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1

Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions.

Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.; Heakin, A.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Schwab, A.W.

1982-11-01

2

Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

1981-01-01

3

ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils have several attractive features for use in lubrication. They are renewable, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly. They also have certain physical and chemical characteristics that make them potentially useful components for lubrication application. However, successful developme...

4

Lubricant Properties of Modified Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent a small section of the market today, but recent legislation in both the United States and Europe could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character unlike petroleum oil based products. In order to understand th...

5

Vegetable oil fuel standards  

SciTech Connect

Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

Pryde, E.H.

1982-01-01

6

Blank page retained for pagination PROPERTIES OF FISH AND VEGETABLE OIL MIXTURES.  

E-print Network

#12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;PROPERTIES OF FISH AND VEGETABLE OIL MIXTURES for the more valuable vegetable oils, and the lack of intimate and complete knowledge of their physical connected with the problem. A careful study of mixtures of fish oils with each other and with vegetable oils

7

Modification of thermal and oxidative properties of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans esterification of three vegetable oils, sunflower oil, linseed oil and mixed oils as; sunflower- soyabean and olein were carried out using methanol, and potasium hydroxide as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol and characterized by physical-chemical methods to evaluate their thermal properties. This methods are determination of densities, cloud points, pour

G. El Diwani; S. El Rafie

8

Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

2008-07-01

9

Products from vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

Bagby, M.O. [Oil Chemical Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

1995-12-01

10

Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

2014-01-01

11

The effects of vegetable oil properties on injection and combustion in two different diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different vegetable oils, each in at least 3 different stages of processing, have been characterized according to their\\u000a physical and chemical properties, their injection and atomization characteristics, and their performance and combustion characteristics\\u000a in both a direct-injection and an indirect-injection diesel engine. The injection and atomization characteristics of the vegetable\\u000a oils are significantly different than those of petroleum-derived diesel

T. W. Ryan; L. G. Dodge; T. J. Callahan

1984-01-01

12

Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluents to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are being sought. Twenty four vegetable oils were screened using glycerol tris (2-ethylhexanoate) [GTEH] as a diluent to improve the low temperature properties. Epoxidized soybean oil (E...

13

Relationships derived from physical properties of vegetable oil and biodiesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to estimate mathematical relationships between higher heating value (HHV) and viscosity, density or flash point measurements of various biodiesel fuels. The HHV is an important property defining the energy content and thereby efficiency of fuels, such as vegetable oils and biodiesels. The biodiesels were characterized for their physical and main fuel properties including viscosity,

Ayhan Demirbas

2008-01-01

14

Vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

15

Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( ?) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both ? and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.

Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

2012-11-01

16

Tribological properties of vegetable oils modified by reaction with Butanethiol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn, canola and castor-lauric estolide oils were chemically modified by direct reaction of butanethiol with the double bonds on the hydrocarbon chains. The effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index (VI), pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), oxidation stability (OS), rotating pres...

17

Vegetable oils as core of cationic polymeric nanocapsules: influence on the physicochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils might be alternatives to mineral or synthetic oils used in nanostructured systems for cutaneous application, due to their advantages with regard to skin care and protection. In this study, we propose the use of vegetable oils (Brazil nut, sunflower seed, olive, rose hip, grape seed and carrot oils) as oily core of Eudragit RS100® nanocapsules and determine their

Renata V. Contri; Kênia L. F. Ribeiro; Luana A. Fiel; Adriana R. Pohlmann; Silvia S. Guterres

2012-01-01

18

Antioxidants for vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical compounds having antioxidant efficacy in food fats and oils and cleared for food use by governmental regulatory\\u000a agencies are available for such use by vegetable oil processors in many nations of the world. These antioxidants are reviewed\\u000a with particular attention to major benefits and possible shortcomings they may afford when added to vegetable oils. Some guidelines\\u000a in selecting

E. R. Sherwin

1976-01-01

19

Vegetable oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1982-01-01

20

Treatment of vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

Bessler, T.R.

1986-05-13

21

Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud

S. L. Dmytryshyn; A. K. Dalai; S. T. Chaudhari; H. K. Mishra; M. J. Reaney

2004-01-01

22

Epoxidized vegetable oils plasticized poly(lactic acid) biocomposites: mechanical, thermal and morphology properties.  

PubMed

Plasticized poly(lactic acid) PLA with epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO) were prepared using a melt blending method to improve the ductility of PLA. The plasticization of the PLA with EVO lowers the Tg as well as cold-crystallization temperature. The tensile properties demonstrated that the addition of EVO to PLA led to an increase of elongation at break, but a decrease of tensile modulus. Plasticized PLA showed improvement in the elongation at break by 2058% and 4060% with the addition of 5 wt % epoxidized palm oil (EPO) and mixture of epoxidized palm oil and soybean oil (EPSO), respectively. An increase in the tensile strength was also observed in the plasticized PLA with 1 wt % EPO and EPSO. The use of EVO increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The SEM micrograph of the plasticized PLA showed good compatible morphologies without voids resulting from good interfacial adhesion between PLA and EVO. Based on the results of this study, EVO may be used as an environmentally friendly plasticizer that can improve the overall properties of PLA. PMID:25299820

Chieng, Buong Woei; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Then, Yoon Yee; Loo, Yuet Ying

2014-01-01

23

Heat Transfer Properties of a Series of Oxidized and Unoxidized Vegetable Oils in Comparison with Petroleum Oil-Based Quenchants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oils, especially soybean oil, exhibit substantially poorer thermal-oxidative stability than commercially available petroleum oil quenchant formulations. Therefore, to achieve any commercially interesting performance, vegetable oils must be stabilized by the addition of antioxidant inhibitors. This work describes the ability of two commercially available antioxidants, Irganox L 57 and Irganox L 109, to stabilize soybean oil against thermal-oxidative degradation. In addition, the effect of antioxidant stabilization on quenching performance was evaluated by determining the profile of heat transfer coefficient variation throughout the quenching process at different times after being subjected to an accelerated thermal-oxidation aging test. The results of this work are discussed here.

de Souza, Ester Carvalho; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Sarmiento, G. Sánchez; Agaliotis, Eliana; Carrara, Juan C.; Schicchi, Diego S.; Totten, George E.

2013-07-01

24

Vegetable oil fuels: A review  

SciTech Connect

Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01

25

Physical and chemical properties of trans -free fats produced by chemical interesterification of vegetable oil blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat blends, formulated by mixing a highly saturated fat (palm stearin or fully hydrogenated soybean oil) with a native vegetable\\u000a oil (soybean oil) in different ratios from 10:90 to 75:25 (wt%), were subjected to chemical interesterification reactions\\u000a on laboratory scale (0.2% sodium methoxide catalyst, time=90 min, temperature=90°C). Starting and interesterified blends were\\u000a investigated for triglyceride composition, solid fat content, free

V. Petrauskaite; W. De Greyt; M. Kellens; A. Huyghebaert

1998-01-01

26

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

27

Polymerization of vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

The addition of antioxidants and dispersants is not sufficient to eliminate gum formation in vegetable oils. Even with relatively unsaturated oils like rapeseed the extent of unsaturation overwhelms these additives. Fuel deterioration during storage will be minimized in an anaerobic storage environment and, to a lesser extent, with a lower degree of oil unsaturation. Gum formation and carbon coking can also occur immediately preceding and during combustion. Thermal polymerization may be the dominant gum forming reaction under combustion conditions since thermal polymerization has a higher activation energy than oxidative polymerization and anaerobic conditions can occur within atomized fuel droplets. Carbon coking can be reduced with a lower degree of oil unsaturation and with better atomization of the fuel. 4 figures, 1 table.

Korus, R.A.; Mousetis, T.L.; Lloyd, L.

1982-01-01

28

Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluent to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are under development. Increased utilization of glycerol would help biodiesel producers to become more competitive and viable. Lubricants based on vegetable oils generally suffer from po...

29

Diesel fuels from vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

1986-03-01

30

Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil

Zongqiang GONG; Peijun LI; B. M. Wilke; Kassem Alef

2008-01-01

31

Laboratory Bioassays of Vegetable Oils as Kairomonal Phagostimulants for Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae)  

E-print Network

Laboratory Bioassays of Vegetable Oils as Kairomonal Phagostimulants for Grasshoppers (Orthoptera + Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract Vegetable oils have kairomonal attractant properties to grasshoppers. A laboratory bioassay method has been developed to identify vegetable oils that have fatty acid profiles

Latchininsky, Alexandre

32

Improving the low-temperature properties of alternative diesel fuels: Vegetable oil-derived methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores near-term approaches for improving the low-temperature properties of triglyceride oil-derived fuels for\\u000a direct-injection compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Methyl esters from transesterified soybean oil were evaluated as a\\u000a neat fuel and in blends with petroleum middle distillates. Winterization showed that the cloud point (CP) of methyl soyate\\u000a may be reduced to ?16C. Twelve cold-flow additives marketed for distillates were

R. O. Dunn; M. W. Shockley; M. O. Bagby

1996-01-01

33

Vegetable oils for tractors  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

Moroney, M.

1981-11-14

34

Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.  

PubMed

In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated. PMID:25541678

Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

2015-01-21

35

Modification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  From the analysis of several series of hydrogenated cottonseed, soybean, and linseed oils, made by the spectral and other\\u000a methods, estimates have been made of the relative readiness of hydrogenation of oleic, iso-oleic, linoleic, and linolenic\\u000a acids, and an isomer of linoleic acid which presumably has its double bonds in the 9:10 and 15:16 positions.\\u000a \\u000a The conclusions reached are as

A. E. Bailey; G. S. Fisher

1946-01-01

36

Modification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a An investigation has been made of the composition of mixtures of mono-, di-, and triglycerides formed by the reaction of hydrogenated\\u000a cottonseed oil with glycerol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a At temperatures below about 200?C., at equilibrium, and within the range of glycerol concentration in which the reaction product\\u000a becomes homogeneus, the proportions of free

R. O. Feuge; A. E. Bailey

1946-01-01

37

Fuel properties of cottonseed oil  

SciTech Connect

The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-11-01

38

Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

2008-08-01

39

Vegetable oils for liquid-filled transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several billion litres of transformer oil are used in transformers worldwide. To meet the challenges posed by environmental concerns, fully biodegradable vegetable oils have been developed for use in electrical equipment, particularly in transformers. Against this background the author discusses the development of vegetable oils for transformer use, their biodegradability, decomposition products, functional life test, fire hazard tests and the

T. V. Oommen

2002-01-01

40

Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil-based polyurethane dispersions.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation discusses the synthesis and characterization of environmentally-friendly waterborne vegetable oil-based polyurethane dispersions and their resulting films. The thermal and mechanical properties of the… (more)

Garrison, Thomas Frederick

2013-01-01

41

Properties of margarine and spread from wax-vegetable oil organogel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food products such as margarine and spread need solid fats for a desired texture and typically these solid fats contain high contents of saturated fats and trans-fats. In this research organogels formed by plant wax and soybean oil were utilized to produce trans-fat free margarine and spread. Base...

42

Bio Diesel from Waste Vegetable Oil  

E-print Network

Abstract: The world is confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The indiscriminate extraction and consumption of fossil fuels have led to a reduction in petroleum reserves. Alternative fuels, energy conservation and management, energy efficiency and environmental protection have become important in recent years. The increasing import bill has necessitated the search for liquid fuels as an alternative to diesel, which is being used in large quantities in transport, agriculture, industrial, commercial and domestic sectors. Biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils has been considered a promising option. In this paper, an attempt has been made to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils and the properties of the produced biodiesel have been studied including its emission characteristics. A four stroke, single cylinder is used to study the emission and performance characteristics.The large scale production of Biodiesel and its economic aspects have also been discussed in brief.

Dr. B. Karunanithi; K. Bogeshwaran; Manasa Tripuraneni

43

Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

1982-09-01

44

Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel prepared from vegetable oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydrogel is a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. The unique properties of hydrogels make this kind of materials have many utilization potentials, such as drug delivery, gene therapy, wound care products, breast implant materials, cosmetic products, and tissue engineering. Hydroge...

45

VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The uncertainty in petroleum supply along with pollution and environmental health concerns is making a way for vegetable oils to be used as fuel and lubricants. The vegetable oils have some advantages like naturally renewable resource, environmentally safe, good lubricity and viscosity-temperature ...

46

Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

2014-10-01

47

Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

48

Biorenewable polymeric materials from vegetable oils.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation discusses the synthesis and characterization of novel biorenewable vegetable oil-based polymeric materials, including thermosets and environmentally-friendly waterborne polyurethane dispersions. The thermosets prepared by… (more)

Xia, Ying

2011-01-01

49

Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives — Symposium overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information\\u000a presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests\\u000a will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more\\u000a research

E. H. Pryde

1984-01-01

50

Study of the behavior of some vegetable oils during the thermal treatment  

E-print Network

Abstract Large quantities of vegetable oils are consumed in food preparation, cooking and frying. The evaluation of the quality of vegetable oils is based on the measurement of their phisyco-chemical properties such as density, refractive index, viscosity, acid and iodine numbers. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variation of vegetable oils quality as a result of thermal treatment. The evaluation is based on the measurement of some important phisyco-chemical properties of vegetable oils, before and after thermal treatment: density, viscosity, refractive index, acid number. Commercialy available olive oil, sunflower oil and corn oil were used in the study. Based on this experimental investigation, there can be predicted the changes in the vegetal oils characteristics and also there can be made correlation between their properties.

Irina Ni??; Anisoara Neagu; Sibel Geacai; Anca Dumitru; Anca Sterpu

51

Evaluation of Vegetable Oil Functionality  

E-print Network

A canola-based 4-cycle motor oil was constructed for use in a multitude of engine applications. Production cost-estimates were considered in formulations used to simulate actual production and performance expectations. To test the oil formulation, a series of bench tests and small engine tests were used to confirm the functionality of the oil. Completion of these tests led to evaluations of the oil in everyday automotive applications. Bench tests included boundary friction analysis using a Timpken bearing test to measure pressure, time to seizure and scar size at seizure. Oxidative stability was measured using a modified AOCS CD-12B-92 hydraulic stability test (72 hrs

unknown authors

52

Research on Biodiesel and Vegetable Oil Fuels - Then and Now  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A vegetable oil was used as diesel fuel for the first time in 1900 and the first biodiesel dates from the 1930's. Significant insights into fuel properties were already gained in those times. This article briefly discusses such results and relates the author's own recent work on biodiesel fuel pro...

53

Absence of aflatoxin from refined vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is the first definitive study of the fate of the aflatoxins in vegetable oils undergoing processing.\\u000a Crude oils, obtained by solvent extraction or by hydraulic pressing of ground moldy peanuts (not suitable for human consumption),\\u000a contained only small fractions of the aflatoxin originally present in the peanuts; the meals retained the bulk of the aflatoxin.\\u000a Conventional alkali

Wilbur A. Parker; Daniel Melnick

1966-01-01

54

Sterol composition of 19 vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsaponifiables from 19 vegetable oils were divided into a sterol and three other fractions by thin-layer chromatography.\\u000a All except olive and palm kernel oils gave the sterol fraction in a large quantity. Compositions of the sterol fractions were\\u000a determined by gas liquid chromatography. Identification of each sterol was carried out by gas liquid chromatography and combined\\u000a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry.

T. Itoh; T. Tamura; T. Matsumoto

1973-01-01

55

Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

NONE

1996-12-31

56

Automation in vegetable oil refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of automation are reviewed, with particular reference to examples taken from the following processing fields:\\u000a oil storage, refining, hydrogenation, deodorization, oil compounding, and soapstock treatment. Examples of automation involving\\u000a centralized control, programmed sequence control, in-plant quality, and process yield measurement as well as on-line computer\\u000a control are illustrated. Current trends in automation methods and hardware design are also

A. J. Duff

1976-01-01

57

Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

1981-05-26

58

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

59

21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

2012-04-01

60

Beyond Biodiesel Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)  

E-print Network

20 Beyond Biodiesel ­ Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) The green tree has many branches in agriculture and for the environ- ment. But he died before his vision of vegetable-oil powered engines became, high-precision sys- tems can only tolerate vegetable oil if it is specially processed and introduced

Kaye, Jason P.

61

21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

2014-04-01

62

21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

2011-04-01

63

21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

2013-04-01

64

21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

2010-04-01

65

Preparation of high hydroxyl equivalent weight polyols from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple novel vegetable oil-based polyols were synthesized from the reaction-addition to epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) by a series of acid acyl moieties derived from vegetable oils. The acid acyl moieties were linoleic acid (LA), ricinoleic acid (RC), ricinoleic acid estolide (RC estolide) and hydrolyzed bodied soybean oil (HBSBO). LA and RC were commercially available but RC estolide and HBSBO were

Pim-pahn Kiatsimkul; Galen J. Suppes; Fu-hung Hsieh; Zuleica Lozada; Yuan-Chan Tu

2008-01-01

66

Synthesis of hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Bio-based additives are desirable commodities due to their eco-friendly nature. These additives can demonstrate physical and chemical properties comparable to those of conventional mineral oil-based products. Sulfur incorporated triacylglycerol can function as an antiwear/antifriction additive for lubricants. The synthesis of four useful hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oils, from commercially available epoxidized soybean oil and common organic thiols, is reported in this paper. The common thiols used herein were 1-butanethiol, 1-decanethiol, 1-octadecanethiol, and cyclohexyl mercaptan. Currently, there is no reported literature describing the synthesis of hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil. The reaction was monitored, and products were confirmed by NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. Experimental conditions involving various thiols, solvent, catalyst amount, time, and temperature were optimized for research quantity and laboratory scale-up. The synthetic process retains the vegetable oil structure, eliminates polyunsaturation in the molecule, and adds polar functional groups on triacylglycerol. These products can be used as agriculturally-based antiwear additives for lubricant applications. PMID:17177513

Sharma, Brajendra K; Adhvaryu, A; Erhan, S Z

2006-12-27

67

Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview  

SciTech Connect

Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

Pryde, E.H.

1984-10-01

68

Triterpene alcohols and sterols of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triterpene alcohols and sterols were separated by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography from the unsaponifiable\\u000a fractions of the following 18 vegetable oils: linseed, peanut, olive, rice bran, palm kernel, corn, sesame, oiticica, palm,\\u000a coconut, rapeseed, grape seed, sunflower, poppy seed, castor, tea seed, cocoa butter and soybean. Two triterpene alcohols,\\u000a cycloartenol and 24-methylene cycloartanol, were found in all of the

E. Fedeli; A. Lanzani; P. Capella; G. Jacini

1966-01-01

69

Determination of tocopherols in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid (ten minute) and selective method for measuring individual tocopherols found in vegetable oils has been developed\\u000a using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet absorbance detection. The samples are analyzed directly\\u000a following dissolution in the mobile phase. ? -and ?-tocopherols are quantitated based upon their peak areas relative to standard\\u000a calibration curves. The measurement of ? - and

1979-01-01

70

Viscosities of vegetable oils and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data for viscosity as a function of temperature from 24 to 110C (75 to 230F) have been measured for a number of vegetable\\u000a oils (crambe, rapeseed, corn, soybean, milk-weed, coconut, lesquerella) and eight fatty acids in the range from C9 to C22. The viscosity measurements were performed according to ASTM test methods D 445 and D 446. Several correlations were

H. Noureddini; B. C. Teoh; L. Davis Clements

1992-01-01

71

Thermal analysis of alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively poor cold-flow properties of monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats (biodiesel) present a major\\u000a obstacle to their development as alternative fuels and extenders for combustion in direct injection compressionignition (diesel)\\u000a engines. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating and cooling curves of methyl soyate (SME), methyl tallowate\\u000a (TME), SME\\/TME admixtures, and winterized SME were analyzed.

Robert O. Dunn

1999-01-01

72

Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

None

2012-01-01

73

Chicken Noodle Soup 3 T. canola or vegetable oil  

E-print Network

Chicken Noodle Soup 3 T. canola or vegetable oil 3# chicken bone-in (thigh meat or legs and chop in large chunks for stock. Get a soup/stock pot on medium high heat and heat 2 T. of oil. Place-3 minutes. Then add your large chopped vegetables and vegetable scraps to the pot and pour in only enough

Liu, Taosheng

74

One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum-base oils in lubricants applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of...

75

Surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process: N2 sorption and XPS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the type of the silica gel pore structure on the surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process has been examined applying N2 sorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The nickel catalyst precursors with identical composition (SiO2/Ni = 1.0) has been synthesized by precipitation of Ni(NO3)2 · 6H2O solution with Na2CO3 solution on the three types of silica gel with different pore structures. It is shown that the usage of the silica gel supports with different texture as source of SiO2 causes different location of Ni-species into the support pores and on the external surface area. The XPS data confirm the formation of surface species with different strength of interaction and different dispersion. These surface characteristics of the precursors will predetermine the formation of the active nickel metallic phase as well as the mass transfer of the reactants and products to and from the catalytic sites.

Nikolova, D.; Krsti?, J.; Spasov, L.; Simeonov, D.; Lon?arevi?, D.; Stefanov, Pl.; Jovanovi?, D.

2011-12-01

76

Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels.

Suda, K.J.

1984-01-01

77

Thiol-ene Reaction of Vegetable Oils with Butanethiol: Sulfide Derivatized Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils and their FA, renewable raw materials, are firmly established components in many industrial products, and their use continues to be of interest to many researchers. The development of new approaches to functionalize fatty ester compounds and to derive novel oleochemicals with unique ...

78

New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the growing global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial uses.  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of oilseed metabolism and in the development of new oilseed platforms and metabolic engineering technologies.

Lu, C; Napier, JA; Clemente, TE; Cahoon, EB

2011-01-01

79

Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills  

EPA Science Inventory

A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

80

Friction and wear behavior of thioether hydroxy vegetable oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This work describes the tribochemical evaluation of vegetable oil based antiwear additive obtained through chemical modification. The sulfur was incorporated using a chemical reaction of epoxidized vegetable oil and common thiols, resulting in formation of a hydroxy thioether derivative of vegetabl...

81

21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food...

2012-04-01

82

21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food...

