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1

Electrical properties of vegetable oil-impregnated paper insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution presents results from testing electrical properties of transformer paper-insulation with vegetable oil as paper impregnant. Investigations have been made with two kinds of typically used pressboard materials in power transformers. More precise, pressboards of type T I and T IV manufactured by Weidmann Transformerboard Systems AG were impregnated with an oxidation resistant biodegradable rape-seed oil. Tests included determination

M. Hemmer; R. Badent; T. Leibfried

2003-01-01

2

Survey of Straight Vegetable Oil Composition Impact on Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of straight vegetable oil (SVO) in internal combustion engines has shown conflicting results in emissions, power, and engine longevity. Many early studies suggested that SVO should not be considered for long term use in diesel engines. However, waste vegetable oil has been fueling adapted vehicles in progressive communities for years. The issues involved in the combustion of SVO

Syndi L. Nettles-Anderson; Daniel B. Olsen

3

Modification of thermal and oxidative properties of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans esterification of three vegetable oils, sunflower oil, linseed oil and mixed oils as; sunflower- soyabean and olein were carried out using methanol, and potasium hydroxide as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol and characterized by physical-chemical methods to evaluate their thermal properties. This methods are determination of densities, cloud points, pour

G. El Diwani; S. El Rafie

4

Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

2008-07-01

5

Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity. PMID:24144052

Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

2013-08-15

6

Chemical Modification of Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil to Improve its Functional Properties for Candles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO) has recently been used to make vegetable oil-based candles. However, its use is\\u000a limited primarily to container candles because of its inherent physical properties, such as brittleness when a hard material\\u000a is produced, and greasiness when it is soft by low degree of hydrogenation. Such material lacks the most desired cohesiveness\\u000a and elasticity compared to

Liping Wang; Tong Wang

2007-01-01

7

Novel polymeric materials from vegetable oils and vinyl monomers: preparation, properties, and applications.  

PubMed

Veggie-based products: Vegetable-oil-based polymeric materials, prepared by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations, range from soft rubbers to ductile or rigid plastics, and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. They display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and may find promising applications as alternatives to petroleum-based polymers.Vegetable oils are considered to be among the most promising renewable raw materials for polymers, because of their ready availability, inherent biodegradability, and their many versatile applications. Research on and development of vegetable oil based polymeric materials, including thermosetting resins, biocomposites, and nanocomposites, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This Minireview focuses on the latest developments in the preparation, properties, and applications of vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations. The novel vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained range from soft rubbery materials to ductile or rigid plastics and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. These vegetable oil based polymeric materials display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and should find useful applications as alternatives to their petroleum-based counterparts. PMID:19180601

Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

2009-01-01

8

Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluents to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are being sought. Twenty four vegetable oils were screened using glycerol tris (2-ethylhexanoate) [GTEH] as a diluent to improve the low temperature properties. Epoxidized soybean oil (E...

9

Relationships derived from physical properties of vegetable oil and biodiesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to estimate mathematical relationships between higher heating value (HHV) and viscosity, density or flash point measurements of various biodiesel fuels. The HHV is an important property defining the energy content and thereby efficiency of fuels, such as vegetable oils and biodiesels. The biodiesels were characterized for their physical and main fuel properties including viscosity,

Ayhan Demirbas

2008-01-01

10

Vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

11

Tribological Properties of Vegetable Oils Modified by Reaction with Butanethiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn, canola, and castor-lauric estolide oils were chemically modified by photochemical direct reaction of butanethiol with\\u000a the double bonds on the hydrocarbon chains. The effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index (VI), pour\\u000a point (PP), cloud point (CP), oxidation stability (RPVOT), 4-ball anti-wear (AW), and extreme pressure (EP) were investigated.\\u000a The sulfide modified (SM) corn and canola oils showed

Girma BiresawGrigor; Grigor B. Bantchev; Steven C. Cermak

2011-01-01

12

Tribological properties of vegetable oils modified by reaction with Butanethiol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn, canola and castor-lauric estolide oils were chemically modified by direct reaction of butanethiol with the double bonds on the hydrocarbon chains. The effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index (VI), pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), oxidation stability (OS), rotating pres...

13

Polyurethanes from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are excellent but very heterogeneous renewable raw materials for polyols and polyurethanes. This review discusses the specific nature of vegetable oils and the effect of their structures on the structure of polyols and polyurethanes. One section is dedicated to polyols for rigid and flexible foams and methods of their preparation such as direct oxidation of oils, epoxidation followed

Zoran S. Petrovi?

2008-01-01

14

Vegetable oils as core of cationic polymeric nanocapsules: influence on the physicochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils might be alternatives to mineral or synthetic oils used in nanostructured systems for cutaneous application, due to their advantages with regard to skin care and protection. In this study, we propose the use of vegetable oils (Brazil nut, sunflower seed, olive, rose hip, grape seed and carrot oils) as oily core of Eudragit RS100® nanocapsules and determine their

Renata V. Contri; Kênia L. F. Ribeiro; Luana A. Fiel; Adriana R. Pohlmann; Silvia S. Guterres

2012-01-01

15

Modification of vegetable oils. XIV. Properties of aceto-oleins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Pure 1,2-diaceto-3-olein was prepared by acetylating mono-olein. A mixture of aceto-oleins was prepared by acetylating a mixture\\u000a of mono-, di-, and trioleins derived from commercial oleic acid. Several natural oils were acetylated either by ester-ester\\u000a interchange with triacetin or by glycerolysis followed by acetylation. The various products were examined for cloud and solid\\u000a points, point of complete melting, and consistency.

R. O. Feuge; Audrey T. Gros; E. J. Vicknair

1953-01-01

16

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS: BIO-BASED LUBRICANTS AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poor oxidative and low temperature stability is considered to be the most critical problems for vegetable oil-based lubricants. These problems can only be partially relieved by lubricant additives, thus vegetable oils have to be modified. In this study, a series of structural modifications of vege...

17

Physical and chemical properties of trans -free fats produced by chemical interesterification of vegetable oil blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat blends, formulated by mixing a highly saturated fat (palm stearin or fully hydrogenated soybean oil) with a native vegetable\\u000a oil (soybean oil) in different ratios from 10:90 to 75:25 (wt%), were subjected to chemical interesterification reactions\\u000a on laboratory scale (0.2% sodium methoxide catalyst, time=90 min, temperature=90°C). Starting and interesterified blends were\\u000a investigated for triglyceride composition, solid fat content, free

V. Petrauskaite; W. De Greyt; M. Kellens; A. Huyghebaert

1998-01-01

18

Vegetable oil fuels: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production

Filiz Karaosmanoglu

1999-01-01

19

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

20

Key properties and blending strategies of hydrotreated vegetable oil as biofuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrotreating catalysis is becoming a promising alternative to transesterification for the production of biofuels derived from vegetable oils. They have potential advantages with respect to both biodiesel fuels and petroleum-derived diesel fuels in terms of production costs, engine emissions and adaptability to current engine designs, but they have also some limitations which may restrict their capability to replace diesel fuels.

Magín Lapuerta; Monserrat Villajos; John R. Agudelo; André L. Boehman

2011-01-01

21

Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluent to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are under development. Increased utilization of glycerol would help biodiesel producers to become more competitive and viable. Lubricants based on vegetable oils generally suffer from po...

22

Vegetable Oils: Liquid Coolants for Solar Heating and Cooling Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils s...

H. A. Ingley

1980-01-01

23

Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil

Zongqiang GONG; Peijun LI; B. M. Wilke; Kassem Alef

2008-01-01

24

Bacterial Degradation of Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following initial experiments presented elsewhere (2IOPS), the bacterial degradation of two vegetable oils was investigated in some detail. the number of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria, oil degrading and sulphate reducing bacteria were quantified during simulated spills on a salt marsh. the sediment fatty acid composition was also studied using GC-MS analysis. Degradation of linseed and sunflower oils was concomitant

M. Gloria Pereira; Stephen M. Mudge; John Latchford

1998-01-01

25

Pancreatic lipolysis of some brominated vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic lipolysis of several commercially used brominated vegetable oils has shown that although hydrolysis proceeds more\\u000a slowly, these oils are degraded in a similar way to the common vegetable oils.

H. B. S. Conacher; D. K. J. Hartman; R. K. Chadha

1970-01-01

26

Vegetable oils: Liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, were investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. Several thermophysical properties of four vegetable oils were investigated. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybeans, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were

H. A. Ingley

1980-01-01

27

Chemical and physical properties of butterfat-vegetable oil blend spread prepared with enzymatically transesterified canola oil and caprylic acid.  

PubMed

Structured Lipid was synthesized from canola oil and caprylic acid with sn-1,3 specific lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Cold spreadable butter was made by blending butterfat with the SL at a weight ratio of 80:20. Its chemical and physical properties were compared with pure butter and butterfat-canola oil 80:20 blend spread. The butterfat-SL blend had lower contents of hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (FAs) and the lowest atherogenic index (AI) as compared to the others. Melting and crystallization behaviors of butterfat-SL blend were similar to those of butterfat-canola oil blend above 0 degrees C. It showed solid fat contents (SFCs) similar to butterfat-canola oil blend but lower than pure butterfat. The butterfat-SL blend was shown to crystallize in the beta' form. There were no differences between the hardness of butterfat-SL blend spread and butterfat-canola oil blend spread. Rheological analysis showed that butterfat-SL blend spread lost its elastic behavior at 5 degrees C, a lower temperature than pure butter. PMID:15941341

Kim, Byung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C

2005-06-15

28

Preparation of modified fats from vegetable oil and fully hydrogenated vegetable oil by randomization with alkali catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomization of fat blends, formulated by mixing vegetable oil with fully hydrogenated vegetable oil in various ratios, using alkali catalysts, have been investigated. The relationship between the structure and physical properties was examined. The fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of each original fat blend and the randomization products together with the physical properties such as melting, crystallization characteristics and solid

Štefan Schmidt; Silvia Hurtová; Jaroslav Zemanovi?; Stanislav Sekretár; Peter Šimon; Paul Ainsworth

1996-01-01

29

Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

30

VEGETABLE OIL-BASED SUNSCREENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have developed an environmentally friendly method for making ultraviolet (UV) absorbing lipids by enzymatically esterifying vegetable oil with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is a compound of the cinnamon family that is found in oat, rice, and corn bran, and occurs naturally in our food supply. The ...

31

Diesel fuels from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification.

A. W. Schwab; M. O. Bagby; B. Freedman

1986-01-01

32

The use of antioxidants in vegetable oils - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shelf life of vegetable oils in food uses and their applicability in industrial situations is greatly dependent on their oxidative stabilities. Methods of improving oxidative stability values currently available include genetic modifications, compositional changes via chemical means, as well as the inhibition of oxidation by means of substances known as antioxidants. This paper reviews the properties of vegetable oils

Emmanuel O. Aluyor; Mudiakeoghene Ori-Jesu

2008-01-01

33

Vegetable oil-based lubricants—A review of oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are being investigated as a potential source of environmentally favourable lubricants, due to a combination of biodegradability, renewability and excellent lubrication performance. Low oxidation and thermal stability, poor low-temperature properties and narrow range of available viscosities, however, limit their potential application as industrial lubricants. This review addresses oxidation as a limitation of vegetable oil-based lubricants. The basic mechanism

N. J. Fox; G. W. Stachowiak

2007-01-01

34

Lubrication Properties of Vegetable Oils Combined with Boric Acid and Determination of Their Effects on Wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubrication is essential in increasing a mechanical component's service duration and minimizing wear. Though synthetic and petrol-based oils are generally used in lubricants today, natural oils which are environment-friendly, biologically decomposable, and whose waste does not give harm to the environment have also begun to be used as lubricants recently thanks to an increasing awareness of the environment. In the

H. Düzcüko?lu; M. Acaro?lu

2009-01-01

35

TRIBOLOGICAL AND OXIDATION PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED VEGETABLE OILS AS LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to unfavorable impact on the environment by mineral oil based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the demand for biodegradable, environment friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegeta...

36

Modification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a An investigation has been made of the composition of mixtures of mono-, di-, and triglycerides formed by the reaction of hydrogenated\\u000a cottonseed oil with glycerol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a At temperatures below about 200?C., at equilibrium, and within the range of glycerol concentration in which the reaction product\\u000a becomes homogeneus, the proportions of free

R. O. Feuge; A. E. Bailey

1946-01-01

37

Modification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. Selective hydrogenation, followed by fractional crystallization from a solvent, has been used to prepare from cottonseed\\u000a oil a hard butter, very similar to cocoa butter.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The new product differs somewhat in composition from cocoa butter, due to an unavoidable content of iso-oleic acid.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. Examination of the new product by a micropenetration technique, by a standard solidification test,

E. A. Kraemer; B. A. Smith; A. E. Bailey

1943-01-01

38

Melting and Crystalline Properties of Enzyme Catalysed Interesterified Vegetable Oil–Soapstock Fatty Acid Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distilled fatty acids from Egyptian waste soapstock were blended with cottonseed or olive oils and interesterified via pancreatic lipase. The reaction was conducted at 55 °C for 10 h to reach equilibrium at which point 45% interesterification was accomplished. The specificity of 1,3 lipase was apparently reduced by the acid environment of the interesterification reaction. Acyl migration was observed among

David J. Sessa; William E. Neff; Gary R. List; M. A. M. Zeitoun

1996-01-01

39

Effect of Shear Rate and Temperature on Rheological Properties of Vegetable Based Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum oil has been the raw material for over 90% of hydraulic fluid. Limitations of this base material in the aspect of non-renewable, not environmental friendly and its sustainability in the future have prompted a search for more stable and environmentally friendly alternatives. This article presents rheological aspects of hydraulic fluid derived from bio-based material when used as hydraulic fluid.

W. B. Wan Nik; S. G. Eng Giap; H. B. Senin; K. H. Ku Bulat

2007-01-01

40

Wax Esters of Vegetable Oil Fatty Acids Useful as Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wax esters are prepared entirely from acids obtained from hydrogenated vegetable oils. Fatty alcohols, prepared by hydrogenolysis of the fatty acids, are esterified with the fatty acids to yield the wax esters. These esters have properties similar to thos...

E. W. Bell

1978-01-01

41

Vegetable oils for liquid-filled transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several billion litres of transformer oil are used in transformers worldwide. To meet the challenges posed by environmental concerns, fully biodegradable vegetable oils have been developed for use in electrical equipment, particularly in transformers. Against this background the author discusses the development of vegetable oils for transformer use, their biodegradability, decomposition products, functional life test, fire hazard tests and the

T. V. Oommen

2002-01-01

42

Fuel properties of cottonseed oil  

SciTech Connect

The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-11-01

43

VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The uncertainty in petroleum supply along with pollution and environmental health concerns is making a way for vegetable oils to be used as fuel and lubricants. The vegetable oils have some advantages like naturally renewable resource, environmentally safe, good lubricity and viscosity-temperature ...

44

Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications  

SciTech Connect

It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils selected. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybean, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination. (MHR)

Ingley, H A

1980-02-01

45

Vegetable oils: Liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, were investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. Several thermophysical properties of four vegetable oils were investigated. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybeans, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination.

Ingley, H. A.

1980-02-01

46

SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATIONS OF BIOCATALYTICALLY DERIVED UV ABSORBING VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New and expanded markets are needed for commodity vegetable oils as a result of their over production. New uses for these oils can be applied once they have been modified to enhance their functional (physical/chemical) properties. Cost-effective and environmentally benign processing technologies m...

47

Thermal diffusivity measurements in vegetable oils with thermal lens technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a thermal lensing experimental setup the thermal properties of several vegetable oils were obtained. The samples were oils from Amazonian species and olive (the popular identifications are piqui, copaiba, buriti, and babaçu). The two lasers mismatched mode experimental configuration was used, with a He-Ne laser as the probe and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The time resolved

J. Bernal-Alvarado; A. M. Mansanares; E. C. da Silva; S. G. C. Moreira

2003-01-01

48

Laboratory continuous deodorizer for vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale continuous deodorizer, based on a modified Snyder distillation column, was constructed and tested for the\\u000a deodorization of alkali-refined and bleached vegetable oils. Soybean oil extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide and without\\u000a further processing also was deodorized to a finished edible oil. Results of taste panel evaluations of the finished oils show\\u000a that the quality of oils deodorized over

E. D. Bitner; J. P. Friedrich; T. L. Mounts

1986-01-01

49

Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

50

Environmentally Friendly Products Based on Vegetable Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scope of this work was to study and develop new methods and processes for the production of vegetable oil esters as raw materials in the manufacture of biodegradable lubricants and solvents. Different esters were produced either chemically or enzymati...

M. Laemsae

1995-01-01

51

19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings...

2009-04-01

52

19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings...

2013-04-01

53

19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings...

2010-04-01

54

Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

55

Thermal properties for vegetation cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

2011-12-01

56

Thermal diffusivity measurements in vegetable oils with thermal lens technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a thermal lensing experimental setup the thermal properties of several vegetable oils were obtained. The samples were oils from Amazonian species and olive (the popular identifications are piqui, copaiba, buriti, and babaçu). The two lasers mismatched mode experimental configuration was used, with a He-Ne laser as the probe and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The time resolved spectra were measured using an automatic system, and fitting the aberrant theoretical model to the data, the characteristic relaxation time were obtained, and knowing this value, the thermal property of each oil was solved.

Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Mansanares, A. M.; da Silva, E. C.; Moreira, S. G. C.

2003-01-01

57

Recovery of Gasoline Range Fuels from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, interest has been focused on gasoline-rich engine fuel production from renewable sources. Possible acceptable recycling and re-refining processes of vegetable oils are cracking and pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a common practice and an effective method for recycling waste disposal. The properties of an important part of the liquid products obtained from catalytic pyrolysis are similar to gasoline. Compared

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

58

NEW USES OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States produces more than 18 billion pounds of soybean oil (SBO) annually with a yearly carryover of more than 300 million pounds. How to utilize this surplus oil effectively becomes a big issue in the agricultural community. SBO is a relatively cheap raw material at 22 to 25 cents per ...

59

Absence of aflatoxin from refined vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is the first definitive study of the fate of the aflatoxins in vegetable oils undergoing processing.\\u000a Crude oils, obtained by solvent extraction or by hydraulic pressing of ground moldy peanuts (not suitable for human consumption),\\u000a contained only small fractions of the aflatoxin originally present in the peanuts; the meals retained the bulk of the aflatoxin.\\u000a Conventional alkali

Wilbur A. Parker; Daniel Melnick

1966-01-01

60

Ultrasonic characterization of vegetable oil product.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation of a number vegetable oil products were measured using an ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique from room temperature up to 90(sup 0)C. Among the liquid samples studied were refined bleach deodorized (RED) pa...

Sidek Hj Abd Aziz Chow Sai Pew Abdul Halim Shaari Nor Azizah Shaari

1992-01-01

61

Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

1981-05-26

62

VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The m...

63

VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The mater...

64

PHYSIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, new technology was developed at NCAUR to produce highly stable starch-oil composites employing the technique of excess steam jet cooking mixtures of starches and lipids. In this process, the combination of high temperature and pressure in addition to the high-shear mixing action that occu...

65

Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oils: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to investigate biodiesel production processes from vegetable oils. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits.

M. Balat

2007-01-01

66

Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical

Bagby

1986-01-01

67

Preparation of high hydroxyl equivalent weight polyols from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple novel vegetable oil-based polyols were synthesized from the reaction-addition to epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) by a series of acid acyl moieties derived from vegetable oils. The acid acyl moieties were linoleic acid (LA), ricinoleic acid (RC), ricinoleic acid estolide (RC estolide) and hydrolyzed bodied soybean oil (HBSBO). LA and RC were commercially available but RC estolide and HBSBO were

Pim-pahn Kiatsimkul; Galen J. Suppes; Fu-hung Hsieh; Zuleica Lozada; Yuan-Chan Tu

2008-01-01

68

Thermal analysis of alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively poor cold-flow properties of monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats (biodiesel) present a major\\u000a obstacle to their development as alternative fuels and extenders for combustion in direct injection compressionignition (diesel)\\u000a engines. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating and cooling curves of methyl soyate (SME), methyl tallowate\\u000a (TME), SME\\/TME admixtures, and winterized SME were analyzed.

Robert O. Dunn

1999-01-01

69

Viscosities of vegetable oils and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data for viscosity as a function of temperature from 24 to 110C (75 to 230F) have been measured for a number of vegetable\\u000a oils (crambe, rapeseed, corn, soybean, milk-weed, coconut, lesquerella) and eight fatty acids in the range from C9 to C22. The viscosity measurements were performed according to ASTM test methods D 445 and D 446. Several correlations were

H. Noureddini; B. C. Teoh; L. Davis Clements

1992-01-01

70

Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents utilizing vegetable oil emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of vegetable oil as an electron donor to enhance the reductive dechlorination of chlori- nated solvents as an in situ remediation technology is gaining significant traction. Vegetable oil is a cost-effective slow-release electron donor with greater hydrogen-release efficiency than other electron-donor products. However, neat vegetable oil can inhibit distribution in aquifers due to the oil droplets blocking the

William A. Newman; Ronald C. Pelle

2006-01-01

71

Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.  

PubMed

The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps). PMID:12523544

Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

2002-12-01

72

Hydrogenated vegetable oils as candle wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially hydrogenated soybean oil, referred to as soywax, is gaining attention as a renewable and biodegradable alternative\\u000a to paraffin wax for use in candles. However, current soywax candles suffer from several problems, especially poor melting\\u000a and solidification properties. Fully hydrogenated soybean oil exhibits improved melting properties but owing to its fragile\\u000a texture, it is not yet acceptable in most candle

Karamatollah Rezaei; Tong Wang; Lawrence A. Johnson

2002-01-01

73

Surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process: N2 sorption and XPS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the type of the silica gel pore structure on the surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process has been examined applying N2 sorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The nickel catalyst precursors with identical composition (SiO2/Ni = 1.0) has been synthesized by precipitation of Ni(NO3)2 · 6H2O solution with Na2CO3 solution on the three types of silica gel with different pore structures. It is shown that the usage of the silica gel supports with different texture as source of SiO2 causes different location of Ni-species into the support pores and on the external surface area. The XPS data confirm the formation of surface species with different strength of interaction and different dispersion. These surface characteristics of the precursors will predetermine the formation of the active nickel metallic phase as well as the mass transfer of the reactants and products to and from the catalytic sites.

Nikolova, D.; Krsti?, J.; Spasov, L.; Simeonov, D.; Lon?arevi?, D.; Stefanov, Pl.; Jovanovi?, D.

2011-12-01

74

Base catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. Biofuel is becoming increasingly important as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. The use of non-edible vegetable oils for biofuel production is significant because of the increasing demand for edible oils as food. With the recent debate of food versus fuel, some non-edible oils like soapnut and Jatropha (Jatropha curcus. L) are being investigated as possible sources of biofuel. Recent research has focused on the application of heterogeneous catalysis. This review considers catalytic transesterification and the possibility of heterogeneous base catalysts. The process of transesterification, and the effect of parameters, mechanism and kinetics are reviewed. Although chromatography (GC and HPLC) are the analytical methods most often used for biofuel characterization, other techniques and some improvements to analytical methods are discussed. PMID:22574385

Mainali, Kalidas

2012-01-01

75

Tribological behavior of some antiwear additives in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a growing concern for the use of mineral oils because of the worldwide interest in environmental issues. This has promoted the use of vegetable oils as the alternative base fluids, environmental friendly lubricants. In view of this, a study of the effect of antiwear additives in vegetable oils was carried out using a four-ball wear tester. The

B. G. Ahn; O. K. Kwon; Y. J. Chun

1997-01-01

76

Emulsification of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils for Lubricant Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil in water emulsions of several vegetable oils were studied in order to prepare a useful lubrication fluid. Several previously\\u000a uncharacterized systems were studied in this paper, including those made from epoxidized vegetable oils. A series of different\\u000a surfactants were studied in order to obtain emulsions suitable for lubrication applications. The epoxidized oils were found\\u000a to form stable oil in

Kenneth M. DollBrajendra; Brajendra K. Sharma

2011-01-01

77

Vegetable oils, an alternative to mineral oil for power transformers- experimental study of paper aging in vegetable oil versus mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the thermal aging of insulating paper in mineral oil with that of paper in vegetable oil over the temperature range of 70 to 190°C and shows that the use of vegetable oil as an insulating liquid is a very promising option.

Maria Augusta G. Martins

2010-01-01

78

Green processing for commercial production of feruloylated vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Covalent incorporation of ferulic acid into vegetable oils produces a desirable product for cosmetic applications. Current practice involves the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil, followed by a molecular distillation step to remove unconsumed ethyl ferulate and the...

79

New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial applications.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. PMID:21144729

Lu, Chaofu; Napier, Johnathan A; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

2010-12-06

80

Long?run Relationships Between World Vegetable Oil Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the international edible oil markets, there is believed to be high substitutability between vegetable oils and fats produced under different conditions. In light of this, we consider the question: what is the nature of the long?run relationships between vegetable oil prices? Long?run co?movements among oil prices are analysed, based on a multivariate cointegration model. The empirical finding is that

Francis In; Brett Inder

1997-01-01

81

Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production processes using fresh and waste vegetable oil and supercritical methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three continuous biodiesel processes with production capacity of 40,000 tonne\\/yr, including a conventional alkali-catalyzed process using both fresh and waste vegetable oil and a supercritical methanol process using waste vegetable oil as the raw material, were simulated in HYSYS. In order to improve the simulation accuracy, the properties of triolein, a model compound of vegetable oil, were re-evaluated. The normal

Soojin Lee; Dusko Posarac; Naoko Ellis

82

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANT BASESTOCKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Use of vegetable oil based lubricants will reduce petroleum imports and have a favorable environmental impact. The vegetable oils are derived from renewable sources, biodegradable, non-toxic, possess high flash points and have low volatility. Inadequate oxidative stability and poor low-temperature...

83

Treatment and reuse of wastes of a vegetable oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industry manufacturing refined vegetable oil and hydrogenated vegetable oil (vanaspati) with a capacity of 58.5 tonnes\\/day generated wastewaters and solid wastes (viz. spent earth, spent catalyst, chemical and biological sludges). The wastewater streams were mainly from vat house after soap splitting, floor washing, cooling tower, boiler and filter press. The chemical composition of the wastewater from cooling tower and

R. A Pandey; P. B Sanyal; N Chattopadhyay; S. N Kaul

2003-01-01

84

Thermodynamic balance in reaction system of total vegetable oil hydrogenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total hydrogenation of vegetable oils to yield hydrocarbons is an emerging process for production of biofuels. Tristearate was chosen as a model compound to represent vegetable oils in the calculations. As its thermodynamic data were not available in literature, their values were estimated by using the Joback's contribution method. Based on the comparison to a relevant known system (butyl stearate)

Quido Smejkal; Lenka Smejkalová; David Kubi?ka

2009-01-01

85

Friction and wear behavior of thioether hydroxy vegetable oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This work describes the tribochemical evaluation of vegetable oil based antiwear additive obtained through chemical modification. The sulfur was incorporated using a chemical reaction of epoxidized vegetable oil and common thiols, resulting in formation of a hydroxy thioether derivative of vegetabl...

86

Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil and its metabolic intermediates in oil-enriched freshwater sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of oil, but the presence of ferric hydroxide relieves the inhibition. The effect of ferric hydroxide is not due to physical or chemical interactions with long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) that are produced as intermediates during metabolism of vegetable-oil triglycerides. The anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil and

Zhengkai Li; Brian A. Wrenn; Albert D. Venosa

2005-01-01

87

Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in

M. Glória Pereira; Stephen M. Mudge

2004-01-01

88

Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils  

SciTech Connect

Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if there are two degrees of unsaturation, then at carbon 15 (C15), if there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the synthesis and characterization of biobased

Phillip H. Henna

2008-08-18

89

ELECTROLYTIC RECOVERY OF NICKEL FROM INDUSTRIAL HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL (GHEE) WASTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste of hydrogenated vegetable oil locally called ghee waste obtained from Bara Ghee Mills (pvt.) Ltd. Khyber Agency (tribal area) NWFP has been first de-oiled and then digested with 20% sulphuric acid in order to get the nickel dissolved into aqueous medium for electrolytic recovery. A 65% nickel with metallic, magnetic and shining properties has been recovered at a

Lutfullah Kakakhel; Rafi Ullah Marwatd; Laki Marwat

90

Preference for vegetable oils in the two-bottle choice test in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated in mice their preference for different vegetable oils using the two-bottle choice test. Mice showed preference for all vegetable oils (at 1% concentration in emulsion) tested, including corn oil, canola oil, and mixed vegetable oil, compared to a control fluid without oil. Mice also significantly preferred highly palatable sucrose solutions (5–20%) in this test. One percent corn oil

Masami Takeda; Masahiro Imaizumi; Tohru Fushiki

2000-01-01

91

Analyses of electro-chemical characteristics of vegetable oils as an alternative source to mineral oil-based dielectric fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable\\/seed-based oils are highly biodegradable, have no\\/negligible impact on the environment, human health and the ecosystem. These oils are produced from numerous oil seeds. While most of them are highly biodegradable and environmentally friendly, they may require some processing and modification to improve some of their physical and electro-chemical properties to assure their safe use in power and distribution transformers.

