino acids (ornithine, ?-alanine, GABA, alloisoleucine, citrulline and pyroglutamic acid) in vegetable oils. This methodology is based on a previous derivatization with butanol and subsequent separation using acidic conditions followed by on-line coupling to an ion trap analyzer for MS(2) detection established through an electrospray-coaxial sheath flow interface. The electrophoretic and interface parameters were optimized obtaining the separation of all compounds in less than 15 min and with resolutions higher than 5. The proposed method was validated by assessing its accuracy, precision (RSD<7% for corrected peak areas), LODs and LOQs (between 0.04-0.19 ng/g and 0.06-0.31 ng/g, respectively) and linearity range (R(2)>0.99), and it was used in order to identify the selected non-protein amino acids in soybean oils, sunflower oils, corn oils and extra virgin olive oils. MS(2) experiments performed the fingerprint fragmentation of these compounds allowing to corroborate ornithine and alloisoleucine in seed oils but not in olive oils. The method was applied to identify and quantify olive oil adulterations with soybean oil detecting in a single run the amino acids in mixtures up to 2% (w/w). The results showed a high potential in using these compounds as novel markers for the detection of adulterations of extra virgin olive oils with seed oils. Thus, the developed method could be considered a simple, rapid and reliable method for the quality evaluation of extra virgin olive oil permitting its authentication. PMID:21306720

  10. Influence of Epicuticular Physicochemical Properties on Porcine Rotavirus Adsorption to 24 Leafy Green Vegetables and Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Salgado, Sindy Paola; Storm, Andrew Page; Feng, Hao; Juvik, John A.; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are a persistent problem in the United States and worldwide. Fresh produce, especially those used as raw foods like salad vegetables, can be contaminated, causing illness. In this study, we determined the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on produce surfaces using group A porcine rotaviruses and 24 cultivars of leafy vegetables and tomato fruits. We also characterized the physicochemical properties of each produce’s outermost surface layer, known as the epicuticle. The number of rotaviruses found on produce surfaces varied among cultivars. Three-dimensional crystalline wax structures on the epicuticular surfaces were found to significantly contribute to the inhibition of viral adsorption to the produce surfaces (p = 0.01). We found significant negative correlations between the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on the epicuticular surfaces and the concentrations of alkanes, fatty acids, and total waxes on the epicuticular surfaces. Partial least square model fitting results suggest that alkanes, ketones, fatty acids, alcohols, contact angle and surface roughness together can explain 60% of the variation in viral adsorption. The results suggest that various fresh produce surface properties need to be collectively considered for efficient sanitation treatments. Up to 10.8% of the originally applied rotaviruses were found on the produce surfaces after three washing treatments, suggesting a potential public health concern regarding rotavirus contamination. PMID:26181904

  11. Main fatty acid classes in vegetable oils by SB-ATR-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sherazi, S T H; Talpur, M Younis; Mahesar, S A; Kandhro, Aftab A; Arain, Sarfraz

    2009-12-15

    The prospect of using single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a rapid quantitative tool to determine the main fatty acid groups present in different edible oils was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS) calibrations were developed using SB-ATR-FTIR spectra which were associated with fatty acid groups (saturated, trans, mono- and polyunsaturated) using quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography (GC). Good calibrations were obtained for all main four fat groups (saturated, mono, trans and polyunsaturated) with excellent precision. The coefficient of determination (R(2)), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias for validation set were obtained as 0.999, 2.43 and 0.998 for saturated; 0.999, 1.850 and 0.003 for mono; 0.999, 0.625 and -0.001 for trans while for poly the values were 0.999, 1.170 and 0.003, respectively. The results of 13 validation samples for total saturated, mono, trans and polyunsaturated fats by FI-IR were found in the range of 8.16-55.16, 37.62-74.75, 0.20-18.16 and 1.36-62.35%, respectively. The present study shows that it may well be possible to expand the utility of SB-ATR-FTIR spectroscopy not only to provide isolated trans data, but also serve as a simple, rapid and quantitative means of categorizing the main groups present in the edible oils. The information obtained would be useful for meeting the new lipid nutritional labeling requirements. PMID:19836526

  12. Estimation of effective hydrologic properties of soils from observations of vegetation density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellers, T. E.; Eagleson, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of the annual water balance is reviewed. Improvements are made in the method of calculating the bare soil component of evaporation, and in the way surface retention is handled. A natural selection hypothesis, which specifies the equilibrium vegetation density for a given, water limited, climate soil system, is verified through comparisons with observed data. Comparison of CDF's of annual basin yield derived using these soil properties with observed CDF's provides verification of the soil-selection procedure. This method of parameterization of the land surface is useful with global circulation models, enabling them to account for both the nonlinearity in the relationship between soil moisture flux and soil moisture concentration, and the variability of soil properties from place to place over the Earth's surface.

  13. Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

    2014-01-01

    The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers. PMID:24300845

  14. Fuel properties of oil from genetically altered Cuphea viscosissima

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Geller; John W. Goodrum; Steven J. Knapp

    1999-01-01

    A genetically altered plant strain (Cuphea viscosissima VS-320) was identified which produces an oil with elevated levels of medium- and short-chain triglycerides. Previous studies have suggested that such an oil may be appropriate for use as a substitute for diesel fuel without chemical conversion of component triglycerides to methyl esters. This oil is also of interest for other industrial applications.

  15. Properties of South African fish oils: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrianus J de Koning

    1999-01-01

    This review records original research done at the Fishing Industry Research Institute (FIRI) Programme on crude fish oils since 1985. This work has led to a better understanding of all the variables that determine fish oil quality. It has been shown that while high free fatty acid (FFA) contents in fish oils are due to spoilage of the fish prior

  16. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhusita Wannissorn; Siripen Jarikasem; Thammathad Siriwangchai; Sirinun Thubthimthed

    2005-01-01

    By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha

  17. EFFECT OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURES ON DEVELOPMENT OF TOCOPHEROLQUINONES IN OILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quinones including tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), rosmariquinone and tocopherolquinones (TOCQ) are of interest because of their antioxidant properties. However, few studies have reported the isolation and quantification of TOCQ in heated vegetable oils. Studies were conducted to determine the ...

  18. A review of bio-oils from waste biomass: Focus on fish processing waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Punyama Jayasinghe; Kelly Hawboldt

    Biofuels are derived from biomass using biochemical, thermochemical, and physical and chemical extraction processes. Waste oils from animal and vegetable sources continue to be important biomass feedstock due to the potential benefits over petroleum and some of the virgin vegetable oil based fuels. In this paper, the chemical, thermal, and physical properties of biofuels derived from virgin and waste sources

  19. Effects of enhanced consumption of fruit and vegetables on plasma antioxidant status and oxidative resistance of LDL in smokers supplemented with fish oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W G Roberts; M H Gordon; A F Walker

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether consumption of five portions of fruit and vegetables per day reduces the enhancement of oxidative stress induced by consumption of fish oil.Subjects: A total of 18 free-living healthy smoking volunteers, aged 18–63 y, were recruited by posters and e-mail in The University of Reading, and by leaflets in local shops.Design: A prospective study.Setting: Hugh Sinclair Unit

  20. Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of Diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Rakopoulos; K. A. Antonopoulos; D. C. Rakopoulos; D. T. Hountalas; E. G. Giakoumis

    2006-01-01

    An extended experimental study is conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various Diesel fuel supplements at blend ratios of 10\\/90 and 20\\/80, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, direct injection (DI), Ricardo\\/Cussons ‘Hydra’ Diesel engine located at the authors’ laboratory. More specifically, a high variety of vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins are tested as supplements,