2010-04-01

83

ForPeerReview From vegetable oils to polyurethanes: synthetic routes to  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview Only From vegetable oils to polyurethanes: synthetic routes to polyols and main Auvergne, Remi; ICGM CAILLOL, Sylvain; ICGM, IAM Boutevin, Bernard; ICGM Keywords: vegetable oils, biobased polyols, polyurethanes, epoxidized vegetable oils, commercial polyols URL: http

Boyer, Edmond

84

21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food...

2014-04-01

85

21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172...and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food...

2013-04-01

86

The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean

Recep Alt?n; Selim Çetinkaya; Hüseyin Serdar Yücesu

2001-01-01

87

Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the status of fat and oil derived diesel fuels with respect to fuel properties, engine performance, and emissions is reviewed. The fuels considered are primarily the methyl esters of fatty acids derived from a variety of vegetable oils and animal fats, and referred to as biodiesel. The major obstacle to widespread use of biodiesel is the high

Michael S. Graboski; Robert L. McCormick

1998-01-01

88

Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

2012-12-01

89

Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils  

E-print Network

of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils olive, corn, soybean, canola century as base lubricants, vegetable oils were gradually replaced by mineral oils mainly for economic in environmental issues.2 A vegetable oil is a complex mixture of chemical substances3 with fatty acids among

Mandelis, Andreas

90

Performance of vegetable oils as a heat treat quenchant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to establish as a reference the base line performance of several vegetable oils as a quench medium. Furthermore, the project was funded by the Iowa Soybean Promotion Board to investigate the potential use of soybean oil as a quench medium. Several commodity and genetically modified seed oils (high oleic) were first tested in a {open_quotes}quenchalizer{close_quotes}. Also, 300 pieces of SAE 1524 steel bars were heat treated and quenched in a chemically modified (partially hydrogenated) soybean oil and in a control (paraffin) oil. Results included changes in the oil in terms of viscosity and cooling rate and in the steel in terms of hardness. Vegetable oils can perform as quench media, but they would require treatment to improve oxidative stability among others. Advantages of vegetable-based quenchants include: renewability, environmental-friendliness and potential benefits in terms of human safety and higher flash point.

Honary, L.A.T. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Waverly, IA (United States)

1996-12-31

91

Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

92

Study of the co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil for hydrocarbon oil production.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon oil was obtained by co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil in the work. Results showed the weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil exerted a great effect on the quality of obtained hydrocarbon oil. The optimum weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil was 4.4:1, when alkanes with the content of 50.43% were detected in obtained hydrocarbon oil, with lower oxygen content of 2.52%, which resulted in higher calorific value-up to 43.36 MJ kg(-1). At the same time, removal rate of carbonyl group of vegetable oil in the mixture reached at least 75.11%. The overall efficiency of the deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and the decarboxylation of vegetable oil were both enhanced by adding vegetable oil into biomass. Compared with the oils obtained from vegetable oil and biomass, respectively, distribution of hydrocarbon oil obtained from the mixture was much more similar to that of diesel oil. PMID:20153171

Chen, Yigang; Wang, Chao; Lu, Weipeng; Yang, Zhengyu

2010-06-01

93

One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum base oils in lubricant applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications, and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of the ways to address these issues is chemical modification of fatty acid chain of triglyceride. We report a one-pot synthesis of a novel class of chemically modified vegetable oils from epoxidized triacylglycerols and various anhydrides. In an anhydrous solvent, boron trifluoride etherate is used as catalyst to simultaneously open the oxirane ring and activate the anhydride. The reaction was monitored and products confirmed by NMR, FTIR, GPC, and TGA analysis. Experimental conditions were optimized for research quantity and laboratory scale-up (up to 4 lbs). The resultant acyl derivatives of vegetable oil, having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation, have potential in formulation of industrial fluids such as hydraulic fluids, lubricants, and metal working fluids. PMID:18399638

Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu; Erhan, Sevim Z

2008-05-14

94

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and lower alcohol with octanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles that are powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes. Deterrents to this concept are the generally inferior fuel properties of crude vegetable oils as compared to those of diesel oil. Of particular concern is the inherently high viscosity which causes poor atomization in direct-injected diesel engines. This results in fouling of the injectors and cylinders as well as a buildup of noncombusted fuel in the crankcase causing a thickening of the lubricating oil. This invention relates to a blended vegetable oil fuel which circumvents many of these problems.

Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

1984-08-08

95

Biodegradation Behavior of Some Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential biodegradability of several vegetable oil-based polymers was assessed by respirometry in soil for 60–100 days at temperatures of 30–58°C. Films of soybean oil and linseed oil which were oxidatively polymerized (Co catalyst) on a kraft paper support were 90%–100% mineralized to CO2 after 70 days at 30°C. Mineralization of polymerized tung oil to CO2 was much slower than

Randal L. Shogren; Zoran Petrovic; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

2004-01-01

96

Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

Farines, Marie; And Others

1988-01-01

97

Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

1985-03-12

98

A New Approach to Prepare Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polymers from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, were prepared by cationic polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) was selected as catalyst. The resulting polymers have molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nu...

99

Synthesis and characterization of sulfide modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterize...

100

Emulsification of chemically modified vegetable oils for lubricant use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several previously uncharacterized emulsions were studied in this paper, including those made form epoxidized vegetable oils. A series of different surfactants were studied in order to obtain emulsions suitable for lubrication applications. The epoxidized oils were found to form stable emulsions i...

101

TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT WATERS FROM VEGETABLE OIL REFINING  

EPA Science Inventory

A detailed investigation was done to characterize the wastewater from a vegetable oil refinery. A calcium chloride chemical treatment was installed which resulted in a net decrease in waste load of 71 percent from .0135 lb BOD5 per pound oil processed to .0039 lb BOD5 per pound o...

102

Vegetable oil enhances sophorolipid production by Rhodotorula bogoriensis.  

PubMed

The yeast Rhodotorula bogorensis produces sophorolipids of different structures to those produced by Candida bombicola. However, the yield is very low. To improve sophorolipid production by R. bogoriensis, vegetable oil was supplemented to the medium as a hydrophobic substrate: with rapeseed oil the sophorolipid yield was 1.26 g/l but without oil was 0.33 g/l. Cultures with meadowfoam oil produced 0.77 g sophorolipids/l. Lipase-treated meadowfoam oil, however, gave no significant increase in sophorolipid production. Possible explanations for the enhanced sophorolipid synthesis are discussed. PMID:21769647

Zhang, Jinxin; Saerens, Karen M J; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

2011-12-01

103

Correlations of flavor score with volatiles of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, direct, gas chromatograph (GC) technique is described for eluting flavor-related volatile components from commercially\\u000a produced vegetable oils. A sample of oil was placed onto glass wool contained in a GC liner, and the liner was inserted in\\u000a the heated inlet of the GC. Volatiles from the oils were rapidly eluted by heat and carrier gas onto the GC

H. P. Dupuy; E. T. Rayner; J. I. Wadsworth

1976-01-01

104

Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels. Performance and durability at low engine ratings are essentially the same as expected for operation on diesel fuel. However, at high engine ratings piston ring and cylinder linear wear are greater than expected for operation on diesel fuel. A laboratory program was successfully completed which resulted in a combustion system that would allow the higher rated prechamber engines to achieve normal life when burning 100% soybean oil. Fluid model tests utilizing high speed photography, single-cylinder engine tests utilizing fuel tracers, and a 200-hour multicylinder durability test were included. Extended endurance tests and experience with other vegetable oils are still required.

Suda, K.J.

1984-02-01

105

Floral and vegetative cues in oil-secreting and non-oil-secreting Lysimachia species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Unrelated plants pollinated by the same group or guild of animals typically evolve similar floral cues due to pollinator-mediated selection. Related plant species, however, may possess similar cues either as a result of pollinator-mediated selection or as a result of sharing a common ancestor that possessed the same cues or traits. In this study, visual and olfactory floral cues in Lysimachia species exhibiting different pollination strategies were analysed and compared, and the importance of pollinators and phylogeny on the evolution of these floral cues was determined. For comparison, cues of vegetative material were examined where pollinator selection would not be expected. Methods Floral and vegetative scents and colours in floral oil- and non-floral oil-secreting Lysimachia species were studied by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses, respectively, compared between oil- and non-oil-secreting species, and analysed by phylogenetically controlled methods. Key Results Vegetative and floral scent was species specific, and variability in floral but not vegetative scent was lower in oil compared with non-oil species. Overall, oil species did not differ in their floral or vegetative scent from non-oil species. However, a correlation was found between oil secretion and six floral scent constituents specific to oil species, whereas the presence of four other floral compounds can be explained by phylogeny. Four of the five analysed oil species had bee-green flowers and the pattern of occurrence of this colour correlated with oil secretion. Non-oil species had different floral colours. The colour of leaves was similar among all species studied. Conclusions Evidence was found for correlated evolution between secretion of floral oils and floral but not vegetative visual and olfactory cues. The cues correlating with oil secretion were probably selected by Macropis bees, the specialized pollinators of oil-secreting Lysimachia species, and may have evolved in order to attract these bees. PMID:22634256

Schäffler, I.; Balao, F.; Dötterl, S.

2012-01-01

106

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

107

Vegetable Oil Spills On Salt Marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the wreck of the M.V. Kimya during which 1500 tonnes of sunflower oil was spilled, sandy sediments bound together with sunflower oil were discovered on the beach. These are still present 2½ years later. Sunflower and linseed oil were applied to salt marsh sediments to reproduce potential spills. Cores were taken and the vertical migration and degradation rates determined.

Stephen M. Mudge; Ian D. Goodchild; Matthew Wheeler

1995-01-01

108

Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

Bagby, M.O.

1986-03-01

109

Studies of unsaponifiables in several vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsaponifiable fractions of soybean, cottonseed, coconut, olive, and avocado oils have been studied in detail. The oils\\u000a differed in the contents of total unsaponifiables, squalene, tocopherols, and sterols and also in the composition of the tocopherol\\u000a and sterol fractions. The presence of absence of individual unsaponifiable components may help in establishing the identity\\u000a of each of the investigated oils

Tamar Gutfinger; A. Letan

1974-01-01

110

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and lower alcohol with octanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid fuel microemulsions are prepared from vegetable oil, methanol or ethanol, A straight-chain isomer of octanol, and optionally water. The fuels are characterized by a relatively high water tolerance, acceptable viscosity, and performance properties comparable to No. 2 diesel fuel.

A. W. Schwab; E. H. Pryde

1985-01-01

111

Volatility and boiling points of biodiesel from vegetable oils and tallow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality control of fuel-related properties of Biodiesel, such as volatility, is needed to obtain consistent engine performance by fuel users. The vapor pressures and boiling points of selected methyl esters and vegetable oils are proposed as quality control metrics for Biodiesel. This type of data was obtained by a rapid new method using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). One atmosphere boiling points

J. W. Goodrum

2002-01-01

112

Detection of vegetable oil adulteration in ice cream.  

PubMed

This study was to demonstrate the application of various analytical methods to the detection, identification, and quantitation of vegetable oil adulteration of ice cream. Total fat content, sterols, long- and short-chain fatty acids, vitamin E, Reichert-Meissl values, and Polenske values were measured in ice cream. All methods except total fat determination were capable of detecting vegetable oil adulteration. Sterol determination was the most effective and versatile measurement because it provided information not only on the detection and extent of adulteration but also on the possible identity of the adulterant. PMID:3842847

Sheppard, A J; Shen, C S; Rudolf, T S

1985-05-01

113

Dye-Sensitized Photo-Oxidation Of Some Vegetable Oils  

E-print Network

The study of dye-sensitized photo-oxidation of some vegetable oils was carried out to investigate the effect of light and dye- sensitizer (Methylene blue) on the quality of some vegetable oils. Reactive oxygen species occur in tissues and can can damage DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Soyabean, groundnut, palm kernel and palm oils were each photo-oxidized in dichloromethane/methanol solution using methylene blue as sensitizer. The reaction was monitored by thin layer chromatographic measurements (TLC), followed by peroxide value measurements. The tlc of each of the reaction mixtures showed that some components were transformed to more polar compounds, some of which were in the oil prior to the photo-oxidations, and the order of reactivity of the oils was soyabean> groundnut> palm> palm kernel. The peroxide values of the oils increased by 65.6, 49.3, 42.5 and 36.6 meq/kg for soyabean, groundnut, palm kernel and palm oils respectively. The peroxide value increases averaged over the duration of each of the reactions gave rates of 10.9, 5.5, 3.5 and 2.8 meq/kg/h for soyabean, groundnut, palm kernel and palm oils respectively. __________________________________________________________________________________________

Maduelosi N. Jane; Obomanu Faithwin G; Fekarurhobo G Kuta

114

33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably...Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...

2014-07-01

115

33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably...Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...

2013-07-01

116

33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably...Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...

2011-07-01

117

33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably...Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific...requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...

2012-07-01

118

Margarine from organogel of healthy vegetable oils and plant wax  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organogelator that can turn vegetable oil into a gel with a small quantity has drawn a lot of interests as a potential alternative for saturated fats and trans fat-containing solid fats in margarine and spread products. However, it is not practically used in those products yet. This research shows...

119

Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

120

Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

2006-01-01

121

Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric

Phillip H. Henna

2008-01-01

122

HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

123

Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

1983-10-01

124

Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

1984-01-01

125

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AND ITS METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES IN OIL-ENRICHED FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of oil, but the presence of ferric hydroxide relieves the inhibition. The effect of ferric hydroxide is not due to physical or chemical interactions with long-chain fatt...

126

Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

127

Authentication of vegetable oils by chromatographic techniques.  

PubMed

Food authentication has been evolving continually to situations that were basically governed by a global market trend. Analytical techniques have been developed or modified to give plausible solutions to the devious adulterations at each moment. Classical tests have largely been replaced with newer technical procedures, most of which are based on gas chromatography, with some being based on high-performance liquid chromatography. Determination of trans-fatty acid and sterolic composition, together with sterol-dehydration products, have been used most frequently used to detect contamination and adulteration. Sophisticated new adulterations, e.g., olive oil with hazelnut oil, represent a new challenge for the next millennium, although suggestive proposals for detecting these kinds of adulterations are emerging with the contribution of databases and mathematical algorithms. PMID:10905696

Aparicio, R; Aparicio-Ruíz, R

2000-06-01

128

Using Satellite Multiple Sensor Products to Monitor Vegetation Properties  

E-print Network

Using Satellite Multiple Sensor Products to Monitor Vegetation Properties: Vegetation and predicting of climate changes..." (IPCC) Issues The greatest uncertainty in predictability of future climate) Microwave vegetation indexes: MPDT: Microwave Polarization Difference Temperature (Choudhury and Tucker

Kuligowski, Bob

129

Membrane processing of crude vegetable oils: Pilot plant scale remoyal of solvent from oil miscellas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of solvents used in the extraction step of edible oil processing is required for economical, environmental, and\\u000a safety considerations. The miscella (mixture of extracted oil and solvent) exits the extractor at 70 to 75 wt% solvent content.\\u000a Currently, the solvent is recovered by distillation.\\u000a \\u000a This paper reports the results of a study on separation of vegetable oils from

S. S. Köseoglu; J. T. Lawhon; E. W. Lusas

1990-01-01

130

Formation of headspace volatiles by thermal decomposition of oxidized fish oils vs. oxidized vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the reasons for differences in oxidative stability among edible oils, the temperature dependence was investigated\\u000a for the development of volatile lipid oxidation products in fish oils and in vegetable oils. A rapid headspace capillary gas\\u000a chromatographic method was developed to determine volatile oxidation products of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fats (pentane\\u000a and hexanal) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fats (propanal)

E. N. Frankel

1993-01-01

131

Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

Lugo, Yarely

132

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1  

E-print Network

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1 *, Yew. Oil palm vegetation liquor thus represents a new source of phenolic bioactives. Key words: Oil palm , Krishnan Subramaniam5 , Soon-Sen Leow1 , Kenneth C. Hayes6 and Mohd Basri Wahid1 1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board

Sinskey, Anthony J.

133

Experimental Investigation of Effect of Straight Vegetable Oil Fuel on Engine Performance Parameters  

E-print Network

Experimental investigations have been carried out to evaluate the effect of addition of ethanol to vegetable oil on performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine. Use of straight vegetable oil (SVO) for diesel engine is limited due to their higher viscosity and poor volatility. The SVO shows lower thermal efficiency and higher unburnt hydrocarbon emissions, etc. In long term, SVO exhibits injector coking, fuel pump damage and fuel filter clogging, etc. To reduce the viscosity and to increase the volatility of the fuel, an ethanol is added to the vegetable oil so that thermal efficiency and emissions can be improved. During investigation, blends of vegetable oil with different proportions of ethanol are prepared. Blends BSVO-80 and BSVO-70 are prepared using 20% and 30 % of ethanol with SVO respectively. Basic properties like viscosity, calorific value, specific gravity, etc. are evaluated for all test fuels. The blends of SVO with alcohol show lower viscosity, improved volatility, better combustion and less carbon deposits as compared to SVO. Improvement in brake thermal efficiency, reduction in oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions are observed with increase in amount of ethanol in blend. The engine performance with the blend BSVO-70 is in closer approximation with diesel fuel. It could be concluded that blend BSVO-70 can be a good substitute for diesel. Index Terms—Compression Ignition engine,

Vijay Sisarwal; Dr. A C Tiwari; Uit Rgpv; Bhopal Mp

134

[Benzo(a)pyrene contamination of vegetable oils].  

PubMed

Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) analysis was carried out with glass chromatographic column with alumina followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection. B(a)P level in 40 vegetable oils were as follow: from 0.11 to 0.38 microg/kg in olive; from 0.92 to 3.74 microg/kg in rape seed oils; from 0.11 to 2.25 microg/kg in sunflower oils and from 0.33 to 1.26 microg/kg in soya oils. In another investigated oils: arachide (peanut) corn, safflower, linen, hempen, sesame, pumpkin seeds, grape seeds---values from 0.10 to 1.44 microg/kg and 3.83 microg/kg in sea buckthorn oil were detected. B(a)P concentration in 4 from 40 investigated oils exceed the 2 ppb limit proposed by the European Commission. Heating of sample of oils: olive, rape, soya, linen, corn, sesame, peanut, in temp. 240 degrees C for 30 min. has not influence on decreased of B(a)P level. PMID:18807910

Jedra, Ma?gorzata; Starski, Andrzej; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

2008-01-01

135

Oxidative Stability of Edible Vegetable Oils Enriched in Polyphenols with Olive Leaf Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially available oils (olive oil, sunflower oil, palm oil, and a vegetable shortening) were enriched in polyphenols, by adding olive leaf extract. Addition of the extract was performed in such way that the oils were enriched with 200 mg\\/kg polyphenols. Total polyphenols of both enriched and commercial oils were estimated by the Folin—Ciocalteau assay, while identification and quantification of individual

F. N. Salta; A. Mylona; A. Chiou; G. Boskou; N. K. Andrikopoulos

2007-01-01

136

Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil  

E-print Network

separation. In the bench-scale study, two membranes were evaluated for their flux and rejection properties. Process parameters including pressure, temperature, feed velocity and volumetric concentration factor were examined. A 99.6% rejection of phospholipids...

Lin, Lan

1997-01-01

137

Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

Black, Micah [University of Southern Mississippi, The; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Rawlins, James [University of Southern Mississippi, The

2011-01-01

138

Acetone-stable nanofiltration membranes in deacidifying vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of different vegetable oil\\/solvent mixtures with two types of nanofiltration membranes was studied. One type\\u000a had a PEBAX [poly(amide-b-ether) copolymer] top layer, and the other had a cellulose-type top layer. These membranes were\\u000a stable in acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, and hexane, all important to the oleochemical industry. Permeabilities were highest\\u000a for acetone, ±140 L\\/m2 · h · MPa, and

H. J. Zwijnenberg; A. M. Krosse; K. Ebert; K. V. Peinemann; F. P. Cuperus

1999-01-01

139

Capillary gas chromatographic analyses of headspace volatiles from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight different vegetable oils obtained commercially were analyzed for volatiles by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Volatiles\\u000a generated in a GC static headspace sampler at 180 C were injected automatically onto a chemically bonded capillary column.\\u000a Only a small number of GC peaks of low intensity were observed in the fresh samples, which varied in peroxide values from\\u000a 0.2 to 3.

J. M. Snyder; E. N. Frankel; E. Selke

1985-01-01

140

Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils (VOs) is a promising alternative fuel to diesel regarding the limited resources of fossil fuel and the environmental concerns. In this work, an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel from VOs using heterogeneous catalyst was developed. Na\\/NaOH\\/?-Al2O3 heterogeneous base catalyst was firstly adopted for the production of biodiesel. A study

Hak-Joo Kim; Bo-Seung Kang; Min-Ju Kim; Young Moo Park; Deog-Keun Kim; Jin-Suk Lee; Kwan-Young Lee

2004-01-01

141

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na2SO4 dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with

Umran Tezcan Un; A. Savas Koparal; Ulker Bakir Ogutveren

2009-01-01

142

Physical properties of oils and mixtures of oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils are reviewed and compared and contrasted with the properties\\u000a of other oils and fats. More information is available for palm oil than for the other two. The properties of mixtures of the\\u000a oils also are considered, especially mixtures of palm and palm kernel oils in which a eutectic interaction occurs.

R. E. Timms

1985-01-01

143

Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as {open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Several problems, however, remain, which include economics, combustion, some emissions, lube oil contamination, and low-temperature properties. An overview on all the mentioned aspects of biodiesel will be presented.

Knothe, G.; Bagby, M.O. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-10-01

144

Free radical addition of butanethiol to vegetable oil double bonds.  

PubMed

Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Further product characterization and analysis was conducted using GC and GC-MS on the fatty acid methyl esters obtained by the transesterification of the SMVO products. Investigation of the effect of reaction conditions showed that high yield and high conversion of double bonds into thiol were favored at low reaction temperatures and high butanethiol/vegetable oil ratios. Canola and corn oils gave similar double-bond conversions and yields of the desired SMVO product even though they have big differences in the relative numbers of single and multiple double bonds in their structures. Under best reaction conditions, up to 97% of double-bond conversion and 61% isolated yields of the purified SMVO products were attained. PMID:19166316

Bantchev, Grigor B; Kenar, James A; Biresaw, Girma; Han, Moon Gyu

2009-02-25

145

Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.  