S. M. Islam; S. Chami; G. Ienco

2005-01-01

92

Analyses of physical characteristics of vegetable oils as an alternative source to mineral oil-based dielectric fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable\\/seed-based oils are highly biodegradable, have no\\/negligible impact on the environment, human health and the ecosystem. These oils are produced from numerous oil seeds. While most of them are highly biodegradable and environmentally friendly, they may require some processing and modification to improve some of their physical and electrochemical properties to assure their safe use in power and distribution transformers.

S. M. Islam; S. Chami; G. Ienco

2005-01-01

93

Characteristics of low-fat meat emulsion systems with pork fat replaced by vegetable oils and rice bran fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vegetable oils prepared from olive, corn, soybean, canola, or grape seed, and rice bran fiber on the composition and rheological properties of meat batters were studied. Pork fat at 30% in the control was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils at 10% in addition to reducing the pork fat to 10%. The chemical composition, cooking

Yun-Sang Choi; Ji-Hun Choi; Doo-Jeong Han; Hack-Youn Kim; Mi-Ai Lee; Hyun-Wook Kim; Jong-Youn Jeong; Cheon-Jei Kim

2009-01-01

94

Novel biobased photo-crosslinked polymer networks prepared from vegetable oil and 2,5-furan diacrylate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Novel biobased crosslinked polymer networks were prepared from vegetable oil with 2,5-furan diacrylate as a difunctional stiffener through UV photopolymerization, and the mechanical properties of the resulting films were evaluated. The vegetable oil raw materials used were acrylated epoxidized soybe...

95

Crystallization of fully hydrogenated and interesterified fat and vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Owing to public concern regarding the adverse health effects of trans fatty acids, an alternative technology to trans fats has recently become an important issue. The interesterification of fully hydrogenated vegetable oil and liquid oil blends is one of the most versatile options. This paper reports a physical analysis of high-melting fat (HMF) prepared through the interesterification of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and regular soybean oil, and through fractionation. The thermal and structural properties of the HMF blended with salad oil at a mass ratio of 4:1 (called the HMF blend, hereafter), which was prepared as a model fat blend for margarine, were assessed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarized light microscopy (POM). To observe the polymorphic transformation, all samples were aged after crystallization, and the development of granular crystals during the aging process was observed. We found that the granular crystals are made of SOS/SSO, POS/PSO, and (SOS+POS)/(SSO+PSO) molecular compounds, all of which easily transform into ? form with a double-chain-length structure. PMID:21606616

Zhang, Lu; Muramoto, Hisako; Ueno, Satoru; Sato, Kiyotaka

2011-01-01

96

Mist Generation from Metalworking Fluids Formulated Using Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metalworking fluid emulsion formulations produced from vegetable oils may be less toxic and may reduce disposal costs when compared with fluids formulated with petroleum-based oils. Experiments were performed on experimental emulsions made with unmodified and modi- fied soybean oils to measure rates of mist production by impaction, centrifugal force and evaporation\\/recondensation mechanisms. Results were compared with measurements made using a

PETER C. RAYNOR; SEUNG WON KIM; MRINAL BHATTACHARYA

2005-01-01

97

Elastohydrodynamic study of vegetable oil-polyalphaolefin blends  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two polyalphaolefins (PAOs), of higher and lower viscosity than vegetable oils, were used to make binary blends of varying compositions with soybean and canola oils. The pure oils and the blends were used in viscosity and film thickness investigations. The effect of composition and temperature on ...

98

Life cycle assessment of hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape, oil palm and Jatropha  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life cycle assessment of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) biofuel was performed. The study was commissioned by Volvo Technology Corporation and Volvo Penta Corporation as part of an effort to gain a better understanding of the environmental impact of potential future biobased liquid fuels for cars and trucks. The life cycle includes production of vegetable oil from rape, oil palm

Rickard Arvidsson; Sara Persson; Morgan Fröling; Magdalena Svanström

2011-01-01

99

Processing biomass in conventional oil refineries: Production of high quality diesel by hydrotreating vegetable oils in heavy vacuum oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable liquid alkanes can be produced by hydrotreating of vegetable oils and vegetable oil–heavy vacuum oil (HVO) mixtures at standard hydrotreating conditions (i.e. 300–450°C) with conventional hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided NiMo\\/Al2O3). The reaction pathway involves hydrogenation of the CC bonds of the vegetable oils followed by alkane production by three different pathways: decarbonylation, decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. The straight chain alkanes can

George W. Huber; Paul O’Connor; Avelino Corma

2007-01-01

100

Vegetable oil enhances sophorolipid production by Rhodotorula bogoriensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Rhodotorula bogorensis produces sophorolipids of different structures to those produced by Candida bombicola. However, the yield is very low. To improve sophorolipid production by R. bogoriensis, vegetable oil was supplemented to the medium as a hydrophobic substrate: with rapeseed oil the sophorolipid yield was 1.26 g\\/l\\u000a but without oil was 0.33 g\\/l. Cultures with meadowfoam oil produced 0.77 g sophorolipids\\/l. Lipase-treated

Jinxin ZhangKaren; Karen M. J. Saerens; Inge N. A. Van Bogaert; Wim Soetaert

101

Oxidative stability index of vegetable oils in binary mixtures with meadowfoam oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative stability indices (OSI) of several vegetable oils were determined at 110°C. Meadowfoam oil, Limnanthes alba, was found to be the most stable oil with an OSI time of 67.3 h for refined oil and 246.9 h for crude oil. Other oils with good oxidative stabilities were refined high oleic sunflower and crude jojoba oil (Simmondsia chinensis) with OSI

T. A. Isbell; T. P. Abbott; K. D. Carlson

1999-01-01

102

Alteration of phenolic antioxidants in heated vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to follow the fate of antioxidants in heated vegetable oil at temperatures approximating those of frying\\u000a conditions. Samples of vegetable oils spiked with 0.02% [14C] BHA or 0.02% [14C] TBHQ were heated at ca. 180–190 C for 4.5 hr. It was found that 24 and 48% of the radioactivity added as BHA and TBHQ,\\u000a respectively, remained in

F. S. Lin; C. R. Warner; T. Fazio

1981-01-01

103

The modification and analysis of vegetable oil for cheese making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of this study were (i) to incorporate short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in vegetable oils to obtain a bland product\\u000a that could be used as a milk fat substitute in cheese making and (ii) to improve the methods for fatty acid analysis of vegetable\\u000a oils modified with SCFA. Short-chain triglycerides (SCTG) were synthesized by esterifying SCFA with glycerol, and using

Liangping Yu; Earl G. Hammond

2000-01-01

104

Selection of a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage insulation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many items of high voltage plant employ a liquid both as a dielectric and a coolant. Currently these systems use a mineral oil, however, this suffers from the drawback of being potentially toxic and hence leakages and eventual disposal can be serious issues. To overcome this problem, an increasing trend in the UK is to backfill existing paper/oil cable systems with dodecylbenzene (DDB). This fluid possesses the advantages of improved gas absorption, good dielectric properties and biodegradability; nevertheless it is still derived from crude oil, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils offer the added advantage of being renewable although many types are available with very different properties. In order to select a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage applications, a standardised ageing and testing regime is required. In this paper, a wide range of vegetable oils were subjected to controlled laboratory ageing and the resulting aged oils were characterised by a number of analytical techniques. The results from these tests were then used to rank the different oils, and to select the most ageing resistant oil.

Hosier, I. L.; Guushaa, A.; Vaughan, A. S.; Swingler, S. G.

2009-08-01

105

Producing clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of our investigation was the production of partially bio-derived fuels in the gas oil boiling point range. Our aim\\u000a was the production of diesel fuel blending components by co-hydrogenation of mixtures of high-sulphur gas oil (about 1.0%)\\u000a and vegetable oil raw materials with different vegetable oil contents (0, 5, 15, 25 and 100%). The experiments were carried\\u000a out

Csaba Tóth; Péter Baladincz; Sándor Kovács; Jen? Hancsók

2011-01-01

106

Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil-vegetable oil mixtures for biofuels production.  

PubMed

Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil (VGO)--vegetable oil mixtures is a prominent process for the production of biofuels. In this work both pre-hydrotreated and non-hydrotreated VGO are assessed whether they are suitable fossil components in a VGO-vegetable oil mixture as feed-stocks to a hydrocracking process. This assessment indicates the necessity of a VGO pre-hydrotreated step prior to hydrocracking the VGO-vegetable oil mixture. Moreover, the comparison of two different mixing ratios suggests that higher vegetable oil content favors hydrocracking product yields and qualities. Three commercial catalysts of different activity are utilized in order to identify a range of products that can be produced via a hydrocracking route. Finally, the effect of temperature on hydrocracking VGO-vegetable oil mixtures is studied in terms of conversion and selectivity to diesel, jet/kerosene and naphtha. PMID:19231171

Bezergianni, Stella; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Vasalos, Iacovos A

2009-02-23

107

Potential of vegetable oils as a domestic heating fuel  

SciTech Connect

The dependence on imported oil for domestic heating has led to the examination of other potential fuel substitutes. One potential fuel is some form of vegetable oil, which could be a yearly-renewable fuel. In Western Canada, canola has become a major oilseed crop; in Eastern Canada, sunflowers increasingly are becoming a source for a similar oil; for this reason, the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory (CCRL) has chosen these oils for experimentation. Trials have been conducted in a conventional warm air oil furnace, fitted with a flame retention head burner. Performance has been measured with pure vegetable oils as well as a series of blends with conventional No. 2 oil. The effects of increased fuel pressure and fuel preheating are established. Emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates are given for both steady state and cyclic operation. Canola oil cannot be fired in cyclic operation above 50:50 blends with No. 2 oil. At any level above a 10% blend, canola is difficult to burn, even with significant increased pressure and temperature. Sunflower oil is much easier to burn and can be fired as a pure fuel, but with high emissions of incomplete combustion products. An optimum blend of 50:50 sunflower in No. 2 oil yields emissions and performance similar to No. 2 oil. This blend offers potential as a means of reducing demand of imported crude oil for domestic heating systems.

Hayden, A.C.S.; Begin, E.; Palmer, C.E.

1982-06-01

108

Treatment of Effluent Waters from Vegetable Oil Refining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed investigation was done to characterize the wastewater from a vegetable oil refinery. A calcium chloride chemical treatment was installed which resulted in a net decrease in waste load of 71 percent from .0135 lb BOD5 per pound oil processed to ...

D. F. Gill J. C. Ielase

1976-01-01

109

Thermodynamics Calculation of the Pyrolysis of Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is a prominent alternative fuel made from triglycerides. Generally, transestrification of triglycerides with methanol is the traditional method applied to produce biodiesel. The controlled un-sequential pyrolysis, however, proves to be more effective in converting poor quality vegetable oil, animal fats, even rotten wasted cook oil into biodiesel. Because of complicated pyrolysis mechanism of triglycerides, thermodynamic calculation by computer simulation

CHENG ZHENYI; JI XING; LI SHUYUAN; LI LI

2004-01-01

110

MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR USE AS INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has been a lot of interest in using vegetable oils (particularly soybean oil) as renewable raw materials for new industrial products including lubricants. This emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing co...

111

INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS BASED ON HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historically, there has been an interest in biodegradable lubricants in response to environmental concerns, particularly relating to the effect of oil leaking onto the ground and into the fresh water. Vegetable oil based lubricants are recommended for use in environmentally sensitive areas such as ...

112

RESEARCH ON BIODIESEL AND VEGETABLE OIL FUELS - THEN AND NOW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of vegetable oils as diesel fuel is nearly as old as the diesel engine itself. The first biodiesel, in form of ethyl esters of palm oil, was described in the late 1930s. Significant technical insights on these fuels were gained up to the late 1940s. Beginning in the late 1970s, these "alt...

113

Biodiesel Production Facilities from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, and used cooking oil including triglycerides. Biodiesel, an alternative biodegradable diesel fuel, is derived from triglycerides by transesterification with methanol and ethanol. Concerns about the depletion of diesel fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make biodiesel an attractive alternative motor fuel

A. Demirbas; S. Karslioglu

2007-01-01

114

REMOVING SELENATE FROM WATER WITH A VEGETABLE OIL BASED BIOBARRIER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oil based permeable reactive biobarriers (PRBs) were evaluated as a method for remediating groundwater containing unacceptable amounts of selenate. PRBs formed by packing laboratory columns with sand coated with soybean oil were used. In an initial 24-week study a simulated groundwater c...

115

TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT WATERS FROM VEGETABLE OIL REFINING  

EPA Science Inventory

A detailed investigation was done to characterize the wastewater from a vegetable oil refinery. A calcium chloride chemical treatment was installed which resulted in a net decrease in waste load of 71 percent from .0135 lb BOD5 per pound oil processed to .0039 lb BOD5 per pound o...

116

Antioxidant efficacy of sesame cake extract in vegetable oil protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of sesame cake was evaluated in soybean, sunflower, and safflower oils, using the Schaal oven method and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Results showed that sesame cake extract (SCE), at concentrations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 ppm in vegetable oils, could significantly (P<0.05) lower the peroxide value, diene value and p-anisidine value of oils

K. P. Suja; John T. Abraham; Selvam N. Thamizh; A. Jayalekshmy; C. Arumughan

2004-01-01

117

Chemical modification of vegetable oils for lubricant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the unfavorable impact on the environment of mineral oil-based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the\\u000a demand for biodegradable, environment-friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace\\u000a or partially substitute conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable\\u000a and are thus promising candidates as base fluids

Brajendra K. Sharma; Atanu Adhvaryu; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

2006-01-01

118

Vegetable oil enhances sophorolipid production by Rhodotorula bogoriensis.  

PubMed

The yeast Rhodotorula bogorensis produces sophorolipids of different structures to those produced by Candida bombicola. However, the yield is very low. To improve sophorolipid production by R. bogoriensis, vegetable oil was supplemented to the medium as a hydrophobic substrate: with rapeseed oil the sophorolipid yield was 1.26 g/l but without oil was 0.33 g/l. Cultures with meadowfoam oil produced 0.77 g sophorolipids/l. Lipase-treated meadowfoam oil, however, gave no significant increase in sophorolipid production. Possible explanations for the enhanced sophorolipid synthesis are discussed. PMID:21769647

Zhang, Jinxin; Saerens, Karen M J; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

2011-07-17

119

Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

2003-01-01

120

Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

Bagby, M.O.

1986-03-01

121

Volatility and boiling points of biodiesel from vegetable oils and tallow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality control of fuel-related properties of Biodiesel, such as volatility, is needed to obtain consistent engine performance by fuel users. The vapor pressures and boiling points of selected methyl esters and vegetable oils are proposed as quality control metrics for Biodiesel. This type of data was obtained by a rapid new method using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). One atmosphere boiling points

J. W. Goodrum

2002-01-01

122

Aging Performance and Moisture Solubility of Vegetable Oils for Power Transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the suitability of vegetable oil as an insulating medium in power transformers. A high flash point and very good environmental compatibility compared to conventional mineral oil are good reasons to use vegetable oil in power transformers. In this paper, the physical and electrical performance and the aging behaviour of three natural vegetable oils are compared to one

Stefan Tenbohlen; Maik Koch

2010-01-01

123

Nutritive value of heated vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut, sesame and coconut oils were heated at 270C for 8 hr, in an open iron pan. These fats were fed to albino rats at 15%\\u000a level in otherwise adequate diets. All rats fed heated fats showed a growth depression. Livers of rats receiving heated oil\\u000a were congested and showed extensive periportal fatty infiltration. Rats on heated peanut oil showed

N. V. Raju; M. Narayana Rao; R. Rajagopalan

1965-01-01

124

Oil-Based Nanoparticles Containing Alternative Vegetable Oils (Grape Seed Oil and Almond Kernel Oil): Preparation and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. The use of two alternative vegetable oils (grape seed oil and almond kernel oil) to prepare nanoparticulated delivery systems (nanocapsules and nanoemulsions) for active substances was evaluated. They were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer (poly-?-caprolactone) or spontaneous emulsification, respectively. All formulations presented nanometric size, polydispersity index below 0.30, negative zeta potential and spherical-shaped particles. Benzophenone-3, as a

Juliana S. ALMEIDA; Luciane JEZUR; Marcia C. FONTANA; Karina PAESE

125

Effect of oil type and fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of vegetable oils.  

PubMed

In this study, effect of fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of oils was studied. For this aim, different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, olive, hazelnut, cottonseed and canola), were used. Rheological properties of oil samples were identified by rheometer (Thermo-Haake) at 25°C and fatty acid composition of oils was determined by GC (Agilent 6890). Steady shear rheological properties of oil samples were measured at shear rate range of 0.1-100 s?¹. Viscosity of olive, hazelnut, cottonseed, canola, soybean and sunflower was 61.2 mPa.s, 59.7 mPa.s, 57.3 mPa.s, 53.5 mPa.s, 48.7 mPa.s and 48.2 mPa.s, respectively. There was a significant difference between viscosity of oils except soybean and sunflower. As a result it was seen that there was a correlation between viscosity and monounsaturated (R=0.89), polyunsaturated (R=-0.97) fatty acid composition of oils, separately. Equation was found to predict viscosity of the oils based on mono and polyunsaturation composition of oils. In addition the dynamic rheological properties of oils were also examined. G', G'' and tan ? (G''/G') values were measured at 0.3 Pa (in viscoelastic region) and 0.1-1 Hz. As a result of multiple regression analysis another equations were found between tan ?, viscosity and polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:22450119

Yalcin, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Dogan, Mahmut

2012-01-01

126

Nutritive Value of Heated Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

MUCH of the fat consumed by human beings, particularly in India, has been heated, and the conditions of heating vary widely and also with the nature of the foodstuff into which the oil or fat is incorporated. It is therefore necessary to have scientific data concerning the nutritive value of heated oils and fat.

N. V. Raju; R. Rajagopalan

1955-01-01

127

Vegetable-based biodegradable lubricating oil additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, much effort has been focused on research and development of new types of lubricating oil additives to reduce wear and friction in the tribological systems. It has been noted that the use of additives to improve the lubricating capacity and durability of oil plays an important role in the wear and friction process of materials. Due to the environmental

M. A. Maleque; H. H. Masjuki; S. M. Sapuan

2003-01-01

128

Catalyst studies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cottonseed and soybean oils were partially hydrogenated using various commercial nickel catalysts. Methods were investigated\\u000a by which commercial catalysts can be changed with respect to the rate of reaction, selectivity ortrans-isomerization during hydrogenation of the oils. Catalysts which were treated with hydrogen sulfide produce considerably moretrans isomers but catalysts treated with air often cause higher selectivity ratios. Factors affecting the

Sava Stefanovic; Lyle F. Albright

1969-01-01

129

Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content,

Ana V Lara Pizarro; Enoch Y Park

2003-01-01

130

Inorganic heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels are renewable solutions to replace the ever dwindling energy reserves and environmentally pollutant fossil liquid fuels when they are produced from low cost sustainable feedstocks. Biodiesel is mainly produced from vegetable oils or animal fats by the method of transesterification reaction using catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts are conventionally used for biodiesel production. Unfortunately, homogeneous catalysts are associated with problems which

Abebe K. Endalew; Yohannes Kiros; Rolando Zanzi

2011-01-01

131

Peroxide removal from organic solvents and vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxide contamination of organic solvents and related reagents, e.g. vegetable oils, has created potential problems for the toxicologist, biochemist and industrial hygienist. Because of tedious or complicated procedures to test for and remove, or prevent the formation of peroxides, the tendency of laboratory investigators has been to ignore the problem. In this study, straight?forward procedures for the testing and removal,

Howard G. Shertzer; M. Wilson Tabor

1985-01-01

132

Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

133

Heterogeneous Hydrogenation of Vegetable Oils: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardening of vegetable oils is reviewed from an engineering point of view. The present review focuses on kinetics of the hydrogenation and relevant transport and adsorption steps. It aims to contribute to accelerate new research to improve substantially on selectivities in general and a decrease of trans fatty acid content in particular.From a comprehensive literature review, we concluded the absence

Jan W. Veldsink; Martin J. Bouma; Nils H. Schöön; Antonie A. C. M. Beenackers

1997-01-01

134

Chromatographic analysis of plant sterols in foods and vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recently published chromatographic methods for the analysis of plant sterols in various sample matrices with emphasis on vegetable oils. An overview of structural complexities and biological\\/nutritional aspects including hypocholesterolemic activities of phytosterols is provided in the Section 1. The principal themes of the review highlight the development and application of chromatographic techniques for the isolation, purification, separation

S. L. Abidi

2001-01-01

135

Composition Identification of Essential Oils in Raw Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Qualitative composition of ether oils of the dried spicy aromatic vegetable raw material used for adding aroma to liqueur-vodka products vermouth, was determined by a simple, convenient, and fast method of thin layer chromatography which may be used durin...

G. I. Fertman

1973-01-01

136

Some important aspects of sterol analysis of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and composition of the sterol fraction is an important indicator of the value of vegetable oils, mainly due to the cholesterol-lowering effect of certain sterol compounds. Although many methods have been described in the literature, various steps may still cause errors during sample preparation. The present article covers some of the key steps in sterol analysis that are

Erkki Mäeorga; Peeter Läänistea; Juhan Jõudua; Uno Mäeorgb

137

Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

2006-01-01

138

Improving the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated vegetable oils by blending with high-oleic sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing different proportions of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with polyunsaturated vegetable oils provides a simple method\\u000a to prepare more stable edible oils with a wide range of desired fatty acid composition. Oxidative stability of soybean, canola\\u000a and corn oils, blended with different proportions of HOSO to lower the respective levels of linolenate and linoleate, was\\u000a evaluated at 60°C. Oxidation was

E. N. Frankel; S. W. Huang

1994-01-01

139

Vegetable oil blends with ?-linolenic acid rich Garden cress oil modulate lipid metabolism in experimental rats.  

PubMed

Vegetable oil blends with modified fatty acid profile are being developed to improve n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) ratio in edible oils. The objective of this study is to develop vegetable oil blends with ?-linolenic acid (ALA) rich Garden cress oil (GCO) and assess their modulatory effect on lipid metabolism. Sunflower oil (SFO), Rice bran oil (RBO), Sesame oil (SESO) were blended with GCO at different ratios to obtain n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2.3-2.6. Native and GCO blended oils were fed to Wistar rats at 10% level in the diet for 60 days. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), LDL-C levels in GCO and GCO blended oil fed rats compared to native oil fed rats. ALA, EPA, DHA contents were significantly increased while linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in different tissues of GCO and GCO blended oils fed rats. In conclusion, blending of vegetable oils with GCO increases ALA, decreases n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio and beneficially modulates lipid profile. PMID:22980881

Umesha, S S; Naidu, K Akhilender

2012-06-09

140

HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

141

Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric

Phillip H. Henna

2008-01-01

142

Synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil with large amounts of free fatty acids using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of carbonized vegetable oil asphalt. This catalyst was employed to simultaneously catalyze esterification and transesterification to synthesis biodiesel when a waste vegetable oil with large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of this catalyst were characterized by a variety of techniques.

Qing Shu; Jixian Gao; Zeeshan Nawaz; Yuhui Liao; Dezheng Wang; Jinfu Wang

2010-01-01

143

Feasibility and emissions of compression ignition engines fueled with waste vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and experience has shown that vegetable oil can be processed, by transesterification, into a useable fuel for compression ignition engines. Earlier research examined using straight vegetable oil as a fuel, but found it to cause detrimental engine problems. Trial and error has shown that heating the vegetable oil prior to injection, is a viable option. A diesel vehicle engine

Morgan H Crawford

2003-01-01

144

Use of vegetable oil as fuel to improve the efficiency of cooking stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an attempt has been made to use waste vegetable oil as a fuel for a cooking stove. Suitable modifications have been made in the kerosene stove for use with vegetable oil as fuel. The efficiency of the stove using vegetable oil as fuel is observed to be as high as 48.9% as compared to 34.9% with that

R. Natarajan; N. S. Karthikeyan; Avinash Agarwaal; K. Sathiyanarayanan

2008-01-01

145

NEW USES OF VEGETABLE OILS: NOVEL OXYGENATED FATTY ACIDS BY BIOTRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an effort to find new uses for surplus vegetable oils, we are looking for new value-added products produced from vegetable oils by bioprocesses. We have discovered many new oxygenated fatty acids produced from converting vegetable oils by microbial enzymes, which may be useful as starting materi...

146

Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

1984-01-01

147

Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, V [1]: Gas chromatographic determination of free glycerol in transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GC method for the determination of free glycerol in vegetable oil methyl esters used as diesel fuel is described. The sample preparation includes dissolving in dimethylformamide, silylation with bistrimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and separation on a methyl silicone capillary column using either FID or MS detection. The recovery was tested using standard samples containing known amounts of glycerol. The results of

M. Mittelbach

1993-01-01

148

Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

1983-10-01

149

Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil to hydrocarbon oil: Influence of temperature, residence time, and catalyst.  

PubMed

Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil was investigated under the conditions of different temperatures (350-500 °C) and residence time as well as catalyst using HZSM-5. Results suggested low temperature was favorable for the formation of diesel-like products, while high temperature caused more gasoline-like products. By the addition of HZSM-5, at 450 °C alkanes content of the obtained oil with low oxygen content of 2.28%, reached a maximum of 56.27%, resulting in the highest HHV of 43.8 MJ kg(-1). High temperature favored cracking activity of HZSM-5 which reduced the char formation and contributed to the removal of carbonyl. Compared to temperature, the effect of residence time on products was relatively less; experiments indicated the optimum residence time was 15 min at which obtained oil with the highest yield of 17.78%, had better properties. Preliminary analysis of mechanisms showed biomass provided hydrogen for vegetable oil, facilitating hydrogenation of CC bonds of vegetable oil. PMID:20843685

Chen, Yigang; Yang, Fan; Wu, Libin; Wang, Chao; Yang, Zhengyu

2010-08-22

150

Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels.  

PubMed

A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in the cleanup of oiled sands (up to 96%) than recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel (70%). In microcosm and mesocosm experiments, oiled sediments were sprayed with biodiesel and subjected to simulated tides. Microcosm experiments revealed that, of those tested, the highest ratio of biodiesel to crude oil, had the highest effectiveness for cleaning fine sands, with ratios of 2:1 (biodiesel:crude oil) giving the best results. In the mesocosm experiments a ratio 1:1 of soybean biodiesel to crude oil removed 80% of the oil in cobbles and fine sands, 50% in coarse sand and 30% in gravel. Most of the oil was removed with the surface water, with only a small amount being flushed through the sediments. Particle size and pore size were important determinants in the cleanup and mobility of crude oil in the sediments in these static systems. It is expected that the biodiesel effectiveness should improve in the natural environment particularly in exposed beaches with strong wave action. However, more laboratory and field trials are required to confirm the operational use of biodiesel as a shoreline cleaner. PMID:14575742

Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M

2004-01-01

151

Study of the vegetal oil as a substitute for mineral oils in distribution transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are so many factors that negatively affect distribution transformer operations, especially its electrical insulation system. Traditionally mineral oil has been used as insulating material, however, in the last years there is a growing interest in using vegetable oil, these fluids are currently being used in the range of small to medium distribution power transformers. The purpose of this work

A. R. Marulanda; M. A. Artigas; A. Gavidia; F. Labarca; N. Paz

2008-01-01

152

Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

Lugo, Yarely

153

Heating oils with fresh vegetable inclusions: modelling and measurement of heating pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavoured oils enjoy great popularity as taste enhancers; however methods frequently suggested to consumers for infusing flavour from fresh vegetables into oil allow the potential development of botulism toxin. With a view to developing a home-based procedure for making flavoured oil safely, the temperature–time pattern for heating oil with fresh vegetable inclusions was measured in a consumer oven. A model

E. B Topp; F. J Cook; G. C Topp

2003-01-01

154

A 91-day feeding study in rats with heated olestra/vegetable oil blends.  

PubMed

A 91-day feeding study in rats was conducted to assess the potential toxicity of heated olestra/vegetable oil blends. Olestra is a mixture of the hexa-, hepta- and octa- long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose. The blends tested were 35/65 olestra/vegetable oil (w/w), pan-fried at 380 degrees F for 30 min to simulate home-use conditions and 75/25 olestra/vegetable oil, deep-fried at 365 degrees F for 84 hr to simulate extended food-service use. Vegetable oil, prepared using both heating conditions, unheated vegetable oil and unheated olestra/vegetable oil blends served as controls. The olestra/vegetable oil blends and vegetable-oil control were generally fed at 10% (w/w) of the diet. Two further groups received the heated olestra/vegetable oil blends at 5% of the diet. Survival, clinical signs, body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency, organ weights, organ-to-body-weight ratios, haematological parameters and histomorphology were evaluated. No adverse effects from the ingestion of heated olestra/vegetable oil blends were detected. These findings indicate that heated olestra was non-toxic and, in this respect, no different from unheated olestra or heated or unheated vegetable oil. PMID:2379889

Miller, K W; Long, P H

1990-05-01

155

Formation of headspace volatiles by thermal decomposition of oxidized fish oils vs. oxidized vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the reasons for differences in oxidative stability among edible oils, the temperature dependence was investigated\\u000a for the development of volatile lipid oxidation products in fish oils and in vegetable oils. A rapid headspace capillary gas\\u000a chromatographic method was developed to determine volatile oxidation products of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fats (pentane\\u000a and hexanal) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fats (propanal)

E. N. Frankel

1993-01-01

156

Microemulsion-Based Vegetable Oil Detergency Using an Extended Surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examined the use of a single extended surfactant in the microemulsion-based detergency of vegetable oils. The results\\u000a showed that good canola oil detergency (>80%) was achieved at 25 °C using a single extended surfactant (C14,15–8PO–SO4Na) at concentrations as low as 125 ppm, i.e., significantly lower than the surfactant concentration range of 500–2,500 ppm\\u000a reported in other microemulsion-based detergency work. It was

Tri T. Phan; Anuradee Witthayapanyanon; Jeff H. Harwell; David A. Sabatini

2010-01-01

157

Peroxide removal from organic solvents and vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Peroxide contamination of organic solvents and related reagents, e.g. vegetable oils, has created potential problems for the toxicologist, biochemist and industrial hygienist. Because of tedious or complicated procedures to test for and remove, or prevent the formation of peroxides, the tendency of laboratory investigators has been to ignore the problem. In this study, straight-forward procedures for the testing and removal, and/or prevention of formation of peroxides were investigated. Total peroxides were assayed by measuring Fe/sup III/(SCN)/sub 3/ formed by Fe/sup II/ oxidation and reaction with KSCN. Most solvents and reagents, as received from the manufacturer, were found to have low levels of peroxides. After opening the container, peroxides were formed rapidly in many solvents. Techniques for the complete retardation of peroxide formation in fresh solvents or reagents are described. For peroxides already present in organic solvents or vegetable oils, a novel technique for easy removal without introducing contaminants is described.