PubMed

In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. PMID:25151441

Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

2014-11-01

146

Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.  

PubMed

Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m?³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

2013-02-01

147

ADDITIVE-ADDITIVE INTERACTIONS IN VEGETABLE OIL: THE SEARCH FOR SYNERGISTIC ANTIOXIDANT USING PDSC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants based on mineral oils render unfavorable impact on the environment. Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and b...

148

Study on the use of alternative fuel made from waste vegetable oil in the diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a useful alternative fuel, vegetable oil is a kind of continuous renewed energy sources made from photosynthesis. In the paper, a performance comparison experiment of two kinds of fuel, alternative fuel made from waste vegetable oil and No.0 diesel oil, was conducted in the small type of diesel engine. Results showed that the alternative fuel is fit for the

Yan-yao Wang; Shu-qi Shang

2011-01-01

149

BIODIESEL: AN ALTERNATIVE DIESEL FUEL FROM VEGETABLE OILS OR ANIMAL FATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is defined as “a fuel comprised of the mono-alkyl ester of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats." Accordingly, biodiesel is derived from vegetable oils or animal fats by a transesterification reaction, in which the oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcoh...

150

Use of hydrogen to enhance the performance of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of vegetable oils in unmodified diesel engines leads to reduced thermal efficiency and increased smoke levels. In this work, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance while using small quantities of hydrogen in a compression ignition engine primarily fuelled with a vegetable oil, namely Jatropha oil. A single cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine designed to develop a power output

M. Senthil Kumar; A. Ramesh; B. Nagalingam

2003-01-01

151

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance. PMID:20596546

2009-01-01

152

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

2009-07-01

153

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils].  

PubMed

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

2009-01-01

154

Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

1982-01-01

155

Thermal Properties of oil sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

2013-12-01

156

Reactivity of vegetable oil macromonomers in thiol-ene, cationic, and emulsion polymerizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oils were, and continue, to be a mainstay in unsaturated polyester ("alkyd") technology. Our endeavor is to use vegetable oil-based polymers in environmentally-friendly coatings. The role of vegetable oil cis-unsaturation has not been fully explored in polymers. To that end, vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) in three different systems were investigated to determine the involvement of cis-unsaturation in chain transfer, auto-oxidation, and copolymerization reactions. VOMMs were incorporated into UV curable thiol-ene coatings, UV cationic coatings, and acrylic solution copolymers and fundamental studies were conducted to determine how and to what extent cis-unsaturation contributes to film performance properties. In thiol-ene UV curable coatings, cis-unsaturation was involved in the initial curing reaction and to lesser degrees, in postcure crosslinking. Its behavior was determined to be dependent on the ene component. Thiol-ene photopolymerization yielded homogeneous networks but formulations containing VOMMs exhibited greater heterogeneity due to non-uniformity in the VOMM chemical structures, and the concurrent reactions occurring during thiol-ene photopolymerization and "dark cure". Partially epoxidized soybean oil was synthesized to contain varying levels of residual cis-unsaturation. Cationic photopolymerization of partially epoxidized soybean oil yielded lightly crosslinked films, but the influence of free radical decomposition byproducts has not been fully investigated. The low involvement of the cis-unsaturation in photopolymerization was attributed to its low reactivity and/or radical combination with antioxidants and molecular oxygen dissolved in the films. When used in emulsion polymerization, VOMMs lower the minimum filming temperature during coalescence and increase the Tg after application via auto-oxidation. Free radical polymerization of VOMMs is accompanied by chain transfer reactions between polymer radicals and VOMMs that reduces molecular weight and the auto-oxidation potential of the film. Retardation in polymerization rate correlated directly with increase in amount of unsaturation and conjugated unsaturation. Vegetable oils containing significant amounts of fatty acids with bisallylic hydrogen atoms were found to be more reactive towards chain transfer than fatty acids containing monoallylic hydrogen atoms. Model polymers were produced by functionalizing methacrylic copolymers through a mild reaction pathway in the absence of radicals. Copolymers with large quantities of bisallylic hydrogen atoms showed increased auto-oxidation reactivity as evidenced by greater consumption of cis-unsaturation and higher gel fractions.

Black, Micah Stephen

157

On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

?erban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

158

Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil fuels have not been acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for Diesel engines. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, but some engine performance problems still exist. The purpose of

Ayhan Demirba?

2003-01-01

159

Complex role of monoacylglycerols in the oxidation of vegetable oils: different behaviors of soybean monoacylglycerols in different oils.  

PubMed

The relationship between fatty acid composition of oils and their oxidative stability in the presence of monoacylglycerols was investigated. Purified vegetable oils were added at increasing amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of monoacylglycerols obtained from purified soybean oil and submitted to an oven test (60 °C for 18 days). The obtained results showed a generally antioxidant effect of monoacylglycerols, with remarkable differences among oils. The antioxidant effect was significantly higher in less unsaturated oils, such as palm and olive oils. Among the more unsaturated vegetable oils, peanut and sunflower oils showed an almost linear slowdown of oxidation, slightly less pronounced in sunflower oil, which was the most susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of linoleic acid. A peculiar trend was highlighted for soybean oil, where the antioxidant effect of high amounts of monoacylglycerols was opposed to a pro-oxidant effect observed up to 1%. PMID:25310182

Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppina; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

2014-11-01

160

METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF UNUSUAL FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS FOR ENHANCED VEGETABLE OIL QUALITY AND PLANT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hundreds of unusual fatty acids occur in plants, and many of these fatty acids have chemical, physical, or nutritional properties that make them attractive targets for the biotechnological enhancement of vegetable oils. My lab has maintained a long research interest in the identification of genes a...

161

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with 1-butanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid fuel microemulsions are prepared from vegetable oil, a Câ-Câ alcohol, water, and 1-butanol as the nonionic surfactant. These fuels are characterized by an acceptable viscosity and compare favorably to No. 2 diesel fuel in terms of engine performance properties.

Schwab

1985-01-01

162

Manufacturing of vegetable oils-based epoxy and composites for structural applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T g) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower Tg, versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs.

Wang, Rongpeng

163

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROXY THIO-ETHER DERIVATIVES OF VEGETABLE OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biobased additives are desirable commodities due to their eco-friendly nature. These additives can demonstrate physical and chemical properties comparable to those of conventional mineral oil based products. Sulfur incorporated triacylglycerol can function as an antiwear/antifriction additive for ...

164

Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

2013-01-01

165

[Application of fluorescence spectra and parallel factor analysis in the classification of edible vegetable oils].  

PubMed

The fluorescence spectra of 22 samples of 8 kinds of edible vegetable oils (soybean oil, maize oil, olive oil, rice oil, peanut oil, walnut oil, sunflower oil and sesame oil) were measured with FS920 fluorescence spectrometer and the fluorescence matrixs (EEMs) were analyzed with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis model. To synthesize the capabilities of material characterization and component identification, fluorescence spectra combined with PARAFAC fulfill the classification of vegetable oils. The map feature (peak position, peak value and peak number) was obtained by analyzing three dimensional spectra and con tour maps in the range of emission wavelength from 260 to 750 nm, and excitation wavelengths from 250 to 550 nm. The fluorescent substances (unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and its derivatives, chlorophyll and carotenoid) corresponding to spectrum peaks were determined. The factor-number was selected and the components (vitamin E and its derivatives, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, fatty acid oxidation products, vegetable oil oxidation products) corresponding to each factor were ascertained. The four-factor excitation and emission profiles and projection score plots of PARAFAC model were plotted. Different vegetable oils can be characterized and distinguished with the map features of fluorescence spectra and sample projection plots of PARAFAC model. The results demonstrate the capability of the combination of fluorescence spectra technology and four-factor PARAFAC model for differentiating and characterizing vegetable oils. PMID:25474950

Wu, Xi-jun; Pan, Zhao; Zhao, Yan-peng; Liu, Hai-long; Zheng, Long-jiang

2014-08-01

166

[Application of fluorescence spectra and parallel factor analysis in the classification of edible vegetable oils].  

PubMed

The fluorescence spectra of 22 samples of 8 kinds of edible vegetable oils (soybean oil, maize oil, olive oil, rice oil, peanut oil, walnut oil, sunflower oil and sesame oil) were measured with FS920 fluorescence spectrometer and the fluorescence matrixs (EEMs) were analyzed with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis model. To synthesize the capabilities of material characterization and component identification, fluorescence spectra combined with PARAFAC fulfill the classification of vegetable oils. The map feature (peak position, peak value and peak number) was obtained by analyzing three dimensional spectra and con tour maps in the range of emission wavelength from 260 to 750 nm, and excitation wavelengths from 250 to 550 nm. The fluorescent substances (unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and its derivatives, chlorophyll and carotenoid) corresponding to spectrum peaks were determined. The factor-number was selected and the components (vitamin E and its derivatives, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, fatty acid oxidation products, vegetable oil oxidation products) corresponding to each factor were ascertained. The four-factor excitation and emission profiles and projection score plots of PARAFAC model were plotted. Different vegetable oils can be characterized and distinguished with the map features of fluorescence spectra and sample projection plots of PARAFAC model. The results demonstrate the capability of the combination of fluorescence spectra technology and four-factor PARAFAC model for differentiating and characterizing vegetable oils. PMID:25508729

Wu, Xi-jun; Pan, Zhao; Zhao, Yan-peng; Liu, Hai-long; Zheng, Long-jiang

2014-08-01

167

Analysis of biodiesel and frying vegetable oils by means of FTIR photoacoustic spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy was used to determine the mid-infrared vibrational modes of biodiesel and vegetable oils. Our results indicate that this method can contribute significantly to the biodiesel wash process during the sample preparation. Besides, by analyzing the spectra of vegetable oils used to fry snacks we could to monitor the degradation in function of the fried time.

Lima, S. M.; Izida, T.; Figueiredo, M. S.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Del Ré, P. V.; Jorge, N.; Buba, E.; Aristone, F.

2008-01-01

168

Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

Harwood, H.J.

1981-06-01

169

Detection of Vegetable Oil Adulteration in lee Cream 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to demonstrate the application of various analytical methods to the detection, identification, and quantitation of vegetable oil adulteration of ice cream. Total fat content, sterols, long- and short-chain fatty acids, vitamin E, Reichert-Meissl values, and Polenske values were measured in ice cream. All methods except total fat determination were capable of detecting vegetable oil adulteration. Sterol determination

A. J. SHEPPARD; C.-S. J. SHEN; T. S. RUDOLF

1985-01-01

170

Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: Self-assemblies and dynamic  

E-print Network

- 1 - Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: Self your paper to) Keywords: Amphiphilic copolymer; polyoxazoline; grape seed vegetable oil; self-013-1626-1 #12;- 2 - The behavior in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

ETC Spills Technology Databases: Oil Properties Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Technology Center of Environment Canada provides a database which contains various properties of crude oils and petroleum products. In addition to the listing of oils, the database reports properties "which will likely determine the environmental behavior and effects of spilled oil." The user may select an oil from a pull-down menu that lists 412 oils. The data are organized into tables in the following areas: Origin, API Gravity, Density, Pour Point, Dynamic Viscosity, Hydrocarbon Groups, and Distillation.

Fieldhouse, B.; Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Lambert, P.; Mullin, J.; Wang, Z.

172

Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements  

PubMed Central

Background There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed. PMID:21691461

Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

2011-01-01

173

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

2009-01-01

174

Economic implications for the potential development of a vegetable oil fuel industry  

SciTech Connect

The purposes in this paper were to (1) summarize the domestic and international oilseed situation with emphasis on trends which will affect the long-run supply and demand for oilseeds; (2) describe the existing oilseeds processing sector so as to focus on the existing linkage between food and potential fuel markets for vegetable oils; and (3) present a basic framework for analyzing the supply, demand, and price effects of significant use of vegetable oil as a fuel. The major determinants of demand worldwide for vegetable oils are price, incomes, and population. Government programs of taxes, quotas, or subsidies could affect vegetable oil supply and/or demand. International trade practices could change; altering the flow of oils between markets. The likely impact of a developing vegetable oils fuel market would be to increase vegetable oil prices. The size of the increase will depend on how large the fuel market demand ultimately becomes, and thus on the price of diesel fuel. It will also depend on how well oilseed production can be adapted, technologically, and in acreage, to meet the needs of a large fuels market while maintaining its critical role in the foods sector. There are many uncertainties in assessing the economic picture for vegetable oil use as a diesel fuel substitute. 1 figure, 3 tables. (DP)

Dunn, J.R.; Schneeberger, K.C.

1982-01-01

175

Lightning Impulse Breakdown Characteristics and Electrodynamic Process of Insulating Vegetable Oil-Based Nanofluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insulating vegetable oils are considered environment-friendly and fire-resistant substitutes for insulating mineral oils. This paper presents the lightning impulse breakdown characteristic of insulating vegetable oil and insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids. It indicates that Fe3O4 nanoparticles can increase the negative lightning impulse breakdown voltages of insulating vegetable oil by 11.8% and positive lightning impulse breakdown voltages by 37.4%. The propagation velocity of streamer is reduced by the presence of nanoparticles. The propagation velocities of streamer to positive and negative lightning impulse breakdown in the insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids are 21.2% and 14.4% lesser than those in insulating vegetable oils, respectively. The higher electrical breakdown strength and lower streamer velocity is explained by the charging dynamics of nanoparticles in insulating vegetable oil. Space charge build-up and space charge distorted filed in point-sphere gap is also described. The field strength is reduced at the streamer tip due to the low mobility of negative nanoparticles.

Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhao-Tao; Zou, Ping; Du, Bin; Liao, Rui-Jin

2012-06-01

176

Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study  

SciTech Connect

This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the production, processing, and end use of the new fuels on a basis that is both technically attractive and economically rewarding to all of the elements of the system. The three subsystems, the farms that produce oilseed crops, the production of triglycerides and protein, and the manufacturers of the diesel engines and the owners of the present stock of auto-ignition engines, are discussed. It was concluded that vegetable oils and animal fats have substantial prospects as long-term substitutes for diesel fuels. If special auto-ignition engines were developed to handle vegetable oils, on-farm production and use might succeed. In the absence of such engine development, it is likely that large, centralized facilities to manufacture vegetable oils and their methylesters will be the successful processing route. Vegetable oils are likely to succeed first in geographical areas with benign climates. Vegetable oils and animal fats have limited prospects as diesel fuels for acute emergencies. The high viscosity of vegetable oils and the necessity to make substantial capital investments to obtain oils from oilseeds render the system relatively inflexible. 4 tables. (DP)

Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Appelbaum, H.R.; McClure, T.A.; Otis, J.L.; Trayser, D.A.

1982-01-01

177

Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean\\u000a and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and\\u000a degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of\\u000a 60 C or higher, molar ratios of at

B. Freedman; E. H. Pryde; T. L. Mounts

1984-01-01

178

Alternative Diesel Fuel Study on Four Different Types of Vegetable Oils of Turkish Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, com, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20\\/80 (v\\/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1200 and 2100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods.

TURGUT ÖZAKTA; F?L?Z KARAOSMANOGLU

1997-01-01

179

Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale modelling of magmatic intrusion in a deforming brittle crust  

E-print Network

Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale modelling of magmatic intrusion in a deforming. The model magma is a vegetable oil, which solidifies at room temperature. Its viscosity when molten is =2. Keywords: physical modelling; magma emplacement; brittle tectonics; vegetable oil; silica powder 1

Galland, Olivier

180

Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

1984-10-01

181

Characterization of vegetable oils by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting: classification, quality, adulteration, and aging.  

PubMed

An improved approach for the direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of vegetable oils is described. The more polar components of the oils, including the fatty acids, are simply extracted with methanol/water (1:1) solution and analyzed by direct infusion ESI-MS in both the negative and positive ion modes. This fingerprinting analysis was applied to genuine samples of olive, soybean, corn, canola, sunflower, and cottonseed oil, to admixtures of these oils, and samples of aged soybean oil. ESI-MS fingerprints in the positive ion mode of the extracts divide the oils into well-defined groups, as confirmed by principal component analysis, whereas ESI-MS fingerprints in the negative ion mode clearly differentiate olive oil from the five other refined oils. The method is also shown to detect aging and adulteration of vegetable oils. PMID:16285696

Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Haddad, Renato; Cabrini, Liliane Girotto; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Eberlin, Marcos N

2005-11-15

182

Vegetable oils and animal fats as alternative fuels for diesel engines with dual fuel operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils and animal fats are applicable as fuels in standard diesel engines after having adapted the fuel system for electronically controlled dual fuel regime oil\\/fat–fossil diesel. In this contribution, performance and emission characteristics of the engines running on rapeseed oil, lard, or chicken fat are given and compared to those of fossil diesel and fatty acid methyl esters. The

A. Kleinová; I. Vailing; J. Lábaj; J. Mikulec; J. Cvengroš

2011-01-01

183

Bench-scale membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil: Process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances such as phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect the quality of the finished oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who are looking for alternative methods to improve conventional refining methods, and during the last decade, energy-efficient membrane separation technology

L. Lin; K. C. Rhee; S. S. Koseoglu

1997-01-01

184

DIFFERENCES IN PAH DESORPTION AND SEDIMENT ORGANIC MATTER COMPOSITION BETWEEN NON-VEGETATED AND RECENTLY VEGETATED FUEL-OILED SEDIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the desorption behavior of pyrene, chrysene, phenanthrene, and tri-alkylated (C3) phenanthrene\\/anthracenes for non-vegetated and recently vegetated (< 2 yrs) fuel-oiled sediments collected from the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC), Gary, IN. Bulk sediment and humin were analyzed for PAH concentrations, organic matter composition, and PAH desorption behavior. PAH desorption isotherms and kinetics were determined using batch aqueous extractions and

Elizabeth Guthrie Nichols; Jennifer Musella

2009-01-01

185

Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life

Sunil Ratnayake; Paul Lewandowski

2010-01-01

186

Effect of Ethanol addition to Straight Vegetable oil on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine  

E-print Network

Abstract — Experimental investigations have been carried out to evaluate the effect of addition of ethanol to vegetable oil on performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine. Use of straight vegetable oil (SVO) for diesel engine is limited due to their higher viscosity and poor volatility. The SVO shows lower thermal efficiency and higher unburnt hydrocarbon emissions, etc. In long term, SVO exhibits injector coking, fuel pump damage and fuel filter clogging, etc. To reduce the viscosity and to increase the volatility of the fuel, an ethanol is added to the vegetable oil so that thermal efficiency and emissions can be improved. During investigation, blends of vegetable oil with different proportions of ethanol are prepared. Blends BSVO-80 and BSVO-70 are prepared using 20 % and 30 % of ethanol with SVO respectively. Basic properties like viscosity, calorific value, specific gravity, etc. are evaluated for all test fuels. The blends of SVO with alcohol show lower viscosity, improved volatility, better combustion and less carbon deposits as compared to SVO. Improvement in brake thermal efficiency, reduction in oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions are observed with increase in amount of ethanol in blend. The engine performance with the blend BSVO-70 is in closer approximation with diesel fuel. It could be concluded that blend BSVO-70 can be a good substitute for diesel.

Kishore D. Rao; Dr. B. Sudheer Premkumar

187

Development of steryl ester analysis for the detection of admixtures of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steryl ester content and composition of 28 samples from 10 vegetable oil types have been determined by isolation of the\\u000a steryl esters by high-performance liquid chromatography and analysis by gas chromatography. The oils can be classified into\\u000a oils with a high content (>4000 mg\\/kg) of steryl esters (corn and rapeseed); oils with a medium content (1400–2400 mg\\/kg)\\u000a of steryl

Michael H. Gordon; Luke A. D. Miller

1997-01-01

188

Silicone/vegetable oil Janus emulsion: Topological stability versus interfacial tensions and relative oil volumes.  

PubMed

Several aspects were studied of the formation and destabilization in bulk of silicone/vegetable oil, SO/VO, Janus emulsions, stabilized by Tween 80. In the formation of the emulsions, it was unexpectedly found that the dispersions tended to contain both single and flocculated drops irrespective of the emulsification intensity. Microscopy of the emulsions with no cover glass revealed flocculated drops of a large (200-500?m) central SO drop with many small VO drops attached. Applying a cover glass did not significantly change the drop size; instead two-oil Janus drops of well-defined contact angle were found. The emulsions showed rapid creaming irrespective of the preparation method, but a few days storage did not significantly change the drop size in the creamed layer, nor was separation of the oils detected. The total interfacial free energy of the Janus drops at equilibrium was compared to the two relevant alternatives; engulfed and separate drops. The Janus drop free energies were found less for all volume ratios of the oils, when the surfactant concentrations in the aqueous phase was sufficient to prevent spreading of VO on SO. Changing the surfactant concentration to bring the interfacial tensions closer to the critical value for spreading gave declining interfacial free energy difference to that of engulfed drops. PMID:25443127

Leonardi, G R; Perrechil, F A; Silveira, L P; Brunca, H O; Friberg, S E

2014-10-14

189

Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.  

PubMed

Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy. PMID:25528233

Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

2015-03-21

190

Lipase-catalyzed incorporation of n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of immobilized lipases IM60 fromMucor miehei and SP435 fromCandida antarctica to modify the fatty acid composition of selected vegetable oils by incorporation of n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into\\u000a the vegetable oils was studied. The transesterification was carried out in organic solvent with free acid and ethyl esters\\u000a of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as acyl donors.