Shertzer, H.G.; Tabor, M.W.

1985-01-01

158

ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SEED OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The film-forming properties of canola (CAN), soybean (SBO), and jojoba (JO) seed oils under elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conditions were investigated to determine if differences in their chemical and physical properties affect their EHD properties. Polyalphaolefin (PAO), whose EHD properties have been ...

159

Highly Stable Nonionic Fatliquors Based on Ethoxylated Overused Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overused vegetable oils, which are considered to be a waste and available in huge quantities after frying processes, were\\u000a directly ethoxylated using a conventional cheap catalyst in order to obtain an economically valuable ethoxylated product to\\u000a replace the imported intermediate derivatives and at the same time the environment will be rid of one of its pollutants. Therefore,\\u000a this work was

EL-Shahat H. A. Nashy; Ghada A. Abo-ELwafa

160

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to

Philip Mercurio; Andrew P Negri; Kathryn A Burns; Andrew J Heyward

2004-01-01

161

Acetone-stable nanofiltration membranes in deacidifying vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of different vegetable oil\\/solvent mixtures with two types of nanofiltration membranes was studied. One type\\u000a had a PEBAX [poly(amide-b-ether) copolymer] top layer, and the other had a cellulose-type top layer. These membranes were\\u000a stable in acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, and hexane, all important to the oleochemical industry. Permeabilities were highest\\u000a for acetone, ±140 L\\/m2 · h · MPa, and

H. J. Zwijnenberg; A. M. Krosse; K. Ebert; K. V. Peinemann; F. P. Cuperus

1999-01-01

162

Determination of ultratrace metals in hydrogenated vegetable oils and fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultratrace levels of nickel, chromium, copper and iron occurring in hydrogenated vegetable oil products were estimated by\\u000a dispersion of the samples in 4 methyl-2-pentanone and atomic absorption analysis by the graphite furnace technique. The principal\\u000a goals in establishing the analytical methods were improved sensitivity to metals at low levels and applicability to limited\\u000a amounts of products. Using reproducibility and linearity

A. M. Nash; T. L. Mounts; W. F. Kwolek

1983-01-01

163

Detection of genetically modified soybean DNA in refined vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, four different protocols were tested for their ability to extract DNA from blended refined vegetable oils:\\u000a the in-house prepared Wizard and CTAB methods and the methods based on the use of the commercial kits Wizard® Magnetic DNA purification system for food and Nucleospin® for food. The performance of the extraction protocols was determined by end-point polymerase chain

Joana Costa; Isabel Mafra; Joana S. Amaral; M. Beatriz P. P. Oliveira

2010-01-01

164

Thermoplastic starch films with vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch is one of the most promising natural polymers to be abundant, cheap and biodegradable. To get thermoplastic starch\\u000a (TPS) is necessary mechanical shake, high temperature and use of plasticizers. In this work, TPS films were prepared by casting\\u000a from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macauba and pequi. The\\u000a materials were analyzed

Daniela Schlemmer; Maria José Araujo Sales

2010-01-01

165

Discriminant analysis of vegetable oils by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discriminant analysis of four vegetable oil types (cotton-seed, peanut, soybean and canola) was performed by near-infrared\\u000a reflectance spectroscopy. The objective of this study was to provide an alternate method to differentiate vegetable oil types\\u000a and to classify unknown oil samples. Second derivative spectra of the vegetable oils were subjected to discriminate analysis\\u000a with Mahalanobis distances principles. A four-wavelength (1704, 1802,

Karen M. Bewig; Andrew D. Clarke; Craig Roberts; Nan Unklesbay

1994-01-01

166

Investigating the Oxidation of Biodiesel From Used Vegetable Oil by FTIR Spectroscopy: Used Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Oxidation Study by FTIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal oxidation of a biodiesel prepared from used vegetable oil was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Spectral changes were observed in the hydroxyl, carbonyl, and cis\\/trans double bond regions for the control and Vitamin E–added samples. These spectral changes, increasing with increasing oxidation, were attributed to common oxidation products. IR results also suggested an oxidation-induced breakage of

Ping Y. Furlan; Palmer Wetzel; Samuel Johnson; Jessica Wedin; Andrew Och

2010-01-01

167

Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.  

PubMed

Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m?³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

2012-09-10

168

Study on the use of alternative fuel made from waste vegetable oil in the diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a useful alternative fuel, vegetable oil is a kind of continuous renewed energy sources made from photosynthesis. In the paper, a performance comparison experiment of two kinds of fuel, alternative fuel made from waste vegetable oil and No.0 diesel oil, was conducted in the small type of diesel engine. Results showed that the alternative fuel is fit for the

Yan-yao Wang; Shu-qi Shang

2011-01-01

169

Kinetic Study of Used Vegetable Oil to Liquid Fuels over Sulfated Zirconia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of spent vegetable oil to a synthetic chemical or direct cracking for upgrade of transport fuels are suitable ways to dispose of waste oil. This research intends to study the catalytic cracking of spent vegetable oil and thus change its classification from a waste produce to a liquid fuel as a new alternative for the replacement of petroleum

Witchakorn Charusiri; Tharapong Vitidsant

2003-01-01

170

Heavy metal absorbing Thioether-functionalized ligands derived from vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sulfur-functionalized vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been shown to effectively remove Ag+ from aqueous solution. Interestingly, the absorption capacity differs depending upon the choice of which vegetable oil precursor is functionalized. In this study, we will provide data for oils ...

171

Use of hydrogen to enhance the performance of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of vegetable oils in unmodified diesel engines leads to reduced thermal efficiency and increased smoke levels. In this work, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance while using small quantities of hydrogen in a compression ignition engine primarily fuelled with a vegetable oil, namely Jatropha oil. A single cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine designed to develop a power output

M. Senthil Kumar; A. Ramesh; B. Nagalingam

2003-01-01

172

Characterization of Brominated Vegetable Oils by Normal and Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brominated vegetable oils are characterized by normal and reversed phase chromatography using UV absorbance detection at 220 nm. A series of seven brominated vegetable oil preparations are transesterified using acid methanolysis and the resulting dibromo-, tetrabromo- and hexabromostearate components quantitated by HPLC. The identification of the oils compare favorably with results obtained by gas chromatography.

James F. Lawrence; Rajinder K. Chadha; Henry B. S. Conacher

1987-01-01

173

BIODIESEL: AN ALTERNATIVE DIESEL FUEL FROM VEGETABLE OILS OR ANIMAL FATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is defined as “a fuel comprised of the mono-alkyl ester of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats." Accordingly, biodiesel is derived from vegetable oils or animal fats by a transesterification reaction, in which the oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcoh...

174

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites.  

PubMed

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 degrees C of melting point, and 111 degrees C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance. PMID:20596546

Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

2009-04-25

175

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

2009-07-01

176

Biodiesel from Vegetable Oils with MgO Catalytic Transesterification in Supercritical Methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental work, transesterification reactions with magnesium oxide (MgO) in supercritical methanol of vegetable oil samples (rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil) have been studied to obtain biodiesel. MgO as a catalyst can considerably improve the transesterification reaction of sunflower seed oil in supercritical methanol. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as

A. Demirbas

2008-01-01

177

Transesterification of brazilian vegetable oils with methanol over ion-exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transesterification of several Brazilian vegetable oils with methanol was carried out at 60C in the presence of several\\u000a ion-exchange resins having different structures. The vegetable oils used were from Babassu coconut, corn, palm, palm kernel,\\u000a and soybean. The effect of the methanol\\/oil mole ratio and the influences of the structure of the ion-exchange resin and the\\u000a type of vegetable

Simone C. M. dos Reis; Elizabeth R. Lachter; Regina S. V. Nascimento; Jorge A. Rodrigues; Marcelli Garcia Reid

2005-01-01

178

Impact of Vegetable Oil on Distribution of Trichloroethylene in Groundwater During Enhanced Bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are increasingly being used as long-term carbon donors to stimulate reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE). Besides potential enhancement of biodegradation, the addition of vegetables oils may impact TCE fate and distribution within the aquifer by acting as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Distribution coefficients for TCE between groundwater and four vegetable oils were determined using a slow-stir technique. Log

Min Pu; R. Ryan Dupont; William J. Doucette

2008-01-01

179

Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

1982-01-01

180

Reactivity of vegetable oil macromonomers in thiol-ene, cationic, and emulsion polymerizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oils were, and continue, to be a mainstay in unsaturated polyester ("alkyd") technology. Our endeavor is to use vegetable oil-based polymers in environmentally-friendly coatings. The role of vegetable oil cis-unsaturation has not been fully explored in polymers. To that end, vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) in three different systems were investigated to determine the involvement of cis-unsaturation in chain transfer, auto-oxidation, and copolymerization reactions. VOMMs were incorporated into UV curable thiol-ene coatings, UV cationic coatings, and acrylic solution copolymers and fundamental studies were conducted to determine how and to what extent cis-unsaturation contributes to film performance properties. In thiol-ene UV curable coatings, cis-unsaturation was involved in the initial curing reaction and to lesser degrees, in postcure crosslinking. Its behavior was determined to be dependent on the ene component. Thiol-ene photopolymerization yielded homogeneous networks but formulations containing VOMMs exhibited greater heterogeneity due to non-uniformity in the VOMM chemical structures, and the concurrent reactions occurring during thiol-ene photopolymerization and "dark cure". Partially epoxidized soybean oil was synthesized to contain varying levels of residual cis-unsaturation. Cationic photopolymerization of partially epoxidized soybean oil yielded lightly crosslinked films, but the influence of free radical decomposition byproducts has not been fully investigated. The low involvement of the cis-unsaturation in photopolymerization was attributed to its low reactivity and/or radical combination with antioxidants and molecular oxygen dissolved in the films. When used in emulsion polymerization, VOMMs lower the minimum filming temperature during coalescence and increase the Tg after application via auto-oxidation. Free radical polymerization of VOMMs is accompanied by chain transfer reactions between polymer radicals and VOMMs that reduces molecular weight and the auto-oxidation potential of the film. Retardation in polymerization rate correlated directly with increase in amount of unsaturation and conjugated unsaturation. Vegetable oils containing significant amounts of fatty acids with bisallylic hydrogen atoms were found to be more reactive towards chain transfer than fatty acids containing monoallylic hydrogen atoms. Model polymers were produced by functionalizing methacrylic copolymers through a mild reaction pathway in the absence of radicals. Copolymers with large quantities of bisallylic hydrogen atoms showed increased auto-oxidation reactivity as evidenced by greater consumption of cis-unsaturation and higher gel fractions.

Black, Micah Stephen

181

Physical properties of oils and mixtures of oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils are reviewed and compared and contrasted with the properties\\u000a of other oils and fats. More information is available for palm oil than for the other two. The properties of mixtures of the\\u000a oils also are considered, especially mixtures of palm and palm kernel oils in which a eutectic interaction occurs.

R. E. Timms

1985-01-01

182

Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization

D. Montero; F. Mathlouthi; L. Tort; J. M. Afonso; S. Torrecillas; A. Fernández-Vaquero; D. Negrin; M. S. Izquierdo

2010-01-01

183

The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward ensuring global food security for high-oleic vegetable oils. PMID:22790166

Wilson, Richard F

2012-01-01

184

Characteristics of bread and buns made with lard and vegetable oils of different iodine values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good-quality white loaf of bread or rolls can be baked by substituting liquid vegetable oil (canola, soya and palm) for\\u000a the standard shortening,i.e. lard, tallow or partially hydrogenated vegetable shortening. Canola oil and soya oil produced lower specific volumes of 5.56\\u000a and 5.55 cm3\\/g and higher softness indices when used with mono- and diglycerides only. Palm oil and lard

Basil S. Kamel

1992-01-01

185

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils].  

PubMed

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

186

Biophysical properties of wetlands vegetation retrieved from satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation carried out at wetlands in Biebrza Basin, the biggest area of the marshes and swamps in Central Europe, aimed at finding the best biophysical properties of wetlands vegetation to characterise marshland habitats. The various soil-vegetation indices on the basis of all considered spectral bands of satellites as Landsat +ETM, SPOT, ERS-2, NOAA, ENVISAT have been calculated. The GEMI

Katarzyna Dabrowska-Zielinska; Maria Gruszczynska; Herve Yesou; Wanda Kowalik; Agata Hoscilo; I. Malck

2004-01-01

187

The use of FT-IR spectroscopy in the identification of vegetable oils adulteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expensive high quality vegetable oils and animal fats are susceptible to adulteration. Substitution of high quality and expensive oils and fats with cheaper and inferior quality oils or fats and labeling of those products as pure products are often used by producers to obtain a maximum profit. Such falsification in the oils and fats domain as well as the other

Ersilia Alexa; Anca Dragomirescu; Georgeta Pop

188

Mycobiota of sunflower seeds and samples collected from vegetable oil refinery located in Tamilnadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower seeds and its products are widely consumed as fodder and vegetable oil in India. The mycobiota is known to produce\\u000a hazardous effects to the consumer by producing toxins. Hence the mycobiota starting from seed stage to kernel, Oiled Cake\\u000a (OC), De-Oiled Cake (DOC), Solvent Extracted Oil (SEO), Expeller Oil (EO) and Refined Oil (RO) were studied using Czapek-Dox\\u000a agar.

Narasimhan Banu; John P. Muthumary

2005-01-01

189

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? Themal Cracking of Waste Glycerol from Transesterification of Used Vegetable oil to Gasoline over Continuous Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Develop alternative fuels are becomes to interested which replacement the fossil energy, the bio-fuels from used vegetable oil is the one choice to applies in new alternative fuels but the trans-esterification from waste vegetable oil will gave small amount of glycerol which have impurity and can not apply the advantage is a substance for cosmetic production However, in recent

Witchakorn Charusiri; Jintana Ubonwat

190

Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

Harwood, H.J.

1981-06-01

191

Compliance Demonstration for the Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production NESHAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to provide an example of how a vegetable oil production process could demonstrate compliance with the solvent extraction for vegetable oil production NESHAP (40 CFR 63, Subpart GGGG). To comply with these NESHAP, staff at a...

2001-01-01

192

APPLICATION OF CROSS-BOREHOLE RADAR TO MONITOR FIELD­ SCALE VEGETABLE OIL INJECTION EXPERIMENTS FOR BIOSTIMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-borehole radar methods were used to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), located downgradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil is intended to serve as

Frederick D. Day-Lewis; Roelof J. Versteeg; Clifton C. Casey

193

Reforming of vegetable oil for production of hydrogen: A thermodynamic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetable oils are one of the promising renewable feedstock for production of hydrogen suitable for application in hydrogen based fuel cells for electrical power generation. In the present work, a thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of steam reforming (SR) and autothermal steam reforming (ATSR) of vegetable oils to synthesis gas was investigated by Gibbs free energy minimization method. The thermodynamic equilibrium

Sudhakara Reddy Yenumala; Sunil K. Maity

2011-01-01

194

Application of factorial design in optimization of anion exchange resin based methylation of vegetable oil and fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid and fairly selective method for the preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) based on anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA-904 catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oil\\/fat with iodomethane has been described. The vegetable oil and animal fats used were sunflower oil, palm oil, vanaspati (hydrogenated vegetable oil), olive oil, tallow and butter. A Plackett–Burman factorial experimental design was

Farah N. Talpur; M. I. Bhanger; A. U. Rahman; G. Zuhra Memon

2008-01-01

195

Fachgespraech 'Pflanzenoeltauglicher Diesel-Motor'. Ergebnisprotokoll. (Minutes of technical discussion on 'Diesel engine capable of using vegetable oil'. Results).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The minutes of technical discussions on 'Diesel engine capable of using vegetable oil' are submitted. Conclusions are appended to the subject areas, which are briefly outlined. There are individual reports on: Mixing vegetable oils for Diesels (no practic...

1987-01-01

196

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

2008-01-28

197

Lightning Impulse Breakdown Characteristics and Electrodynamic Process of Insulating Vegetable Oil-Based Nanofluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insulating vegetable oils are considered environment-friendly and fire-resistant substitutes for insulating mineral oils. This paper presents the lightning impulse breakdown characteristic of insulating vegetable oil and insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids. It indicates that Fe3O4 nanoparticles can increase the negative lightning impulse breakdown voltages of insulating vegetable oil by 11.8% and positive lightning impulse breakdown voltages by 37.4%. The propagation velocity of streamer is reduced by the presence of nanoparticles. The propagation velocities of streamer to positive and negative lightning impulse breakdown in the insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids are 21.2% and 14.4% lesser than those in insulating vegetable oils, respectively. The higher electrical breakdown strength and lower streamer velocity is explained by the charging dynamics of nanoparticles in insulating vegetable oil. Space charge build-up and space charge distorted filed in point-sphere gap is also described. The field strength is reduced at the streamer tip due to the low mobility of negative nanoparticles.

Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhao-Tao; Zou, Ping; Du, Bin; Liao, Rui-Jin

2012-06-01

198

Effects of thermal oxidation on the constitution of butterfat, butterfat fractions and certain vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the thermal oxidative behavior of butterfat in comparison to selected vegetable oils, samples of winter and summer\\u000a butterfat, liquid and solid butterfat fractions, and selected vegetable oils were heated at 185 C in the presence of air (30\\u000a ml\\/min) for 8 and 16 hr. The resultant heated fats and oils, as well as the methyl esters of their

D. B. Kupranycz; M. A. Amer; B. E. Baker

1986-01-01

199

Enzymatic Interesterification of Tripalmitin with Vegetable Oil Blends for Formulation of Caprine Milk Infant Formula Analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blendswasenzymaticallymodified,andtheblendswere incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to hu- man milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, andlinoleicacids,resemblingthecompositionofhuman milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterifica- tion reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blendcontaininga2.5:1.1:0.8ratioofcoconut,safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme

C. O. Maduko; C. C. Akoh; Y. W. Park

2007-01-01

200

Alternative Diesel Fuel Study on Four Different Types of Vegetable Oils of Turkish Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, com, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20\\/80 (v\\/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1200 and 2100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods.

TURGUT ÖZAKTA; F?L?Z KARAOSMANOGLU

1997-01-01

201

Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

1984-10-01

202

Performance of Vegetable Oils as Flotation Collectors for the Recovery of Coal from Coal Fines Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to study the feasibility of using vegetable oils which are available, renewable and nonpolluting energy resources as flotation reagents for the recovery of coal from coal fines wastes. To comply with this objective, crude SOC soyabean oil and a used AB olive oil of household origin were used as collectors in the flotation of

M. I. ALONSO; C. CASTANO; A. B. GARCIA

2000-01-01

203

CROSSFLOW ULTRAFILTRATION OF OILY WASTEWATER FROM VEGETABLE OIL INDUSTRY USING INORGANIC MEMBRANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetal oil industry produces large volumes of aqueous effluents in many of the operations involved in oil solvent extraction and crude oil refining processes. Therefore, these generated waste-waters should not be discharged without a suitable treatment in order to prevent negative impacts in the environment and allow the recovery of high added value products. At present, membrane separation processes

G. Z. Baralla; M. A. Matte

204

Bench-scale membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil: Process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances such as phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect the quality of the finished oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who are looking for alternative methods to improve conventional refining methods, and during the last decade, energy-efficient membrane separation technology

L. Lin; K. C. Rhee; S. S. Koseoglu

1997-01-01

205

Essential Oil Variation of Salvia officinalis Leaves during Vegetation after Treatment with Foliar Fertilizer and Thidiazuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil yield and chemical composition of Salvia officinalis L. (Dalmatica origin) have been analyzed. Leaf samples for essential oil analysis were harvested at different developmental stages after treatment with foliar fertilizer Agroleaf and foliar fertilizer + thidiazuron. In total, 10 constituents were identified and quantified. The main compounds in the essential oil that increased during the vegetative to

Ira Stancheva; Maria Geneva; Georgi Georgiev; Milka Todorova; Lyuba Evstatieva

2010-01-01

206

Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts and dispersing MNPs in the oil media, without the use of any external reducing or stabilizing agents. These well-dispersed MNP-in-oil dispersions can be used directly, akin to commercially available paints, on nearly all kinds of surface such as wood, glass, steel and different polymers. The surfaces coated with silver-nanoparticle paint showed excellent antimicrobial properties by killing both Gram-positive human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The process we have developed here is quite general and can be applied in the synthesis of a variety of MNP-in-oil systems.

Kumar, Ashavani; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; John, George

2008-03-01

207

Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration effects of chlorinated paraffin and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate on boundary lubrication properties were\\u000a tested in vegetable and mineral base stocks. Solvent refined low sulfur paraffinic mineral oil (150 N oil) and conventional\\u000a food grade soybean oil (soy oil) with EP additive concentration of 0–20% (w\\/w) were used in ASTM D2783 four-ball extreme pressure\\u000a (4-ball EP) and Twist Compression Tribotests

Svajus Joseph Asadauskas; Girma Biresaw; Ted G. McClure

2010-01-01

208

Antioxidant properties of essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography, we studied the antioxidant properties and stability during the storage\\u000a of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniper berry (Juniperus communis L.), fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum

T. A. Misharina; M. B. Terenina; N. I. Krikunova

2009-01-01

209

Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life

Sunil Ratnayake; Paul Lewandowski

2010-01-01

210

Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 ?l/cm² essential oil and 3.144 ?l/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC?? = 0.118 ?l/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC?? = 0.044 ?l/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD?? = 0.137 ?l/g) than the essential oil alone (LD?? = 0.193 ?l/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F? insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans. PMID:22410230

Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

2012-03-01

211

Biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil by various supercritical alcohols.  

PubMed

Biodiesel was prepared in various supercritical alcohol treatments with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, or 1-octanol to study transesterification of rapeseed oil and alkyl esterification of fatty acid at temperatures of 300 and 350 degrees C. The results showed that in transesterification, the reactivity was greatly correlated to the alcohol: the longer the alkyl chain of alcohol, the longer the reaction treatment. In alkyl esterification of fatty acids, the conversion did not depend on the alcohol type because they had a similar reactivity. Therefore, the selection of alcohol in biodiesel production should be based on consideration of its performance of properties and economics. PMID:15054233

Warabi, Yuichiro; Kusdiana, Dadan; Saka, Shiro

2004-01-01

212

Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al(HSO4)3 heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl3. This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method.

Kasirajan Ramachandran; Pandian Sivakumar; Tamilarasan Suganya; Sahadevan Renganathan

2011-01-01

213

Prediction of Acid Values of Vegetable Oils Having High Free Fatty Acids Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-edible vegetable oils are found to be a good option for diesel fuel, as these oils are renewable energy or green energy and less polluting to the environment. In developing countries like India, especially southern parts of the country (i.e., in Kerala), more land is cultivated with rubber trees. Rubber seed oil, a non-edible oil, can be used as an

M. Satyanarayana; C. Muraleedharan

2010-01-01

214

A Four-Year Analysis of Vegetation Following an Oil Spill in a Fresh Water Marsh.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in the composition of vegetation occurring in a freshwater marsh were studied for four years following an accidental oil spillage. Total plant cover and diversity measured by species richness, mean species per quadrat, and the Shannon-Wiener funct...

C. J. Burk

1976-01-01

215

21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated...Usage Additives § 172.736 Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of...

2010-01-01

216

21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated...Usage Additives § 172.736 Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of...

2013-04-01

217

21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated...Usage Additives § 172.736 Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of...

2009-04-01

218

Rheological Properties of a Biological Thermo-Hydrogel Produced from Soybean Oil Polymers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at room temperature and viscous fluid b...

219

Coal recovery from coal fines cleaning wastes by agglomeration with vegetable oils: effects of oil type and concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to obtain high calorific value products from coal fines cleaning wastes by agglomeration with vegetable oils. These residues are mainly being disposed of in dumps, causing important economic and environmental problems. Three Spanish coal fines wastes from different coal cleaning plants were agglomerated with crude and refined sunflower and soybean oils over a wide

Marta I Alonso; Adolfo F Valdés; Rosa M Mart??nez-Tarazona; Ana B Garcia

1999-01-01

220

Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each of the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained

Christian F. Børsting; Martin R. Weisbjerg; Torben Hvelplund

1992-01-01

221

Effect of iron on the sensitivity of hydrogen, acetate, and butyrate metabolism to inhibition by long-chain fatty acids in vegetable-oil-enriched freshwater sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial communities that develop when sediments are enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the absence of ferric hydroxide. This study examined the

Zhengkai Li; Brian A. Wrenn; Albert D. Venosa

2005-01-01

222

Direct oxidation of waste vegetable oil in solid-oxide fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-oxide fuel cells with ceria, ceria-Cu, and ceria-Rh anode were demonstrated to generate stable electric power with waste vegetable oil through direct oxidation of the fuel. The only pre-treatment to the fuel was a filtration to remove particulates. The performance of the fuel cell was stable over 100h for the waste vegetable oil without dilution. The generated power was up

Z. F. Zhou; R. Kumar; S. T. Thakur; L. R. Rudnick; H. Schobert; S. N. Lvov

2007-01-01

223

Biobased Epoxidized Vegetable Oils and Its Greener Epoxy Blends: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO) have drawn much attention in recent years, especially in the polymer industry as they are economical, available, environmentally friendly, non-noxious and renewable. Vegetable oils can be transformed into useful polymerizable oxygenated monomers commonly by Prileshajev-epoxidation, catalytic epoxidation using acidic ion exchange resin, chemo-enzymatic epoxidation, or metal-catalyzed epoxidation. Among those epoxidation methods, chemo-enzymatic epoxidation has achieved considerable

S. G. Tan; W. S. Chow

2010-01-01

224

Influence of fatty acids on the tocopherol stability in vegetable oils during microwave heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of 0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% levels of fatty acids (caproic, caprylic, capric and lauric) or hydrocarbons (decane\\u000a and dodecane) on tocopherol stability in vegetable oils during microwave heating were determined by measuring tocopherol losses\\u000a and carbonyl and anisidine values. The fatty acids showed similar prooxidant activities toward tocopherols in purified vegetable,\\u000a oils when heated in a microwave

Hiromi Yoshida; Mikiko Tatsumi; Goro Kajimoto

1992-01-01

225

Lipase-catalyzed incorporation of n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of immobilized lipases IM60 fromMucor miehei and SP435 fromCandida antarctica to modify the fatty acid composition of selected vegetable oils by incorporation of n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into\\u000a the vegetable oils was studied. The transesterification was carried out in organic solvent with free acid and ethyl esters\\u000a of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as acyl donors.

Kuan-hsiang Huang; Casimir C. Akoh

1994-01-01

226

Oxidation and low temperature stability of vegetable oil-based lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as base fluid for eco-friendly lubricants because of their excellent lubricity, biodegradability, viscosity–temperature characteristics and low volatility. Their use, however, is restricted due to low thermo-oxidative stability and poor cold flow behavior. This paper presents a systematic approach to improve the oxidation behavior and low temperature fluidity of vegetable oil derivatives. Among the various possible

Sevim Z. Erhan; Brajendra K. Sharma; Joseph M. Perez

2006-01-01

227

Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Vegetable Oils Using Nickel-Based Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils and fats are a renewable resource derived from biomass that can contribute to reduce the net emission of CO2 into the atmosphere if used to produce hydrogen for fuel-cell- based energy systems. In this paper, we present the results of the steam reforming of several vegetable oils with three different nickel-based commercial catalysts (ICI 46-1, ICI 46-4, and

Maximiliano Marquevich; Xavier Farriol; Francisco Medina; Daniel Montane ´

2001-01-01

228

Raman spectroscopic analysis of the cis\\/trans isomer composition of edible vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for determining thecis\\/trans isomer content of edible vegetable oils. The intensities of Raman lines near 1656 and 1670 cm?1 are associated with thecis andtrans configuration, respectively. A precision of ca. 1% can be obtained in thecis\\/trans isomer analysis of binary mixtures of methyl esters and triglycerides of monoenes and dienes and of hydrogenated vegetable\\u000a oils.

Glen F. Bailey; Robert J. Horvat

1972-01-01

229

Application of arrhenius kinetics to evaluate oxidative stability in vegetable oils by isothermal differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 10 different vegetable oils were oxidized at four different isothermal temperatures (383, 393, 403, and 413\\u000a K) in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The protocol involved oxidizing vegetable oils in a DSC cell with oxygen\\u000a flow. A rapid increase in evolved heat was observed with an exothermic heat flow appearing during initiation of the oxidation\\u000a reaction. From

C. P. Tan; Y. B. Che Man; J. Selamat; M. S. A. Yusoff

2001-01-01

230

Analysis of biodiesel and frying vegetable oils by means of FTIR photoacoustic spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy was \\u000a used to determine the mid-infrared vibrational modes of biodiesel and \\u000a vegetable oils. Our results indicate that this method can contribute \\u000a significantly to the biodiesel wash process during the sample preparation. \\u000a Besides, by analyzing the spectra of vegetable oils used to fry snacks we \\u000a could to monitor the degradation in function of the fried

S. M. Lima; T. Izida; M. S. Figueiredo; L. H. C. Andrade; P. V. Del Ré; N. Jorge; E. Buba; F. Aristone

2008-01-01

231

Leafy vegetable extracts—antioxidant activity and effect on storage stability of heated oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation was undertaken with an objective of analyzing the antioxidant capacity of leafy vegetables (LV) and testing their efficacy on storage of heated oils. Four leafy vegetables viz., cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum), hongone (Alternanthera sessilis), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were analyzed for antioxidant activity by standard methods. The ethanol extracts of LV were added

B. N. Shyamala; Sheetal Gupta; A. Jyothi Lakshmi; Jamuna Prakash

2005-01-01

232

ON THE USE OF DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY FOR QUALITY CONTROL OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality control of vegetable oils is becoming more stringent, and related laws are being enforced, especially for avoiding adulteration. As a result, there is a substantial need for methods of analysis that could provide real-time in-situ monitoring, especially for quality control purposes during production process. In this regard, the present paper investigates the possibility of monitoring qualitative characteristics of vegetable

A. Cataldo; E. Piuzzi; G. Cannazza; E. De Benedetto; L. Tarricone

2009-01-01

233

Vegetation cutting as a clean-up method for salt and brackish marshes impacted by oil spills: a review and case history of the effects on plant recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manual cutting of marsh vegetation contaminated by oil spills is often debated as a clean-up technique. Cutting oiled marsh vegetation may be proposed to prevent the oiling of sensitive wildlife associated with marshes. Less frequently, oiled marshes may be cut to aid vegetation recovery. This paper reviews several studies of oiled marsh cutting, and presents a case history of the

Scott A. Zengel; Jacqueline Michel

1996-01-01

234

Partitioning of dissolved chlorinated ethenes into vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-grade soybean oil (SoyOil) has been used to enhance in situ anaerobic bioremediation at sites contaminated with chlorinated ethenes (CEs). The abiotic interactions of SoyOil with the CEs may be significant and need to be better understood. The oil: water partition coefficients (Kp) of dissolved CEs into SoyOil were measured in batch tests and ranged from 22 to 1200 with

Patricia Pfeiffer; Angela R. Bielefeldt; Tissa Illangasekare; Bruce Henry

2005-01-01

235

Evaluation of the performance of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil in a flame tube furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a theoretical and experimental study of the biodiesel (ethyl ester from a waste vegetable oil) performance in a flame tube furnace. The heat transfer rate was analysed in several sections along the furnace and the performance of the biodiesel was compared to that of diesel oil. The flow of heat from the burn of each fuel in

Gustavo Rodrigues de Souza; Antonio Moreira dos Santos; Sérgio Lucas Ferreira; Keyll Carlos Ribeiro Martins; Délson Luiz Módolo

2009-01-01

236

Applied models to biodegradation kinetics of lubricant and vegetable oils in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation technologies are used in order to remove pollutants from the environment in a safe, economical and harmless way during the treatment of waste, especially with the use of techniques such as biodegradation. A lubricant and vegetable oil contaminated water sample was studied in order to evaluate the biodegradability of different types of oils, considering the relevance of the obtained

Renato N. Montagnolli; Paulo R. M. Lopes; Ederio D. Bidoia

2009-01-01

237

Lipid formation and ?-linolenic acid production by Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus sp., grown on vegetable oil  

PubMed Central

The fungi strains were tested in Bioscreen automated system to select the best nutritional source. Following, shaking submserse cultures were studied in media containing sole carbon or nitrogen source. The growth of these strains improved in media containing vegetable oil, with high concentration of lipids. The high concentration of ?-linolenic acid was obtained with M. circinelloides in culture containing sesame oil.

Tauk-Tornisielo, Samia M.; Arasato, Luciana S.; de Almeida, Alex F.; Govone, Jose S.; Malagutti, Eleni N.

2009-01-01

238

Application of ?-cyclodextrin for the stabilization and\\/or dispersion of vegetable oils containing triglycerides of  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the storage stability of instable vegetable oils with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acid triglycerides, these essential compounds can be complexed with native cyclodextrins. Only with ?-CD a nearly complete complexation of the oils was achieved as shown by complexation kinetics measurements. Storage trials of the insoluble CD-complexes followed by the determination of the peroxide value of

M. Regiert; T. Wimmer; J.-P. Moldenhauer

1996-01-01

239

Soapstock and deodorizer distillates from North American vegetable oils: Review on their characterization, extraction and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soapstock and deodorizer distillates are the major by-products from vegetable oil refining. They have little commercial value and are sold at a fraction of the oil cost. However, their characterization reveals the presence of numerous types of compounds, which could be extremely valuable if extracted at low cost. The literature in this area is discontinuous and warrants the effort to

Marie-Josée Dumont; Suresh S. Narine

2007-01-01

240

Feruloylated vegetable oils: synthesis and applications of UV-absorbing/antioxidative lipids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an effort to produce higher value uses for vegetable oils, we have developed an environmentally “green” process to transesterify soybean oil with the phenylpropanoid, ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is a natural plant component that absorbs light within the UVB and UVA regions (290 to 370 nm) and pos...

241

Vegetable Oil-based Diesel Fuels From 1900 to the Present  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diesel engine, invented and developed by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890's, was displayed at the Paris World Exposition in 1900. At that occasion, one of the displayed diesel engines ran on peanut oil. This event marks the beginning of the use of vegetable oils and, later, derivatives thereof as die...

242

Agricultural land use in life cycle assessment (LCA): case studies of three vegetable oil crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for environmental assessment of agricultural land use is outlined. Environmental objectives and indicators of the land use quality are defined. The method is tested in case studies of cultivated vegetable oil crops: Swedish rape seed, Brazilian soybean and Malaysian oil palm. The results from this study lead us to believe that the indicators soil erosion, soil organic matter,

Berit Mattsson; Christel Cederberg; Lisa Blix

2000-01-01

243

PAPER/POLYMERIZED VEGETABLE OIL COMPOSITES:BIODEGRADATION BEHAVIOR AND USE AS DEGRADABLE AGRICULTURAL MULCH FILM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Kraft paper was coated with different types of vegetable oil-based polyesters in order to increase wet strength, decrease biodegradation rates and create an alternative to non-degradable polyethylene mulch films. Paper saturated with natural polyunsaturated oils and then oxidatively polymerized (Co...

244

Utilization of vegetable oil in the production of clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of clavulanic acid (CA) by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 in shake-flask culture (28 °C, 250 rev min–1) was evaluated, with media containing different types and concentrations of edible vegetable oil. Firstly, four media based on those reported in the literature were examined. The medium containing soybean oil and starch as carbon and energy source gave the best production results. This

G. L. Maranesi; A. Baptista-Neto; C. O. Hokka; A. C. Badino

2005-01-01

245

Effects of mixing energy on the sedimentation of vegetable oil spills by clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of clay dose and mixing energy on the efficiency of vegetable oil sedimentation by clay are investigated. The sedimentation efficiency increased with increasing clay dose to a maximum of about 80% of added oil. The maximum sedimentation efficiency was achieved at a lower clay dose, and the sedimentation efficiency was greater for a given clay dose when the

B. A. Wrenn; R. J. Downer; A. D. Venosa

2010-01-01

246

A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

247

Properties of Transgenic Rapeseed Oil based Dielectric Liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral oil is poorly biodegradable and has a low flash point. It does not satisfy the requirement of environmental sustainability and fireproofing. Whereas vegetable oil-based dielectric liquid is fully biodegradable and has a higher flash point and relative permittivity. This paper presents a type of insulating oil refined from a transgenic rapeseed oil. The oil-refining procedure is introduced. Chemical, physical

Xiaohu Li; Jian Li; Caixin Sun

2006-01-01

248

How does Biotech Labeling Affect Consumers' Purchasing Behavior? A Case Study of Vegetable Oils in Nanjing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes whether biotech labeling has an impact on consumers'? purchasing behavior in China using vegetable oils in Nanjing as a case study. Results from an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) based on retail scanning data suggest that biotech labeling induced only a modest switch in vegetable oils consumption away from labeled soybean and blended oils and toward non-biotech

Yingchun Dai; Francis C. Tuan; William W. Lin; Funing Zhong; Xi Chen

2006-01-01

249

Vegetable oil blend as alternative lipid resources in diets for gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent decreasing worldwide supplies of marine oils have forced the aquaculture industry to investigate alternative lipid\\u000a sources for use in marine fish feeds. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of dietary replacement of fish oil\\u000a by vegetable oils on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) growth performance, nutritive utilization, body composition, and fatty acid profile as well as

Elham A. Wassef; Norhan E. Saleh; Heyam A. El-Abd El-Hady

2009-01-01

250

Bioremediation of Vegetable Oil and Grease from Polluted Wastewater Using a Sand Biofilm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. (L1), P. diminuta(L2) were among eight bacterial strains isolated from vegetable grease and oil-contaminated industrial wastewater, four of\\u000a which only were found to have the ability to degrade oil and grease. They were identified and investigated for oil and grease\\u000a degradation either individually or in combinations in previous unpublished work by the authors. Since the combination M1 (Pseudomonas

Mohamed H. El-Masry; Ebtesam El-Bestawy; Nawal I. El-Adl

2004-01-01

251

Utilization of ethyl ester of waste vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan relies heavily on expensive and unreliable imported oil. Therefore, this study was initiated to investigate the potential of ethyl ester used as vegetable oil (VO; biodiesel) to substitute oil-based diesel fuel. The fuels tested were several ester\\/diesel blends including 100% ester in addition to diesel fuel, which served as the baseline fuel. Variable-speed tests were run on all fuels

Mohamad I Al-Widyan; Ghassan Tashtoush; Moh'd Abu-Qudais

2002-01-01

252

Structure of unsaturated vegetable oil glycerides: Direct calculation from fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition and structure of unsaturated glycerides of vegetable oils can be calculated directly from the fatty acid composition\\u000a of the oil. Fatty acid distribution on the 2 position as normally determined by lipase hydrolysis is calculated from the composition\\u000a of the whole oil by applying the following three rules in their respective order: Saturated fatty acids and those with chain

C. D. Evans; D. G. McConnell; G. R. List; C. R. Scholfield

1969-01-01

253

Early mortality effect of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have been suspected to have potential adverse health effects but no definitive conclusions about their safety have been reached. Instead, beneficial effects have been reported in animal experiments (e.g., hypotensive, anti-atherogenic and anti-thrombotic activities of hydrogenated corn oil as compared with olive oil in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP)). However, we have found that both partially

Makoto Miyazaki; Min-Zhao Huang; Shiro Watanabe; Tetsuyuki Kobayashi; Harumi Okuyama

1998-01-01

254

Determination of brominated vegetable oils in soft drinks by gas liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the qualitative and quantitative determination of brominated vegetable oils in soft drinks. The\\u000a procedure involves treatment of the brominated oils with sodium methoxide followed by GLC analysis of the resulting methyl\\u000a esters using methyl pentadecanoate as internal standard. Recoveries on known amounts of these oils ranged between 93.7% and\\u000a 102.4%. The technique, applied to several

H. B. S. Conacher; R. K. Chadha; M. R. Sahasrabudhe

1969-01-01

255

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production using waste vegetable oil by Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2.  

PubMed

To produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from inexpensive substrates by bacteria, vegetable-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from a rice field using enrichment cultivation. The isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 showed clear orange or red spots of accumulated PHA granules when grown on phosphate and nitrogen limited medium containing vegetable oil as the sole carbon source and stained with Nile blue A. Up to 37.34% (w/w) of intracellular PHA was produced from corn oil, which consisted of three major 3-hydroxyalkanoates; octanoic (C8:0, 37.75% of the total 3-hydroxyalkanoate content of PHA), decanoic (C10:0, 36.74%), and dodecanoic (C12:0, 11.36%). Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated up to 23.52% (w/w) of PHAMCL from waste vegetable oil. The proportion of 3- hydroxyalkanoate of the waste vegetable-oil-derived PHA [hexanoic (5.86%), octanoic (45.67%), decanoic (34.88%), tetradecanoic (8.35%), and hexadecanoic (5.24%)] showed a composition ratio different from that of the corn-oil-derived PHA. Strain DR2 used three major fatty acids in the same ratio, and linoleic acid was the major source of PHA production. Interestingly, the production of PHA in Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 could not occur in either acetate- or butyrate-amended media. Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated a greater amount of PHA than other well-studied strains (Chromobacterium violaceum and Ralstonia eutropha H16) when grown on vegetable oil. The data showed that Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 was capable of producing PHA from waste vegetable oil. PMID:18756101

Song, Jin Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok; Choi, Mun Hwan; Yoon, Sung Chul; Park, Woojun

2008-08-01

256

Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

Goodrum, J.W.

1986-01-01

257

Effects of deodorization on the stability of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Corn oil, soybean oil, and grain sorghum oil have been deodorized in a laboratory unit equipped with a take-off for removal\\u000a of samples at various times during deodorization. Stabilities of the oils increase rapidly during the initial part of the\\u000a deodorization and this increase is caused apparently by heat destruction of pro-oxidants such as peroxides rather than by\\u000a removal of

A. Richard Baldwin

1948-01-01

258

Electrical properties of rape-seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to verify possible application fields of rape-seed oil as insulating material, detailed investigations of dielectric properties - like dielectric dissipation factor tan ?, relative permittivity ?r, specific DC resistance ? - and breakdown strength under AC stress have been carried out. Relevant parameters, with respect to electrical and dielectric properties, are water content and oil temperature as well

M. Hemmer; R. Badent; A. J. Schwab

2002-01-01

259

Inhibition of germination and vegetative growth of Bacillus cereus T and Clostridium botulinum 62A spores by essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine plant essential oils (EOs) were studied for their anti-bacterial effect on spores and vegetative cells ofClostridium botulinum62A andBacillus cereusT. Cedar oil at the concentration of 300 ppm was the most active againstB. cereusT andC. botulinumspores and vegetative cells. Spores were generally less resistant than vegetative cells, except for the essential oils of eucalyptus and camomile (300 ppm), which demonstrated

A Chaibi; L. H Ababouch; K Belasri; S Boucetta; F. F Busta

1997-01-01

260

Conversion of used vegetable oils to liquid fuels and chemicals over HZSM-5, sulfated zirconia and hybrid catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand’s food manufacturing uses about 47 Million liters per year of vegetable oil. Used vegetable oil is classified as\\u000a waste, but has potential for conversion into liquid fuel. This research studied the catalytic conversion of used vegetable\\u000a oil to liquid fuel, where investigation was performed in a batch microreactor over a temperature range of 380–430 ?C, initial\\u000a pressure of hydrogen

Witchakorn Charusiri; Withaya Yongchareon; Tharapong Vitidsant

2006-01-01

261

Hydrodeoxygenation of waste vegetable oil over sulfide catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of waste cooking oil and trapped grease over sulfide catalysts was examined to produce high quality transportation fuel from low-grade resources. The hydrodeoxygenation of waste oils was carried out in a high pressure batch reactor and a fixed bed flow reactor. Sulfide catalysts showed high HDO activity and all waste oils gave n-paraffins, isoparaffins and small amount of

Makoto Toba; Yohko Abe; Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Masahiro Osako; T. Mochizuki; Yuji Yoshimura

2011-01-01

262

Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 18 billion pounds of soybean oil is produced annually in the United States with a yearly carryover of more than 300 million pounds. How to utilize this surplus oil effectively becomes a large economic issue in the U.S. agricultural community. Soybean oil is a relatively cheap raw materia...

263

Quantification of blending of olive oils and edible vegetable oils by triacylglycerol fingerprint gas chromatography and chemometric tools.  

PubMed

A reliable procedure for the identification and quantification of the adulteration of olive oils in terms of blending with other vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, seeds, sesame and soya) has been developed. From the analytical viewpoint, the whole procedure relies only on the results of the determination of the triacylglycerol profile of the oils by high temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chromatographic profiles were pre-treated (baseline correction, peak alignment using iCoshift algorithm and mean centering) before building the models. At first, a class-modeling approach, Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was used to identify the vegetable oil used blending. Successively, a separate calibration model for each kind of blending was built using Partial Least Square (PLS). The correlation coefficients of actual versus predicted concentrations resulting from multivariate calibration models were between 0.95 and 0.99. In addition, Genetic algorithms (GA-PLS), were used, as variable selection method, to improve the models which yielded R(2) values higher than 0.90 for calibration set. This model had a better predictive ability than the PLS without feature selection. The results obtained showed the potential of this method and allowed quantification of blends of olive oil in the vegetable oils tested containing at least 10% of olive oil. PMID:22366282

Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; Marini, Federico; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; González-Casado, Antonio

2012-02-09

264

Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF\\/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of

Pirjo Isosaari; Olli Laine; Tuula Tuhkanen; Terttu Vartiainen

2005-01-01

265

Short communication: rapid detection of milk fat adulteration with vegetable oil by fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

This study assessed the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy in detecting adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil and characterizing the samples according to the source of the fat. Pure butterfat was adulterated with different vegetable oils at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40%). Nonfat and reduced-fat milk were also adulterated with vegetable oils to simulate full-fat milk (3.2%). The 2- and 3-dimensional front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to obtain the fluorescence spectra and fatty acid profile, respectively. Principal component analysis and 3-way partial least squares regression analysis were applied to analyze the data. The pure and adulterated samples were discriminated based on the total concentration of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, and also on the 3 major fluorophores: tryptophan, tocopherols, and riboflavin. Fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect up to 5% of adulteration of vegetable oil into the butterfat. The saturated fatty acids showed higher predictability than the unsaturated fatty acids (R(2) = 0.73-0.92 vs. 0.20-0.65, respectively). The study demonstrated the high potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly detect adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil, and discriminate commercial butter and milk according to the source of the fat. PMID:23415535

Ntakatsane, M P; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

2013-02-15

266

Reaction pathways for the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and related model compounds.  

PubMed

Vegetable oil-based feeds are regarded as an alternative source for the production of fuels and chemicals. Paraffins and olefins can be produced from these feeds through catalytic deoxygenation. The fundamentals of this process are mostly studied by using model compounds such as fatty acids, fatty acid esters, and specific triglycerides because of their structural similarity to vegetable oils. In this Review we discuss the impact of feedstock, reaction conditions, and nature of the catalyst on the reaction pathways of the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and its derivatives. As such, we conclude on the suitability of model compounds for this reaction. It is shown that the type of catalyst has a significant effect on the deoxygenation pathway, that is, group?10 metal catalysts are active in decarbonylation/decarboxylation whereas metal sulfide catalysts are more selective to hydrodeoxygenation. Deoxygenation studies performed under H2 showed similar pathways for fatty acids, fatty acid esters, triglycerides, and vegetable oils, as mostly deoxygenation occurs indirectly via the formation of fatty acids. Deoxygenation in the absence of H2 results in significant differences in reaction pathways and selectivities depending on the feedstock. Additionally, using unsaturated feedstocks under inert gas results in a high selectivity to undesired reactions such as cracking and the formation of heavies. Therefore, addition of H2 is proposed to be essential for the catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil feeds. PMID:23913576

Gosselink, Robert W; Hollak, Stefan A W; Chang, Shu-Wei; van Haveren, Jacco; de Jong, Krijn P; Bitter, Johannes H; van Es, Daan S

2013-08-01

267

Algae, Canola, or Palm Oils—Diesel Microemulsion Fuels: Phase Behaviors, Viscosity, and Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are being considered as a renewable energy alternative for diesel. The high viscosity of vegetable oils causes injector fouling and durability problems in compression–ignition engines. Microemulsification can be used to reduce vegetable oil viscosity without complex chemical transformation processes. The goal of our work is to formulate reverse micellar microemulsions of vegetable oils and No. 2 diesel fuel

Linh D. Do; Vinay Singh; Lixia Chen; Tohren C. G. Kibbey; Sub. R. Gollahalli; David A. Sabatini

2011-01-01

268

Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.  

PubMed

The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

2011-12-30

269

Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil to hydrocarbon oil: Influence of temperature, residence time, and catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil was investigated under the conditions of different temperatures (350–500°C) and residence time as well as catalyst using HZSM-5. Results suggested low temperature was favorable for the formation of diesel-like products, while high temperature caused more gasoline-like products. By the addition of HZSM-5, at 450°C alkanes content of the obtained oil with low oxygen content

Yigang Chen; Fan Yang; Libin Wu; Chao Wang; Zhengyu Yang

2011-01-01

270

Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.  

PubMed

Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2)?=?0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE?=?104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2)?=?0.70 and RMSE?=?110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

2013-01-16

271

Deactivation of HDS catalysts in deoxygenation of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several rapeseed oils with different degree of upgrading were used as feedstocks for deoxygenation over sulfided CoMo\\/?-Al2O3 catalyst. The rapeseed oil samples differed in the concentration of inorganic impurities, water, free fatty acids and phospholipids. The catalytic experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor at constant reaction conditions (310°C, WHSV=2h?1, hydrogen pressure 3.5MPa). Refined rapeseed oils were converted

David Kubi?ka; Jan Horá?ek

2011-01-01

272

Studies on antioxidant treatments of crude vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments of crude safflowerseed, soybean, sunflowerseed and cottonseed oils with the antioxidant compounds butylated hydroxyanisole\\u000a (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) have been investigated. PG and TBHQ were effective in inhibiting\\u000a oxidative degradation of the crude oils subjected to long term storage as determined by measurement of peroxide formation\\u000a in the oils during storage and by determination of

E. R. Sherwin; B. M. Luckadoo

1970-01-01

273

Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types on Mountain Han.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of broadleaf and conifer vegetation on soil microbial communities in a distinct vertical distribution belt in Northeast China. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths from four vegetation types at different altitudes, which were characterized by poplar (Populus davidiana) (1250-1300 m), poplar (P. davidiana) mixed with birch (Betula platyphylla) (1370-1550 m), birch (B. platyphylla) (1550-1720 m), and larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) (1840-1890 m). Microbial biomass and community structure were determined using the fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and soil fungal community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were characterized using Biolog FF Microplates. It was found that soil properties, especially soil organic carbon and water content, contributed significantly to the variations in soil microbes. With increasing soil depth, the soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal catabolic ability diminished; however, the ratio of fungi to bacteria increased. The fungal ratio was higher under larch forests compared to that under poplar, birch, and their mixed forests, although the soil microbial biomass was lower. The direct contribution of vegetation types to the soil microbial community variation was 12%. If the indirect contribution through soil organic carbon was included, variations in the vegetation type had substantial influences on soil microbial composition and diversity. PMID:23737003

Wang, Miao; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Yuan, Xiu

2013-06-05

274

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANT APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to unfavorable impact on the environment by mineral oil based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the demand for biodegradable, environment friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegeta...

275

Continuous Transethylation of Vegetable Oils by Microwave Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of continuous preparation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from coconut, rice bran and used frying (palm) oils in a modified home made microwave oven (800 Watts) are described. Good yields FAEEs are obtained with 1.0 % sodium hydroxide (in excess) as a catalyst. With the alcohol to oils molar ratio of 9:1, 100% conversion is obtained within

V. Lertsathapornsuk; P. Ruangying; R. Pairintra; K. Krisnangkura

276

Quality and statistical classification of Brazilian vegetable oils using mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Palm oil, soy oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil, and rapeseed oil were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The quality of different oils was evaluated and statistically classified by principal component analysis (PCA) and a partial least squares (PLS) regression model. First, a calibration set of spectra was selected from one sampling batch. The qualitative variations in spectra are discussed with a prediction of oil composition (saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids) from mid-infrared analysis and iodine value from FT-Raman analysis, based on ratioing the intensity of bands at given wavenumbers. A more robust and convincing oil classification is obtained from two-parameter statistical models. The statistical analysis of FT-Raman spectra favorably distinguishes according to the iodine value, while the mid-infrared spectra are most sensitive to hydroxyl moieties. Second, the models are validated with a set of spectra from another sampling batch, including the same oil types as-received and after different aging times together with a hydrogenated castor oil and high-oleic sunflower oil. There is very good agreement between the model predictions and the Raman measurements, but the statistical significance is lower for mid-infrared spectra. In the future, this calibration model will be used to check vegetable oil qualities before using them in polymerization processes. PMID:22524961

Samyn, Pieter; Van Nieuwkerke, Dieter; Schoukens, Gustaaf; Vonck, Leo; Stanssens, Dirk; Van den Aabbeele, Henk

2012-05-01

277

VEGETATIVE STABILIZATION OF SPENT OIL SHALES: VEGETATION MOISTURE SALINITY AND RUNOFF, 1973-76  

EPA Science Inventory

Disposal of massive amounts of spent shale will be required if an oil shale industry using surface retorting is developed. Field studies were initiated in 1973 on two types of spent oil shale--coarse-textured (USBM), and fine-textured (TOSCO). The objectives of these studies were...

278

Comparative performance evaluation of karanja vegetable oil and karanja biodiesel blends with diesel in C.I. engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

.com Abstract- Karanja oil (a non edible straight vegetable oil) and karanja biodiesel (methyl ester of karanja oil) were blended with petroleum diesel in various proportions to evaluate and compare the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection constant speed diesel engine. Diesel and karanja oil and karanja biodiesel (10%, 20%,30% and 40%) fuel blends were used

R. D. Misra; M. S. Murthy

2011-01-01

279

Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

280

Partitioning of dissolved chlorinated ethenes into vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Food-grade soybean oil (SoyOil) has been used to enhance in situ anaerobic bioremediation at sites contaminated with chlorinated ethenes (CEs). The abiotic interactions of SoyOil with the CEs may be significant and need to be better understood. The oil: water partition coefficients (Kp) of dissolved CEs into SoyOil were measured in batch tests and ranged from 22 to 1200 with increasing chlorination. CE mixtures significantly reduced the Kp for tetrachloroethene (PCE), but not the other CEs. Simple flow tests were used to quantify the mass transfer coefficients (kL) of dissolved CEs into SoyOil. Higher kL values corresponded to the CEs with higher diffusivity in water. CE mixtures reduced the kL for all of the CEs. The results can be used to predict abiotic interactions and distribution of contaminant mass expected after SoyOil injection, and thus provide a more accurate estimate of the mass of CEs removed due to enhanced biodegradation. PMID:16242753

Pfeiffer, Patricia; Bielefeldt, Angela R; Illangasekare, Tissa; Henry, Bruce

2005-10-20

281

Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances, and some questions concerning the safety of synthetic compounds have encouraged more detailed studies of plant resources. Essential oils, odorous and volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, have a wide application in folk medicine, food flavouring and preservation as well as in fragrance industries. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been known for many centuries. In recent years (1987-2001), a large number of essential oils and their constituents have been investigated for their antimicrobial properties against some bacteria and fungi in more than 500 reports. This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities. The agar diffusion method (paper disc and well) and the dilution method (agar and liquid broth) as well as turbidimetric and impedimetric monitoring of microorganism growth in the presence of tested essential oils are described. Factors influencing the in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the mechanisms of essential oils action on microorganisms are reported. This paper gives an overview on the susceptibility of human and food-borne bacteria and fungi towards different essential oils and their constituents. Essential oils of spices and herbs (thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove) were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested. PMID:12678685

Kalemba, D; Kunicka, A

2003-05-01

282

Germicidal Properties of Ozonated Sunflower Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to establish the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of ozonated sunflower oil for various microorganisms. To determine the influence of the ozonated medium on the growth of bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and yeast Candida albicans the Petri dish method was used. Chemical and physical properties of ozonated sunflower oil were additionally studied. Microbiological studies

Kinga Skalska; Stanis?aw Ledakowicz; Jan Perkowski; Barbara Sencio

2009-01-01

283

Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

NONE

1995-03-01

284

Shokubutsu haiyu no sekiyu daitai energy to shite no saisei kanosei chosa. (Research on feasibility of utilization of spent vegetable oils as substitutes for petroleum-derived oils).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Until now, spent industrial-use vegetable oil has been reutilized as feed-use additives and for the fatty acid industry. The paper studies a possibility of using it as petroleum substitution energy. It is feared that the spent vegetable oil will be illega...