Kuan-hsiang Huang; Casimir C. Akoh

1994-01-01

191

A simple method for estimation of cetane index of vegetable oil methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates a simple method for estimation of cetane indexes of vegetable oil methyl esters from their saponification\\u000a and iodine numbers. The range of the calculated values covers all the cetane numbers of vegetable oil methyl esters determined\\u000a experimentally. when it was applied to individual fatty acid methyl esters from C8 to C24, a straight line parallel to that

Kanit Krisnangkura

1986-01-01

192

Conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils has drawn considerable attention with increasing environmental consciousness. We attempted\\u000a continuous methanolysis of vegetable oil by an enzymatic process. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase was found to be the most effective for the methanolysis among lipases tested. The enzyme was inactivated by shaking\\u000a in a mixture containing more than 1.5 molar equivalents of methanol against the

Yuji Shimada; Yomi Watanabe; Taichi Samukawa; Akio Sugihara; Hideo Noda; Hideki Fukuda; Yoshio Tominaga

1999-01-01

193

First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

Ventura, L.M. (Mercedes-Benz do Brazil, Sao Paulo); Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

1982-01-01

194

Experimental Solubility of CO2 in Vegetable and Reference Oils for Two Stroke Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The knowledge of the solubility of different gases such us O2, N2, and CO2 in lubricants used for two stroke engines is important because these gases are involved in the combustion process together with the lubricant and the gasoline in the combustion chamber, and the developed vegetable oil should have a similar behaviour than the reference synthetic oil. In

Teresa Regueira; Luis Lugo; Olivia Fandino; Enriqueta López; Josefa Fernandez

195

Multivariate data analysis in classification of vegetable oils characterized by the content of fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for fast and efficient determination of classes of oil samples in routine analyses performed in food control laboratories is proposed. It is based on counterpropagation neural network, which offers a possibility for automatic classification. The fatty acid composition of 132 samples of different edible vegetable oils from the market, including pumpkin, sunflower, peanut, olive, soybean, rapeseed, corn

Darinka Brodnjak-Von?ina; Zdenka Cenci? Kodba; Marjana Novi?

2005-01-01

196

Vegetable Oil-based Diesel Fuels From 1900 to the Present  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diesel engine, invented and developed by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890's, was displayed at the Paris World Exposition in 1900. At that occasion, one of the displayed diesel engines ran on peanut oil. This event marks the beginning of the use of vegetable oils and, later, derivatives thereof as die...

197

Applied models to biodegradation kinetics of lubricant and vegetable oils in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation technologies are used in order to remove pollutants from the environment in a safe, economical and harmless way during the treatment of waste, especially with the use of techniques such as biodegradation. A lubricant and vegetable oil contaminated water sample was studied in order to evaluate the biodegradability of different types of oils, considering the relevance of the obtained

Renato N. Montagnolli; Paulo R. M. Lopes; Ederio D. Bidoia

2009-01-01

198

Agricultural land use in life cycle assessment (LCA): case studies of three vegetable oil crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for environmental assessment of agricultural land use is outlined. Environmental objectives and indicators of the land use quality are defined. The method is tested in case studies of cultivated vegetable oil crops: Swedish rape seed, Brazilian soybean and Malaysian oil palm. The results from this study lead us to believe that the indicators soil erosion, soil organic matter,

Berit Mattsson; Christel Cederberg; Lisa Blix

2000-01-01

199

A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

200

PAPER/POLYMERIZED VEGETABLE OIL COMPOSITES:BIODEGRADATION BEHAVIOR AND USE AS DEGRADABLE AGRICULTURAL MULCH FILM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Kraft paper was coated with different types of vegetable oil-based polyesters in order to increase wet strength, decrease biodegradation rates and create an alternative to non-degradable polyethylene mulch films. Paper saturated with natural polyunsaturated oils and then oxidatively polymerized (Co...

201

Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non-regulated exhaust gas components, some deviations from this linear trend were detected.

Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

2012-05-01

202

Low carbon flower buildup, low smoke, and efficient diesel operation with vegetable oils by conversion to mono-esters and blending with diesel oil or alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated DI Diesel engine is evaluated. Means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion is found. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits are measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. Both of the vegetable oil fuels generate an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they cause carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation. Practical solutions to overcome the problems are: increasing the fuel temperature to over 200/sup 0/C, blending 25 vol % diesel fuel in the vegetable oil, blending 20 vol % ethanol in the fuel, or converting the vegetable oils into methylesters.

Nobukazu, T.; Itow, K.

1984-01-01

203

Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin  

SciTech Connect

Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

1997-02-01

204

Utilization of ethyl ester of waste vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan relies heavily on expensive and unreliable imported oil. Therefore, this study was initiated to investigate the potential of ethyl ester used as vegetable oil (VO; biodiesel) to substitute oil-based diesel fuel. The fuels tested were several ester\\/diesel blends including 100% ester in addition to diesel fuel, which served as the baseline fuel. Variable-speed tests were run on all fuels

Mohamad I Al-Widyan; Ghassan Tashtoush; Moh'd Abu-Qudais

2002-01-01

205

Quantification of blending of olive oils and edible vegetable oils by triacylglycerol fingerprint gas chromatography and chemometric tools.  

PubMed

A reliable procedure for the identification and quantification of the adulteration of olive oils in terms of blending with other vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, seeds, sesame and soya) has been developed. From the analytical viewpoint, the whole procedure relies only on the results of the determination of the triacylglycerol profile of the oils by high temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chromatographic profiles were pre-treated (baseline correction, peak alignment using iCoshift algorithm and mean centering) before building the models. At first, a class-modeling approach, Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was used to identify the vegetable oil used blending. Successively, a separate calibration model for each kind of blending was built using Partial Least Square (PLS). The correlation coefficients of actual versus predicted concentrations resulting from multivariate calibration models were between 0.95 and 0.99. In addition, Genetic algorithms (GA-PLS), were used, as variable selection method, to improve the models which yielded R(2) values higher than 0.90 for calibration set. This model had a better predictive ability than the PLS without feature selection. The results obtained showed the potential of this method and allowed quantification of blends of olive oil in the vegetable oils tested containing at least 10% of olive oil. PMID:22366282

Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; Marini, Federico; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; González-Casado, Antonio

2012-12-01

206

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives  

E-print Network

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products ...

Sambandan, T. G.

207

Assessment of sediment toxicity during anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil using Microtox and Hyalella azteca bioassays.  

PubMed

The potential ecological impacts of anaerobic degradation of vegetable oil on freshwater sediments were investigated. Sediment toxicity was evaluated using two regulatory biotests: the Microtox Solid Phase Test and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca) bioassay. The results of the Microtox test showed that the toxicity of the vegetable-oil-contaminated sediments (about 17-33 g oil/kg dry sediments) increased after 2 weeks incubation and then decreased to near background levels after incubation for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions. The amphipod toxicity bioassay showed that the toxicity of fresh contaminated sediments decreased over time and returned to background levels within 8 weeks. These results suggest that the impact of vegetable oils on organisms within sediments may be limited. To account for the significance of environmental conditions, additional studies over a wide range of incubation conditions (e.g., temperature, nutrient concentration) and other test organisms at various trophic levels are recommended for both acute and chronic toxicity assessment. PMID:17295275

Li, Zhengkai; Lee, Kenneth; Cobanli, Susan E; King, Thomas; Wrenn, Brian A; Doe, Kenneth G; Jackman, Paula M; Venosa, Albert D

2007-02-01

208

Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

Goodrum, J.W.

1986-01-01

209

Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 18 billion pounds of soybean oil is produced annually in the United States with a yearly carryover of more than 300 million pounds. How to utilize this surplus oil effectively becomes a large economic issue in the U.S. agricultural community. Soybean oil is a relatively cheap raw materia...

210

Separation of steroids using vegetable oils in microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography.  

PubMed

The steroids, hydrocortisone, androstenedione, 17-?-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, 17-?-methyltestosterone, and progesterone were separated with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) and detected with UV absorption. The microemulsion phases were prepared from both artificial and vegetable oils, from them the first was made of alkane and alcohol and the latter from colza, olive, linseed, and walnut oils. The electrolyte solutions were made to emulsions using sodium dodecyl sulfate and alkaline tetraborate. The solution mixtures made from ethyl acetate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, and sodium tetraborate were used as the reference solutions to evaluate the performance of the vegetable oil emulsions. Our study showed that the lipophilic organic phase in the microemulsion did provide resolution improvements but not selectivity changes. The results also correlate with real interactions of the steroids with the lipophilic organic microemulsion phase. The quality of the oils between the manufacturers did not have importance, which was noticed from the equal behavior of the steroids in the vegetable oil emulsions. Detection limits of the steroids in vegetable oil emulsions were at the level of 0.20-0.43?g/L. Thus, they were 2-10 times higher than the concentrations in the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC), which we have obtained earlier. The repeatability (RSD%) of the electrophoretic mobilities of the steroids was between 0.50 and 3.70. The RSD% values between the inter-day separations were below 1%, but when walnut and olive oils were used the values exceeded even 10%. PMID:24355214

Sirén, Heli; Vesanen, Sari; Suomi, Johanna

2014-01-15

211

Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.  

PubMed

The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

2012-02-17

212

Vegetation and soil water interactions on a tailings sand storage facility in the athabasca oil sands region of Alberta Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between vegetation and soil water was studied on the Syncrude South West Sand Storage facility in the Athabasca Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. Soil water and relevant soil chemical and physical properties were measured at the soil surface, as well as above and below the reclamation soil and tailings sand interface, in areas of low and high vegetation cover. The interface between the reclamation soil and the tailings sand acted as a capillary barrier. Water content was highest under low vegetation cover but soil water conditions above field capacity were rare and unlikely to have impacted vegetation. Periods of water stress occurred, where volumetric water content was below wilting point; these periods were of short duration and generally typical of ecosystems in the study area. Differences in surface soil water between the two vegetation covers were attributed to evapotranspiration and/or canopy interception. Differences above and below the interface were attributed to variation in canopy cover at the surface and resulting quantities of water available for percolation through the soil profiles. At the interface of the reclamation soil and tailings sand, water movement was restricted. High and low canopy covers responded differently to precipitation events; low vegetation cover areas had greater fluctuations in volumetric water content at all depths. The occurrence of a capillary barrier effect will need to be accounted for in developing reclamation soil profiles.

Naeth, M. A.; Chanasyk, D. S.; Burgers, T. D.

213

Application of data mining methods for classification and prediction of olive oil blends with other vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to study tree-based ensemble methods, new emerging modelling techniques, for authentication of samples of olive oil blends to check their suitability for classifying the samples according to the type of oil used for the blend as well as for predicting the amount of olive oil in the blend. The performance of these methods has been investigated in chromatographic fingerprint data of olive oil blends with other vegetable oils without needing either to identify or to quantify the chromatographic peaks. Different data mining methods-classification and regression trees, random forest and M5 rules-were tested for classification and prediction. In addition, these classification and regression tree approaches were also used for feature selection prior to modelling in order to reduce the number of attributes in the chromatogram. The good outcomes have shown that these methods allow one to obtain interpretable models with much more information than the traditional chemometric methods and provide valuable information for detecting which vegetable oil is mixed with olive oil and the percentage of oil used, with a single chromatogram. PMID:24577575

Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; Cadenas, José M; Pelta, David A; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis

2014-04-01

214

Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors.

Carde, T.

2001-09-12

215

Classification and adulteration detection of vegetable oils based on fatty acid profiles.  

PubMed

The detection of adulteration of high priced oils is a particular concern in food quality and safety. Therefore, it is necessary to develop authenticity detection method for protecting the health of customers. In this study, fatty acid profiles of five edible oils were established by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode. Using mass spectral characteristics of selected ions and equivalent chain length (ECL), 28 fatty acids were identified and employed to classify five kinds of edible oils by using unsupervised (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis), supervised (random forests) multivariate statistical methods. The results indicated that fatty acid profiles of these edible oils could classify five kinds of edible vegetable oils into five groups and are therefore employed to authenticity assessment. Moreover, adulterated oils were simulated by Monte Carlo method to establish simultaneous adulteration detection model for five kinds of edible oils by random forests. As a result, this model could identify five kinds of edible oils and sensitively detect adulteration of edible oil with other vegetable oils about the level of 10%. PMID:25078260

Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Sun, Xiaoman; Wang, Xuefang; Xu, Baocheng; Wang, Xiupin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia

2014-08-27

216

Studies on antioxidant treatments of crude vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments of crude safflowerseed, soybean, sunflowerseed and cottonseed oils with the antioxidant compounds butylated hydroxyanisole\\u000a (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) have been investigated. PG and TBHQ were effective in inhibiting\\u000a oxidative degradation of the crude oils subjected to long term storage as determined by measurement of peroxide formation\\u000a in the oils during storage and by determination of

E. R. Sherwin; B. M. Luckadoo

1970-01-01

217

The use of saponified vegetable oil distillates/ethanol microcellular solution as a diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils are considered possible replacement fuels for diesel engines; however, past research has shown that long term engine durability is adversely affected by the use of these fuels. Most researchers have attempted to reduce the problems associated with vegetable oil fuels either by the formation of vegetable oil/diesel blends or the esterfication of the vegetable oils. In this investigation of an alternative approach, the performance of saponified soybean oil/aqueous ethanol microcellular solutions were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The products of the pyrolytic distillation of crude soybean oil were mixed with 150 proof ethanol in the ratio of 4:1 by volume and saponified with anhydrous ammonia gas. This ''parent fuel'' was then diluted with 150 proof ethanol to obtain two test fuels, one with 30 percent ethanol concentration and the other with 40 percent ethanol concentration. The fuels were used in the engine under various loads at two speeds, and the performance was compared to the performance using No. 2-D commercial diesel fuel.

Savage, L.D.; Birell, S.; Goering, C.E.

1988-01-01

218

Biodegradable paper\\/polymerized vegetable oil mulches for tomato and pepper production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was undertaken to compare the efficacy of a biodegradable paper\\/cured vegetable oil mulch with newspaper\\/straw and bare soil for reducing weed growth and promoting vegetable yields. There were no significant differences in total tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) or pepper (Capsicum annum) yields between the different mulch types. The coated paper and newspaper\\/straw mulches were effective in preventing weed growth

Randal L. Shogren; Monica David

219

Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel  

SciTech Connect

The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

1982-01-01

220

Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils  

E-print Network

be made from various renewable sources, including recycled oil, and can be utilized in lieu of petroleum-based diesel. To foster market competitiveness for biodiesel, it is necessary to develop cost-effective and technically sound processing schemes...

Myint, Lay L.

2009-05-15

221

VEGETATIVE STABILIZATION OF SPENT OIL SHALES: VEGETATION MOISTURE SALINITY AND RUNOFF, 1973-76  

EPA Science Inventory

Disposal of massive amounts of spent shale will be required if an oil shale industry using surface retorting is developed. Field studies were initiated in 1973 on two types of spent oil shale--coarse-textured (USBM), and fine-textured (TOSCO). The objectives of these studies were...

222

Enzymatic Synthesis of Biodiesel from Transesterification Reactions of Vegetable Oils and Short Chain Alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel synthesis by alcoholysis of three vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower and rice bran) catalyzed by three commercial\\u000a lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme TL-IM and Lipozyme RM-IM), and the optimization of the enzymes stability over repeated batches\\u000a is described. The effects of the molar ratio of alcohol to oil and the reaction temperature with methanol, ethanol, propanol\\u000a and butanol were also studied.

Rafael Costa Rodrigues; Giandra Volpato; Keiko Wada; Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub

2008-01-01

223

Continuous production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida antarctica lipase is inactivated in a mixture of vegetable oil and more than 1?2 molar equivalent of methanol against the total fatty\\u000a acids. We have revealed that the inactivation was eliminated by three successive additions of 1?3 molar equivalent of methanol\\u000a and have developed a three-step methanolysis by which over 95% of the oil triacylglycerols (TAG) were converted to

Yomi Watanabe; Yuji Shimada; Akio Sugihara; Hideo Noda; Hideki Fukuda; Yoshio Tominaga

2000-01-01

224

Oxidative stability of fat substitutes and vegetable oils by the oxidative stability index method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative Stability Index (OSI) of carbohydrate fatty acid polyesters, fat substitutes and vegetable oils were measured with\\u000a the Omnion Oxidative Stability Instrument according to the new AOCS Standard Method Cd 12 B-92 (The Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, edited by D. Firestone, AOCS, Champaign, 1991). The stability of crude and refined, bleached and deodorized

Casimir C. Akoh

1994-01-01

225

The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressure-raising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats. PMID:22189740

Jaarin, Kamsiah; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Leong, Xin-Fang

2011-01-01

226

Trends in industrial use of vegetable oils in coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkyd resins continue to be a major factor in coatings. Increased oil consumption in alkyd manufacture is not expected to\\u000a be significant. Projections indicate a modest growth in total coatings usage at 2–3% per year. The industry is facing diverse\\u000a coating performance demands that will bring unusual, more costly ingredients into use, probably at the expense of traditional\\u000a oil-based alkyd

Richard W. Fulmer

1985-01-01

227

Effects of supplementation vegetable oil on milk production in lactating cows Chuleekorn Warinrak 1 Noppakao Thepsuree 1 Surewan Pengrungreungwong 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil have long been studied and added to concentrates rations in order to improve the energetic value of the diet and enhance dairy cows to express their productive potential. This study was conducted to examine if vegetable oil supplemented would affect milk production. Sixteen cows were obtained for an experiment and received 20 kg corn silage and 7.5 kg

Surasak Jittakhot; Somkeat Kosulwat; Jitkamol Thanasak

228

Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender—A Literature Review.” September. www.uidaho.edu/bae/biodiesel/ raw%20vegetable%20oils_literature%20review.doc  

E-print Network

This paper is a review of literature concerning using vegetable oils as a replacement for diesel fuel. The term vegetable oils as used in this paper refers to vegetable oils which have not been modified by transesterification or similar processes to form what is called biodiesel. The oils studied include virgin and used oils of various types including soy, rapeseed, canola, sunflower, cottonseed and similar oils. In general, raw vegetable oils can be used successfully in short term performance tests in nearly any percentage as a replacement for diesel fuel. When tested in long term tests blends above 20 percent nearly always result in engine damage or maintenance problems. Some authors report success in using vegetable oils as diesel fuel extenders in blends less than 20 percent even in long term durability studies. Degumming is suggested by one author as a way to improve use of raw oils in low level blends. It is apparent that few, if any, engine studies using low-level blends of unmodified vegetable oils, < 20%, have been conducted.

Sam Jones; Charles L. Peterson

2002-01-01

229

Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.  

PubMed

Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

2005-05-01

230

Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants in the Mediterranean basin, such as vine and olive trees, have developed an array of antioxidant defences to protect themselves from environmental stress. Accordingly, the incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers is lower in the Mediterranean area, where olive oil is the dietary fat of choice. As opposed to other vegetable oils, extra virgin olive oil, which

Francesco Visioli; Giorgio Bellomo; Claudio Galli

1998-01-01

231

Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

232

[Health properties of shark oil].  

PubMed

Fish oils are the source of nutrients important for health maintenance. The most significant are essential fatty acids (EFA) of n-3 family, alkylglycerols and squalene. N-3 EFA are of great importance in atherosclerosis prevention. Alkylglycerols and squalene are modulators of immunity to infections and cancer. Shark liver oil contains great amounts of alkylglycerols and squalene, and moderate of n-3 EFA. Therefore, it is used as an adjunctive agent in cancer therapy, especially in radiotherapy, and in the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:17083160

Szostak, Wiktor B; Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

2006-01-01

233

Traditional and new uses for vegetable oils in the surface coatings and allied industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summaries  Trends from the use of the traditional media based on thermally polymerised and oxidised drying oils, to modified oils with\\u000a improved film-forming properties, and then to oil-modified alkyd resins used in modern surface coatings, are reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a Advances in knowledge of the chemistry of polyunsaturated oils. on constitutive aspects and mechanisms of autoxidative polymerisation,\\u000a have led to a better understanding of

G. H. Hutchinson

2002-01-01

234

The use of isotope ratios (13C/12C) for vegetable oils authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes are now increasingly used for the control of the geographical origin or authenticity of food products. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. In this study 22 vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, palm, maize) commercialized on Romanian market were investigated by mean of ?13C in bulk oil and the obtained results were compared with those reported in literature in order to check the labeling of these natural products. The obtained results were in the range of the mean values found in the literature for these types of oils, thus providing their accurate labeling.

Cristea, G.; Magdas, D. A.; Mirel, V.

2012-02-01

235

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with trialkylamine surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles, which are typically powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes.

A. W. Schwab; E. H. Pryde

1982-01-01

236

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and lower alcohol with octanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles that are powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes. Deterrents

A. W. Schwab; E. H. Pryde

1984-01-01

237

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with trialkylamine surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid fuel microemulsions are prepared from vegetable oil, a Câ-Câ alcohol, water, and a surfactant comprising a lower trialkylamine. For enhanced water tolerance by the fuel, the amine is reacted with a longchain fatty acid for conversion to the corresponding trialkylammonium soap. Optionally, 1-butanol is incorporated into the system as a cosurfactant for the purpose of lowering both the viscosity

A. W. Schwab; E. H. Pryde

1984-01-01

238

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME ORGANIC CARBONATES DERIVED FROM VEGETABLE OILS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils, their derivatives, and glycerin represent renewable raw materials that are firmly established components in many industrial products. Their use continues to be of interest to many researchers and the development of approaches to functionalize these compounds to derive oleochemicals ...

239

Techno-economic analysis of a biodiesel production process from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel, which is defined as the monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from a renewable lipid feedstock, has received considerable attention worldwide as a medium-term alternative to diesel fuel obtained from petroleum. Biodiesel can be produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats using short-chain alcohols in the presence of a suitable catalyst and glycerol is

A. A. Apostolakou; I. K. Kookos; C. Marazioti; K. C. Angelopoulos

2009-01-01

240

Consumer purchase motives and product perceptions: a laddering study on vegetable oil in three countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A means-end approach is proposed to analyse cross-cultural differences in product preferences, product perception and purchase motives. Using a modified version of the laddering technique, data on consumer preference, perception and purchase motives concerning vegetable oil were collected in Denmark, England and France. The results show considerable differences between the three consumer groups both with regard to general knowledge about

N. A Nielsen; T Bech-Larsen; K. G Grunert

1998-01-01

241

The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment works using coagulation\\/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The

M. Basibuyuk; D. G. Kalat

2004-01-01

242

Novel approach to evaluate the oxidation state of vegetable oils using characteristic oxidation indicators.  