1994-01-01

285

Vegetable oils: Effects of processing, storage and use on nutritional values  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, vegetable oils are the source of most of the visible fat in the U.S. diet. They are used as salad and\\u000a cooking oils, in salad dressing, margarine and shortening. Processing methods include extraction, refining, hydrogenation\\u000a and interesterification. During storage and use, the products are exposed to oxygen and\\/or heat, particularly during frying.\\u000a Processing, storage and use

R. E. Landers; D. M. Rathmann

1981-01-01

286

Oxidative stability of fat substitutes and vegetable oils by the oxidative stability index method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative Stability Index (OSI) of carbohydrate fatty acid polyesters, fat substitutes and vegetable oils were measured with\\u000a the Omnion Oxidative Stability Instrument according to the new AOCS Standard Method Cd 12 B-92 (The Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, edited by D. Firestone, AOCS, Champaign, 1991). The stability of crude and refined, bleached and deodorized

Casimir C. Akoh

1994-01-01

287

Hydrogenation of vegetable oils using mixtures of supercritical carbon dioxide and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenation of vegetable oils under supercritical conditions can involve a homogeneous one-phase system, or alternatively\\u000a two supercritical components in the presence of a condensed phase consisting of oil and a solid catalyst. The former operation\\u000a is usually conducted in flow reactors while the latter mode is more amenable to stirred, batch-reactor technology. Although\\u000a many advantages have been cited for the

Jerry W. King; Russell L. Holliday; Gary R. List; Janet M. Snyder

2001-01-01

288

Enzymatic Synthesis of Biodiesel from Transesterification Reactions of Vegetable Oils and Short Chain Alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel synthesis by alcoholysis of three vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower and rice bran) catalyzed by three commercial\\u000a lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme TL-IM and Lipozyme RM-IM), and the optimization of the enzymes stability over repeated batches\\u000a is described. The effects of the molar ratio of alcohol to oil and the reaction temperature with methanol, ethanol, propanol\\u000a and butanol were also studied.

Rafael Costa Rodrigues; Giandra Volpato; Keiko Wada; Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub

2008-01-01

289

Green approach for the preparation of biodegradable lubricant base stock from epoxidized vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process for the production of biodegradable lubricant-based stocks from epoxidized vegetable oil with a lower pour point via cationic ion-exchange resins as catalysts was developed. This involves two steps, first, ring-opening reactions by alcoholysis followed by esterification of the resultant hydroxy group in the first step.The ring-opening reaction of epoxidized soybean oil with different alcohols such as n-butanol,

Piyush S. Lathi; Bo Mattiasson

2007-01-01

290

Treatment of vegetable oil refining wastes to conform to government regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and conventional methods for the treatment of vegetable oil waste water are described. The results obtained and\\u000a the economics of the various processes for oil-water separation are reported. A process utilizing selective adsorption filtration\\u000a is described. The new regeneration procedure for cleaning the filter media allows for its total reuse. The process produces\\u000a effluent water which will conform to

Mollie Kaye Cantrell; Howard F. Keller

1975-01-01

291

Trends in industrial use of vegetable oils in coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkyd resins continue to be a major factor in coatings. Increased oil consumption in alkyd manufacture is not expected to\\u000a be significant. Projections indicate a modest growth in total coatings usage at 2–3% per year. The industry is facing diverse\\u000a coating performance demands that will bring unusual, more costly ingredients into use, probably at the expense of traditional\\u000a oil-based alkyd

Richard W. Fulmer

1985-01-01

292

Control of Aeromonas on minimally processed vegetables by decontamination with lactic acid, chlorinated water, or thyme essential oil solution.  

PubMed

Aeromonas is an opportunistic pathogen, which, although in low numbers, may be present on minimally processed vegetables. Although the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of minimally processed prepacked vegetable mixes are not inhibitory to the growth of Aeromonas species, multiplication to high numbers during processing and storage of naturally contaminated grated carrots, mixed lettuce, and chopped bell peppers was not observed. Aeromonas was shown to be resistant towards chlorination of water, but was susceptible to 1% and 2% lactic acid and 0.5% and 1.0% thyme essential oil treatment, although the latter provoked adverse sensory properties when applied for decontamination of chopped bell peppers. Integration of a decontamination step with 2% lactic acid in the processing line of grated carrots was shown to have the potential to control the overall microbial quality of the grated carrots and was particularly effective towards Aeromonas. PMID:14751681

Uyttendaele, M; Neyts, K; Vanderswalmen, H; Notebaert, E; Debevere, J

2004-02-01

293

The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment works using coagulation\\/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The

M. Basibuyuk; D. G. Kalat

2004-01-01

294

Enzymatic production of biodiesel from used\\/waste vegetable oils: Design of a pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a proposed pilot plant has been designed to produce 1tonh?1 biodiesel (BD) from waste\\/used vegetable oil using enzymatic approach. Complete material and energy balances were carried out using Excel spreadsheets, and detailed equipment sizing were determined. Immobilized lipase (Novozyme 435) is used as a catalyst in a packed bed bioreactor. The effluent of the reactor is passed

Sulaiman Al-Zuhair; Asma Almenhali; Iman Hamad; Maryam Alshehhi; Noura Alsuwaidi; Suaad Mohamed

2011-01-01

295

Temperature-dependent viscosity correlations of vegetable oils and biofuel–diesel mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscosity correlations of peanut, soy, sunflower, waste vegetable oil and its biofuel mixtures with diesel are presented based on three suggested equations. Calibrated capillary viscometers are used for measurements. Temperature is changed between the range of 20 °C and 120 °C. Correlations show small standard errors based on the method of curve fitting.

Nadir Yilmaz

2011-01-01

296

State of art of the application of membrane technology to vegetable oils: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review has as objective to present the applications and the recent development of membrane technology in the vegetable oil processing. It approaches fundamentals aspects in the processes of separation by membranes as well as present the related works in the degumming, dewaxing, deacidification, solvent recovery, pigment removal, concentration of minor components and separation of emulsions. Its

Cesar de Morais Coutinho; Ming Chih Chiu; Rodrigo Correa Basso; Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro; Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio Viotto

2009-01-01

297

Continuous production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil using supercritical methanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using supercritical methanol was developed using a tube reactor. Increasing the proportion of methanol, reaction pressure and reaction temperature can enhance the production yield effectively. However, side reactions of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) occur when the reaction temperature is over 300°C, which lead to much loss of material. There is

Huayang He; Tao Wang; Shenlin Zhu

2007-01-01

298

NIR spectrometric determination of quality parameters in vegetable oils using iPLS and variable selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an analytical method for simultaneous near-infrared (NIR) spectrometric determination of acidity, refractive index and viscosity in four types of edible vegetable oils (corn, soya, canola and sunflower). For this purpose, a combination of spectral range selection by interval partial least squares (iPLS) and variable selection by the successive projections algorithm (SPA) is proposed to obtain simple multiple

Alessandra Félix Costa Pereira; Márcio José Coelho Pontes; Francisco Fernandes Gambarra Neto; Sérgio Ricardo Bezerra Santos; Roberto Kawakami Harrop Galvão; Mário César Ugulino Araújo

2008-01-01

299

FURTHER STUDIESON THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BUTTER FAT,VEGETABLE OILS, AND OLEOMARGARINES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data showing the superiority of butter fat as compared with the vegetable oils for the growth of young rats have been published previously (Schantz, Elvehjem and Hart, '40). This experimental work was carried out with raw skimmed milk as the basal portion of the ration into which were homog enized the fats at a 4% level. Experiments have also been

K. K. BOUTWELL; K. P. GEYER; C. A. ELVEHJEM; E. B. HABT

300

Synthesis, droplet combustion, and sooting characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the potential of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) as a renewable energy source, an innovative acid catalyzed process was developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. The synthesized biodiesels were analytically characterized for their major components, molar fraction and molecular weight of each component, the average molecular weight, and the heat of

T. X. Li; D. L. Zhu; N. K. Akafuah; K. Saito; C. K. Law

2011-01-01

301

Application of genetic algorithm for optimization of vegetable oil hydrogenation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding optimal reaction conditions leading to minimal total trans isomer and maximal cis-oleic acid formation during vegetable oil hydrogenation is very crucial. An Artificial Neural Network was developed and used to predict the amount of total trans isomer and cis-oleic acid during the hydrogenation process. Using a large number of experimental data from a pilot plant reactor, the Neural Network

M. Izadifar; M. Zolghadri Jahromi

2007-01-01

302

Free fatty acid separation from vegetable oil deodorizer distillate using molecular distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillates of the vegetable oil deodorization are composed of free fatty acids (FFA), sterols, tocopherols, sterol esters, hydrocarbons and breakdown products of fatty acids, aldehydes, ketones and acylglycerols. The content of free fatty acids in deodorizer distillates varies between 25 and 75%. Due to its high content, free fatty acid separation from deodorizer distillate is an important step to concentrate

P. F. Martins; V. M. Ito; C. B. Batistella; M. R. W. Maciel

2006-01-01

303

Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5

Ashraf A. Yousef; Alaa B. Abbas; Bassam Sh. Badawi; Wafaa Y. Al-Jowhar; Esam A. Zain; Seham A. El-Mufti

2012-01-01

304

Use of tetrabutylammonium tribromide for voltametric titration of unsaturation in vegetable oils and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of tetrabutylammonium tribromide as reagent for bromination of carbon-carbon double bonds of fatty acids and vegetable\\u000a oils, followed by a voltametric titration of tribromide and bromide ions, has been studied. This method is easy and fast,\\u000a and results show good accuracy and high sensitivity.

J. Berthelota; P. L. Desbène; A. Desbène-Monvernay

1993-01-01

305

Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the

E. S. Lipinsky; S. Kresovich; C. K. Wagner; H. R. Appelbaum; T. A. McClure; J. L. Otis; D. A. Trayser

1982-01-01

306

Lubricant properties of Moringa oil using thermal and tribological techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing application of biobased lubricants could significantly reduce environmental pollution and contribute to the\\u000a replacement of petroleum base oils. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates\\u000a for use as base fluids in formulation of environment friendly lubricants. Although many vegetable oils have excellent lubricity,\\u000a they often have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. Here

Brajendra K. Sharma; Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Sevim Z. Erhan

2009-01-01

307

The use of isotope ratios (13C/12C) for vegetable oils authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes are now increasingly used for the control of the geographical origin or authenticity of food products. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. In this study 22 vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, palm, maize) commercialized on Romanian market were investigated by mean of ?13C in bulk oil and the obtained results were compared with those reported in literature in order to check the labeling of these natural products. The obtained results were in the range of the mean values found in the literature for these types of oils, thus providing their accurate labeling.

Cristea, G.; Magdas, D. A.; Mirel, V.

2012-02-01

308

Impacts of cell surface characteristics on population dynamics in a sequencing batch yeast reactor treating vegetable oil-containing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten yeast strains acquired from different sources and capable of utilizing vegetable oil or related compounds (fatty acid\\u000a or oleic acid) as sole carbon sources were inoculated into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of high-strength\\u000a vegetable oil-containing wastewater. The SBR system stably removed >89% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and >99% of oil when\\u000a fed with wastewater

Wenzhou Lv; Abd El-Latif Hesham; Yu Zhang; Xinchun Liu; Min Yang

2011-01-01

309

Waste Vegetable Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alternative fuels have become a hot topic in the news as the cost of oil remains volatile. Questions of whether acquiring alternative fuels are worth the cost, logistics, and political implications are being asked. A possible solution may be currently thr...

G. S. Harvey

2009-01-01

310

Gas chromatographic characterization of soapstocks from vegetable oil refining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography was used after trimethylsilyl derivatization to determine the composition of soapstocks from corn germ and peanut oil refining. Soap fatty acids, polyalcohols, small carbohydrates, sterols, steryl glycosides, mono-, di- and triglycerides were measured using a hexamethyldisilazane\\/pyridine preparation and a high-temperature capillary column. Additional peaks associated with the fatty acids appeared in the chromatograms when pyridine was incorporated into

Michael K Dowd

1998-01-01

311

Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

312

pH-metric determination of the acid value of vegetable oils without titration.  

PubMed

The acid value (AV) of vegetable oils is determined without titration by using a new reagent consisting of triethanolamine in a solution of water and isopropyl alcohol. When the oil sample is mixed with the reagent in the pH-metric cell, free fatty acids from the sample are extracted into the reagent (3-4 min). The initial pH, called conditional pH'1, is measured, a standard acid (HCl) is added, and the final pH, pH'2, is measured. AV is calculated from the difference between pH'1 and pH'2. The method is applicable for quality control of vegetable oils during their production, trade, and use. PMID:9680713

Kuselman, I; Tur'yan, Y I; Berezin, O Y; Kogan, L; Shenhar, A

313

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

314

Characteristics of Palm Fatty Acid Ester (PFAE), a New Vegetable Based Insulating Oil for Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed new vegetable based insulating oil for transformers called PFAE (Palm Fatty Acid Ester). PFAE has 0.6 times less viscosity and 1.3 times higher dielectric constant compared to mineral oil. The oxidative stability, biodegradability and acute toxicity to fish of PFAE has also been determined to be superior to mineral oil. In this paper, in order to optimize the characteristics of fatty acid esters originating from palm oil, several kinds of fatty acid alkyl esters were first synthesized in the laboratory by the molecular design technique and the transesterification from fatty acid methyl esters and alkyl alcohols. Next the electro-chemical characteristics of the fatty acid alkyl esters as insulating oil were analyzed.

Suzuki, Takashi; Kanoh, Takaaki; Koide, Hidenobu; Hikosaka, Tomoyuki

315

Oiling-off Properties of Butter1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrowness of the temperature range in which butter exhibits acceptable physical properties is of paramount concern to the butter industry. Among these properties is that of oiliness resulting from the seepage of free oil from the butter. This condition of the butterfat may manifest itself ill a weak, greasy condition of conventionally churned butter, an oily appearance of butter

J. M. De Man; F. W. Wood

1958-01-01

316

Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants in the Mediterranean basin, such as vine and olive trees, have developed an array of antioxidant defences to protect themselves from environmental stress. Accordingly, the incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers is lower in the Mediterranean area, where olive oil is the dietary fat of choice. As opposed to other vegetable oils, extra virgin olive oil, which

Francesco Visioli; Giorgio Bellomo; Claudio Galli

1998-01-01

317

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: A pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; M Ferrer, Tiago; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

2013-08-27

318

Ethoxylation of Fatty Acids Fractions of Overused Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated and saturated fatty acids fractions were separated from overused sunflower and olein oils, which are considered\\u000a to be a waste, in order to use them in the preparation of valuable ethoxylated fatty derivatives with low cost of preparation.\\u000a Fatty acid fractions were ethoxylated using ethylene oxide gas in the presence of 1% K2CO3 catalyst at 120 and 180 °C for

Youssef Aly El-Shattory; Ghada A. Abo El-Wafa; Saadia M. Aly

2011-01-01

319

Biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil by various supercritical alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel was prepared in various supercritical alcohol treatments with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, or 1-octanol\\u000a to study transesterification of rapeseed oil and alkyl esterification of fatty acid at temperatures of 300 and 350C. The\\u000a results showed that in transes terification, the reactivity was greatly correlated to the alcohol: the longer the alkyl chain\\u000a of alcohol, the longer the reaction treatment.

Yuichiro Warabi; Dadan Kusdiana; Shiro Saka

2004-01-01

320

Kinetics of catalytic transfer hydrogenation of some vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic transfer hydrogenation of corn, peanut, olive, soybean, and sunflower oils has been studied with aqueous sodium\\u000a formate solution as hydrogen donor and palladium on carbon as catalyst. Kinetic constants and selectivity have been determined\\u000a under intensive stirring in the presence of stabilizing agents. Hydrogenation reactions followed first-order kinetics with\\u000a respect to fatty acids. Besides good selectivity and short reaction

Mateja Nagli?; Andrej Šmidovnik; Tine Koloini

1998-01-01

321

Effect of brominated vegetable oils on heart lipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal rats fed for 105 days on an experimental diet made up of standard laboratory chow supplemented with 0.5% of a mixture\\u000a of brominated sunflower-olive oil (BVO) developed a significant increase in the triacylglycerol content of the heart, liver\\u000a and soleus muscle compared to controls. In addition, BVO-treated rats had a decrease in plasma levels of triacylglycerol and\\u000a total and

Yolanda B. Lombardo; Adriana Chicco; María Z. Basílico; Claudio Bernal; Raul Gutman

1985-01-01

322

GC\\/MS evaluation of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) oil composition and variations during the vegetative cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary GC\\/MS analysis based on polar and non-polar columns has been applied to evaluation of the volatile oils hydrodistilled from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) plants. The adopted methodology has been used to monitor seasonal variations in the composition of the oil obtained from thyme herbs harvested at different periods during the plant vegetative and life cycles. Oils from thyme plants

Mohammad Hudaib; Ester Speroni; Anna Maria Di Pietra; Vanni Cavrini

2002-01-01

323

Viscoelastic properties of waxy crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waxy crude oil usually represents viscoelastic property when temperature is below its wax appearance temperature (WAT). The\\u000a more the waxy crystals precipitated in crude oil, the stronger the structure and the viscoelasticity formed by waxy crystals.\\u000a As the structure of waxy crystals relates to viscoelasticity that can be described by the storage modulus G? and loss modulus G?, the small

Fan Zhang; Guo-qun Chen

2007-01-01

324

Experimental Studies on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Neat Preheated Vegetable Oils in a DI Diesel Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study of experimentation, locally available biofuels, such as rubber seed oil (non edible oil), coconut oil, and palm oil (edible oils), were used as alternative fuels to diesel in a compression ignition engine. The properties of these oils, such as viscosity, specific gravity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point, were determined. The effect of temperature on

M. Satyanarayana; C. Muraleedharan

2012-01-01

325

Production of biodiesel by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oils: a kinetics study.  

PubMed

Kinetics of production of biodiesel by enzymatic methanolysis of vegetable oils using lipase has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of the methanolysis reaction starting from the vegetable oil as substrate, rather than the free fatty acids, has been developed. The kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the experimental data of the enzymatic reaction of sunflower oil by two types of lipases, namely, Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RM) immobilized on ion-exchange resins and Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (TL) immobilized on silica gel. There was a good agreement between the experimental results of the initial rate of reaction and those predicted by the proposed model equations, for both enzymes. From the proposed model equations, the regions where the effect of alcohol inhibition fades, at different substrate concentrations, were identified. The proposed model equation can be used to predict the rate of methanolysis of vegetable oils in a batch or a continuous reactor and to determine the optimal conditions for biodiesel production. PMID:16209548

Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman

326

Influence of simulated deep frying on the antioxidant fraction of vegetable oils after enrichment with extracts from olive oil pomace.  

PubMed

The stability of the antioxidant fraction in edible vegetable oils has been evaluated during a simulated deep frying process at 180 °C. Four edible oils (i.e., extra-virgin olive oil with a 400 ?g/mL overall content in naturally existing phenols; high-oleic sunflower oil without natural content of these compounds but enriched either with hydrophilic antioxidants isolated from olive pomace or with an oxidation inhibitor, dimethylsiloxane; and sunflower oil without enrichment) were subjected to deep heating consisting of 20 cycles at 180 °C for 5 min each. An oil aliquot was sampled after each heating cycle to study the influence of heating on the antioxidant fraction composed of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants such as phenols and tocopherols, respectively. The decomposition curves for each group of compounds caused by the influence of deep heating were studied to compare their resistance to oxidation. Thus, the suitability of olive pomace as raw material to obtain these compounds offers an excellent alternative to the use of olive-tree materials different from leaves. The enrichment of refined edible oils with natural antioxidants from olive pomace is a sustainable strategy to take benefits from this residue. PMID:21859091

Orozco-Solano, M I; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

2011-09-01

327

Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) diets: effects on hepatic Mx expression and some immune parameters.  

PubMed

The use of vegetable oils in fish nutrition has been extensively studied; and recent work has focused attention on replacing fish oil with alternative fatty acid sources and their effect on the immune system. However, little is known about the effect of these oils on immune parameters such as the fish interferon system. In this study we evaluate the effect of two vegetable oils (linseed and soybean) on gilthead sea bream Mx expression and other innate immune parameters. Experimental diets were formulated where fish oil was totally replaced by vegetable oils or for a mixture of them (50% linseed and 50% soybean). Another diet prepared with pure fish oil was used as a control. Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate growth, feed utilization, serum alternative complement pathway activity, serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity of head kidney leucocytes as well as Mx expression in the liver. In the first experiment fish were fed with experimental diets for 6 months and then, growth and feed utilization as well as immune parameters were analyzed. In the second experiment, fish from the previous feeding trial were injected with either a sub-lethal dose of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (94/99) or a synthetic dsRNA (Poly I:C) in order to stimulate an Mx response. The results show that total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils decreased the growth of gilthead sea bream juveniles. Furthermore, both phagocytic activity and serum alternative complement pathway activity were significantly reduced by the inclusion of either vegetable oil individually in the sea bream diets, but the diet with mixed vegetable oils had no significant effect. There was no effect on serum lysozyme levels but the basal constitutive levels of Mx transcript expression in the liver were elevated in the fish fed the vegetable oil diets. The time-course of the Mx response to injection of Poly I:C was shorter in the fish fed the fish oil diet and the fish fed the diet based on a mixture of both vegetable oils showed a faster Mx response to bacterial injection. Following stimulation with Poly I:C or PDP the fish fed the vegetable oil based diets still maintained higher basal levels of hepatic Mx expression than the fish fed the fish oil diet which returned to undetectable levels. PMID:18158252

Montero, D; Grasso, V; Izquierdo, M S; Ganga, R; Real, F; Tort, L; Caballero, M J; Acosta, F

2007-10-05

328

Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

2012-12-01

329

The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.  

PubMed

Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained. PMID:15176752

Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

2004-03-01

330

Novel approaches to analysis of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol esters in vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A sensitive and accurate method utilizing ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry based on orbitrap technology (orbitrapMS) for the analysis of nine 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) diesters in vegetable oils was developed. To remove the interfering triacylglycerols that induce strong matrix effects, a clean-up step on silica gel column was used. The quantitative analysis was performed with the use of deuterium-labeled internal standards. The lowest calibration levels estimated for the respective analytes ranged from 2 to 5 ?g kg(-1). Good recovery values (89-120%) and repeatability (RSD 5-9%) was obtained at spiking levels of 2 and 10 mg kg(-1). As an alternative, a novel ambient desorption ionization technique, direct analysis in real time (DART), hyphenated with orbitrapMS, was employed for no separation, high-throughput, semi-quantitative screening of 3-MCPD diesters in samples obtained by chromatographic fractionation. Additionally, the levels of 3-MCPD diesters measured in reallife vegetable oil samples (palm oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil) using both methods are reported. Relatively good agreement of the data generated by U-HPLC-orbitrapMS and DART-orbitrapMS were observed. With regard to a low ionization yield achieved for 3-MCPD monoesters, the methods presented in this paper were not yet applicable for the analysis of these contaminants at the naturally occurring levels. PMID:22287050

Moravcova, Eliska; Vaclavik, Lukas; Lacina, Ondrej; Hrbek, Vojtech; Riddellova, Katerina; Hajslova, Jana

2012-03-01

331

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. III. Safflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Safflower oil was fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent distribution apparatus, and the oil was also fractionated after\\u000a interesterification with C14-labelled palmitic acid. The glyceride composition of the interesterified oil was similar to that of the natural oil. The\\u000a glycerides were separated on the basis of both unsaturation and chain length of the constituent fatty acids, and the palmitoglycerides\\u000a had only

C. R. Scholfield; H. J. Dutton

1958-01-01

332

Simulation and life cycle assessment of process design alternatives for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses the process simulator ASPEN Plus® and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to compare three process design alternatives for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils that are: the conventional alkali-catalyzed process including a free fatty acids (FFAs) pre-treatment, the acid-catalyzed process, and the supercritical methanol process using propane as co-solvent. Results show that the supercritical methanol process using propane

Sérgio Morais; Teresa M. Mata; António A. Martins; Gilberto A. Pinto; Carlos A. V. Costa

2010-01-01

333

Liquid waste treatment in the vegetable oil processing industry—U.S. Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewaters from vegetable oil processing in the U.S. are in many cases discharged to publicly owned wastewater systems for\\u000a treatment with community wastewaters. Nine plants provide treatment for direct discharge to rivers or streams. The major treatment\\u000a process utilized in either case is biological treatment. Both research studies and full-scale treatment have demonstrated\\u000a the effectiveness of biological treatment in degradation

G. N. McDermott

1976-01-01

334

Comparison of oxalic acid and phosphoric acid as degumming agents for vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, phosphoric acid has been used for degumming vegetable oils with high phosphatide content prior to alkali refining.\\u000a One disadvantage of this technique is the resulting undesirable phosphate waste in streams, a problem which has increased\\u000a substantially in importance in recent times. We have investigated an alternative degumming technique using oxalic acid that\\u000a alleviates the pollution problem in

R. Ohlson; C. Svensson

1976-01-01

335

Determination of phospholipids in vegetable oil by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to determine the total phospholipid content in vegetable oil by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy\\u000a (FTIR). Calibration curves of I-?-phosphatidylcholine (PC), I-?-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and I-?-phosphatidylinositol\\u000a (PI) in hexane were generated at different concentrations. The optimal phospholipid absorption bands between 1200–970 cm?1 were identified and used for quantitative determination. High R\\u000a 2?0.968 were observed between band areas and

J. M. Nzai; A. Proctor

1998-01-01

336

Liquid waste treatment in the vegetable oil processing industry—European practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste treatment methods that are currently used in the vegetable oil processing industry are reviewed with special attention\\u000a to three points: a very careful study of the local conditions is necessary before selecting any treatment process; in any\\u000a case, it will mean an expensive investment, and the running costs will be high; and, in the near future, new laws

G. Choffel

1976-01-01

337

The viability of pure vegetable oil as an alternative fuel for large ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy fuels are likely to remain the dominant fuel source for two-stroke, low-speed diesel engines for large ship propulsion for the next decade or more. There is however, potential for increased use of pure vegetable oils (PVO) as an alternative and, by emitting lower levels of several pollutants, this can help the attainment of Annex VI of the MARPOL 73\\/78

F. Jiménez Espadafor; M. Torres García; J. Becerra Villanueva; J. Moreno Gutiérrez

2009-01-01

338

Thin layer chromatography\\/flame ionization analysis of transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method was developed for analyzing mixtures containing fatty esters and tri- (TG), di- (DG) and monoglycerides\\u000a (MG) obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils. Analyses were performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC)\\/flame\\u000a ionization detection (FID) with an Iatroscan TH-10 instrument. Stearyl alcohol served as an internal standard. From plots\\u000a of area and weight ratios of methyl linoleate and

B. Freedman; E. H. Pryde; W. F. Kwolek

1984-01-01

339

Evaluations of vegetable oil-based as lubricants for metal-forming processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess lubricating performances of selected locally produced vegetable oil-based lubricants with a view to utilizing them as a possible alternative to petroleum-based lubricants in metal-forming processes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The ring compression testing and twin disks upsetting testing methods were employed. Findings – The results obtained from these two tests showed that

Babatunde Lawal Abdulquadir; Michael Bolaji Adeyemi

2008-01-01

340

Comparative characteristics of compression ignited engines operating on biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance and emission characteristics of two compression ignited engines of different compression ratios, number of cylinders, cooling system, and power output are studied. Waste vegetable oil-derived biofuel is used. Engines are fueled with B0, B20 and B100 mixtures. Thermal efficiency, brake specific consumption and engine emissions (CO, Unburned HC, O2 and NO) are reported and comparisons are made for fuel

Nadir Yilmaz; Byron Morton

2011-01-01

341

Enzymatic glycerolysis and transesterification of vegetable oil for enhanced production of feruloylated glycerols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel functional groups can be introduced into vegetable oils using enzymes, resulting in value-added products. The transesterification\\u000a kinetics of ethyl ferulate with MAG, DAG, and TAG were examined. Transesterification was catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B in solventless batch and packed-bed reactors. Initial reaction rates with TAG were slightly sensitive to water activity,\\u000a whereas rates with MAG and DAG

Joseph A. Laszlo; David L. Compton

2006-01-01

342

Phase and chemical equilibria in the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with supercritical lower alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of thermodynamic data are performed for fatty acid triglycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters,\\u000a participants of the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils that occurs in methanol. Using the obtained thermodynamic\\u000a parameters, the phase diagrams for the reaction mixture are constructed, and the chemical equilibria of the esterification\\u000a reaction of free fatty acids and the transesterification reaction

V. I. Anikeev; D. A. Stepanov; A. Ermakova

2011-01-01

343

Phase-equilibrium modeling in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils and derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main tool needed to carry out phase-equilibrium engineering of a given process is an adequate thermodynamic model adjusted\\u000a to the range of process operating conditions of the working system. In the present work the Group Contribution with Association\\u000a Equation of State (GCA-EoS) is used to model the phase behavior of reacting mixtures typical of the hydrogenation of vegetable\\u000a oils

Selva Pereda; Laura Rovetto; Susana B. Bottini; Esteban A. Brignole

2006-01-01

344

Neural network modeling of trans isomer formation and unsaturated fatty acid changes during vegetable oil hydrogenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-layer neural network model with back-propagation training algorithms was designed to predict total trans isomer content, as well as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid during vegetable oil hydrogenation. Eight variables including reaction temperature, H2 pressure, catalyst concentration, mixing rate, iodine value, and initial unsaturated fatty acid contents including oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid have strong effects on

Mohammad Izadifar

2005-01-01

345

Improved extraction of vegetable oils under high-intensity ultrasound and\\/or microwaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) techniques have been employed as complementary techniques to extract oils from vegetable sources, viz, soybean germ and a cultivated marine microalga rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Ultrasound (US) devices developed by ourselves, working at several frequencies (19, 25, 40 and 300kHz), were used for US-based protocols, while a multimode microwave (MW) oven (operating

Giancarlo Cravotto; Luisa Boffa; Stefano Mantegna; Patrizia Perego; Milvio Avogadro; Pedro Cintas

2008-01-01

346

Tubular microporous alumina structure for demulsifying vegetable oil\\/water emulsions and concentrating macromolecular suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microstructure composed of alumina–silica (mullite, 3Al2O3·2SiO2) was molded into tubes to be used in a microfiltration process for separating water\\/vegetable oil emulsions and to concentrate macromolecular suspensions. The microporous tubes were produced by the precipitation method using raw material supplied by Rhodia do Brasil Ltda, and sintered at a final temperature of 1450°C. The microporous medium was characterized by

Sérgio R. Fontes; Viviane M. Silva Queiroz; Elson Longo; Marcus V. Antunes

2005-01-01

347

Quantitative fatty acid analysis of vegetable oils by gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The fatty acid composition of a number of vegetable oils and of two synthetic mixtures of methyl esters are compared by gas-liquid\\u000a chromatography and by standard methods. The calculated iodine values from G.L.P.C. results are in good agreement with measured\\u000a iodine values and are indicative of the reliability of the G.L.P.C. values. Standard methods gave lower values for linoleic\\u000a acid

B. M. Craig; N. L. Murty

1959-01-01

348

Direct Determination of Glycidyl Esters of Fatty Acids in Vegetable Oils by LC–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An LC–MS method using a single quadrupole mass spectrometer was developed for direct analysis of glycidyl esters of fatty\\u000a acids in vegetable oils. Without any sample clean-up, this method provided acceptable recovery of seven glycidyl esters, comparable\\u000a results to a previously-published method utilizing two solid-phase extraction steps, and consistent detection parameters after\\u000a greater than 200 injections without any cleaning operations

Michael R. Blumhorst; Padmesh Venkitasubramanian; Mark W. Collison

2011-01-01

349

Chemical evaluation of egyptian citrus seeds as potential sources of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of the citrus fruits orange, mandarin, lime and grapefruit were analyzed. Petroleum ether-extracted oils of such seeds\\u000a amounted to more than 40% of each. Physical and chemical properties of the extracted oils are presented. Samples of the extracted\\u000a oils were saponified and the unsaponifiables and fatty acid fractions isolated. The isolated unsaponifiables and fatty acids\\u000a were analyzed by GLC.

M. A. Habib; M. A. Hammam; A. A. Sakr; Y. A. Ashoush

1986-01-01

350

Profiling fatty acids in vegetable oils by reactive pyrolysis–gas chromatography with dimethyl carbonate and titanium silicate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel methodology in on-line pyrolysis–gas chromatography (Py–GC) for the fast analysis of fatty acids in vegetable oils with minimal sample treatment and the use of non-toxic reagents is described. Pyrolysis at 500°C for 10s of sub-microgram quantity of vegetable oil dissolved in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and in the presence of nanopowder titanium silicon oxide resulted in the production of

Daniele Fabbri; Valentina Baravelli; Giuseppe Chiavari; Silvia Prati

2005-01-01

351

Effects of Acid, Salt and Soaking Time on the Dielectric Properties of Acidified Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to design a continuous microwave process for pasteurization of acidified vegetables, equilibration phenomena in acid and salt solutions must be examined with regards to changes in dielectric properties. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of acid and salt concentration on the dielectric properties of acidified vegetables. Broccoli florets and sweet potato cubes (1.2 cm)

Craig B. Koskiniemi; Van-Den Truong; Roger F. McFeeters; Josip Simunovic

2012-01-01

352

Influence of deep frying on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils enriched with natural antioxidants.  

PubMed

The influence of deep frying, mimicked by 20 heating cycles at 180 °C (each cycle from ambient temperature to 180 °C maintained for 5 min), on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils represented by three characteristic families of compounds (namely, phytosterols, aliphatic alcohols, and triterpenic compounds) has been studied. The target oils were extra virgin olive oil (with intrinsic content of phenolic antioxidants), refined sunflower oil enriched with antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from olive pomace, refined sunflower oil enriched with an autoxidation inhibitor (dimethylpolysiloxane), and refined sunflower oil without enrichment. Monitoring of the target analytes as a function of both heating cycle and the presence of natural antioxidants was also evaluated by comparison of the profiles after each heating cycle. Identification and quantitation of the target compounds were performed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Analysis of the heated oils revealed that the addition of natural antioxidants could be an excellent strategy to decrease degradation of lipidic components of the unsaponifiable fraction with the consequent improvement of stability. PMID:21644588

Orozco, Mara I; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

2011-06-20

353

Effect of brominated vegetable oils on heart lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Normal rats fed for 105 days on an experimental diet made up of standard laboratory chow supplemented with 0.5% of a mixture of brominated sunflower-olive oil (BVO) developed a significant increase in the triacylglycerol content of the heart, liver and soleus muscle compared to controls. In addition, BVO-treated rats had a decrease in plasma levels of triacylglycerol and total and HDL cholesterol. Plasma fatty acid levels and plasma post-heparin lipolytic activities, such as H-TGL, LPL, T-TGL and MGH were similar to those of control animals fed the standard chow alone. Heart PDHa (active portion of pyruvate dehydrogenase) was dramatically decreased in the BVO-fed rats. A faster rate of spontaneous lipolysis was recorded in the isolated perfused preparation of hearts from the experimental animals. The addition of 10(-7) M of glucagon to the perfusate, however, revealed a lipolytic effect comparable to the one observed in the control rats. In summary, our findings of normal fatty acids and low triacylglycerol plasma levels associated with normal activities of the various PHLA (post-heparin lipolytic activity) enzymes suggest that accumulation of triacylglycerol in heart muscle may not be explained essentially in terms of an elevated uptake and/or increased delivery of plasma fatty acids or plasma triacylglycerol. A decreased in situ catabolism of tissue triacylglycerol also appears unlikely because the spontaneous as well as the glucagon induced lipolysis in the heart both were found to be unimpaired.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4033363

Lombardo, Y B; Chicco, A; Basílico, M Z; Bernal, C; Gutman, R

1985-07-01

354

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. Technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During the second quarter, working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S, 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different extraction solvents were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 100[degrees]C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents. During this third quarter the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different temperatures, and different reaction times were completely examined. The effects of alkali on sulfur removal were further investigated. Best organic sulfur removal reaches 34% using ammonia pretreatment, then oil and finally aqNA2CO3 extraction.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.

1995-12-31

355

Enhancement of the oxidative stability of some vegetable oils by blending with Moringa oleifera oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% w\\/w) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) with sunflower oil (SFO) and soybean oil (SBO) were prepared to evaluate the changes in fatty acid (FA) composition, oxidative and thermal stability of SFO and SBO. The blending of MOO with SFO and SBO in proportions of 0–80% resulted in the reduction of linoleic acid (C18:2) content of

Farooq Anwar; Abdullah Ijaz Hussain; Shahid Iqbal; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger

2007-01-01

356

Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.  

PubMed

Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751. PMID:21621409

Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

2011-05-06

357

Fatty esters from vegetable oils for use as a diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Transesterification of sunflower and soybean oils to fatty esters has been carried out to study reaction variables such as: (1) molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, (2) alcohol type (methanol, ethanol, and 1-butanol), (3) catalyst type (alkaline and acidic), and (4) reaction temperature (60/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, and 32/sup 0/C). These studies showed that ester formation was 90 to 98% complete at the respective molar ratios of methanol/sunflower oil of 4:1 and 6:1. All three alcohols produced high yields of esters. Alkaline catalysts were much more effective than acid catalysts. At both 45/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/, 97% of methyl esters were produced in 1 hr. 5 figures.

Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.

1982-01-01

358

Acid methanolysis and gas chromatographic determination of brominated vegetable oils in soft drinks.  

PubMed

A gas chromatographic method has been developed for determination of brominated vegetable oils in citrus-flavored soft drinks. Oils were extracted from the drinks with ethyl ether and subjected to acid-catalyzed methanolysis. The resulting brominated methyl esters (dibromostearate, tetrabromostearate, and hexabromostearate) were separated and quantitated as single peaks on a 3% OV-3 column. Chromatography columns were stable for about 3 months of daily use; then the first 15 cm of column packing material was replaced or a new column was prepared. A number of citrus soft drinks were analyzed and contained 3.5-3.9 mg brominated oil/10 fl. oz. Recoveries from spiked samples after organic extraction and methanolysis were 94.5-105%. PMID:6643351

Lawrence, J F; Chadha, R K; Conacher, H B

1983-11-01

359

Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (P<0.05) of motile cells compared to rest while no differences were found between different oil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research. PMID:23561943

Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

2013-03-14

360

Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in

Michael J Leaver; Laure AN Villeneuve; Alex Obach; Linda Jensen; James E Bron; Douglas R Tocher; John B Taggart

2008-01-01

361

Sensitivity of benthic vegetation and invertebrate functional guilds to oil spills and its use in oil contingency management related negotiation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of the impact of an oil spill on the benthic vegetation and invertebrate communities of Nõva and Keibu bays, western Gulf of Finland. No negative effects of the oil spill on the species composition and depth distribution of macrophytobenthos were observed. The coverage of macrophytes and the coverage of Pylaiella littoralis were lower in the

Jonne Kotta; Georg Martin; Robert Aps

362

Lipase-catalyzed irreversible transesterification of vegetable oils for fatty acid methyl esters production with dimethyl carbonate as the acyl acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used in the enzymatic transesterification of vegetable oils, which resulted in an irreversible reaction benefiting fatty acid methyl esters production. Among the tested lipases, Novozym435 (lipase B from Candida antarctica) led to a higher conversion for all tested vegetable oils in the initial screening. DMC used as the acyl acceptor, the conversions of cottonseed oil, soybean

Er-Zheng Su; Min-Jie Zhang; Jian-Guo Zhang; Jian-Feng Gao; Dong-Zhi Wei

2007-01-01

363

Carotenoid bioavailability from raw vegetables and a moderate amount of oil in human subjects is greatest when the majority of daily vegetables are consumed at one meal.  

PubMed

While the impact of food composition and processing on carotenoid bioavailability has been the subject of several investigations, the effect of meal patterning remains unknown. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of select consumption patterns on the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables. On three randomized testing days, subjects consumed raw salad vegetables and 8 g canola oil over a two meal period in three meal patterns. Meal patterns included consumption of 100% of vegetables and oil in the first meal and 0% in the second, 75% in the first meal and 25% in the second, and 50% in the first meal and 50% in the second. Additional protein-rich "chef's salad" ingredients were distributed equally between meals. We hypothesized that carotenoid absorption would be highest when 50% of vegetables and oil were consumed at each meal and lowest when 100% were consumed at once. Blood was collected 0 to 12 hours postprandially and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fractions (TRL) were isolated by ultracentrifugation. TRL carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Considering all carotenoids, absorption expressed as area under the curve was greatest when ?75% of vegetables were consumed in a single meal (P < .05). Absorption of carotenes also followed this trend (P < .05 for ?- and ?-carotene). For xanthophylls, consuming all vegetables in one meal increased absorption compared to intake of 50% at each meal (P < .05). These data suggest that carotenoid absorption may be the greatest when daily recommended vegetables are consumed in one meal compared to smaller doses over multiple meals. PMID:23684437

Goltz, Shellen R; Sapper, Teryn N; Failla, Mark L; Campbell, Wayne W; Ferruzzi, Mario G

2013-04-23

364

Crude Oil Emulsion Properties and Their Application to Heavy Oil Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude Oil Emulsion Properties and their Application to Heavy Oil Transportation — Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilize the oil-water surfaces. The knowledge of surface tension alone is not sufficient to understand emulsion properties, and surface rheology plays an

D. Langevin; S. Poteau; I. Hénaut; J. F. Argillier

2004-01-01

365

DPPH assay of vegetable oils and model antioxidants in protic and aprotic solvents.  

PubMed

The rate of reaction of phenolic antioxidants with DPPH depends on solvent composition. The rate constants can differ by more than two orders of magnitude for the same phenolic compound. Reactions are faster in alcohols than in ethyl acetate that is used routinely for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) of nonpolar samples such as vegetable oils. Incorporation of an acid base pair into the assay solvent buffers the system against acid impurities such as free fatty acids and CO2 from the air. This is shown to increase the rate of oxidation and number of electrons of phenolic compounds exchanged with DPPH. Typically, DPPH assays are performed for predetermined time intervals at which phenolic compounds are not fully oxidized and therefore higher reaction rates result in higher values of AOP. More than twofold AOP was obtained for oleuropein, sesamol, sinapic acid, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid in buffered alcohols than in ethyl acetate. The AOP of sesame, pumpkin seed and extra virgin olive oil is accordingly higher when determined in buffered alcohols. DPPH assays in ethyl acetate result in underestimation of AOP of unrefined vegetable oils. PMID:23618135

Prevc, Tjaša; Segatin, Nataša; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Cigi?, Blaž

2013-03-22

366

Plasma concentrations of dihydro-vitamin K 1 following dietary intake of a hydrogenated vitamin K 1 -rich vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dihydro-vitamin K1 is a dietary form of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) produced during the hydrogenation of vegetable oils. To determine if dihydro-vitamin K1 is present in plasma following dietary intake of a hydrogenated fat, eight healthy adults consumed each of two diets containing\\u000a 30% of calories from fat, of which 20% was either soybean oil or a partially hydrogenated soybean oil-based

Sarah L. Booth; Kenneth W. Davidson; Alice H. Lichtenstein; James A. Sadowski

1996-01-01

367

Influence of ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate on the aroma composition of an oxidized vegetable oil and its emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides and hexanal was compared to the development of aroma profiles during initial\\u000a lipid oxidation of a vegetable oil and its 40% oil-in-water emulsion at 60C. The aroma profiles of the oil and the emulsion\\u000a with and without addition of ascorbic acid or ascorbyl palmitate were compared. The aroma compounds were isolated under a\\u000a model

Saskia M. van Ruth; Jacques P. Roozen; Maarten A. Posthumus; Frans Jos H. M. Jansen

1999-01-01

368

Microwave measurement and modeling of the dielectric properties of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the important applications of microwaves in the industrial, scientific and medical sectors include processing and treatment of various materials, and determining their physical properties. The dielectric properties of the materials of interest are paramount irrespective of the applications, hence, a wide range of materials covering food products, building materials, ores and fuels, and biological materials have been investigated for their dielectric properties. However, very few studies have been conducted towards the measurement of dielectric properties of green vegetations, including commercially important plant crops such as alfalfa. Because of its high nutritional value, there is a huge demand for this plant and its processed products in national and international markets, and an investigation into the possibility of applying microwaves to improve both the net yield and quality of the crop can be beneficial. Therefore, a dielectric measurement system based upon the probe reflection technique has been set up to measure dielectric properties of green plants over a frequency range from 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture contents from 12%, wet basis to 79%, wet basis, and temperatures from -15°C to 30°C. Dielectric properties of chopped alfalfa were measured with this system over frequency range of 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture content from 11.5%, wet basis, to 73%, wet basis, and density over the range from 139 kg m-3 to 716 kg m-3 at 23°C. The system accuracy was found to be +/-6% and +/-10% in measuring the dielectric constant and loss factor respectively. Empirical, semi empirical and theoretical models that require only moisture content and operating frequency were determined to represent the dielectric properties of both leaves and stems of alfalfa at 22°C. The empirical models fitted the measured dielectric data extremely well. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (r2) for dielectric constant and loss factor of leaves were 0.89 and 0.99, and 0.52 and 0.99 respectively. The RMSE and r2 values for dielectric constant and loss factor of stems were 0.89 and 0.99, and 0.77 and 0.99 respectively. Among semi empirical or theoretical models, Power law model showed better performance (RMSE = 1.78, r2 = 0.96) in modeling dielectric constant of leaves, and Debye-ColeCole model was more appropriate (RMSE = 1.23, r2 = 0.95) for the loss factor. For stems, the Debye-ColeCole models (developed on an assumption that they do not shrink as they dry) were found to be the best models to calculate the dielectric constant with RMSE 0.53 and r2 = 0.99, and dielectric loss factor with RMSE = 065 and r2 = 0.95. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Shrestha, Bijay Lal

369

Determination of trigonelline in seeds and vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the first time for the determination of the pyridine betaine trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) in seeds and vegetable oils. Analytical characteristics of the method showed its good performance in terms of linearity (r > 0.999), precision (relative standard deviations < 5%), and limits of detection (up to 0.9 microM or 1 ng/g for oils). The developed method was applied to the analysis of soy and sunflower seeds, three varieties of olives, and sunflower, soy, and extra virgin olive oils. Trigonelline was determined in soy and sunflower seeds and their respective oils, whereas it was not detected in olives or olive oils. Different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, detecting up to 10% of soy oil in olive oil. As a consequence, trigonelline is proposed in this work as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations of olive oils with other vegetable oils such as soy and sunflower oils. PMID:20550116

Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Puchalska, Patrycja; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa

2010-07-14

370

Vegetable oil stability at elevated temperatures in the presence of ferric stearate and ferrous octanoate.  

PubMed

The thermoxidative stability of partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) was examined after addition of ferric stearate and ferrous octanoate, and then heating the samples at 120, 160, 180, and 200 degrees C. In a second experiment, the effect of iron concentration (ferric stearate) on PHSBO stability was examined at 180 degrees C, and at concentrations of approximately 0.5 and 1.2 mg of added iron/kg PHSBO. Oil samples were heated continuously for 72 h and sampled every 12 h. The acid value, p-anisidine value, color, dielectric constant and the triacylglycerol polymer content of oil samples were compared to oil samples containing no added iron. Generally, the value of each oxidative index increased with (1) an increase in temperature, (2) an increase in heating time, and/or (3) an increase in iron. The results demonstrate that low concentrations of iron will substantially increase the rate of oxidation for vegetable oil samples heated to temperatures of 120 degrees C to 200 degrees C. PMID:15769140

Coscione, Aline R; Artz, William E

2005-03-23

371

Properties Estimation of Main Oil Shale in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more countries have paid serious attention to oil shale as a kind of energy reserve. Both FuShun pyrolysis experimental rig and technological process of commercial plant are characterized in this article. Meanwhile, the article points out that oil length is the important quality index of oil shale. Properties of several kinds of main oil shale in our country

F. Yan; Y. Song

2009-01-01

372

Properties and Chemical Composition of Typical Coker Gas Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coker gas oil from Daqing, Shengli, and Liaohe, which are three famous oil fields in China, are studied. The properties, chemical composition, and structural composition of coker gas oil from Daqing, Shengli, and Liaohe saturated hydrocarbon are analyzed. The results show that nitrogen and sulfur content in Daqing coker gas oil is the lowest, and saturated hydrocarbon content is

B. Hou; Z. Cao; W. Chen; J. Han

2007-01-01

373

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Industry Wastewater Treatment using UASB Reactor System with Recourse to Energy Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation was carried out on laboratory scale to assess the feasibility of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor\\u000a system as a pretreatment for hydrogenated vegetable oil industry wastewater with recourse to energy recovery. The reactor\\u000a system operated at 35°C, resulted in COD removal efficiency in the range 98.9–80.1% at organic loading varying in the range\\u000a 1.33–10 kgCOD\\/m3 day. The specific methane

Sunita Shastry; Tapas Nandy; S. R. Wate; S. N. Kaul

2010-01-01

374

Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats.  

PubMed

It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components. PMID:20122175

Ratnayake, Sunil; Lewandowski, Paul

2010-02-02

375

Characterization of vegetable oils: detailed compositional fingerprints derived from electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Adulteration of vegetable oil is of concern for both commercial and health reasons. Compositional based fingerprints can potentially reveal both the oil source and its possible adulteration. Here, electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) resolves and identifies literally thousands of distinct chemical components of commercial canola, olive, and soybean oils, without extraction or other wet chemical separation pretreatment. In negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the acidic components of soybean oil are easily distinguished from those of canola and olive oil based on relative abundances of C(18) fatty acids, whereas olive oil differs from canola and soybean oil based on relative abundances of tocopherols. In positive-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the three oils are readily distinguished according to the relative abundances of di- and triacylglycerols with various numbers of double bonds in the fatty acid chains. We demonstrate the detection of soybean oil as an adulterant of olive oil, based on relative abundances of members of each of several chemical families. We suggest that the detailed chemical compositions of vegetable oils can be used to characterize them and to detect and identify adulterants. PMID:15315364

Wu, Zhigang; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

2004-08-25

376

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. II. Soybean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Soybean oil has been fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent distribution apparatus. Fractions have been obtained with iodine\\u000a values both too high and too low to conform to an even distribution. From the weight distribution curve, iodine value, and\\u000a spectrophotometric analyses the oil is estimated to contain 5.2% dilinoleo-linolenin, 13.7% trilinolein, 9.2% oleolinoleo-linolenin,\\u000a and 25.2% oleo-dilinolein. This composition is in agreement

C. R. Scholfield; Mary A. Hicks

1957-01-01

377

Different kinds of vegetable oils in relation to individual cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian women.  

PubMed

Detrimental effects of trans-fats on lipid profiles, blood pressure and plasma glucose levels have been documented by short-term clinical trials with high doses of trans-fats, but limited observational studies have considered habitual consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO) and these outcome variables, particularly hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the association of PHVO and non-hydrogenated vegetable oils (non-HVO) intake with individual cardiovascular risk factors. In a cross-sectional study of 486 Iranian adult women, usual dietary intakes were assessed, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profiles and blood pressure were measured. PHVO (commonly used for cooking in Iran) were considered as the PHVO category. Sunflower oil, maize oil, rapeseed oil, soyabean oil and olive oil were defined as the non-HVO category. Diabetes (FPG ? 1260 mg/l), dyslipidaemia (based on Adult Treatment Panel III) and hypertension (based on Joint National Committee VI) were defined. The presence of 'at least one risk factor' and 'at least two risk factors' of the three major risk factors for CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) was also evaluated. After controlling for age and other potential confounders, a high consumption of HVO was associated with a greater risk of having dyslipidaemia (OR for top v. bottom quintile 5·04; 95 % CI 2·70, 9·36), hypertension (OR for top v. bottom quintile 3·03; 95 % CI 1·55, 6·10), at least one (OR for top v. bottom quintile 8·52; 95 % CI 4·41, 16·41) and at least two risk factors (OR for top v. bottom quintile 3·60; 95 % CI 1·64, 7·74), while those in the top quintile of non-HVO consumption had lower odds for all these conditions. Further adjustment for dietary intakes had little impact on these associations. Even after additional adjustment for BMI, the positive association of HVO and the inverse association of non-HVO with the above-mentioned cardiovascular risk factors remained significant, except for the association between non-HVO and hypertension that became marginally significant. No overall significant associations were found between the consumption of HVO and non-HVO and diabetes. Higher intakes of PHVO were associated with a greater risk of individual cardiovascular risk factors, while those of non-HVO were associated with a reduced risk. PMID:21251338

Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

2011-01-21

378

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. VI. Corn oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn oil has been fractionated in a 200-tube countereurrent distribution apparatus. Although this technique gives no information\\u000a about the positional isomers of the glycerides, the fatty acid composition of the fractions and the amounts of the more unsaturated\\u000a triglycerides are in agreement with an essentially random pattern.

C. R. Scholfield; Janina Nowakowska; H. J. Dutton

1961-01-01

379

Partial replacement of dietary fish oil with blends of vegetable oils (rapeseed, linseed and palm oils) in diets for European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) over a long term growth study: Effects on muscle and liver fatty acid composition and effectiveness of a fish oil finishing diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triplicate groups of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), of initial mass 5 g, were fed one of three practical type diets for 64 weeks. The three diets differed only in the added oil and were 100% fish oil (FO; diet A), 40% FO\\/60% vegetable oil blend (VO; diet B) where the VO blend was rapeseed oil, linseed oil and palm oil

G. Mourente; J. G. Bell

2006-01-01

380

Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015. PMID:19137873

Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

2008-10-01

381

Effects of an oil spill on the regrowth of emergent vegetation in a northern Alberta Lake.  

PubMed

Following a train derailment in August 2005, Wabamun Lake (Alberta, Canada) was exposed to approximately 149,500 L of bunker "C" oil, much of which became entrained in the abundant Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus validus) beds in the eastern basin of the lake. We assessed the regrowth of emergent macrophytes during the subsequent two growing seasons. Postspill measures of productivity, including transect length, total cover, and biomass were within the variability of prespill data collected in 2001, with the exception of a few specific areas in which biomass appeared to be affected. We conclude that exposure to oil during the late growing season in August 2005 and through the winter senescent period and regrowth in the summers of 2006 and 2007 did not cause large-scale changes to S. tabernaemontani communities. Physical factors such as cleanup activities and vegetation management appeared to be responsible for the reduced regrowth observed at some locations. Few previous studies have been published on the effects of oil spilled into freshwater on macrophyte communities; thus, the results of this study are expected to provide useful information for the assessment of future freshwater oil spills. PMID:19333646

Wernick, Barbara G; deBruyn, Adrian M H; Patterson, Luanne; Chapman, Peter M

2009-03-31

382

Fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of trans unsaturated FA in hydrogenated vegetable oils and blended fats from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the FA composition and trans FA (TFA) contents of different hydrogenated vegetable oils and blended fats marketed in Pakistan. Thirty-four vanaspati (vegetable\\u000a ghee), 11 shortenings, and 11 margarines were analyzed. The contents of saturated FA, cis monounsaturated FA, and cis PUFA were in the following ranges: vanaspati 27.8–49.5, 22.2–27.5, 9.3–13.1%; vegetable shortenings 37.1–55.5, 15.8–36.0,\\u000a 2.7–7.0%; and margarines

Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger; Farooq Anwar

2004-01-01

383

Power ultrasound in fatliquor preparation based on vegetable oil for leather application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, power ultrasound has taken a significant place in chemical and physical activities of the process industries as an effective and non-polluting method of activation. Oil in water emulsions known as fatliquors are used for the lubrication of tanned leather fibres to get softness and also to improve the strength properties. In the present study, ultrasound has been

V. Sivakumar; R. Poorna Prakash; P. G. Rao; B. V. Ramabrahmam; G. Swaminathan

2008-01-01

384

Thiol–ene UV-curable coatings using vegetable oil macromonomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allyl, acrylate, and vinyl ether derivatives of castor oil were synthesized and blended with multifunctional thiols for evaluation as thiol–ene ultraviolet (UV) curable systems. The UV cured films were characterized and evaluated via ASTM tests, gel content, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) as a function of time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and DMA studies established that property advancement resulted from

Micah Black; James W. Rawlins

2009-01-01

385

Biostimulation of natural microbial assemblages in oil-amended vegetated and desert sub-Antarctic soils.  

PubMed

A field study was initiated in December 2000 in two selected soils of The Grande Terre (Kerguelen Archipelago) with the objective of determining the long-term effects of fertilizer addition on the biodegradation rate and the toxicity of oil residues under severe sub-Antarctic conditions. Two soils were selected. The first site supports an abundant vegetal cover; the second one was desert soil, devoid of plant material. These two soils were located in the vicinity of the permanent station of Port-aux-Français (69 degrees 42'E; 49 degrees 19'S). A series of five experimental plots (0.75 x 0.75 m) were settled firmly into each of the studied soils. Each plot received 500 mL of diesel or Arabian light crude oil, and some of them were treated with a bioremediation agent: slow-release fertilizer Inipol EAP-22 (Elf Atochem). All the plots were sampled on a regular basis over a 1 year period. Heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms increased by two orders of magnitude during the first month of the experimentation in all treated enclosures, but differences appeared between the different plots. The microbial response was improved by bioremediation treatments. However, fertilizer addition had a greater impact on the desert soil when compared to the vegetated one. All chemical indices show a reduction of alkanes and light aromatics. Toxicity results show a high variability between treatments and environmental conditions. As a conclusion, it is clear that the microbial response was rapid and efficient in spite of the severe weather conditions, and the rate of degradation was improved by bioremediation treatments. However, after 1 year of treatment, the signal of a relatively high toxicity of oiled residues remained present in the two studied soils. PMID:14681739

Delille, D; Coulon, F; Pelletier, E

2003-12-18

386

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method will be investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. During this first quarter the selection of base for pretreatment and extraction (Task 1) has been completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. About 40% of sulfur is removed from IBC-108 coal using 5% NaOH for pretreatment followed by linseed oil oxidation in air and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

387

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. I. Linseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Linseed oil has been fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent-distribution apparatus. Iodine values of fractions ranged from\\u000a 51 to 261. As determined by the weight distribution curve, iodine values and spectrophotometric analyses, 18.2% trilinolenin,\\u000a 12.3% linoleo-dilinolenin, and 19.5% oleo-dilinolenin combined with 4.1% dilinoleo-linolenin were isolated. Based upon this\\u000a type of data and upon several methods of analysis and collation of the

H. J. Dutton; J. A. Cannon

1956-01-01

388

Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

2008-01-01

389

Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.  