PubMed

Four vegetable oils with typical fatty acid compositions were chosen to determine their indicators of lipid oxidation under the conditions of accelerated oxidation. Good linear correlations were observed between the total nonpolar carbonyl amount and the total oxidation value (TOTOX, R(2) = 0.89-0.97) or peroxide value (POV, R(2) = 0.92-0.97) during 35 days of accelerated oxidation. Additionally, nonanal in camellia oil (oleic acid mainly) increased significantly, and correlated linearly with TOTOX (21.6 TOTOX - 595, R(2) = 0.92); propanal increased significantly in perilla oil (linolenic acid mainly) and correlated linearly with TOTOX (8.10 TOTOX + 75.0, R(2) = 0.90). Hexanal (9.56 TOTOX + 913, R(2) = 0.90, and 7.10 TOTOX + 342, R(2) = 0.78, respectively) and nonenal (10.5 TOTOX + 691, R(2) = 0.95, and 6.65 TOTOX + 276, R(2) = 0.84, respectively) in sunflower oil (linoleic acid mainly) and palm oil (palmitic and oleic acids mainly) also had good linear correlations with TOTOX. Considering the change patterns of these four aldehydes, it was found that the oxidation stability was in the order sunflower oil < camellia oil < perilla oil < palm oil, which was same as POV, TOTOX, and total nonpolar carbonyls. It was concluded that the four aldehydes nonanal, propanal, hexanal, and nonenal could be used as oxidation indicators for the four types of oils. PMID:25487776

Cao, Jun; Deng, Long; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Fan, Yawei; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Li, Jing; Deng, Ze-Yuan

2014-12-31

243

Hydrogenated soy ethyl ester (HySEE) from ethanol and waste vegetable oil  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel is gaining recognition in the United States as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel without any modifications to the engine. Currently the cost of this fuel is the factor that limits its use. One way to reduce the cost of biodiesel is to use a less expensive form of vegetable oil such as waste oil from a processing plant. These operations use mainly hydrogenated soybean oil, some tallow and some Canola as their frying oils. It is estimated that there are several million pounds of waste vegetable oil from these operations. Additional waste frying oil is available from smaller processors, off-grade oil seeds and restaurants. This paper reports on developing a process to produce the first 945 liters (250 gallons) of HySEE using recipes developed at the University of Idaho; fuel characterization tests on the HySEE according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552; short term injector coking tests and performance tests in a turbocharged, DI, CI engine; and a 300 hour screening test in a single cylinder, IDI, CI engine.

Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

244

Application of principal-component analysis on near-infrared spectroscopic data of vegetable oils for their classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the near-infrared (NIR) spectra of oil, information about fatty acid composition is concentrated in the range of 1600–2200\\u000a nm. Principal-component analysis (PCA) was applied on the standardized full NIR spectral data of this region for vegetable\\u000a oils to totally capture the NIR spectral pattern. Nine varieties of vegetable oils (soybean, corn, cottonseed, olive, rice\\u000a bran, peanut, rapeseed, sesame and

Tetsuo Sato

1994-01-01

245

Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principal component analysis (PCA) of infrared spectra of different known vegetable oils is used to determine the identity of several unknown vegetable oils. The experiment requires access to an FTIR spectrometer with 1-cm-1 resolution and peak-finder capability, and a software package that can perform principal components analysis. Students acquire IR spectra of a series of known vegetable oils, choose spectral features to be analyzed by PCA, and create scatter plots of principal component scores of each oil. The unknowns are then analyzed, plotted, and identified based on their proximity to the knowns in principal component space. The PCA data analysis extracts the useful information from a highly correlated data set; it is easier to identify the unknown oils by looking at the plot of principal component scores than by looking at the IR spectra. This practical application of PCA in an instrumental laboratory introduces students to chemometrics and allows them to experience first-hand the utility of a multivariate data analysis technique.

Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D.

2003-05-01

246

Self-organizing maps and learning vector quantization networks as tools to identify vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Self-organizing map (SOM) and learning vector quantification network (LVQ) models have been explored for the identification of edible and vegetable oils and to detect adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using the most common chemicals in these oils, viz. saturated fatty (mainly palmitic and stearic acids), oleic and linoleic acids. The optimization and validation processes of the models have been carried out using bibliographical sources, that is, a database for developing learning process and internal validation, and six other different databases to perform their external validation. The model's performances were analyzed by the number of misclassifications. In the worst of the cases, the SOM and LVQ models are able to classify more than the 94% of samples and detect adulterations of EVOO with corn, soya, sunflower, and hazelnut oils when their oil concentrations are higher than 10, 5, 5, and 10%, respectively. PMID:19267437

Torrecilla, José S; Rojo, Ester; Oliet, Mercedes; Domínguez, Juan C; Rodríguez, Francisco

2009-04-01

247

A Fully Biobased Epoxy Resin from Vegetable Oils: From the Synthesis of the Precursors by Thiol-ene Reaction to the Study of the Final Material  

E-print Network

A Fully Biobased Epoxy Resin from Vegetable Oils: From the Synthesis of the Precursors by Thiol online 8 April 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). ABSTRACT: A novel vegetable oil on the vegetable oil prop- erties were also studied using viscosimetry. Then, AGSO was employed as a novel curing

Boyer, Edmond

248

Effect Of Iron On The Sensitivity Of Hydrogen, Acetate, And Butyrate Metabolism To Inhibition By Long-Chain Fatty Acids In Vegetable-Oil-Enriched Freshwater Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial c...

249

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

2013-12-01

250

Biosynthesis of medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) by Comamonas testosteroni during cultivation on vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Comamonas testosteroni has been studied for its ability to synthesize and accumulate medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) during cultivation on vegetable oils available in the local market. Castor seed oil, coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil, groundnut oil, olive oil and sesame oil were supplemented in the mineral medium as a sole source of carbon for growth and PHAs accumulation. The composition of PHAs was analysed by a coupled gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). PHAs contained C6 to C14 3-hydroxy acids, with a strong presence of 3-hydroxyoctanoate when coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil and groundnut oil were supplied. 3-hydroxydecanoate was incorporated at higher concentrations when castor seed oil, olive oil and sesame oil were the substrates. Purified PHAs samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and 13C NMR analysis. During cultivation on various vegetable oils, C. testosteroni accumulated PHAs up to 78.5-87.5% of the cellular dry material (CDM). The efficiency of the culture to convert oil to PHAs ranged from 53.1% to 58.3% for different vegetable oils. Further more, the composition of the PHAs formed was not found to be substrate dependent as PHAs obtained from C. testosteroni during growth on variety of vegetable oils showed similar compositions; 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and/or 3-hydroxydecanoic acid being always predominant. The polymerizing system of C. testosteroni showed higher preference for C8 and C10 monomers as longer and smaller monomers were incorporated less efficiently. PMID:16084364

Thakor, Nehal; Trivedi, Ujjval; Patel, K C

2005-11-01

251

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater than 97% after 15--20 min. Some geometric isomerization of the linolenic acids was observed at reaction temperatures as low as 250 C. Reactions carried out at higher temperatures and pressures, up to the critical point of water, produced either/or degradation, pyrolysis, and polymerization, of the oils and resultant fatty acids.

Holliday, R.L.; King, J.W.; List, G.R. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)] [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

1997-03-01

252

Design and development of secondary controlled industrial palm kernel nut vegetable oil expeller plant for energy saving and recuperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental work on energy saving and recuperation in secondary controlled industrial palm nut vegetable oil plant. It employs the hydrostatic constant pressure rail principle to accomplish crushing, pressing and filtering operations. The seed crushing and oil expelling operations are based on pressure differential between the fed seeds and discharged mash resulting in an oil recovery efficiency

Celestine N Okoye; Jihai Jiang; Liu Yu Hui

2008-01-01

253

A comparison of the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) oils.  

PubMed

The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

Ferreira, Bianca Silva; Faza, Lara Pereira; Le Hyaric, Mireille

2012-01-01

254

A Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) Oils  

PubMed Central

The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

Silva Ferreira, Bianca; Pereira Faza, Lara; Le Hyaric, Mireille

2012-01-01

255

Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

1982-01-01

256

Textural and viscoelastic properties of pork frankfurters containing canola-olive oils, rice bran, and walnut.  

PubMed

Textural, rheological and microstructural properties of frankfurters made with 20% pork backfat, 20% canola or 20% canola-olive (3:1) oils, including rice bran (RB) and walnut extract (WE) as macronutrients (2.5%) were investigated. Textural parameters, including hardness, gumminess and rupture-force, were highly (P<0.05) influenced by the fat-oil composition. Addition of RB or WE in vegetable oil emulsions improved textural consistency (P<0.05). However, RB addition reduced gelling capacity, suggesting antagonistic interactions between fiber and oil droplets. Vegetable oil addition favored gel network formation, and, when combined with WE, showed the highest improvement of gel elasticity. These textural and gelling properties were corroborated by frankfurter micrographs, which revealed interactions between vegetable oils, RB, or WE with protein matrix and fat globules affecting these parameters. The results suggest that functional plant-derived ingredients can be valuable to the modification of frankfurter formulations for improved nutrition and as well as textural quality. PMID:22503483

Álvarez, D; Xiong, Y L; Castillo, M; Payne, F A; Garrido, M D

2012-09-01

257

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. III. Safflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Safflower oil was fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent distribution apparatus, and the oil was also fractionated after\\u000a interesterification with C14-labelled palmitic acid. The glyceride composition of the interesterified oil was similar to that of the natural oil. The\\u000a glycerides were separated on the basis of both unsaturation and chain length of the constituent fatty acids, and the palmitoglycerides\\u000a had only

C. R. Scholfield; H. J. Dutton

1958-01-01

258

Direct use of sunflower oil as a heating oil  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils in particular have exceptional importance since they can be used as a fuel oil (heating oil type) alternative. In this research evaluation, the possibilities of sunflower oil as a heating oil candidate have been investigated. The fuel oil property tests of sunflower oil were performed according to standard methods. An overall evaluation of data indicates that sunflower oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for heating oil.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Kurt, G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-11-01

259

Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

2012-12-01

260

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Laboratories, Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1996-02-01

261

Quantitative high resolution 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance of the olefinic and carbonyl carbons of edible vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acyl distribution and acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of triacylglycerols derived from edible vegetable\\u000a oils has been examined by13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acyl profile of three natural oils (corn, peanut, canola) and one specialty\\u000a oil (high oleic sunflower oil, Trisun 80) has been defined from the high resolution (medium field 75.4 MHz) spectrum of the

Kurt F. Wollenberg

1990-01-01

262

Conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats into paraffinic cetane enhancers for diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

The two principal methods of producing biodiesel fuels are (a) transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with a monohydric alcohol, and (b) direct hydrotreating of tree oils, vegetable oils and animal fats. The patented hydrotreating technology is based on the catalytic processing of biomass oils and fats with hydrogen, under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The typical mix of hydrotreated products is as follows: 5-15% light distillate (naphta), 40-60% middle distillate (cetane), 5-15% heavy distillate and 5-10% burner gas. The naptha fraction may be used as a gasoline supplement. The middle distillate is designed for use as a cetane booster for diesel fuels. Both heavy distillate and light hydrocarbon gases are usable as power boiler fuels. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This new diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of the basic diesel fuel, for direct use in diesel engines without any modifications. The basic hydrotreatment technology has been evaluated further in the laboratory on degummed soya oil, yellow grease and animal tallow. The preliminary findings suggest that the technology can provide efficient conversion of these materials into cetane enhancers for diesel fuels.

Wong, A.; Feng, Y. [Arbokem, Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Hogan, E. [CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)

1995-11-01

263

On the use of dielectric spectroscopy for quality control of vegetable oils  

E-print Network

Abstract ? Quality control of vegetable oils is becoming more stringent, and related laws are being enforced, especially for avoiding adulteration. As a result, there is a substantial need for methods of analysis that could provide real-time in-situ monitoring, especially for quality control purposes during production process. In this regard, the present paper investigates the possibility of monitoring qualitative characteristics of vegetable oils through microwave dielectric spectroscopy, which is a highly versatile investigative approach. In particular, the Cole & Cole frequency-domain dielectric parameters are known to be strongly related to the compositional characteristics of various substances. This way, starting from traditional Time Domain Reflectometry measurements performed on oils, the corresponding frequency domain information is retrieved. Successively, through a minimization routine, the Cole & Cole parameters of each considered oil are extrapolated. Results show that different dielectric characteristics can be associated with different oils. It is important to point out that the characteristics of the proposed procedure can be automated and, therefore, it may represent a promising solution for practical monitoring applications.

A. Cataldo; E. Piuzzi; G. Cannazza; E. De Benedetto; L. Tarricone

2009-01-01

264

Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1997-10-01

265

Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.  

PubMed

Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. PMID:25151071

Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

2014-10-01

266

Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

1999-12-01

267

Enhancement of the oxidative stability of some vegetable oils by blending with Moringa oleifera oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% w\\/w) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) with sunflower oil (SFO) and soybean oil (SBO) were prepared to evaluate the changes in fatty acid (FA) composition, oxidative and thermal stability of SFO and SBO. The blending of MOO with SFO and SBO in proportions of 0–80% resulted in the reduction of linoleic acid (C18:2) content of

Farooq Anwar; Abdullah Ijaz Hussain; Shahid Iqbal; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger

2007-01-01

268

Fast one-phase oil-rich processes for the preparation of vegetable oil methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A re-evaluation of kinetic data shows that the methoxide base-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil at 40°C (6:1 methanol:oil molar ratio) to form methyl esters proceeds approximately 15 times more slowly than butanolysis at 30°C. This is interpreted to be the result of a two-phase reaction in which methanolysis occurs only in the methanol phase. Low oil concentration in methanol causes

David G. B. Boocock; Samir K. Konar; Vinnie Mao; Hanif Sidi

1996-01-01

269

Quantitative fatty acid analysis of vegetable oils by gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The fatty acid composition of a number of vegetable oils and of two synthetic mixtures of methyl esters are compared by gas-liquid\\u000a chromatography and by standard methods. The calculated iodine values from G.L.P.C. results are in good agreement with measured\\u000a iodine values and are indicative of the reliability of the G.L.P.C. values. Standard methods gave lower values for linoleic\\u000a acid

B. M. Craig; N. L. Murty

1959-01-01

270

Fast formation of high-purity methyl esters from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have confirmed that the base-catalyzed methanolysis of vegetable oils occurs much slower than butanolysis because\\u000a of the two liquid phases initially present in the former reaction. For the same reason, second-order kinetics are not followed.\\u000a The use of a cosolvent such as tetrahydrofuran or methyl tertiary butyl ether speeds up methanolysis considerably. However,\\u000a like one-phase butanolysis, one-phase methanolysis initially

David G. B. Boocock; Samir K. Konar; V. Mao; C. Lee; Sonia Buligan

1998-01-01

271

A multivariate study of the correlation between tocopherol content and fatty acid composition in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main biochemical function of the tocopherols is believed to be the protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against\\u000a peroxidation. A critical question that must be asked in reference to this is whether there is a biochemical link between the\\u000a tocopherol levels and the degree of unsaturation in vegetable oils, the main source of dietary PUFA and vitamin E. We

Afaf Kamal-Eldin; Roger Andersson

1997-01-01

272

GC determination of synthetic hydrocarbon-based thermal heating fluid in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of alumina column chromatography and GC procedures was developed for the determination of synthetic hydrocarbon-based\\u000a thermal heating fluid (trademarked as Therminol 55™) in vegetable oils. In each run, 3 g of sample solution was loaded onto the alumina (50 g) column and was eluted with 200\\u000a mL hexane. The eluate was then concentrated to 1 mL with the

M. H. Mon; T. S. Tang; G. H. Tan

2002-01-01

273

A rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic\\u000a and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control\\u000a Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable\\u000a oil blends

Roger A. Korus; Jaiduk Jo; Charles L. Peterson

1985-01-01

274

Thin layer chromatography\\/flame ionization analysis of transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method was developed for analyzing mixtures containing fatty esters and tri- (TG), di- (DG) and monoglycerides\\u000a (MG) obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils. Analyses were performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC)\\/flame\\u000a ionization detection (FID) with an Iatroscan TH-10 instrument. Stearyl alcohol served as an internal standard. From plots\\u000a of area and weight ratios of methyl linoleate and

B. Freedman; E. H. Pryde; W. F. Kwolek

1984-01-01

275

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. Technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During the second quarter, working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S, 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different extraction solvents were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 100[degrees]C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents. During this third quarter the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different temperatures, and different reaction times were completely examined. The effects of alkali on sulfur removal were further investigated. Best organic sulfur removal reaches 34% using ammonia pretreatment, then oil and finally aqNA2CO3 extraction.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.

1995-12-31

276

Rapid determination of sterols in vegetable oils by CEC using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of sterols in vegetable oils by CEC with UV-Vis detection, using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns, has been developed. To prepare the columns, polymerization mixtures containing monomers of different hydrophobicities were tried. The influence of composition of polymerization mixture was optimized in terms of porogenic solvent, monomers/porogens and monomer/crosslinker ratios. The composition of the mobile phase was also studied. The optimum monolith was obtained with lauryl methacrylate monomer at 60:40% (wt:wt) lauryl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate ratio and 60 wt% porogens with 20 wt% of 1,4-butanediol (12 wt% 1,4-butanediol in the polymerization mixture). Excellent resolution between sterols was achieved in less than 7 min with an 85:10:5 v/v/v ACN-2-propanol-water buffer containing 5 mM Tris at pH 8.0. The limits of detection were lower than 0.04 mM, and inter-day and column-to-column reproducibilities at 0.75 mM were better than 6.2%. The method was applied to the determination of sterols in vegetable oils with different botanical origins and to detect olive oil adulteration with sunflower and soybean oils. PMID:19035396

Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrero-Martínez, José M

2008-11-01

277

Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (P<0.05) of motile cells compared to rest while no differences were found between different oil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research. PMID:23561943

Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

2013-05-01

278

Effect of an olive phenolic extract on the quality of vegetable oils during frying.  

PubMed

The potential of a phenolic extract (PE) from olive vegetation water (OVW) to limit the negative effects of frying was tested after adding it at different concentrations to a refined olive oil (RO). Its efficacy was also compared to ROs containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with a high polyphenol content. Analyses of the oils collected after 30min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h of frying at 180°C, demonstrated that degradation of the polyphenols was proportional to the original content; at a concentration of at least 400mg/kg of polyphenols, PE was able to reduce oxidation of the tocopherols and the emission of low-molecular-weight aldehydes better than BHT and with similar results to the EVOO. In addition, secoiridoid oxidative compounds were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation. PMID:25624222

Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Di Maio, I; Urbani, S; Veneziani, G; Selvaggini, R; Sordini, B; Servili, M

2015-06-01

279

Non-linear unit root properties of crude oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent

Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth

2009-01-01

280

Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor for the Oxidation Stability of Korean Vegetable Oils with or without Induced Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate whether the fatty acid composition could make a significant contribution to the oxidation stability of vegetable oils marketed in Korea. Ten kinds, 97 items of vegetable oils that were produced in either an industrialized or a traditional way were collected and analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and lipid oxidation products, in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Peroxidability index (PI) calculations based on the fatty acid composition ranged from 7.10 to 111.87 with the lowest value found in olive oils and the highest in perilla oils. In the absence of induced oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), the secondary lipid oxidation product, was generated more in the oils with higher PI (r=0.890), while the tendency was not observed when the oils were subjected to an oxidation-accelerating system. In the presence of the oxidative stress, the perilla oils produced in an industrialized manner generated appreciably higher amounts of MDA than those produced in a traditional way, although both types of oils presented similar PIs. The results implicate that the fatty acid compositions could be a predictor for the oxidation stability of the vegetable oils at the early stage of oil oxidation, but not for those at a later stage of oxidation. PMID:24471078

Yun, Jung-Mi; Surh, Jeonghee

2012-01-01

281

Influence of diets enriched with different vegetable oils on the fatty acid profiles of snail He lix aspersa maxima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximate analyses and fatty acid profiles of snail (Helix aspersa maxima) muscle submitted to different feedings with diets enriched with 3% of different vegetable oils (canola, soybean, flaxseed, sunflower, maize and rice) were analysed. The lowest value of lipids was in the snail muscle of the treatment enriched with soybean oil. The main fatty acids detected were palmitic (C16:0),

Maria Cristina Milinsk; Roseli das Graças Padre; Carmino Hayashi; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Makoto Matsushita

2003-01-01

282

Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p?0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese. PMID:24434672

Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

2014-01-01

283

Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

2015-01-01

284

Classification of vegetable oils based on their concentration of saturated fatty acids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).  