PubMed

Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics. PMID:19833504

Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

2009-10-14

390

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF UTILIZATION OF NON-EDIBLE STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OILS (SVO'S) AS A SUBSTITUTE FUEL FOR DIESEL ENGINES: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straight vegetable oils (SVO's) have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels with the depletion in petroleum resources and concern of CO2 caused global warming. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines are reported in the literature, caused by their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. This viscosity can be

Avinash Kumar Agarwal

391

Screening and confirmation of PAHs in vegetable oil samples by use of supercritical fluid extraction in conjunction with liquid chromatography and fluorimetric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast, simple, non-destructive method for the direct screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oil samples is proposed. The method uses a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system coupled on-line with a fluorimetric detector to determine PAHs. This special assembly avoids the main problems encountered in the determination of PAHs in complex matrices such as vegetable oils. PAHs are

M. Zougagh; H. Redigolo; A. Ríos; M. Valcárcel

2004-01-01

392

On the utilization of waste vegetable oils (WVO) as agglomerants to recover coal from coal fines cleaning wastes (CFCW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fines cleaning wastes (CFCW) from two different Spanish coal cleaning plants were agglomerated with waste vegetable oils (WVO) of household origin over a wide range of oil concentration with the aim of recovering high-calorific value\\/low-ash content coal. The results were evaluated in terms of organic matter recovery (OMR) and ash rejection (AR) from CFCW. In addition to the WVO

Adolfo F. Valdés; Ana B. Garcia

2006-01-01

393

Chemical Composition and Chemometric Analysis of Variation in Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis L . during Vegetation Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the content and composition of Calendula officinalis essential oils was studied using supercritical CO2 extraction followed by GC–MS. Samples of marigold were harvested at four different vegetation stages. A total of 43 different\\u000a compounds were identified in the essential oils. The identified components were represented mainly by monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes\\u000a and sesquiterpene alcohols. The qualitative and quantitative composition

Vilma Kaškonien?; Paulius Kaškonas; Modesta Jalinskait?; Audrius Maruška

2011-01-01

394

Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Reduced consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is desirable to lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In practice, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) that contain both TFAs and other fatty acids are the unit of replacement and could be replaced with diverse alternative fats and oils. We performed quantitative estimates of CHD effects if a person's PHVO consumption were to be

D Mozaffarian; R Clarke

2009-01-01

395

Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Expansion of aquaculture is seriously limited by reductions in fish oil (FO) supply for aquafeeds. Terrestrial alternatives\\u000a such as vegetable oils (VO) have been investigated and recently a strategy combining genetic selection with changes in diet\\u000a formulations has been proposed to meet growing demands for aquaculture products. This study investigates the influence of\\u000a genotype on transcriptomic responses to sustainable feeds

Sofia Morais; Jarunan Pratoomyot; John B Taggart; James E Bron; Derrick R Guy; J Gordon Bell; Douglas R Tocher

2011-01-01

396

Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale modelling of magmatic intrusion in a deforming brittle crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the upper crust, intrusive bodies adopt different configurations, depending on the tectonic setting. This paper describes a new technique for analogue modelling of such intrusions, specifically of low-viscosity magma into a deforming brittle crust. Proper dynamic scaling is an important consideration. If the crust has a Coulomb failure envelope, the model material should have a cohesion C of 40 Pa to 7500 Pa. If the intruding magma is highly mobile, the model fluid should have a viscosity of 4 × 10- 9 Pa s to 75 Pa s. For the model crust, we have used crystalline silica powder (SI-CRYSTAL), siliceous microspheres (SI-SPHERE) of grain size < 30 ?m, and a mixture (SI-MIX) of both materials. The mechanical properties of these powders have been obtained by shear and tension shear tests. SI-CRYSTAL powder is cohesive (C ? 300 Pa, angle of internal friction ? ? 45°) and represents competent rock. SI-SPHERE powder is much less cohesive (C ? 10 Pa, ? ? 25°) and represents incompetent rock. SI-MIX has intermediate properties. The model magma is a vegetable oil, which solidifies at room temperature. Its viscosity when molten is ? = 2 × 10- 2 Pa s at 50 °C. Using these materials, we have done some preliminary experiments, to investigate the intrusion of low-viscosity magma into sedimentary basins. In non-deformed settings, intrusions were saucer-shaped cone sheets. In horizontal extension, they were steep dykes. Finally, in horizontal shortening, intrusions were basal sills that branched into thrust faults.

Galland, Olivier; Cobbold, Peter R.; Hallot, Erwan; de Bremond D'Ars, Jean; Delavaud, Gatien

2006-03-01

397

Recovery of phenol from aqueous solution by supported liquid membrane using vegetable oils as liquid membrane.  

PubMed

The transport of phenol through a flat sheet supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing vegetable oil as liquid membrane (LM) has been investigated. The permeation of phenol was investigated by varying the experimental conditions like, selection of LM, support material, feed phase pH, stripping solution concentration, stirring speed and different initial concentration of phenol. It has been found that, each LM investigated in the present study shows the effective removal of phenol using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane and PP supported membrane as a solid support. Among the various oils tested, palm oil has chosen to be the best LM with permeability of 8.5x10(-6) m/s in acidic feed of pH 2.0 with 0.2 M sodium hydroxide as effective stripping agent. After 6 h all the phenol from the feed side gets transported to strip solution with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L. A concentration factor of five has been achieved in the present investigation easily with 0.2 M sodium hydroxide as stripping reagent. After 10 transport studies with one impregnation of LM, the LM showed no significant loss in the transport rate with average permeability of 7.9x10(-6) m/s with initial concentration 100 mg/L. Further study has also been attempted with cresols to explore the possibility of applying this to industrial wastewater under the optimized conditions for phenol. After 14 h of the transport studies in the phenol-formaldehyde industry wastewater, phenolic concentration in the feed solution was found to be below detectable level (1x10(-2) mg/L). For wood processing industry wastewater the transport takes place at the initial permeability of 7.1x10(-5) m/s. Thus it has been demonstrated the use of renewable, cheap, non toxic, naturally occurring vegetable oils as a novel, green liquid membrane for the recovery of phenol from aqueous solution in SLM, which has never been employed before in liquid membrane techniques. PMID:16236443

Venkateswaran, P; Palanivelu, K

2005-10-19

398

SURFACE PROPERTIES OF SOY-BASED POLYSOAPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are obtained from abundantly available and renewable agricultural products. They are also biodegradable and safe to use. These properties make vegetable oils the preferred raw materials over petroleum-based oils for the manufacture of various consumer and industrial products. Veget...

399

Total phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of commonly consumed vegetables grown in Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 38 commonly consumed vegetable samples, including 3 kale, 1 rhubarb, 3 spinach, 3 broccoli, 2 green bean, 5 carrot, 10 tomato, and 11 potato samples, were investigated for their total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidant properties. The measured antioxidant properties included free radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion radical (O2?), ABTS+ and peroxyl radical, and Fe2+

Kequan Zhou; Liangli Yu

2006-01-01

400

Changes in vegetation and soil properties along a slope on overgrazed and eroded rangelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rangelands, generally located on steep semi-arid zones, have a special importance in resource management. Continued overgrazing and erosion cause range degradation by altering plant communities and soil properties. The objective of this study was to determine changes in vegetation and soil properties along a slope on overgrazed and moderately eroded rangelands. Four study sites with three landscape positions: summit, backslope

Taskin Oztas; Ali Koc; Binali Comakli

2003-01-01

401

Chemical Characterization of Emissions from Vegetable Oil Processing and Their Contribution to Aerosol Mass Using the Organic Molecular Markers Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic fraction of aerosol emitted from a vegetable oil processing plant was studied to investigate the contribution of emissions to ambient particles in the surrounding area. Solvent-soluble particulate organic compounds emitted from the plant accounted for 10% of total suspended particles. This percentage was lower in the receptor sites (less than 6% of total aerosol mass). Nonpolar, moderate polar,

Ilias G. Kavouras; Nikolaos Stratigakis; Euripides G. Stephanou

2001-01-01

402

Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods…

Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

2011-01-01

403

HPLC and HPLC-MS as tools to monitor the quality of vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

HPLC and HPLC-MS have become valuable tools to analyze the “functional lipids” in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, functional foods, and conventional foods. These functional lipids include phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. These analytical methods have provided a means to id...

404

Influence of heated vegetable oils and ??tocopheryl acetate supplementation on ??tocopherol, fatty acids and lipid peroxidation in chicken muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Chicks were fed on diets containing fresh, heated or ??tocopheryl acetate?supplemented heated vegetable oils. The effects on ??tocopherol status, and on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of thigh and breast muscle were determined.2. Plasma ??tocopherol was significantly correlated with ??tocopherol concentrations in thigh and breast muscle.3. The fatty acid profiles of muscle lipids reflected dietary fatty acid

P. J. A. Sheehy; P. A. Morrissey; A. Flynn

1993-01-01

405

Simultaneous determination of glycerol, and mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of glycerol, mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters has been developed. Quantitative information about this group of organic contaminants is very important for the quality of these oleochemical products when used as automotive diesel fuel substitutes.Trimethylsilylation of glycerol, mono- and diglycerides, followed by GC using a 10-m capillary column

Christina Plank; Eberhard Lorbeer

1995-01-01

406

Impact of trans fatty acids of ruminant origin compared with those from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils on CHD risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a considerable overlap of trans fatty acid (TFA) isomers in fats of ruminant origin and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs), with many isomers in common. However, there is a considerable difference in the amount of individual TFAs in both sources. At present it is uncertain as to which component(s) of TFAs created by chemical hydrogenation are responsible for

Maria Pfeuffer; Jürgen Schrezenmeir

2006-01-01

407

Green Printing: Colorimetric and Densitometric Analysis of Solvent-Based and Vegetable Oil-Based Inks of Multicolor Offset Printing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the measurable print attributes (Print Contrast and Dot Gain) and color gamut of solvent-based (SB) inks vs. vegetable oil-based (VO) inks of multicolor offset printing. The literature review revealed a lack of published research on this subject. VO inks tend to perform (color…

Dharavath, H. Naik; Hahn, Kim

2009-01-01

408

[Determination of fatty acids in vegetable oils using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadropole mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with quadropole mass spectrometry (GC x GC-qMS) was applied to the detection of 31 fatty acids in vegetable oils. The sets of columns, modulation period, scan range of quadropole mass spectrometer were optimized. The results demonstrated that the separation was achieved in 50 min with the column set of DB-1 (30 m x0. 25 mm x 0.25 microm) as the 1st column and DB-Wax (3.2 m x 0.1 mm x 0. 1 microm) as the 2nd column. All fatty acids were accurately and sensitively determined while the modulation period was 3.5 s and the scan range of quadropole MS was m/z 40-350. Most of the fatty acids were identified by NIST library spectra search, the other fatty acid isomers were identified by single standard injection analysis. When applying this method to the real vegetable oil samples, not only the sensitivities were 100 times higher than those obtained with GC-qMS methods, but also some minor fatty acids were identified. This work suggested a new technical approach in analyzing fatty acid components in vegetable oils, which is meaningful to prohibit adulteration and ensuring the quality safety of edible vegetable oils. PMID:23451520

Zheng, Yueming; Feng, Feng; Guo, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Pan, Jiarong; Jia, Wei

2012-11-01

409

Combustion performance and emissions of ethyl ester of a waste vegetable oil in a water-cooled furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumption around the world produces large amounts of waste vegetable oils and fats that, in many world regions, are disposed of in harmful ways. Consequently, this study intended to investigate the feasibility of utilizing this renewable and low cost fuel raw material as a diesel fuel replacement in small-scale applications such as in residential heating boilers. Specifically, the study

Ghassan Tashtoush; Mohamad I Al-Widyan; Ali O Al-Shyoukh

2003-01-01

410

Modified vegetation indices for Ganoderma disease detection in oil palm from field spectroradiometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution field spectroradiometers are important for spectral analysis and mobile inspection of vegetation disease. The biggest challenges in using this technology for automated vegetation disease detection are in spectral signatures pre-processing, band selection and generating reflectance indices to improve the ability of hyperspectral data for early detection of disease. In this paper, new indices for oil palm Ganoderma disease detection were generated using band ratio and different band combination techniques. Unsupervised clustering method was used to cluster the values of each class resultant from each index. The wellness of band combinations was assessed by using Optimum Index Factor (OIF) while cluster validation was executed using Average Silhouette Width (ASW). 11 modified reflectance indices were generated in this study and the indices were ranked according to the values of their ASW. These modified indices were also compared to several existing and new indices. The results showed that the combination of spectral values at 610.5nm and 738nm was the best for clustering the three classes of infection levels in the determination of the best spectral index for early detection of Ganoderma disease.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Anuar, M. Izzuddin; Saripan, M. Iqbal

2009-10-01

411

Composition and Properties of Chinese Coker Gas Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and properties of China coker gas oil are analyzed and studied. The factors of effecting on the reaction of coker gas oil and measures that should be adopted are discussed. Research results show that China coker gas oil contains 86.04–86.87% C and 11.96–13.72% H, with an H\\/C atom ratio of 1.7. China coker gas oil contains 51.1–68.3% of

Z. Cao; B. Hou; W. Chen; Q. Zhao

2007-01-01

412

Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction

Keiji Sugiura; Masami Ishihara; Toshitsugu Shimauchi; Shigeaki Harayama

1997-01-01

413

Physical properties of gum karaya-starch-essential oil patches.  

PubMed

Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene glycol, glycerol, emulsifier, and optionally, potato starch as filler. Inclusion of essential oil reduced patch strength, stiffness, and elasticity relative to patches without essential oil. Inclusion of starch in the essential-oil patches strengthened them, but reduced their elasticity. Patches' adhesion to substrate was examined by both peeling and probe-tack tests: the higher the inclusion of essential oils within the patch, the larger the decrease in its adhesion to substrate. Addition of starch to essential-oil-containing patches increased their adhesion relative to their essential-oil-only counterparts. Scanning electron micrographs of the patches provided evidence of entrapped starch granules. Although inclusion of essential oil reduced both the mechanical properties and adhesion of the patches, a high proportion of essential oil can still be included without losing patch integrity or eliminating its adhesiveness to the skin. PMID:20711695

Shcherbina, Yulia; Roth, Zvi; Nussinovitch, Amos

2010-08-14

414

Protective properties of motor oils and oil corrosion inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the corrosion protection of internal combustion engines during the course of storage and operation of the vehicles, apart from preservative oils such as K-17 and NG-203, standard motor oils may be used, with or without one of the corrosion inhibitors AKOR-I, KP, and MSDA1 [i]. However, it is more logical to use operational\\/preservative motor oils that have a high

F. N. Ermolov; A. B. Énglin; G. T. Vigant; N. N. Zakharova

1982-01-01

415

The relation between dietary intake of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels in central Iran  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women) aged 19–81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak in “Isfahan Healthy Heart Program” (IHHP) (Iran), was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran) and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods. RESULTS: Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association.

Boroujeni, Hossein Khosravi; Sarrsfzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Nooshin; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Maghroon, Maryam; Alikhassi, Hassan; Esmailzaded, Ahmad

2012-01-01

416

Characterizing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Marshland Vegetation, Gulf Coast Louisiana, Using Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between April-July 2010 oil from the nation's largest oil spill contaminated the coastal marshlands of Louisiana. Data from the Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) are being used to (1) delineate the area of impact, (2) quantify the depth of oil penetration into the marsh and (3) characterize the physical and chemical impacts of the oil on the ecosystem. AVIRIS was flown on NASA ER-2 and Twin Otter aircraft, acquiring data at 7.5 and 4.4 meter pixel size, respectively. Concurrently, field surveys and sample collections were made in the imaged areas. Data were collected in early May, early July, late July and mid-August over the area ranging from Terrebonne Bay to the end of the Mississippi River delta. AVIRIS data were converted from radiance to reflectance. Oiled areas were detected by comparing AVIRIS spectra to field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of oiled and unaffected vegetation using the USGS Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA). Results indicate that the area in and around Barataria Bay was most extensively and heavily affected. In field surveys, stems of Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, the dominant species observed in the heavily oiled zones, were bent and broken by the weight of the oil, resulting in a damaged canopy that extended up to 30 meters into marsh. In less impacted zones, oil was observed on the plant stems but the canopy remained intact. In the bird's foot region of the delta, the area impacted was less extensive and the dominant affected species, Phragmites australis, suffered oiled stems but only minor fracturing of the canopy. Additional AVIRIS flights and field surveys are planned for the fall of 2010 and summer 2011. By comparing plant species composition, canopy biochemical content, and vegetation fractional cover within affected areas and to unaffected areas, we will continue to monitor degradation and recovery in the ecosystem, including on the longer-term chemical impacts of the oil in the marsh.

Kokaly, R. F.; Roberts, D. A.; Heckman, D.; Piazza, S.; Steyer, G.; Couvillion, B.; Holloway, J. M.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.

2010-12-01

417

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal

Philip Mercurio; Kathryn A. Burns; Joanne Cavanagh

2004-01-01

418

Paradoxical effect of n-3-containing vegetable oils on long-chain n-3 fatty acids in rat heart.  

PubMed

Flaxseed, echium, and canola oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) in a range of concentrations. To examine their effect on elevating cardiac levels of long-chain n-3 FA, diets based on these n-3-containing vegetable oils were fed to rats for 4 wk. Sunflower oil, which contains little ALA, was a comparator. Despite canola oil having the lowest ALA content of the three n-3-containing vegetable oils, it was the most potent for elevating DHA (22:6n-3) levels in rat hearts and plasma. However, the relative potencies of the dietary oils for elevation of EPA (20:5n-3) in heart and plasma followed the same rank order as their ALA content, i.e., flaxseed > echium > canola > sunflower oil. This paradox may be explained by lower ALA intake leading to decreased competition for Delta6 desaturase activity between ALA and the 24:5n-3 FA precursor to DHA formation. PMID:16382570

Cleland, Leslie G; Gibson, Robert A; Pedler, Janet; James, Michael J

2005-10-01

419

Application of a Combustion Model to a Diesel Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the application of a three component model to the theoretical study of the combustion process of a Diesel engine fueled with sunflower oil and sunflower oil-Diesel fuel mixtures. The model assumes that the working fluid consists of three components: the fresh air, the flame and the burned gases. The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation: vc·Qc·d??=dU?+dL?+dQw?, [1] where vc is the fuel cyclic dose, Qc is the fuel heating value, ??=vc?/vc, vc? is the quantity of burned fuel up to the moment ?, U? is the internal energy of the working fluid, Qw? is the heat exchanged through the cylinder walls and L? is the mechanical work. The heat release law was assumed to be a Vibe type one: ??=Rc·[1-exp(-6.9·AmPp+1)]+(1-Rc)·[1-exp(-6.9·Amd+1)], [2] where: ·Ap=(?-?d)/(?P-?d) and A=(?-?d)/(?F-?d) ·?d-start of combustion angle ·?f-end of combustion angle ·?P-end of rapid combustion angle. Using Eqs. [1] and [2] we have obtained the cylinder pressure during combustion, for the vegetable fuels taken into account; the peak values were confirmed during the experiments.

Radu, Rosca; Edward, Rakosi; Comsa, Iulian-Agape; Radu, Gaiginschi

420

Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process  

PubMed Central

Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms.

Tamada, Ivo S.; Montagnolli, Renato N.; Lopes, Paulo R. M.; Bidoia, Ederio D.

2012-01-01

421

Preliminary Studies on Two Vegetable Oil Based Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) for the Delivery of Metronidazole, A Poorly Water Soluble Drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary evaluation was carried out on metronidazole-loaded Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) using two vegetable oils-Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) and Palm Oil (PO). Purification of oils, drug solubility in the oils, pre\\/post formulation isotropicity tests, emulsification times and release studies of metronidazole from the SEDDS were carried out. Results indicated solubility values of 4.441 and 4.654%w\\/w, respectively for

N. C. Obitte; H. Ezeiruaku; V. I. Onyishi

2008-01-01

422

Free fatty acid fractions from some vegetable oils exhibit reduced survival time-shortening activity in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we demonstrated that several vegetable oils that included low-erucic rapeseed oil markedly shortened the survival\\u000a time (by ?40%) of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats as compared with perilla oil, soybean oil, and fish\\u000a oil. We considered that a factor other than fatty acids is toxic to SHRSP rats, because the survival time-shortening activity\\u000a could not be accounted for by

Makoto Miyazaki; Min-Zhao Huang; Naoya Takemura; Shiro Watanabe; Harumi Okuyama

1998-01-01

423

Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of esters of monochloropropanediol in vegetable oil.  

PubMed

The presence of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MEs) in food is a recent concern raised due to the carcinogenicity of their hydrolysable moieties 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD). Several indirect methods for the quantification of MEs have been developed and are commonly in use until today, however significant discrepancies among analytical results obtained are challenging their reliability. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the trueness of an indirect method by comparing it to a newly developed direct method using palm oil and palm olein as examples. The indirect method was based on ester cleavage under acidic conditions, derivatization of the liberated 2- and 3-MCPD with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole and GC-MS determination. The direct method was comprised of two extraction procedures targeting 2-and 3-MCPD mono esters (co-extracting as well glycidyl esters) by the use of double solid phase extraction (SPE), and 2- and 3-MCPD di-esters by the use of silica gel column, respectively. Detection was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). Accurate quantification of the intact compounds was assured by means of matrix matched standard addition on extracts. Analysis of 22 palm oil and 7 palm olein samples (2- plus 3-MCPD contamination ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 ?g/g) by both methods revealed no significant bias. Both methods were therefore considered as comparable in terms of results; however the indirect method was shown to require less analytical standards, being less tedious and furthermore applicable to all type of different vegetable oils and hence recommended for routine application. PMID:22444428

Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Empl, Anna Maria; Donaubauer, Alfred; Seefelder, Walburga

2012-03-07

424

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

425

Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Background Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Results Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on ?-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Conclusions Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have higher responsiveness to low dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, up-regulating the biosynthetic pathway when fed dietary VO. As global aquaculture searches for alternative oils for feeds, this study alerts to the potential of VO introducing contaminants and demonstrates the detoxifying role of intestine. Finally, data indicate genotype-specific responses in the intestinal transcriptome and proteome to dietary VO, including possibly structural properties of the intestinal layer and defence against cellular stress, with Lean fish being more susceptible to diet-induced oxidative stress.

2012-01-01

426

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly progress report], December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During this second quarter working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S. 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different extraction solvents, and different temperatures were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 1OO{degree}C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.; Ho, K.K.

1995-12-31

427

Rheological properties and lubricity of poly-alpha-olefin oils  

SciTech Connect

Oils were obtained by polymerization of alpha-olefins with a complex aluminum chloride catalyst, followed by neutralization of the polymerized product, distillation, and hydrogenation. Materials were tested to determine the kinematic viscosity at above- and below-freezing temperatures and dynamic viscosity at below-freezing temperatures. Poly-alpha-olefin oils were obtained at different levels of average molecular weight by varying the conditions of polymerization and distillation. The antiwear properties of petroleum, PAOO, and alkylbenzene oils having equal viscosities and an addition of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate were compared. The dialkylbenzene oil had strong associative-solvation properties with respect to the additive.

Tsvetkov, O.N.; Kolesova, G.E.; Bogdanov, S.K.; Toporishcheva, R.I.

1988-01-01

428

[Antiradical properties of oregano, thyme, and savory essential oils].  

PubMed

In model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, the antiradical properties of essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgare), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and savory (Satureja hortensis) that are similar in the qualitative composition, but differ in the quantitative content of the main components, were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol. The reaction rates of components of essential oils with the radical were almost identical for all essential oils and were twice the reaction rate of ionol. The antiradical efficiency values were close to each other for all essential oils and by an order of magnitude smaller than for ionol. PMID:23662455

Alinkina, E S; Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D

429

ESTOLIDES OVERCOME TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE BASED LUBRICANT SHORTFALLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable based lubricants face many challenges in their development as potential lubricants. The three biggest hurdles are cost, oxidative stability and cold temperature properties (pour point, cloud point and cold temperature storage). Distinct advantages of vegetable oils are their excellent lu...

430

Vegetable Fuel Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possible contribution to Defence fuels from vegetable sources is considered. Only two categories, ethyl alcohol from fermentation of carbohydrate material and vegetable oils directly from oil crops, can currently be produced with present technology in...

R. K. Solly

1983-01-01

431

Vegetation clutter spectral properties in VHF\\/UHF bistatic doppler radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model of vegetation clutter creation mechanism is discussed for the bistatic and forward scattering Doppler radar configuration. The foliage is considered as a set of separate pendulums oscillating with different resonance frequencies. On the basis of this model, predictions of clutter spectral properties are made and compared with clutter data measured on different frequencies in the VHF and

V. Sizov; Cheng Hu; M. Antoniou; M. Cherniakov

2008-01-01

432

Effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological, nutritional, and sensory properties of fresh vegetable juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation pasteurization process was performed to improve the microbiological quality of fresh vegetable juice. Carrot and kale juice were irradiated and their microbiological, nutritional, and sensory properties were evaluated. The contaminating bacteria in the juices before irradiation ranged from 106 to 107CFU\\/ml. All the aerobic and coliform bacteria in the carrot juice were eliminated by irradiation at a dose

Hyun-Pa Song; Myung-Woo Byun; Cheorun Jo; Cheol-Ho Lee; Kyong-Soo Kim; Dong-Ho Kim

2007-01-01

433

Assessing the effect of vegetation in the estimation of soil properties with field VNIR radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroradiometric soil surveys (field radiometry) are a valuable technique for soil classification and properties estimation. Field radiometry combines -in a relatively easy-to-use procedure- a fast, accurate and non-destructive sampling method. A wide range of soil properties have been quantitatively estimated with field or laboratory radiometry. In addition, field radiometry is a basic stage in remote sensing studies. It allows the up-scaling process of soil, vegetation or water parameters from the ground level to the airborne or spaceborne sensors level. Field radiometry plays a crucial role in training and validation stages of quantitative remote sensing. A complex problem in remote sensing appears when several components are mixed within a pixel and the resulting pixel's spectrum is a combination of the individual components. This work assess the effect of vegetation in soil properties estimation with linear regression models. Field spectra were taken from soil-vegetation mixtures under natural illumination with a portable spectroradiometer in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Soil and vegetation samples for each radiometric sampling point were taken and analyzed in laboratory. Soil moisture content and soil organic carbon measured by the LOI (Loss-On-Ignition) method (Konen et al. 2002) were used in this approach. A derivative analysis of field spectra was used to determine the position and magnitude of absorption bands according to the method employed by Melendez-Pastor et al. (2008). Pearson correlations between soil parameters and each spectral band were computed and correlograms for the first and second derivate were obtained. Maximum (approximates to +1) and minimum (approximates to -1) Pearson correlations were used to normalize correlograms between 0 to 1. High relatively correlated bands (with values ranging from 0 to 0.1 or from 0-9 to 1 for the normalized correlograms) were identified and used as explicative variables in the regression models. In addition, vegetation water content and the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation index) computed from field spectra also were used as explicative variables. Four combinations of explicative variables were used to predict soil variables: 1) high correlated bands, 2) high correlated bands and a soil parameter (LOI is used to predict soil moisture and vice versa), 3) high correlated bands and vegetation parameters, and 4) high correlated bands with soil and vegetation parameters. Models were developed for LOI and soil moisture with the first and second derivate. Medium to high correlation coefficients (R) were obtained in all regression models. R values ranged from 0.7 for the first approach (just high correlated bands) to 0.9 for the prediction of soil moisture with high correlated bands of the second derivate with vegetation parameters. Regression models with the second derivative achieved better model's adjustments and were almost equal for all combinations of explicative variables. A small improvement was observed for first derivate regression models using soil and vegetation explicative variables. Vegetation moisture was the most important parameter for the improvement of soil properties estimation. The combined used of soil and vegetation parameters for quantitative remote sensing of soil parameters allows accuracy improvements and a better knowledge of land cover mixtures. Regression models with the second derivate spectral peaks are less sensitive to changes in the vegetation coverage and thus retrieves better soil parameters estimations. References Konen, M., P. Jacobs, C. Lee Burras, B. Talaga, J. Mason. (2002) Equations for predicting soil organic carbon using loss-on-ignition for north central U.S. soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66:1878-1881. Melendez-Pastor, I., J. Navarro-Pedreño, I. Gómez, M. Koch. (2008). Identifying optimal spectral bands to assess soil properties with VNIR radiometry in semi-arid soils. Geoderma, 147: 126-132.

Melendez-Pastor, I.; Córdoba-Sola, P.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gómez, I.; Koch, M.

2009-04-01

434

Application of polyuronides for removing heavy metals from vegetable oils. III. Application of alginic acid, pectic and pectinic acids for demetalization of hydrogenated sunflower oil.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments have been carried out for the removal of heavy metals from hydrogenated vegetable oils using hydrated polyuronides (degree of swelling from 4 to 12.8 ml/g) such as alginic acid, pectic and pectinic acids. The effect of the type of polyuronide, degree of esterification and oil treatment on the degree of demetalization has been studied. It has been shown that with increase in the degree of esterification of the polyuronide the efficiency of demetalization decreases. The second and third treatment of the hydrogenated oil with pectinic acid resulted in a high degree of heavy metal removal. The possibility of efficient demetalization of hydrogenated oils by treatment with water solutions of pectinic acids has also been demonstrated. The degree of metal ion removal increases with decreasing concentration of pectinic acids in the water solution. PMID:1462709

Ivanov, K; Popova, M; Denev, P; Kratchanov, C

1992-11-01

435

COMMENTARY - SPATIAL VARIATION OF SOIL PROPERTIES RELATING TO VEGETATION CHANGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bekele and Hudnall provide an interesting perspective on the spatial variation of soil chemical properties in a natural area undergoing transition from prairie to forest. Their focus is on the unique calcareous prairie ecosystem of Louisiana where prairie remnants are being encroached upon by the f...