PubMed

Spectrochemical analyses of organic liquid media such as vegetable oils and sweetened water were performed with the use of LIBS. The aim of this work is to study, on the basis of spectral analyses by LIBS technique of "Swan band" of C2 emitted by different vegetable oils in liquid phase, the characteristics of each organic media. Furthermore this paper proposes, as a classification, a single parameter that could be used to determine the concentration of saturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. A Nd:YAG operating at ?=532 nm and an energies per pulse of 30 mJ was focused onto the surface of the liquid in ambient air. Following ablation of vegetable oils and sweetened water, we find that vibrational bonds of C2 were released from the molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds linear. In the case of vegetable oils, we find a clear relationship between C2 emission from the plasma and the concentration of saturated fatty acids in the oil. PMID:24206726

Mbesse Kongbonga, Yvon G; Ghalila, Hassen; Onana, Marthe Boyomo; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

2014-03-15

285

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. II. Soybean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Soybean oil has been fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent distribution apparatus. Fractions have been obtained with iodine\\u000a values both too high and too low to conform to an even distribution. From the weight distribution curve, iodine value, and\\u000a spectrophotometric analyses the oil is estimated to contain 5.2% dilinoleo-linolenin, 13.7% trilinolein, 9.2% oleolinoleo-linolenin,\\u000a and 25.2% oleo-dilinolein. This composition is in agreement

C. R. Scholfield; Mary A. Hicks

1957-01-01

286

Brassica rapa is one of most important oilseed crops distributed worldwide with a large ecological amplitude. In addition to its use in vegetable oil industry, it  

E-print Network

ecological amplitude. In addition to its use in vegetable oil industry, it provides daily food and Aspergillus niger is a common human pathogen that also infects some other vegetables and fruits. The host

van den Brink, Jeroen

287

Modification of vegetable oils. VII. Alkali catalyzed interesterification of peanut oil with ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE alkali-catalyzed displacement of the glycerol in a fat by methanol or ethanol is an important reaction in fat and oil technology. Besides producing monoesters for use as such, the reaction simplifies the manufacture of some soaps, especially anhydrous soaps (2, 3); and it is valuable in conjunction with processes for fraetionating fatty acids. Potentially the reaction is important in

R. O. Feuge; Audrey T. Gros

1949-01-01

288

Characterization of vegetable oils: detailed compositional fingerprints derived from electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Adulteration of vegetable oil is of concern for both commercial and health reasons. Compositional based fingerprints can potentially reveal both the oil source and its possible adulteration. Here, electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) resolves and identifies literally thousands of distinct chemical components of commercial canola, olive, and soybean oils, without extraction or other wet chemical separation pretreatment. In negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the acidic components of soybean oil are easily distinguished from those of canola and olive oil based on relative abundances of C(18) fatty acids, whereas olive oil differs from canola and soybean oil based on relative abundances of tocopherols. In positive-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the three oils are readily distinguished according to the relative abundances of di- and triacylglycerols with various numbers of double bonds in the fatty acid chains. We demonstrate the detection of soybean oil as an adulterant of olive oil, based on relative abundances of members of each of several chemical families. We suggest that the detailed chemical compositions of vegetable oils can be used to characterize them and to detect and identify adulterants. PMID:15315364

Wu, Zhigang; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

2004-08-25

289

Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

1985-11-01

290

Phase and chemical equilibria in the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with supercritical lower alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of thermodynamic data are performed for fatty acid triglycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters, participants of the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils that occurs in methanol. Using the obtained thermodynamic parameters, the phase diagrams for the reaction mixture are constructed, and the chemical equilibria of the esterification reaction of free fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of fatty acid triglycerides attained upon treatment with supercritical methanol are determined. Relying on our analysis of the obtained equilibria for the esterification reaction of fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of triglycerides attained upon treatment with lower alcohols, we select the optimum conditions for performing the reaction in practice.

Anikeev, V. I.; Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.

2011-08-01

291

Microbial side-chain cleavage of phytosterols by mycobacteria in vegetable oil/aqueous two-phase system.  

PubMed

Microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols to 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) by Mycobacteria has received much attention in pharmaceutical industry, while low yield of the reaction owing to the strong hydrophobicity of sterols is a tough problem to be solved urgently. Eight kinds of vegetable oils, i.e., sunflower, peanut, corn, olive, linseed, walnut, grape seed, and rice oil, were used to construct oil/aqueous biphasic systems in the biotransformation of phytosterols by Mycobacterium sp. MB 3683 cells. The results indicated that vegetable oils are suitable for phytosterol biotransformation. Specially, the yield of AD carried out in sunflower biphasic system (phase ratio of 1:9, oil to aqueous) was greatly increased to 84.8 % with 10 g/L feeding concentration after 120-h transformation at 30 °C and 200 rpm. Distribution coefficients of AD in different oil/aqueous systems were also determined. Because vegetable oils are of low cost and because of their eco-friendly characters, there is a great potential for the application of oil/aqueous two-phase systems in bacteria whole cell biocatalysis. PMID:25082765

Xu, Yang-Guang; Guan, Yi-Xin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Yao, Shan-Jing

2014-09-01

292

Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, III. Emission tests using methyl esters of used frying oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of methyl esters of used frying oil, available as waste from restaurants and households, is described. Fuel\\u000a specifications of this fuel are given, and values for gaseous (HC, CO, NOx) and particulate emissions, measured with a vehicle powered by a turbocharged, direct injection diesel engine, are shown.\\u000a The ester fuel shows slightly lower HC and CO emissions but

Martin Mittelbach; Peter Tritthartb

1988-01-01

293

Determination of tocopherols in vegetable oils by CEC using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns.  

PubMed

The separation and determination of tocopherols (Ts) in vegetable oils by CEC using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns has been developed. The effects of pore size of the monolithic columns were studied, and the composition of mobile phase was optimized. The optimal pore size of the monolith was obtained with 12 wt% 1,4-butanediol in the polymerization mixture. Excellent resolution between tocopherols was achieved within 10 min analysis time with a 99:1 v/v MeOH-aqueous buffer containing 5 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane at pH 8.0. The LODs were lower than 2.3 microg/mL, and interday and column-to-column reproducibilities at 25 microg/mL were better than 5.6%. Using a 93:7 v/v MeOH-aqueous buffer, both tocopherols and tocotrienols (T(3)s) of grapeseed and palm oils were resolved. Application to the detection of olive oil adulteration with low-cost edible oils was demonstrated. PMID:17948270

Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrero-Martínez, José M

2007-11-01

294

Effects of an oil spill on the regrowth of emergent vegetation in a northern Alberta Lake.  

PubMed

Following a train derailment in August 2005, Wabamun Lake (Alberta, Canada) was exposed to approximately 149,500 L of bunker "C" oil, much of which became entrained in the abundant Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus validus) beds in the eastern basin of the lake. We assessed the regrowth of emergent macrophytes during the subsequent two growing seasons. Postspill measures of productivity, including transect length, total cover, and biomass were within the variability of prespill data collected in 2001, with the exception of a few specific areas in which biomass appeared to be affected. We conclude that exposure to oil during the late growing season in August 2005 and through the winter senescent period and regrowth in the summers of 2006 and 2007 did not cause large-scale changes to S. tabernaemontani communities. Physical factors such as cleanup activities and vegetation management appeared to be responsible for the reduced regrowth observed at some locations. Few previous studies have been published on the effects of oil spilled into freshwater on macrophyte communities; thus, the results of this study are expected to provide useful information for the assessment of future freshwater oil spills. PMID:19333646

Wernick, Barbara G; deBruyn, Adrian M H; Patterson, Luanne; Chapman, Peter M

2009-11-01

295

Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015. PMID:19137873

Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

2008-10-01

296

Synthesis of sustainable polymers from vegetable oil: Applications in coatings and nanoparticle surface modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric materials are increasing being used in many household, industrial, and health and personal care products. These materials, being either non-degradable or slow degradable, remain in the environment for a long time and are posing increasingly significant threats to the ecosystem components including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and crustaceans. Renewable resource based materials are the best raw materials for the development of sustainable products. Vegetable oil and polyglycol based novel copolymers have been synthesized in this research. Poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers were synthesized from 2-(vinyloxyethyl) soyate (2-VEOS) and tri(ethylene glycol) ethyl vinyl ether (TEGEVE) via cationic polymerization. They were used in waterborne coating as self-dispersible polymers and as surfmers. Four different copolymers were synthesized having 2-VOES wt% as 10, 15, 25, 50 and rest being TEGEVE. In addition to that water insoluble poly(2-VOES) copolymers were synthesized from soybean oil. All copolymers were used as self-dispersible polymers and their coating property were analyzed by measuring glass transition temperature, drying time, gloss, transparency, contact angle, hysteresis, tensile strength, and hardness. Results showed that the coatings can be cured by autoxidation drying process within 6.1 to 8.2 h. Results also showed high transparency (coated in glass panel) with maximum 2% absorbance which is comparable to uncoated substrate (clean glass). Copolymer having 2-VOES wt% 15 and 50 were used as surfmers to disperse poly(2-VOES) and they were cured using autoxidation method. Results showed that the curing of film can be achieved within 2.6 to 8.0 h. High gloss and transparency confirmed that the surfmers get copolymerized with poly(2-VOES). Another set of poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers with 2-VOES wt% 15, 25, 50, 75 and 85 were synthesized and then functionalized with a carboxyl group. These carboxyl functionalized polymer were used to coat nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) to enhance their colloidal stability in aqueous media with an objective of using the coated particles for groundwater remediation. Structure property analysis of the coated NZVI showed that carboxyl functional copolymer with 15 wt% 2-VOES and 85 wt% TEGEVE had the best colloidal stability of the coated NZVI (CNZVI). Treatability study with CNZVI was carried out using trichloroethylene (TCE) and arsenic [As(V)] as model contaminants. Treatability data indicated that CNZVI can degrade 85 % of TCE (initial concentration 15 mgL-1 ) within 6 h and remove 99% of As(V) (initial concentration 15 mgL -1) within 0.5 h. Results also showed that CNZVI has higher contaminant (TCE and arsenic) removable rate compared to NZVI. The biodegradation behaviors of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES- r-TEGEVE) copolymers were analyzed by respirometric, microbial growth, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies. Respirometic test confirmed 90% degradations of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers within 28 d. Microbial growth and GPC studies also support the data obtained from respirometic tests.

Kalita, Harjyoti

297

Improvement of low-temperature properties of petroleum oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of structures in the oil is extremely undesirable when it occurs in the circulating lubricant system of an engine, since sharp changes in the bulk mechanical properties of the oil make it difficult to start the engine, and also accelerate engine wear. A lowering of the oil temperature leads to increases in the engine starting torque; other undesirable

A. A. Gureev; A. Luksa; I. G. Fuks; O. Sh. Bogdanov

1988-01-01

298

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. I. Linseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Linseed oil has been fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent-distribution apparatus. Iodine values of fractions ranged from\\u000a 51 to 261. As determined by the weight distribution curve, iodine values and spectrophotometric analyses, 18.2% trilinolenin,\\u000a 12.3% linoleo-dilinolenin, and 19.5% oleo-dilinolenin combined with 4.1% dilinoleo-linolenin were isolated. Based upon this\\u000a type of data and upon several methods of analysis and collation of the

H. J. Dutton; J. A. Cannon

1956-01-01

299

Cuphea oil as a potential source of biodiesel with improved properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is usually produced from common vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), and palm as well as other feedstocks such as animal fats and used cooking oils. To enhance feedstock supply, other vegetable oils such as jatropha are of increasing interest. However, most of these feedsto...

300

Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.  

PubMed

Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 ?L/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 ?L/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 ?L/L, while the addition of 200 ?L/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 ?L/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 ?L/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 ?L/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal. PMID:25077550

Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

2014-08-01

301

Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC–TOFMS  

PubMed Central

Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC–TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh

2010-01-01

302

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method will be investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. During this first quarter the selection of base for pretreatment and extraction (Task 1) has been completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. About 40% of sulfur is removed from IBC-108 coal using 5% NaOH for pretreatment followed by linseed oil oxidation in air and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

303

Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction

Keiji Sugiura; Masami Ishihara; Toshitsugu Shimauchi; Shigeaki Harayama

1997-01-01

304

Reformulating partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to maximise health gains in India: is it feasible and will it meet consumer demand?  

PubMed Central

Background The consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans fat is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases. In response to high intakes of PHVOs, the Indian government has proposed regulation to set limits on the amount of trans fat permissible in PHVOs. Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in order to optimise health benefits; however, little is known about the practicalities of implementation in low-income settings. The aim of this study was to examine the technical and economic feasibility of reducing trans fat in PHVOs and reformulating it using healthier fats. Methods Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with manufacturers and technical experts of PHVOs in India. Data were open-coded and organised according to key themes. Results Interviewees indicated that reformulating PHVOs was both economically and technically feasible provided that trans fat regulation takes account of the food technology challenges associated with product reformulation. However, there will be challenges in maintaining the physical properties that consumers prefer while reducing the trans fat in PHVOs. The availability of input oils was not seen to be a problem because of the low cost and high availability of imported palm oil, which was the input oil of choice for industry. Most interviewees were not concerned about the potential increase in saturated fat associated with increased use of palm oil and were not planning to use PUFAs in product reformulation. Interviewees indicated that many smaller manufacturers would not have sufficient capacity to reformulate products to reduce trans fat. Conclusions Reformulating PHVOs to reduce trans fat in India is feasible; however, a collision course exists where the public health goal to replace PHVOs with PUFA are opposed to the goals of industry to produce a cheap alternative product that meets consumer preferences. Ensuring that product reformulation is done in a way that maximises health benefits will require shifts in knowledge and subsequent demand of products, decreased reliance on palm oil, investment in research and development and increased capacity for smaller manufacturers. PMID:24308642

2013-01-01

305

Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Expansion of aquaculture is seriously limited by reductions in fish oil (FO) supply for aquafeeds. Terrestrial alternatives\\u000a such as vegetable oils (VO) have been investigated and recently a strategy combining genetic selection with changes in diet\\u000a formulations has been proposed to meet growing demands for aquaculture products. This study investigates the influence of\\u000a genotype on transcriptomic responses to sustainable feeds

Sofia Morais; Jarunan Pratoomyot; John B Taggart; James E Bron; Derrick R Guy; J Gordon Bell; Douglas R Tocher

2011-01-01

306

Biostimulation of natural microbial assemblages in oil-amended vegetated and desert sub-Antarctic soils.  

PubMed

A field study was initiated in December 2000 in two selected soils of The Grande Terre (Kerguelen Archipelago) with the objective of determining the long-term effects of fertilizer addition on the biodegradation rate and the toxicity of oil residues under severe sub-Antarctic conditions. Two soils were selected. The first site supports an abundant vegetal cover; the second one was desert soil, devoid of plant material. These two soils were located in the vicinity of the permanent station of Port-aux-Français (69 degrees 42'E; 49 degrees 19'S). A series of five experimental plots (0.75 x 0.75 m) were settled firmly into each of the studied soils. Each plot received 500 mL of diesel or Arabian light crude oil, and some of them were treated with a bioremediation agent: slow-release fertilizer Inipol EAP-22 (Elf Atochem). All the plots were sampled on a regular basis over a 1 year period. Heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms increased by two orders of magnitude during the first month of the experimentation in all treated enclosures, but differences appeared between the different plots. The microbial response was improved by bioremediation treatments. However, fertilizer addition had a greater impact on the desert soil when compared to the vegetated one. All chemical indices show a reduction of alkanes and light aromatics. Toxicity results show a high variability between treatments and environmental conditions. As a conclusion, it is clear that the microbial response was rapid and efficient in spite of the severe weather conditions, and the rate of degradation was improved by bioremediation treatments. However, after 1 year of treatment, the signal of a relatively high toxicity of oiled residues remained present in the two studied soils. PMID:14681739

Delille, D; Coulon, F; Pelletier, E

2004-05-01

307

Rice bran and raspberry seed oil-based nanocarriers with self-antioxidative properties as safe photoprotective formulations.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to develop advanced lipid nanocarriers based on renewable vegetable resources (rice bran oil and raspberry seed oil) that possess self-antioxidative properties, having advantages in terms of minimal side effects and exhibiting the ability to simultaneously co-encapsulate and co-release two active compounds. The focus has been oriented towards developing safe cosmetic formulations with broad-spectrum photoprotection based on these new lipid nanocarriers that contain large amounts of vegetable oils and low concentrations of synthetic UVA and UVB filters (butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane - BMDBM and octocrylene - OCT). The lipid nanocarriers have a spherical shape and show good physical stability, with a zeta potential in the range of -25.5 to -32.4 mV. Both vegetable oils play a key role in the preparation of efficient nanocarriers, leading to a less ordered arrangement of the lipid core that offers many spaces for the entrapment of large amounts of BMDBM (79%) and OCT (90%), as wells as improved antioxidant activity and UV absorption properties, particularly for the lipid nanocarriers prepared from rice bran oil. By formulating the lipid nanocarriers into creams containing only 3.5% of the UV filters and 10.5% of the vegetable oils, the resulting sunscreens exhibited improved photoprotection, reflecting up to 91% and 93% of UVA and UVB rays, respectively. A new direction of research achieved by this study is the multiple release strategy of both UV filters from the same lipid nanocarrier. After 24 hours, a slow release of BMDBM (less than 4%) and OCT (17.5%) was obtained through a Fick diffusion process. This study demonstrates a significant advance in the areas of both nanotechnology and cosmetics, developing safer cosmetic formulations that possess broad antioxidant, photoprotective and co-release effectiveness due to the existence of a high content of nanostructured vegetable oils combined with a low amount of synthetic UV filters in the same carrier system. PMID:24590004

Niculae, Gabriela; Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Stan, Raluca; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Meghea, Aurelia

2014-04-01

308

Development of a method to recovery and amplification DNA by real-time PCR from commercial vegetable oils.  

PubMed

This study describes the design of a suitable DNA isolation method from commercial vegetable oils for the application of DNA markers for food safety and traceability. Firstly, a comparative study was made of eight methods for the recovery of high quality DNA from olive, sunflower and palm oils, and a CTAB-based method was selected. In order to optimize this method, the effect of the organic compounds and several components in the lysis buffer and the lysis and precipitation time were evaluated. For the purpose of overcoming the limitations detected in spectrophotometric and PCR DNA yield evaluations, the performance of the extraction protocols during the optimization processes was evaluated using qPCR. The suggested DNA extraction optimized is less time consuming than other conventional DNA extraction methods, uses a reduced oil volume and is cheaper than available commercial kits. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully assayed in ten commercial vegetable oils and derivatives. PMID:24731357

Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

2014-09-01

309

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Lab., Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1995-05-01

310

Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

2008-01-01

311

Influence of triacylglycerol characterics on the determination of free fatty acids in vegetable oils by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and direct Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method using a 25-?m NaCl transmission cell was developed\\u000a for the determination of free fatty acids (FFA) in six important vegetable oils (corn, soybean, sunflower, palm, palm kernel,\\u000a and coconut oils) that differ in fatty acid profile. The calibrations were established by adding either standard FFA (oleic,\\u000a lauric acids) or a

T. Verleyen; R. Verhe; A. Cano; A. Huyghebaert; W. De Greyt

2001-01-01

312

Determination of partially hydrogenated terphenyls-based thermal heating fluid in vegetable oils by HPLC with fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC method for the determination of partially hydrogenated terphenyls-based thermal heating fluid, Therminol 66™, in various vegetable oils is described. Direct analysis of palm olein showed that the 3- and 4-cyclohexylbiphenyl peaks\\u000a of the Therminol 66™ used in quantitative analysis co-eluted with other fluorescent peaks present naturally in the oil. However, those interfering\\u000a peaks were readily removed after saponification

M. H. Moh; T. S. Tang; G. H. Tan

2002-01-01

313

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF UTILIZATION OF NON-EDIBLE STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OILS (SVO'S) AS A SUBSTITUTE FUEL FOR DIESEL ENGINES: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straight vegetable oils (SVO's) have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels with the depletion in petroleum resources and concern of CO2 caused global warming. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines are reported in the literature, caused by their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. This viscosity can be

Avinash Kumar Agarwal

314

The effect of elevated fuel inlet temperature on performance of diesel engine running on neat vegetable oil at constant speed conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept that engine design is all important in the use of vegetable oils as a diesel fuel has been pointed out by many researchers. One hundred percent of vegetable oil can be used safely in an indirect injection engine, but not in a direct injection engine due to the high degree of atomization required for this type. This problem

O. M. I Nwafor

2003-01-01

315

jeteas.scholarlinkresearch.org Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3(6):924-928(ISSN: 2141-7016) Thermoxidative Degradation of Commonly Used Vegetable Oils: A Comparative Study  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to compare the deterioration of commonly used vegetable oils using one of the three scientific method namely, heating of the oil at high temperature (180 o C) normally used for frying alone and without the presence of material to be fried. This is with the view to comparing the result as carried out using the other method of investigation i.e. under frying condition. The deterioration of the oils under study (Cottonseed and groundnut oils) was evaluated by determining the physical and chemical properties. Among the chemical parameters determined include percentage of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) and Peroxide Value (PV) whereas, physical parameters evaluated include Refractive Index (RI) and Density measurement. The %FFA for both the oils under study showed an increase with an increase in heating time. The values of %FFA for cottonseed oil were higher compared to that of groundnut oil. The refractive index for groundnut oil showed a uniform variation with heating time. While that of cottonseed oil followed in the same manner. The peroxide values of all the oils under study increased with heating time. The findings also revealed that cottonseed oil was more susceptible to deterioration as was characterised by development of a dark colouration than groundnut oil.

C. Andrew; Buba A. A

316

Antilisterial Properties of Cilantro Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of crude essential oil of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) and four fractions recovered by fractional distillation of the crude oil were determined against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi, Listeria innocua and Listeria seeligeri. Crude oil inhibited all the test strains at concentrations ? 0.01% (v\\/v) and the remaining fractions were effective at concentrations <

Pascal J. Delaquis; Kareen Stanich

2004-01-01

317

Synthesis, droplet combustion, and sooting characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

In light of the potential of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) as a renewable energy source, an innovative acid catalyzed process was developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. The synthesized biodiesels were analytically characterized for their major components, molar fraction and molecular weight of each component, the average molecular weight, and the heat of combustion. Their droplet combustion characteristics in terms of the burning rate, flame size, and sooting tendency were subsequently determined in a high-temperature, freely-falling droplet apparatus. Results show that the biodiesel droplet has higher burning rate, and that biodiesel in general has a lower propensity to soot because its molecular oxygen content promotes the oxidation of the soot precursors.

Li, T. X.; Zhu, D. L.; Akafuah, N.; Saito, K.; Law, C. K.

2011-01-01

318

Transesterification of vegetable oils: Simulating the replacement of batch reactors with continuous reactors.  