436

Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-05-01

437

Impacts of cell surface characteristics on population dynamics in a sequencing batch yeast reactor treating vegetable oil-containing wastewater.  

PubMed

Ten yeast strains acquired from different sources and capable of utilizing vegetable oil or related compounds (fatty acid or oleic acid) as sole carbon sources were inoculated into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of high-strength vegetable oil-containing wastewater. The SBR system stably removed >89% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and >99% of oil when fed with wastewater containing 15 g/L COD and 10 g/L oil in average. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 26S rRNA genes showed that among the ten yeast strains, only Candida lipolytica, Candida tropicalis, and Candida halophila were dominant in the system. To elucidate the major factors affecting the selection of yeast strains in the SBR system, the three dominant strains were compared with two non-dominant strains in terms of COD removal performance, biomass yield, cell settleability, cell flocculation ability, cell emulsification ability, and surface hydrophobicity. Results showed that hydrophobicity and emulsification ability of yeast cells were the two most important factors determining the selection of yeast strains in the treatment of high-strength oil-containing wastewater. PMID:21468715

Lv, Wenzhou; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xinchun; Yang, Min

2011-04-06

438

In situ bioremediation of uranium with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor.  

PubMed

A field test with a one-time emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection was conducted to assess the capacity of EVO to sustain uranium bioreduction in a high-permeability gravel layer with groundwater concentrations of (mM) U, 0.0055; Ca, 2.98; NO3(-), 0.11; HCO3(-), 5.07; and SO4(2-), 1.23. Comparison of bromide and EVO migration and distribution indicated that a majority of the injected EVO was retained in the subsurface from the injection wells to 50 m downgradient. Nitrate, uranium, and sulfate were sequentially removed from the groundwater within 1-2 weeks, accompanied by an increase in acetate, Mn, Fe, and methane concentrations. Due to the slow release and degradation of EVO with time, reducing conditions were sustained for approximately one year, and daily U discharge to a creek, located approximately 50 m from the injection wells, decreased by 80% within 100 days. Total U discharge was reduced by 50% over the one-year period. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was confirmed by synchrotron analysis of recovered aquifer solids. Oxidants (e.g., dissolved oxygen, nitrate) flowing in from upgradient appeared to reoxidize and remobilize uranium after the EVO was exhausted as evidenced by a transient increase of U concentration above ambient values. Occasional (e.g., annual) EVO injection into a permeable Ca and bicarbonate-containing aquifer can sustain uranium bioreduction/immobilization and decrease U migration/discharge. PMID:23697787

Watson, David B; Wu, Wei-Min; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Tang, Guoping; Earles, Jennifer; Lowe, Kenneth; Gihring, Thomas M; Zhang, Gengxin; Phillips, Jana; Boyanov, Maxim I; Spalding, Brian P; Schadt, Christopher; Kemner, Kenneth M; Criddle, Craig S; Jardine, Philip M; Brooks, Scott C

2013-06-04

439

Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil  

SciTech Connect

The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction being more susceptible to biodegradation than the aromatic fraction in all the crude oil samples. The extent of biodegradation by acinetobacter and SM8 was found to be in the order of Arabian light > Dubai > Maya = Shengli; the crude oil samples with higher APl gravity being more susceptible to biodegradation. Saturated compounds of smaller molecular weight were preferentially degraded by both cultures. Acinetobacter could not degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples such as (alkyl)naphthalenes, (alky)phenanthrenes, (alkyl)fluorenes, and (alkyl)dibenzothiophenes. However, this strain was capable of degrading more than 10% of the molecules in the aromatic fraction of Arabian light crude oil. An NMR analysis demonstrated that the alkyl side chain of some aromatic molecules was degraded by this organism. In contrast, SM8 degraded the polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples, the extent of degradation being in the order of Maya > Shengli > Arabian light > Dubai. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Sugiura, Keiji; Ishihara, Masami; Shimauchi, Toshitsugu; Harayama, Shigeaki [Marine Biotechnology Inst., Kamaishi City (Japan)

1997-01-01

440

Lubricating Properties of Oil-In-Water Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are described in which elastohydrodynamic and boundary lubrication properties of O\\/W emulsions of mineral oil are studied with a variety of nonionic surfactants as the emulsifying agents. The changes in the minimum elastohydrodynamic film thickness are determined with different surfactants, with changes in oil concentration, with changes in emulsifying agent concentration, and with blending of different surfactants. These results

Yoshitsugu Kimura; Kazumi Okada

1989-01-01

441

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

SciTech Connect

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01

442

Association of elevated blood pressure and impaired vasorelaxation in experimental Sprague-Dawley rats fed with heated vegetable oil  

PubMed Central

Background Poor control of blood pressure leads to hypertension which is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to explore possible mechanisms of elevation in blood pressure following consumption of heated vegetable oil. Methods Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups: Group I (control) - normal rat chow, Group II - fresh soy oil, Group III - soy oil heated once, Group IV - soy oil heated twice, Group V - soy oil heated five times, Group VI - soy oil heated ten times. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline level and at a monthly interval for six months. Plasma nitric oxide, heme oxygenase and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were measured prior to treatment, at month-three and month-six later. At the end of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and thoracic aortas were taken for measurement of vascular reactivity. Results Blood pressure increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the repeatedly heated oil groups compared to the control and fresh soy oil groups. Consumption of diet containing repeatedly heated oil resulted higher plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme level and lower nitric oxide content and heme oxygenase concentration. Reheated soy oil groups exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, and greater contraction to phenylephrine. Conclusion As a result of consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil, an elevation in blood pressure was observed which may be due to the quantitative changes in endothelium dependent and independent factors including enzymes directly involved in the regulation of blood pressure.

2010-01-01

443

Metabolism and Fatty Acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPAR? was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies. PMID:24124573

Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

2013-10-04

444

Effects of Partially Hydrogenated, Semi-Saturated, and High Oleate Vegetable Oils on Inflammatory Markers and Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on subclinical inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk are mainly derived\\u000a from studies conducted in Western populations. Little information is available on South East Asian countries. This current\\u000a study investigated the chronic effects on serum inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins of three vegetable oils. Healthy,\\u000a normolipidemic subjects (n = 41; 33 females, 8 males) completed a

Kim-Tiu Teng; Phooi-Tee Voon; Hwee-Ming Cheng; Kalanithi Nesaretnam

2010-01-01

445

Individual Trans Octadecenoic Acids and Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Differentially Affect Hepatic Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Golden Syrian Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans fatty acids (TFA) from industrial sources (i.e. partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO)) have been associated with several chronic human diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD). The possible contribution of individual TFA to overall CHD risk remains largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of 2 majortrans 18:1 isomers, trans-9 18:1 (elaidic acid (EA))

C. Tyburczy; C. Major; A. L. Lock; F. Destaillats; P. Lawrence; J. T. Brenna; A. M. Salter; D. E. Bauman

2008-01-01

446

Determination of trans fatty acids in hydrogenated vegetable oils by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy: Two limited collaborative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy procedure was collaboratively studied among two sets of five laboratories\\u000a for quantitating the total trans fatty acid levels in neat (without solvent) hydrogenated vegetable oils, measured as triacylglycerols in one study, and as\\u000a fatty acid methyl ester derivatives in the other. Unlike the fatty acid methyl esters, the triacylglycerols required no derivatization\\u000a but had

M. Adam; M. Chew; S. Wasserman; A. McCollum; R. E. McDonald; M. M. Mossoba

1998-01-01

447

Some applications of viscometry from studies on the absorption of vegetable oils and solvents by paper substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies on the drying performance of oleoresinous and solvent-based offset lithographic printing inks, a test\\u000a was devised to determine the rate of absorption of drops of vegetable oils and solvents deposited on the surface of a paper\\u000a substrate. The influence of viscosity on the rate of horizontal capillary absorption indicated a potential use of the absorption\\u000a data to

G. H. Hutchinson; J. W. Davison

2008-01-01

448

Metabolism and Fatty Acid Profile in Fat and Lean Rainbow Trout Lines Fed with Vegetable Oil: Effect of Carbohydrates  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPAR? was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

Kamalam, Biju Sam; Medale, Francoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Genevieve; Panserat, Stephane

2013-01-01

449

Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total microbial community. Bacterial richness rebounded after nine months, although community composition remained distinct from the pre-amendment conditions. Subsequent to the experiment we have isolated several of these organisms into pure culture including representatives of probable new species of Geobacter, Desulforegula and Desulfovibrio. A hypothesized model for the functioning of these limited communities will be verified in the laboratory using defined combinations of isolates from the field where possible. These results demonstrated EVO serves as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction, and subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction was likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

2011-12-01

450

Feeding vegetable oils to lactating ewes modifies the fatty acid profile of suckling lambs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vegetable oil supplementation of ewe diets on the performance and fatty acid (FA) composition of their suckling lambs. Forty-eight pregnant Churra ewes (mean BW 64.3±0.92 kg) with their 72 newborn lambs (prolificacy=1.5) were assigned to one of four experimental diets, supplemented with 3% of hydrogenated palm (PALM), olive (OLI), soya (SOY) or linseed (LIN) oil. Lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling from their respective mothers. Ewes were milked once daily, and milk samples were taken once a week. When lambs reached 11 kg, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from musculus longissimus dorsi (intramuscular fat) and subcutaneous fat tissue. No changes were observed in milk yield, proximal composition or lamb performance (P>0.10). Milk and lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular fat samples from the PALM diet had the highest saturated fatty acid concentration, whereas those of the OLI, SOY and LIN diets had the lowest (P<0.05). The greatest monounsaturated fatty acid concentration was observed in milk from ewes fed OLI, and the least in milk and in lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular fat samples from LIN and PALM diets. Milk and lamb fat from ewes fed PALM displayed the highest 16:0 proportion and the lowest 18:0 (P<0.05). There were higher concentrations of cis-9 18:1 in OLI samples (P<0.05), more 18:2n-6 in SOY lambs and milk fat (P<0.001) and the highest levels of 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 in LIN samples (P<0.01). Milk and lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular samples from SOY and LIN diets contained the most cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, whereas PALM samples had the least (P<0.01). Sheep diet supplementation with different oils, constituting up to 3% of their diets, resulted in changes in the FA composition of milk and the subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of suckling lambs, but did not affect either milk production or lamb performance. PMID:22440359

Manso, T; Bodas, R; Vieira, C; Mantecón, A R; Castro, T

2011-08-01

451

Studies on phytosterol oxides. II: Content in some vegetable oils and in French fries prepared in these oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenated rapeseed oil\\/palm oil blend, sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil, and French fries fried in these oils\\u000a were assessed for contents of sterol oxidation products. Different oxidation products of phytosterols (7?- and 7?-hydroxy-sito-and\\u000a campesterol, 7-ketosito- and 7-ketocampesterol, 5?,6?-epoxy-sito- and campesterol, 5?,6?-epoxy-sito-and campesterol, dihydroxysitosterol\\u000a and dihydroxycampesterol) were identified and quantiated by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectroscopy. Rapeseed oil\\/palm\\u000a oil

Paresh Chandra Dutta

1997-01-01

452

FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for analysis of lard adulteration in some vegetable oils Espectroscopia FTIR combinada con quimiometría para el análisis de adulteración con grasa de cerdo de aceites vegetales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to develop a fast technique of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for detection and quantification of lard adulteration in some vegetable oils, namely canola oil (Ca?O), corn oil (CO), extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), soybean oil (SO), and sunflower oil (SFO). The FTIR spectra associated with Ca?O, CO, EVOO, SO, and SFO as well as their

A. Rohman; Yaakob B. Che Man; P. Hashim; A. Ismail

2011-01-01

453

Viscoelastic Properties of Crude Oil Components at Oil?Water Interfaces. 1. The Effect of Dilution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilational viscoelastic properties of diluted crude oil?water interfaces have been studied using the oscillation drop method. The study focuses on the effect of altering aromaticity of the solvent and the concentration of the crude oil on the viscoelastic response of the crude oil?water interface. Dynamic interfacial tension experiments (pendant drop), asphaltene aggregation state experiments (near?infrared spectroscopy) and emulsion stability

Andreas Hannisdal; Robert Orr; Johan Sjöblom

2007-01-01

454

Oil shale CFBC ash cementation properties in ash fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition, physical\\/geotechnical properties and cementation of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) oil shale ash were studied in a large-scale field experiment. Compared to pulverized fuel (PF) combustion oil shale ashes, the CFBC process ashes have lower cementation properties due to their different phase composition. For hydraulic deposition at low ash-water ratios of approximately 1:20, which have been successfully used

T. Pihu; H. Arro; A. Prikk; R. Rootamm; A. Konist; K. Kirsimäe; M. Liira; R. Mõtlep

455

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2013-04-01

456

Oil\\/water surface rheological properties of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) alone and mixed with lecithin: Contribution to emulsion stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) is a neutral branched polysaccharide derivatized from a wood substrate. Widely used in whipping vegetable creams, HPC is a thickening biopolymer having surface active properties both at air\\/water and oil\\/water interfaces. Myglyol\\/water interfacial rheology was used to characterize the behavior of HPC at this interface in the presence or the absence of lecithin, an emulsifier classically used

S. Mezdour; A. Lepine; P. Erazo-Majewicz; F. Ducept; C. Michon

2008-01-01

457

Studies in interesterification. II. Acidolysis of some vegetable oils with lauric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidolysis reactions of cottonseed oil, peanut oil, mahua oil (Madhuca latifolia), and palm oil with lauric acid were investigated with special reference to the influence of catalysts and the relative proportions\\u000a of oil and lauric acid on the extent and type of fatty acids displaced from an oil. Catalysts such as sulfuric acid, zinc\\u000a oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum

M. M. Chakrabarty; K. Talapatra

1968-01-01

458

Characteristics of Spilled Oils, Fuels, and Petroleum Products: Composition and Properties of Selected Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexit...

B. Fieldhouse B. P. Hollebone G. Thouin J. Noonan J. W. Weaver L. Sigouin M. Fingas M. Landriault P. Smith Z. Wang

2003-01-01

459

Application of kaolin-based catalysts in biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol.  

PubMed

Biodiesel production from transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol was performed by using as-prepared catalyst from low-cost kaolin clay. This effective heterogeneous catalyst was successfully prepared from natural kaolin firstly by dehydroxylation at 800°C for 10h and, subsequently, by NaOH-activation hydrothermally at 90°C for 24h and calcined again at 500°C for 6h. The as-obtained catalytic material was characterized with instruments, including FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and porosimeter (BET/BJH analysis). The as-prepared catalyst was advantageous not only for its easy preparation, but also for its cost-efficiency and superior catalysis in transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Conversion efficiencies of soybean and palm oils to biodiesel over the as-prepared catalysts reached 97.0±3.0% and 95.4±3.7%, respectively, under optimal conditions. Activation energies of transesterification reactions of soybean and palm oils in excess methanol using these catalysts are 14.09kJ/mol and 48.87kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:23305893

Dang, Tan Hiep; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lee, Duu-Jong

2012-12-13

460

A comparison of soil properties under four vegetation units from six metalliferous hills in Katanga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo), numerous metalliferous hills are distributed along what is called the copperhill belt from Kolwezi to Lubumbashi. Very specific vegetation developed on these hills within the miombo forest in response to very specific soil conditions, among which the copper content. Previous studies have already shown the existence of gradients of copper from the mineralized rocks outcropping at the top of the hills to the foot slopes on colluviums. After a characterization of the vertical variability of soil properties in pits distributed along the main slopes, we investigated the soil-vegetation relationships in six hills located between the towns of Tenke and Fungurume. Observation 1-square meter plots were installed in four vegetation units and sixty of them were selected according to their relative importance on the six hills. The soil from the top 10cm was sampled and analyzed for pH, Total Organic Carbon, available P, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Co and Mn and soluble Cu and Co. Analysis of variance was performed in order to assess whether the effects of the "Hill" and of the "Vegetation Unit" were significant to explain soil chemical variability. Additionally, short transects were sampled at the boundaries from adjacent vegetation units in order to evaluate the gradual or rough nature of change in soil properties under these units. The results indicate that the six hills can not be considered as different for pH and available nutrients, excepted K, nor for the available Cu and Mn. Only TOC and Co contents were differing, mainly from one hill compared to the other five. The vegetation effect is significant for almost every studied soil characteristics, to the exception of Ca and Mn. Soluble Cu and Co significantly correlate to available Cu and Co, respectively. The pH variations however explain local departures from linear regression. The ANOVA models take into account 30 to 60% of the variations of soil properties. The study of the boundaries indicate that most changes of vegetation types may be related to abrupt changes in soil properties. These changes do not only occur along the slope as a result of malachite deposition by erosion but the surface processes seem to be predominant in the context of the hills.

Kaya, Donato; Gregory, Mahy; Michel, Ngongo; Gilles, Colinet

2013-04-01

461

Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

2005-11-01

462

Development of rapid determination of 18 phthalate esters in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simultaneous and fast determination of 18 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. After solvent extraction, the PAEs in the oil sample were further cleaned up by solid-phase extraction. After concentration, the extract was directly injected into gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in positive-ion electron impact (EI) mode. Method quantification limits of 18 PAEs were between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. Quantitative recoveries ranging from 63.9 to 115.3% were obtained by analysis of spiked oil. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% (n = 6). The method could potentially overcome the interference from large amounts of lipids and pigment. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation of PAEs in routine analysis. PMID:23339279

Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Wang, Li

2013-01-31

463

Facile chemiluminescence assay for antioxidative properties of vegetable lipids: fundamentals and illustrative examples.  

PubMed

The general approach disclosed herein opens the new possibilities of exploiting the oxidation processes followed by chemiluminescence (CL) emission for the assessment of an antioxidant potential of natural lipid materials and enables determination of the amount and strength of lipid-borne antioxidants in one experiment. The reliability of the analytical procedure is completely unaffected by an inevitable entering of oxidizable lipid portions into the probe chemiluminescent mixture, which is exemplarily illustrated for the case of vegetable oils which served as sources of antioxidant-containing lipids. As a matter of fact, the difference in the effective radical-scavenging rate constants, determined for the antioxidative constituents of the sunflower and corn oils, perfectly matches the distinction of their qualitative tocopherol contents. In addition to the antiradical activity of lipid samples, the antioxidant potential of the latter may be modified by their influence on hydroperoxide stability, as it has been also demonstrated in the present work. PMID:19768225

Fedorova, Galina F; Menshov, Valery A; Trofimov, Alexey V; Vasil'ev, Rostislav F

2009-08-17

464

Impact of spruce forest and grass vegetation cover on soil micromorphology and hydraulic properties of organic matter horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two organic matter horizons developed under a spruce forest and grass vegetation were chosen to demonstrate the impact of\\u000a a different vegetation cover on the micromorphology, porous system and hydraulic properties of surface soils. Micromorphological\\u000a studies showed that the decomposed organic material in the organic matter horizon under the grass vegetation was more compact\\u000a compared to the decomposed organic material

Radka Kodešová; Lenka Pavl?; Vít Kodeš; Anna Žigová; Antonín Nikodem

2007-01-01

465

Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns.  

PubMed

The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity. PMID:23697993

Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

2013-04-15

466

Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the aerobic biodegradation of a model vegetable oil in aquatic media.  

PubMed

Antioxidants added to vegetable oils to prevent lipid oxidation significantly affect their biodegradation in impacted aquatic environments. In this study, the effect of butylated-hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a model vegetable oil highly susceptible to autoxidation, was determined. Biodegradation experiments were conducted in respirometric microcosms at an oil loading of 333 gal acre(-1) (0.31 L m(-2)) and BHT concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mg kg(-1) (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1)). Competition between polymerization and biodegradation of the oil was observed at all BHT concentrations and was significant in the microcosms not supplemented with the antioxidant. In all microcosms, intractable rigid polymers unavailable for bacterial degradation were formed. Infrared analysis evidenced the advanced stages of the oil autoxidation. After 19 weeks of incubation, only about 41% of the oil was mineralized in the microcosms with no BHT. However, mineralization exceeded 67% in the microcosms with added antioxidant and did not significantly increase with increasing BHT concentrations. Biodegradation rate constants were calculated by nonlinear regression and were not significantly different in the microcosms with added BHT (k = 0.001 h(-1)). Higher k values were measured in the microcosms lacking the antioxidant (k = 0.0023 h(-1)), most likely due to the increased oxygen consumption associated with the autoxidation process in this case. No toxicity was detected in all biotic microcosms at the end of the incubation period, while high toxicity (EC(50) = 4.78%) was measured in the abiotic blanks with no antioxidant and was attributed to the accumulation of autoxidation products. PMID:22680298

Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

2012-06-11

467

HOW DOES BIOTECH FOOD LABELING AFFECT CONSUMERS' PURCHASING PREFERENCE AND MARKET SHARE IN SUPERMARKET? A CASE STUDY OF VEGETABLE OIL IN URBAN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether and how biotech labeling has an impact on Chinese consumers' vegetable oil purchasing decision using actual sales data from Nanjing and household survey data from Jiangsu province. It is found that the market share of biotech oils decreased as a result, though small in absolute terms but statistically significant. It is also found that individual consumers'

FUNING ZHONG; XI CHEN

468

Changes in Soil Properties and Vegetable Growth in Preparation for Organic Farming in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in soil properties and vegetable growth were quantified on a low-fertility tropical soil. Four treatments (two composts, urea, and control) were applied to an Oxisol (Rhodic Haplustox, Wahiawa series) in a field on Oahu, Hawaii. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa, Chinensis group) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) were grown sequentially as test crops. Soil quality as measured by hot-water-soluble carbon, dehydrogenase

Maria E. Ortiz-Escobar; N. V. Hue

2011-01-01

469

Biodegradation of Natural Oils in Seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spills of non-petroleum hydrocarbons including vegetable oils and fish oils are of environmental concern because of their potential to cause serious effects on marine life and coastal environments. Biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms is an important and potentially ubiquitous process affecting both the chemical composition and physical properties of contaminant oils. Data on the environmental persistence of non-petroleum oils is now

M. M. AL-DARBI; N. O. SAEED; M. R. ISLAM; K. LEE

2005-01-01

470

Experimental prediction of the agglomeration capability of waste vegetable oils (WVO) in relation to the recovery of coal from coal fines cleaning wastes (CFCW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fines cleaning wastes (CFCW) were agglomerated with samples of a vegetable oil heated at 150°C for 1–15 days. An agglomeration efficiency index (AEI) which variation depends on the oil agglomeration capability was calculated. Good linear correlations were attained between the AEI values and the viscosity, and the unsaturation degree of the oil monitored by FT–IR and 1H NMR. Based

Adolfo F. Valdés; M. Dolores González-Azpiroz; Carlos G. Blanco; Ana B. Garc?´a

2007-01-01

471

Effects of dietary lipid level and vegetable oil on fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar  L.) over the whole production cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) induced by vegetable oil (VO) replacement of fish oil (FO) and high dietary oil in aquaculture diets can have negative impacts\\u000a on the nutritional quality of the product for the human consumer, including altered flesh fatty acid composition and lipid\\u000a content. A dietary trial was designed to investigate the twin

D. R. Tocher; J. G. Bell; F. McGhee; J. R. Dick; J. Fonseca-Madrigal

2003-01-01

472

Heat treatment of vegetable oils I. Isolation of the cyclic fatty acid monomers from heated sunflower and linseed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linseed and sunflower oils were heated at 275 C for 12 hr under nitrogen. The sunflower oil was also heated in a commercial\\u000a fryer at 200 C for 48 hr using a 2-hr daily cycle. The cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) formed during the heat treatment\\u000a of the linseed oil were isolated by a combination of saponification, esterification, column chromatography

J. L. Sebedio; J. Prevost; A. Grandgirard

1987-01-01

473

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (PO)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2007-01-01

474

Mechanisms of erosion along salt marsh edges: the interplay of invertebrates, vegetation, and sediment properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many salt marshes within the shallow, coastal bays of Virginia have been experiencing rapid erosion along their bay-facing edges. Although waves are typically the driving force behind this erosion, internal properties of the marsh influence rates of erosion and the mechanisms by which erosion occurs. Sediment properties, vegetation community, and burrowing activity of crabs have been characterized at three eroding marsh sites to determine their relative importance to erosion. Two types of erosion appear to be dominant along the marsh edge at the studied sites. The first involves a form of terracing, in which the upper layer of root mat is initially removed by wave activity, which is followed by persistent erosion of the less-vegetated, underlying material. The other common mechanism by which erosion occurs is through block detachment. This is the result of large cracks or fissures that form as water travels through areas of weakness or burrow structures along the marsh edge; eventually, waves or gravity remove these large block structures from the edge. Results indicate that certain properties of the marsh edge likely impact the mechanism of erosion at work at each site. Block detachment is common at a marsh edge with abundant coverage of large communal crab burrows, sparse aboveground vegetation, and fine-grained sediment near the edge. Terracing is more prevalent at marshes with dense belowground vegetation or high mussel densities that provide stability near the surface of the marsh. Though not fully addressed in previous studies, these appear to be critical processes in regulating marsh erosion in Virginia coastal bays and are likely common along marsh edges elsewhere.

McLoughlin, S.; Wiberg, P. L.; McGlathery, K.; Fagherazzi, S.; Mariotti, G.

2010-12-01

475

[Influence of intake of vegetable oils on the in vitro intestinal absorption of glucose in golden hamsters].  

PubMed

Male Hamsters (Mesocricetus aureatus) were fed standardized diets with 15% Rose hip, Sunflower, Olive or Coconut oil for four weeks, in order to determine the influence of vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation over the intestinal absorption of glucose. The concentration of glucose in the serosal solution at 20, 40 and 60 minutes, was quantified in pieces of everted intestine of each animal, after the feeding period was over. A lower concentration of glucose was observed in the Olive group, although it was statistically significant only when compared to the Rose hip and Coconut oil group (P < 0.05). The groups fed Rose hip and Coconut showed a similar pattern, even though they are oils with extreme and opposing degree of unsaturation. We explain this by the triggering of homeostatic mechanisms in the cellular membranes of the enterocytes when faced to a nutritional stress caused by the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of those oils. We can conclude that the in vitro intestinal absorption of glucose in golden hamster is modified by dietary lipids. The lower absorption of glucose seen in the Olive group could be caused a specific action of a fatty acid or of its degree of unsaturation. PMID:9161444

González Barra, I; Escobar, M; Villarroel Guerra, M

1995-12-01

476

Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation–soil relationships following vegetation restoration of mobile dunes in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative methods were used to examine soil properties and their spatial heterogeneity in a 0-year fenced mobile dune (MD0),\\u000a an 11-year fenced mobile dune (MD11) and a 20-year fenced mobile dune (MD20) in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. The objective\\u000a of the study was to assess the effect of vegetation restoration on heterogeneity of soil properties in sand dunes and

Xiaoan Zuo; Xueyong Zhao; Halin Zhao; Tonghui Zhang; Yirui Guo; Yuqiang Li; Yingxin Huang

2009-01-01

477

Using some of unusual waste vegetable oils as fat supplements in growing rabbit rations  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - The objective of this study was to evaluate two types of acidulated soapstock of either palm oil (MS) or mixture oils (AMS) in comparison with com oil as a cheap supplemental fats when added at 1% to the commercial rabbit ration. Fatty acids profile of different fat types were determined by using GLC. The effect of additional fats

M. I. ABD EL-RAHIMI; M. I. TAWFEEK

478

Edible spreads of wide plastic range from vegetable oils and monoglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A specimen of coffee oil has been examined with the objective of determining its composition in the light of possible uses of the oil which is recoverable as a byproduct in the soluble coffee industry. The oil, as obtained by extraction of the coffee grounds with solvent, contains over 5% of unique unsaponifiable material which, without preliminary removal, makes

Edwin P. Jones; Herbert J. Dutton; John C. Cowan

1953-01-01

479

Perturbation of the Metabolism of Essential Fatty Acids by Dietary Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats were fed purified diets containing (i) partially hydrogenated soybean oil as source of isomeric octadecenoic acids, (ii) hydrogenated coconut oil as source of saturated fatty acids, and (iii) a low level of corn oil as low-fat control. All diets contained 18% of the linoleate requirement. Rat liver and heart phospholipids were analyzed by gas\\/liquid chromatography for fatty acids, and

Eldon G. Hill; Susan B. Johnson; Larry D. Lawson; M. M. Mahfouz; Ralph T. Holman

1982-01-01

480

Phase-transfer catalysis and ultrasonic waves II: saponification of vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saponification of oils which is a commercially important heterogeneous reaction, can be speeded up by the application of ultrasound in the presence of phase-transfer catalyst (PTC). This paper focuses on the ability of ultrasound to cause efficient mixing of this liquid–liquid heterogeneous reaction. Castor oil was taken as a model oil and the kinetic of the reaction was followed by

M. H Entezari; A Keshavarzi

2001-01-01

481

Determination of the oxidative stability by DSC of vegetable oils from the Amazonian area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a Rancimat method apparatus were applied to evaluate the oxidative stability of buriti pulp oil (Mauritia flexuosa Mart), rubber seed oil (Hevea brasiliensis), and pa