PubMed

A kinetic model was employed to represent biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils. Reaction rate constants found in the open literature were used in order to compare the behavior of batch and continuous processes. A single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under the usual operation conditions was not capable of achieving the same productivity as a batch process. However, when reactors in series were used, the continuous process presented a behavior similar to batch processes. As a result, it was evidenced that a series of CSTRs can be an industrially feasible choice for replacing batch transesterification reactors in large scale biodiesel plants. Further, it was shown that the loss in productivity caused by changing from batch to continuous process can be compensated by means of using higher catalyst concentrations. PMID:20566283

Fonseca, Felipe A S; Vidal-Vieira, José A; Ravagnani, Sergio P

2010-11-01

319

Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado

M. He; L. E. Armentano

2011-01-01

320

Recovery of the high aggregated compounds present in the deodorizer distillate of the vegetable oils using supercritical fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, vitamins and sterols are produced synthetically, so the interest in the extraction of these compounds from natural sources is increasing. The aim of this work is to develop a supercritical fluid process to concentrate the vitamin E (tocopherol) presents in the by-product of the refining process of different vegetable oils, like corn, sunflower, canola and soybean, known as the

M. F. Mendes; F. L. P. Pessoa; G. V. Coelho; A. M. C. Uller

2005-01-01

321

Green Printing: Colorimetric and Densitometric Analysis of Solvent-Based and Vegetable Oil-Based Inks of Multicolor Offset Printing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the measurable print attributes (Print Contrast and Dot Gain) and color gamut of solvent-based (SB) inks vs. vegetable oil-based (VO) inks of multicolor offset printing. The literature review revealed a lack of published research on this subject. VO inks tend to perform (color…

Dharavath, H. Naik; Hahn, Kim

2009-01-01

322

FIELD STUDIES ON USBM AND TOSCO II RETORTED OIL SHALES: VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980  

EPA Science Inventory

Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cov...

323

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with 1-butanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles, which are typically powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes.

A. W. Schwab; E. H. Pryde

1982-01-01

324

Combustion performance and emissions of ethyl ester of a waste vegetable oil in a water-cooled furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumption around the world produces large amounts of waste vegetable oils and fats that, in many world regions, are disposed of in harmful ways. Consequently, this study intended to investigate the feasibility of utilizing this renewable and low cost fuel raw material as a diesel fuel replacement in small-scale applications such as in residential heating boilers. Specifically, the study

Ghassan Tashtoush; Mohamad I Al-Widyan; Ali O Al-Shyoukh

2003-01-01

325

Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

2011-01-01

326

Simultaneous determination of glycerol, and mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of glycerol, mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters has been developed. Quantitative information about this group of organic contaminants is very important for the quality of these oleochemical products when used as automotive diesel fuel substitutes.Trimethylsilylation of glycerol, mono- and diglycerides, followed by GC using a 10-m capillary column

Christina Plank; Eberhard Lorbeer

1995-01-01

327

[Determination of fatty acids in vegetable oils using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadropole mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with quadropole mass spectrometry (GC x GC-qMS) was applied to the detection of 31 fatty acids in vegetable oils. The sets of columns, modulation period, scan range of quadropole mass spectrometer were optimized. The results demonstrated that the separation was achieved in 50 min with the column set of DB-1 (30 m x0. 25 mm x 0.25 microm) as the 1st column and DB-Wax (3.2 m x 0.1 mm x 0. 1 microm) as the 2nd column. All fatty acids were accurately and sensitively determined while the modulation period was 3.5 s and the scan range of quadropole MS was m/z 40-350. Most of the fatty acids were identified by NIST library spectra search, the other fatty acid isomers were identified by single standard injection analysis. When applying this method to the real vegetable oil samples, not only the sensitivities were 100 times higher than those obtained with GC-qMS methods, but also some minor fatty acids were identified. This work suggested a new technical approach in analyzing fatty acid components in vegetable oils, which is meaningful to prohibit adulteration and ensuring the quality safety of edible vegetable oils. PMID:23451520

Zheng, Yueming; Feng, Feng; Guo, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Pan, Jiarong; Jia, Wei

2012-11-01

328

Characterizing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Marshland Vegetation, Gulf Coast Louisiana, Using Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between April-July 2010 oil from the nation's largest oil spill contaminated the coastal marshlands of Louisiana. Data from the Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) are being used to (1) delineate the area of impact, (2) quantify the depth of oil penetration into the marsh and (3) characterize the physical and chemical impacts of the oil on the ecosystem. AVIRIS was flown on NASA ER-2 and Twin Otter aircraft, acquiring data at 7.5 and 4.4 meter pixel size, respectively. Concurrently, field surveys and sample collections were made in the imaged areas. Data were collected in early May, early July, late July and mid-August over the area ranging from Terrebonne Bay to the end of the Mississippi River delta. AVIRIS data were converted from radiance to reflectance. Oiled areas were detected by comparing AVIRIS spectra to field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of oiled and unaffected vegetation using the USGS Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA). Results indicate that the area in and around Barataria Bay was most extensively and heavily affected. In field surveys, stems of Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, the dominant species observed in the heavily oiled zones, were bent and broken by the weight of the oil, resulting in a damaged canopy that extended up to 30 meters into marsh. In less impacted zones, oil was observed on the plant stems but the canopy remained intact. In the bird's foot region of the delta, the area impacted was less extensive and the dominant affected species, Phragmites australis, suffered oiled stems but only minor fracturing of the canopy. Additional AVIRIS flights and field surveys are planned for the fall of 2010 and summer 2011. By comparing plant species composition, canopy biochemical content, and vegetation fractional cover within affected areas and to unaffected areas, we will continue to monitor degradation and recovery in the ecosystem, including on the longer-term chemical impacts of the oil in the marsh.

Kokaly, R. F.; Roberts, D. A.; Heckman, D.; Piazza, S.; Steyer, G.; Couvillion, B.; Holloway, J. M.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.

2010-12-01

329

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The article outlines physical and chemical properties of industrial lubricating oils that affect the performance and life of both the lubricant and machinery. Electrical conductivity and dielectric strength measurements are important criteria for monitoring transformer and insulating oils. Surface tension and interfacial tension can also monitored to see whether a oil is retaining its original properties. Contaminants of lubricating oils are classified into four areas: gaseous, liquid, solid particulates, and semi-solids. The contaminant`s method of entry, possible damaging effects, and detection by ASTM testing procedures are described.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Labs., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

330

Micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of furanic compounds in honey and vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method for the simultaneous determination of 2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furoic acid (2-FA) and 3-furoic acid (3-FA) in honey and vegetable oils is described. Parameters affecting the separation such as pH, buffer and surfactant concentrations, applied voltage, capillary temperature, injection time and capillary length were studied and optimized. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 20 °C, 22 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (17 s). The separation was achieved in a bare fused-silica capillary (46 cm × 50 ?m i.d.) with a background electrolyte of 75 mM phosphoric acid (pH 7.3), containing 200 mM of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The detection wavelengths were at 200 nm (2-FA and 3-FA) and 280 nm (2-F, 3-F, 5-MF, 5-HMF). The furfurals were well separated in less than 20 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection and quantitation, precision and recoveries. Calibration curves of the six furfurals were well correlated (r(2)>0.991) within the range 1-25 ?g mL(-1). Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day migration times and corrected peak areas ?9.96% were achieved. The limit of detection (signal:noise, 3) was 0.33-0.70 ?g mL(-1) whereas the limit of quantitation (signal:noise, 10) was 1.00-2.12 ?g mL(-1). The method was applied to the determination of furanic compounds in honeys and vegetable oils (palm, walnut, grape seed and rapeseed). The effects of thermal treatment and gamma irradiation on the formation of the furanic compounds in honey were also investigated. PMID:22841043

Foo Wong, Yong; Makahleh, Ahmad; Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Yahaya, Noorfatimah; Saad, Bahruddin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

2012-08-15

331

Performance Evaluation of a High Grade Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine with Waste Fried Vegetable Oil  

E-print Network

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance of a high grade low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with air gap insulated piston, air gap insulated liner and ceramic coated cylinder head [ceramic coating of thickness 500 microns was done on inside portion of cylinder head] with different operating conditions [normal temperature and pre-heated temperature] of crude waste fried vegetable oil (WFVO) collected from restaurants, hotels etc., with varied injection pressure and injection timing. Performance parameters of brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and volumetric efficiency were determined at various magnitudes of brake mean effective pressure. Pollution levels of smoke and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were recorded at the peak load operation of the engine. Combustion characteristics at peak load operation of the engine were measured with TDC (top dead centre) encoder, pressure transducer, console and special pressure-crank angle software package. Conventional engine (CE) showed deteriorated performance, while LHR engine showed improved performance with WFVO operation at recommended injection timing and pressure and the performance of both version of the engine was improved with advanced injection timing and at higher injection pressure when compared with CE with pure diesel operation. The optimum injection timing was 32 o bTDC for CE while it was 31 o bTDC with LHR engine with vegetable oil operation. Peak brake thermal efficiency increased by 11%, smoke levels decreased by 17 % and NOx levels increased by 39 % with WFVO operation on LHR engine at its optimum injection timing, when compared with pure diesel operation on CE at

R. P. Chowdary; M. V. S. Murali Krishna; T. K. K. Reddy; P. V. K. Murthy

332

Modified vegetation indices for Ganoderma disease detection in oil palm from field spectroradiometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution field spectroradiometers are important for spectral analysis and mobile inspection of vegetation disease. The biggest challenges in using this technology for automated vegetation disease detection are in spectral signatures pre-processing, band selection and generating reflectance indices to improve the ability of hyperspectral data for early detection of disease. In this paper, new indices for oil palm Ganoderma disease detection were generated using band ratio and different band combination techniques. Unsupervised clustering method was used to cluster the values of each class resultant from each index. The wellness of band combinations was assessed by using Optimum Index Factor (OIF) while cluster validation was executed using Average Silhouette Width (ASW). 11 modified reflectance indices were generated in this study and the indices were ranked according to the values of their ASW. These modified indices were also compared to several existing and new indices. The results showed that the combination of spectral values at 610.5nm and 738nm was the best for clustering the three classes of infection levels in the determination of the best spectral index for early detection of Ganoderma disease.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Anuar, M. Izzuddin; Saripan, M. Iqbal

2009-10-01

333

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils and triglycerides by thermotolerant and zoopathogenic species of Aspergillus from Nigerian palm produce.  

PubMed

The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. and Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Wint obtained from Nigerian palm produce to degrade vegetable oils and triglycerides and the production and activity of their extracellular lipases were studied. Both species readily hydrolysed palm oil and palm kernel oil among others liberating free fatty acids in the process. Good growth with mycelia production of both fungi were also recorded on the triglycerides used as sources of carbon at 37 degrees C with the best results obtained on palmitic and oleic acids, the predominant fatty acids in palm oil. Extracellular lipases were detected in the culture filtrates of both fungi within 48 h of incubation on an oat-meal chaff medium at 37 degrees C. Peak enzyme production occurred within the 10-day incubation period. The lipases of both fungal species were most active at a pH of 5.6 and a temperature of 45 degrees C. The best glyceride for assaying the lipase activities of these fungi was trihexanoin while palm oil was a better vegetable oil than the conventional groundnut oil used for the same purpose. Because of the zoopathogenic nature of these fungi, attention is drawn to the potential health risks which their presence on the palm products where they were obtained pose to the consumers. PMID:7040975

Ogundero, V W

1982-01-15

334

In-vial liquid-liquid microextraction-capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oils.  

PubMed

An in-vial liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the selective extraction of the phenolic acids (caffeic, gallic, cinnamic, ferulic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, benzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric and p-coumaric) in vegetable oil samples. The optimised extraction conditions for 20 g sample were: volume of diluent (n-hexane), 2 mL; extractant, methanol: 5 mM sodium hydroxide (60:40; v/v); volume of extractant, 300 ?L (twice); vortex, 1 min; centrifugation, 5 min. Recoveries for the studied phenolic acids were 80.1-119.5%. The simultaneous determination of the phenolic acid extracts was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Separations were carried out on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 ?m i.d.× 40 cm length) involving 25 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.15) and 5% methanol as CE background electrolyte in the normal polarity mode, voltage of 30 kV, temperature of 25°C, injection time of 4s (50 mbar) and electropherograms were recorded at 200 nm. The phenolic acids were successfully separated in less than 10 min. The validated in-vial LLME-CE method was applied to the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oil samples (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, pure olive oil, walnut oil and grapeseed oil). The developed method shows significant advantages over the current methods as lengthy evaporation step is not required. PMID:22884208

Abu Bakar, Nur Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

2012-09-12

335

Antimicrobial activity and evolution of the composition of essential oil from Algerian Anacyclus pyrethrum L. through the vegetative cycle.  

PubMed

Essential oils from the aerial parts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L. were analysed at three developmental stages (vegetative, floral budding and flowering). Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.019% w/w) was obtained at flowering stage. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 91 compounds. Whatever the analysed stage is, oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the most abundant group. Their level significantly increased during ripening and varied from 37.1% to 58.6%. The oil showed activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria strains. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that may potentially be used in pathogenic systems. PMID:23803147

Selles, Chaouki; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Beddou, Fawzia; Muselli, Alain; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean; Hammouti, Belkhir

2013-01-01

336

A simplified procedure for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls in edible vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A one-step extraction-purification multiresidue method for the determination of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in edible vegetable oils based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) has been developed. The experimental parameters affecting the recoveries and the efficiency of the cleanup procedure were thoroughly evaluated. Under an optimised condition, 0.5 g of oil sample was blended with 3.5 g of sulfuric acid-impregnated silica and 0.8 g of silica gel was used as co-column absorbent. The PCBs and OCPs were eluted by 10 mL of n-hexane/dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Good recoveries were obtained in the range of 69.6-105.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) values below 15% in most cases. The limits of detection (LOD), based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, were in the range of 0.04-0.74 ng/g. PMID:24423500

Li, Jindong; Liu, Donghui; Wu, Tong; Zhao, Wenting; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

2014-05-15

337

Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process  

PubMed Central

Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms. PMID:24031989

Tamada, Ivo S.; Montagnolli, Renato N.; Lopes, Paulo R. M.; Bidoia, Ederio D.

2012-01-01

338

Quantification of underivatized fatty acids from vegetable oils by HPLC with UV detection.  

PubMed

We propose a chromatographic method for the separation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids by a high-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with a photo diode array detector. Central to the method is the use of an appropriate mobile phase composed of acetonitrile, methanol, and n-hexane in ratio 90:8:2 acidified with 0.2% acetic acid, which allows the detection of fatty acids without a preliminary derivatization with chromophores or fluorescent dyes. Calibration on solutions of standards mixtures gives a quantification limit (at a wavelength of 208 nm) of 0.232, 0.093, 0.039, 0.056, 0.068, 0.004, 0.0005, 0.067 mg/mL for the myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and erucic acids, respectively. The method, applied to different vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, soybean, and palm) was able to distinguish the main fatty acids and quantify their amount. Data reliability was tested by comparing our results (on the relative percentages of some fatty acids in the olive oil) with those obtained by gas chromatographic analysis. Differences of the order of 0.3%, 0.6%, 2%, and 6% were observed for the oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and linolenic acids. Although less accurate, our method proved to be a simple alternative to standard gas chromatographic technique, as it can be applied even using a simple UV detector. PMID:20819296

Guarrasi, V; Mangione, M R; Sanfratello, V; Martorana, V; Bulone, D

2010-09-01

339

Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms. PMID:24031989

Tamada, Ivo S; Montagnolli, Renato N; Lopes, Paulo R M; Bidoia, Ederio D

2012-10-01

340

Use of vegetation properties from EOS observations for land-climate modeling in East Africa  

E-print Network

Use of vegetation properties from EOS observations for land-climate modeling in East Africa Jianjun East Africa. In this study, we used the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) products to improve greatly improved the spatial and temporal dynamics of vegetation in East Africa. Three experiments were

341

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

342

Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data.  

PubMed

The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000cm(-1)) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E=6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification. PMID:21397073

Balabin, Roman M; Safieva, Ravilya Z

2011-03-18

343

The viscoplastic properties of crude oil–water interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breaking of water-in-crude oil emulsions is a major challenge in the conventional petroleum industry, while oil-in-water emulsions present similar issues in commercial oilsands extraction processes. The stability of these emulsions can be attributed to complex rheological properties of the crude oil–water interface. Novel micromechanical techniques are developed that allow direct measurements of interfacial behaviour of emulsion drops. In these

K. Moran; A. Yeung; J. Masliyah

2006-01-01

344

Borehole Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment Emplacement and Geochemical Changes During Vegetable Oil Biostimulation, Anoka County Riverfront Park, Fridley, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of geophysical investigations to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient from the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The pilot project was undertaken by the U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division, for the purpose of evaluating biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil was introduced to the subsurface to serve as substrate for naturally occurring microbes, which ultimately break down chlorinated hydrocarbons into chloride, carbon dioxide, and water through oxidation-reduction reactions. In support of this effort, the USGS collected cross-borehole radar data and conventional borehole geophysical data in five site visits over 1.5 years to evaluate the effectiveness of geophysical methods for monitoring emplacement of the vegetable oil emulsion and for tracking changes in water chemistry. Radar zero-offset profile (ZOP) data, radar traveltime tomograms, electromagnetic (EM) induction logs, natural gamma logs, neutron porosity logs, and magnetic susceptibility logs were collected and analyzed. In order to facilitate data interpretation and to test the effectiveness of radar for monitoring oil-emulsion placement and movement, three injection mixtures with different radar signatures were used: (1) vegetable oil emulsion, (2) vegetable oil emulsion with a colloidal iron tracer, and (3) vegetable oil emulsion with a magnetite tracer. Based on petrophysical modeling, mixture (1) was expected to increase radar velocity and decrease radar attenuation relative to background?a water-saturated porous medium; mixtures (2) and (3) were expected to increase radar velocity and increase radar attenuation because of their greater electrical conductivity compared to background ground water. Radar ZOP data and tomograms show increased EM velocity in the vicinity of injection wells. Comparison of pre- and post-injection datasets shows that velocity anomalies are observed only in planes connected to injection wells, indicating that the emulsified vegetable oil does not migrate far after injection. In contrast to the localization of velocity anomalies, radar attenuation anomalies are observed in all zero-offset profiles, particularly those downgradient from the injection wells. Despite the expected signatures of different tracers, increases in attenuation are observed downgradient from all three injection wells; thus, we infer that the attenuation changes do not result from the iron tracers alone. Over the period of data collection, the slowness (reciprocal velocity) anomalies are relatively stable, whereas the attenuation anomalies generally increase in magnitude and extent. One explanation for the attenuation changes is that products of vegetable oil-enhanced biodegradation (for example, chloride) increase the specific conductance of ground water and thus bulk electrical conductivity and radar attenuation. This interpretation is supported by the results of EM-induction and magnetic susceptibility logs, which indicate increases in electrical conductivity in the absence of magnetic anomalies that might result from the iron and magnetite. Based on the geophysical data, conceptual models of the distributions of emulsified vegetable oil and ground water with altered chemistry were developed. The field data indicate that, in several cases, the plume of ground water with altered chemistry would not be detected by direct chemical sampling given the construction of monitoring wells; hence the geophysical data provide valuable site-specific insights for the interpretation of water samples and monitoring of biostimulation projects. Application of geophysical methods to data from the ACP demonstrated the utility of radar for monitoring biostimulation injections.

Lane, John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.; Kochiss, Christopher S.

2007-01-01

345

Oil Fingerprinting for Production Allocation: Exploiting the Natural Variations in Fluid Properties Encountered in Heavy Oil and Oil Sand Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ability to allocate oil production along horizontal wells or in commingled production of heavy oilfields to reservoir location takes advantage of the natural variation in fluid composition in heavy oilfields that occurs over vertical and lateral reservoir scales. In the Peace River oil sands, variations in physical and chemical properties have developed via the complex interplay between biodegradation,

Barry Bennett; Jennifer J. Adams; Stephen R. Larter

346

SURFACE PROPERTIES OF SOY-BASED POLYSOAPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are obtained from abundantly available and renewable agricultural products. They are also biodegradable and safe to use. These properties make vegetable oils the preferred raw materials over petroleum-based oils for the manufacture of various consumer and industrial products. Veget...

347

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly progress report], December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During this second quarter working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S. 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different extraction solvents, and different temperatures were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 1OO{degree}C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.; Ho, K.K.

1995-12-31

348

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

SciTech Connect

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01

349

Biological Properties of Olive Oil Phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Joe Vinson, Chemistry Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510 Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar

Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli

2002-01-01

350

Determination of ?-tocopherol in vegetable oils using a molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biosensor.  

PubMed

We report the development of a novel hybrid "capture-detection" molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (MIPs-SERS) biosensor for the detection and quantification of ?-tocopherol (?-Toc) in vegetable oils. ?-Toc served as the template for MIPs synthesis. Methacrylic acid formed as the functional monomer. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the cross-linking agent, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile was used as the initiator. The synthesized MIPs functioned to rapidly and selectively adsorb and separate ?-Toc from oil components. We validated a dendritic silver nanostructure synthesized by a displacement reaction to be a suitable SERS substrate for the enhancement of Raman signals. Second-derivative transformations and chemometric models based upon SERS spectral features confirmed the possibility of a rapid and precise detection and quantification of different spiking levels of ?-Toc in four different sources of vegetable oils (Mahalanobis distance from 15.93 to 34.01 for PCA model; R > 0.92, RMSE < 0.41 for PLSR model). The MIPs-SERS biosensor had a high sensitivity as well as a good recovery for ?-Toc analysis in vegetable oils. The entire analysis required 15 min or less to complete with limited sample preparation. PMID:24099154

Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Fang; Chen, Zhiwen; Grant, Edward; Kitts, David D; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

2013-11-01

351

Evaluation of vegetative cover on reclaimed land by color infrared videography relative to soil properties  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF VEGETATIVE COVER ON RECLAIMED LAND BY COLOR INFRARED VIDEOGRAPHY RELATIVE TO SOIL PROPERTIES A Thesis by ANNE AUGUSTA PFORDRESHER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Soil Science EVALUATION OF VEGETATIVE COVER ON RECLAIMED LAND BY COLOR INFRARED VIDEOGRAPHY RELATIVE TO SOIL PROPERTIES A Thesis by ANNE AUGUSTA PFORDRESHER Approved...

Pfordresher, Anne Augusta

1988-01-01

352

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2010-04-01

353

A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen  

E-print Network

A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils POLARIS Applied Sciences, Inc. (2013) Abstract Diluted bitumen (dilbit) crude oil represents a range of oils produced from bitumen extracted from oil sands

New Hampshire, University of

354

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.  

PubMed

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1). PMID:14987805

Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

2004-05-01

355

Feeding vegetable oils to lactating ewes modifies the fatty acid profile of suckling lambs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vegetable oil supplementation of ewe diets on the performance and fatty acid (FA) composition of their suckling lambs. Forty-eight pregnant Churra ewes (mean BW 64.3±0.92 kg) with their 72 newborn lambs (prolificacy=1.5) were assigned to one of four experimental diets, supplemented with 3% of hydrogenated palm (PALM), olive (OLI), soya (SOY) or linseed (LIN) oil. Lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling from their respective mothers. Ewes were milked once daily, and milk samples were taken once a week. When lambs reached 11 kg, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from musculus longissimus dorsi (intramuscular fat) and subcutaneous fat tissue. No changes were observed in milk yield, proximal composition or lamb performance (P>0.10). Milk and lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular fat samples from the PALM diet had the highest saturated fatty acid concentration, whereas those of the OLI, SOY and LIN diets had the lowest (P<0.05). The greatest monounsaturated fatty acid concentration was observed in milk from ewes fed OLI, and the least in milk and in lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular fat samples from LIN and PALM diets. Milk and lamb fat from ewes fed PALM displayed the highest 16:0 proportion and the lowest 18:0 (P<0.05). There were higher concentrations of cis-9 18:1 in OLI samples (P<0.05), more 18:2n-6 in SOY lambs and milk fat (P<0.001) and the highest levels of 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 in LIN samples (P<0.01). Milk and lamb subcutaneous and intramuscular samples from SOY and LIN diets contained the most cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, whereas PALM samples had the least (P<0.01). Sheep diet supplementation with different oils, constituting up to 3% of their diets, resulted in changes in the FA composition of milk and the subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of suckling lambs, but did not affect either milk production or lamb performance. PMID:22440359

Manso, T; Bodas, R; Vieira, C; Mantecón, A R; Castro, T

2011-08-01

356

Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total microbial community. Bacterial richness rebounded after nine months, although community composition remained distinct from the pre-amendment conditions. Subsequent to the experiment we have isolated several of these organisms into pure culture including representatives of probable new species of Geobacter, Desulforegula and Desulfovibrio. A hypothesized model for the functioning of these limited communities will be verified in the laboratory using defined combinations of isolates from the field where possible. These results demonstrated EVO serves as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction, and subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction was likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

2011-12-01

357

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves for use in edible vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Supercritical extraction was employed to produce rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts with different composition and antioxidant activity. CO? was utilized as supercritical solvent and diverse extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, amount of cosolvent and fractionation scheme) were applied. The extracts with higher antioxidant content were selected to study their capability as natural antioxidant of several commercial edible vegetable oils. Linseed oil (LO), grape seed oil (GO) and sesame oil (SO) were oxidized under Rancimat conditions in presence of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of selected extracts. Antioxidant activity index (AAI) was estimated as the ratio of induction time in presence of extracts to induction time in absence of extract. Induction time in absence of extracts was 3.3, 7.9 and 23.4 h for LO, GO and SO, respectively. Regardless of these different susceptibilities, the highest AAI for the three oils was obtained for the extract with the highest antioxidant-enrichment (33.25% carnosic acid plus carnosol) and added at the highest level (300 mg/kg). However, at such conditions, the AAI was significantly higher (p<0.001) for LO (3.5), followed by SO (2.2) and the poorest value was for GO (1.1). Therefore, the magnitude of the AAI depended on the antioxidant-enrichment of the extracts, the level of addition within the oils, but also on the own individual oils. PMID:23196869

Vicente, Gonzalo; Martín, Diana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-01-01

358

Metabolism and Fatty Acid Profile in Fat and Lean Rainbow Trout Lines Fed with Vegetable Oil: Effect of Carbohydrates  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPAR? was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies. PMID:24124573

Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

2013-01-01

359

Determination of trans fatty acids in hydrogenated vegetable oils by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy: Two limited collaborative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy procedure was collaboratively studied among two sets of five laboratories\\u000a for quantitating the total trans fatty acid levels in neat (without solvent) hydrogenated vegetable oils, measured as triacylglycerols in one study, and as\\u000a fatty acid methyl ester derivatives in the other. Unlike the fatty acid methyl esters, the triacylglycerols required no derivatization\\u000a but had

M. Adam; M. Chew; S. Wasserman; A. McCollum; R. E. McDonald; M. M. Mossoba

1998-01-01

360

Impacts of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions from oil sands operations on soils and vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to better understand the impacts of nitrogen oxides (NO x) emissions from oil sands development on soils and vegetation, a laboratory experiment was designed, which mimicked the natural and reclaimed boreal forest environment found in the Fort McMurray area. The primary objective of this research was to examine the effects of various types and concentrations of NOx under a controlled laboratory study, and to provide recommendations and management strategies with respect to NOx deposition management. Findings indicated that, for some vegetation types, significant relationships exist between NOx treatment and vegetation height, biomass, and percent total nitrogen responses. Furthermore, some soil chemical parameters exhibited significant differences due to treatment and or soil depth, and some appeared to serve as better indicators of NOx deposition. Recommendations are made with respect to future research considerations and management strategies for NOx emissions including consideration of both eutrophication and acidification potential.

Cartwright, Shaunna Lynn

361

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

362

Fatty acid-derived diisocyanate and biobased polyurethane produced from vegetable oil: synthesis, polymerization, and characterization.  

PubMed

A new linear saturated terminal diisocyanate was synthesized from oleic acid via Curtius rearrangement, and its chemical structure was identified by FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and MS. The feasibility of utilizing this new diisocyanate for the production of polyurethanes (PUs) was demonstrated by reacting it with commercial petroleum-derived polyols and canola oil-derived polyols, respectively. The physical properties of the PUs prepared from fatty acid-derived diisocyanate were compared to those prepared from the same polyols with a similar but petroleum-derived commercially available diisocyanate: 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. It was found that the fatty acid-derived diisocyanate was capable of producing PUs with comparable properties within acceptable tolerances. This work is the first that establishes the production of linear saturated terminal diisocyanate derived from fatty acids and corresponding PUs mostly from lipid feedstock. PMID:19281152

Hojabri, Leila; Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

2009-04-13

363

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and multivariate analysis for identification of different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources--canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans--were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; Schneider, Rosana de Cássia de Souza

2013-01-01

364

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; de Cássia de Souza Schneider, Rosana

2013-01-01

365

Production of biodiesel fuel by transesterification of different vegetable oils with methanol using Al?O? modified MgZnO catalyst.  

PubMed

An active heterogeneous Al2O3 modified MgZnO (MgZnAlO) catalyst was prepared and the catalytic activity was investigated for the transesterification of different vegetable oils (refined palm oil, waste cooking palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) with methanol to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis to ascertain its versatility. Effects of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on oil conversion were examined. Within the range of studied variability, the suitable transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 16:1, catalyst loading 3.32 wt.%, reaction time 6h, temperature 182°C), the oil conversion of 98% could be achieved with reference to coconut oil in a single stage. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for five cycles without significant deactivation. PMID:23395762

Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

2013-03-01

366

Simultaneous determination of zearalenone and its derivatives in edible vegetable oil by gel permeation chromatography and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive gas chromatographic-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC-QqQ MS) analytical method, for the determination of zearalenone and its five derivatives in edible vegetable oil, was developed. After the vegetable oil samples were prepared using gel permeation chromatography, the eluent was collected, evaporated and dried with nitrogen gas. The residue was silylated with N,O-bis-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane. GC-QqQ MS was performed in the reaction-monitoring mode to confirm and quantify mycotoxins in vegetable oil. The limits of quantitation were 0.03-0.2 ?g kg(-1) for the six mycotoxins. The average recoveries, measured at 2, 20 and 200 ?g kg(-1), were in the range 80.3-96.5%. Zearalenone was detected in the range 5.2-184.6 ?g kg(-1) in nine maize oils and at 40.7 ?g kg(-1) in a rapeseed oil from the local market. PMID:25053023

Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Liqin; Jin, Nuo; Wang, Jianmei; Jiang, Kezhi

2015-01-01

367

Application of kaolin-based catalysts in biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol.  

PubMed

Biodiesel production from transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol was performed by using as-prepared catalyst from low-cost kaolin clay. This effective heterogeneous catalyst was successfully prepared from natural kaolin firstly by dehydroxylation at 800°C for 10h and, subsequently, by NaOH-activation hydrothermally at 90°C for 24h and calcined again at 500°C for 6h. The as-obtained catalytic material was characterized with instruments, including FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and porosimeter (BET/BJH analysis). The as-prepared catalyst was advantageous not only for its easy preparation, but also for its cost-efficiency and superior catalysis in transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Conversion efficiencies of soybean and palm oils to biodiesel over the as-prepared catalysts reached 97.0±3.0% and 95.4±3.7%, respectively, under optimal conditions. Activation energies of transesterification reactions of soybean and palm oils in excess methanol using these catalysts are 14.09 kJ/mol and 48.87 kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:23305893

Dang, Tan Hiep; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lee, Duu-Jong

2013-10-01

368

Determination of trace elements in biodiesel and vegetable oil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry following alcohol dilution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the simultaneous determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S and Zn in biodiesels and vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) has been developed. The method - based on the use of an ICP-OES instrument outfitted with a spectrometer in Paschen-Runge mount, equipped with linear charge coupled device detectors monitoring the entire spectrum from 130 to 770 nm - offers a high sample throughput as sample preparation is limited to dilution with alcohol, while all elements of interest are determined simultaneously. Ethanol is only suitable in the context of biodiesel analysis, whereas dilution with 1-propanol also allows application of the method, without any additional modification, to analysis of vegetable oils. As a result, the dilution with 1-propanol is preferable. Sample introduction was carried out with pneumatic nebulization and spectral interferences from carbon-containing compounds were reduced by cooling the cyclonic spray chamber to - 5 °C. The remaining spectral interferences in the low-UV region were efficiently corrected for by the background correction system offered in the software of the ICP-OES instrument used. Calibration was carried out against inorganic standards diluted in ethanol or 1-propanol, while Y was used as an internal standard, correcting for non-spectral interference and sensitivity drift. The accuracy of the method was verified through the analysis of the NIST SRMs 2772 and 2773 biodiesel reference materials. Additionally, as for most of the target elements only indicative concentration values are available for these reference materials, recovery tests have been performed using inorganic and organic standards. The results obtained were in good agreement with the values found on the certificate for both ethanol and 1-propanol sample dilution, while the recoveries were between 87 and 116% for biodiesel and between 95 and 106% for vegetable oils. The measurement precision expressed as relative standard deviation (n = 3) was lower than 5% and limits of detection were at the low ?g g -1 level. Subsequently, the method developed has been applied to the analysis of biodiesel and vegetable oil samples from different origins. Given the simple sample preparation, the limits of detection realized, the sufficient accuracy and precision obtained as well as the high sample throughput, this method is very well suited for routine analysis of biodiesel and vegetable oils.

Chaves, Eduardo S.; de Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T. C.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Vanhaecke, Frank

2011-09-01

369

HYPERSPECTRAL DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE FOR DETERMINATION OF THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF MILK AND FRUIT AND VEGETABLE JUICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A h...

370

Classification of vegetable oils according to their botanical origin using n-alkane profiles established by GC-MS.  

PubMed

n-Alkane profiles established by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to classify vegetable oils according to their botanical origin. The n-alkanes present in corn, grapeseed, hazelnut, olive, peanut and sunflower oils were isolated by means of alkaline hydrolysis followed by silica gel column chromatography of the unsaponifiable fractions. The n-alkane fraction was constituted mainly of n-alkanes in the range C8-C35, although only those most abundant (15 n-alkanes, from 21 to 35 carbon No.) were used as original variables to construct linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models. Ratios of the peak areas selected by pairs were used as predictors. All the oils were correctly classified according to their botanical origin, with assignment probabilities higher than 95%, using an LDA model. PMID:25148956

Troya, F; Lerma-García, M J; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

2015-01-15

371

26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the principal value of oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or such...in a corporation owning oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or interest...attributable to the sale of such oil or gas property...

2013-04-01

372

26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the principal value of oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or such...in a corporation owning oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or interest...attributable to the sale of such oil or gas property...

2012-04-01

373

26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the principal value of oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or such...in a corporation owning oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or interest...attributable to the sale of such oil or gas property...

2014-04-01

374

Green tea extract as food antioxidant. Synergism and antagonism with ?-tocopherol in vegetable oils and their colloidal systems.  

PubMed

The antioxidant effects of ?-tocopherol (TOH) in combination with green tea extract (GTE), the green tea polyphenol (-)-epicatechin (EC) or the isomeric (+)-catechin (C), were investigated using different lipid systems based on high linoleic sunflower oil: bulk oil, o/w-emulsion and a phosphatidylcholine-based liposome system. Both polyphenols as well as TOH were efficient antioxidants in all systems when used alone, as detected by the formation of free radicals and conjugated dienes and by oxygen consumption. Strong synergistic effect was found for the combination of TOH and GTE in a methyl linoleate o/w-emulsion and in the pure bulk oil, while only an additive effect was observed in a liposome system. The synergism was already evident for the tendency for radical formation in the bulk oil as detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the contrary, combinations of TOH with either EC or C showed clear synergistic effects in both heterogeneous systems, but antagonistic or additive effects in bulk oil. GTE may accordingly be used to protect both vegetable oils and their emulsions against oxidation through enhancement of the activity of their endogenous antioxidants, while GTE is less efficient in the protection of phospholipids as in liposomes. PMID:22980790

Yin, Jie; Becker, Eleonora Miquel; Andersen, Mogens L; Skibsted, Leif H

2012-12-15

375

Syntheses of novel protein products (milkglyde, saliglyde, and soyglyde) from vegetable epoxy oils and gliadin.  

PubMed

The aqueous alcohol-soluble fraction of wheat gluten is gliadin. This component has been implicated as the causative principle in celiac disease, which is a physiological condition experienced by some infants and adults. The outcome of the ingestion of whole wheat products by susceptible individuals is malabsorption of nutrients resulting from loss of intestinal vili, the nutrient absorption regions of the digestive system. This leads to incessant diarrhea and weight loss in these individuals. Only recently has this health condition been properly recognized and accurately diagnosed in this country. The culprit gliadin is characterized by preponderant glutamine side-chain residues on the protein surface. Gliadin is commercially available as a wheat gluten extract, and in our search for new biobased and environmentally friendly products from renewable agricultural substrates, we have exploited the availability of the glutamine residues of gliadin as synthons to produce novel elastomeric nonfood products dubbed "milkglyde", "saliglyde", and soyglyde from milkweed, salicornia and soybean oils. The reaction is an amidolysis of the oxirane groups of derivatized milkweed, salicornia, and soybean oils under neat reaction conditions with the primary amide functionalties of glutamine to give the corresponding amidohyroxy gliadinyl triglycerides, respectively. The differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analyses, and rheological data from a study of these products indicate properties similar to those of synthetic rubber. PMID:22250811

Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Mohamed, Abdellatif; Gordon, Sherald H; Xu, James

2012-02-22

376

Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

2013-08-01

377

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (PO)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2007-01-01

378

Heat treatment of vegetable oils I. Isolation of the cyclic fatty acid monomers from heated sunflower and linseed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linseed and sunflower oils were heated at 275 C for 12 hr under nitrogen. The sunflower oil was also heated in a commercial\\u000a fryer at 200 C for 48 hr using a 2-hr daily cycle. The cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) formed during the heat treatment\\u000a of the linseed oil were isolated by a combination of saponification, esterification, column chromatography

J. L. Sebedio; J. Prevost; A. Grandgirard

1987-01-01

379

Modeling the backscattering and transmission properties of vegetation canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.

Allen, C. T.; Ulaby, F. T.

1984-01-01

380

Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

2013-01-01

381

Changes in Marsh Vegetation, Stability and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Barataria Bay Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal wetlands in Southern Louisiana were contaminated by the release of record volumes of oil between April and July 2010. Barataria Bay was extensively impacted, resulting in the oiling and dieback of marsh grasses along a discontinuous margin up to 30m into the marshes. Shoreline stability and biogeochemistry have been monitored over three site visits between between July 10 and August 25, 2010. Initial observations in early July were that grasses, dominantly shape Spartina alterniflora and shape Juncus roemerianus, were bent over under the weight of a thick oil coating. The bent-over grasses were broken off along some reaches, leaving a stubbled shoreline more susceptible to erosion. Repeated site visits in mid and late August found visible erosion along some of the effected shorelines. Water samples were collected from the shoreline marsh remnants and from visibly unaffected marshes to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). In spite of visible oil sheens in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on vegetation in the “control” sites with no visible oil on vegetation, DOC concentrations were similar in impacted and visibly unimpacted sites in Barataria Bay. Subsequent samples in mid- and late-August had increased DOC concentrations relative to previous sample events regardless of whether the site was visibly impacted. There was a general increase in specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an index of aromaticity, with increasing DOC concentrations, either due to seasonal effects or continued dissolution of petroleum compounds. Further chemical characterization using fluorescence and gas chromatography will be used to confirm the presence of petroleum compounds. The ratio of DOC to TDN also increased over time, which may have implications for vegetation regrowth and plant community structure, including the shift of grass species dominating effected marshes. These initial findings suggest that while some shorelines have overtly visible impacts from the oil slick that reached Barataria Bay, there are also less visible indications that there may be a more comprehensive biogeochemical effect from the oil incursion throughout Barataria Bay.

Holloway, J. M.; Aiken, G.; Kokaly, R. F.; Heckman, D.; Butler, K.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.; Piazza, S.

2010-12-01

382

Click chemistry approach to conventional vegetable tanning process: accelerated method with improved organoleptic properties.  

PubMed

Click chemistry approaches are tailored to generate molecular building blocks quickly and reliably by joining small units together selectively and covalently, stably and irreversibly. The vegetable tannins such as hydrolyzable and condensed tannins are capable to produce rather stable radicals or inhibit the progress of radicals and are prone to oxidations such as photo and auto-oxidation, and their anti-oxidant nature is well known. A lot remains to be done to understand the extent of the variation of leather stability, color variation (lightening and darkening reaction of leather), and poor resistance to water uptake for prolonged periods. In the present study, we have reported click chemistry approaches to accelerated vegetable tanning processes based on periodates catalyzed formation of oxidized hydrolysable and condensed tannins for high exhaustion with improved properties. The distribution of oxidized vegetable tannin, the thermal stability such as shrinkage temperature (T s) and denaturation temperature (T d), resistance to collagenolytic activities, and organoleptic properties of tanned leather as well as the evaluations of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates the cross section of tightness of the leather. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis shows that the T d of leather is more than that of vegetable tanned or equal to aldehyde tanned one. The leathers exhibited fullness, softness, good color, and general appearance when compared to non-oxidized vegetable tannin. The developed process benefits from significant reduction in total solids and better biodegradability in the effluent, compared to non-oxidized vegetable tannins. PMID:24888617

Krishnamoorthy, Ganesan; Ramamurthy, Govindaswamy; Sadulla, Sayeed; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara; Mandal, Asit Baran

2014-09-01

383

Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

2011-12-01

384

Vegetable fuel potential. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The possible contribution to Defence fuels from vegetable sources is considered. Only two categories, ethyl alcohol from fermentation of carbohydrate material and vegetable oils directly from oil crops, can currently be produced with present technology in sufficient amounts to contribute to energy requirements. Liquid hydrocarbons from tree and shrub crops or microorganisms have not been produced in sufficient quantity to carry out even short-term engine trails. Ethyl alcohol is an effective gasoline extender for spark-ignition engines, but these are a minor part of Defence power units. Vegetable oils may be directly substituted for middle-distillate fuels, but a number of technical difficulties are outlined. Chemical reaction of the vegetable oils with ethyl alcohol produces a liquid fuel that has similar physical properties to petroleum distillate. Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests these vegetable-oil esters have better combustion properties in compression-ignition power units than petroleum distillate. Significant amounts could be produced in a strategic situation within a short lead time.

Solly, R.K.

1983-08-01

385

Interrelationship between viscosity and electrical properties for edible oils.  

PubMed

Electrical properties of edible oil depend upon its total polar component, temperature and the frequency of the applied voltage. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and electrical conductivity were measured for cottonseed (Gossypium sp.), ground nut (Apios americana), mustard (Brasicca compestriss) and sun flower (Helianthus annuus) oils in the temperature range of 20 to 100°C so as to assess the potential of their applicability for assessing the quality of oils. Viscosity of the oils is an other important physical property associated with their processing and quality control. Viscosity of these oils was experimentally measured. The correlation of viscosity with dielectric loss tangent and viscosity with electrical conductivity were tested. The best correlating relations along with correlation constants, valid for the temperature range of 20-100°C are presented. The regression equation developed relating viscosity with loss tangent and electrical conductivity had high correlation coefficient (R(2)?>?0.96) for all the four oils within temperature range of 20-100°C. PMID:24425951

Kumar, Dilip; Singh, Amarjit; Tarsikka, Paramjit Singh

2013-06-01

386

Load of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils: importance of alkylated derivatives.  

PubMed

The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied in different samples of olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, and refined seed oils. A high number of PAHs have been found, with a wide range of molecular weights and in concentrations that are high or even very high compared with the data obtained by other authors, especially in the seed oils. Among the PAHs identified, more than half are alkylated compounds, which account for the major part of the total PAH concentration in some of the samples. The total PAH concentrations in olive oils and extra virgin olive oils are similar, but the former present a higher proportion of heavy PAHs than the latter. The seed oils, in general, have much higher concentrations than the different types of olive oil and their PAH profiles are different. One of the olive oil samples exhibited a PAH distribution similar to that observed in olive pomace oil, suggesting possible adulteration. These data reveal that, in some cases, PAH profile provides useful information in relation to the possible origin of the contamination. We also observed large differences in PAH distribution between oils with the same label but from different batches. PAHs with varying degrees of carcinogenicity have been identified in all the samples, including benzo[a]pyrene, although this PAH was identified neither in the extra virgin olive oils nor in two of the seed oil samples. PMID:15453580

Guillén, María D; Sopelana, Patricia

2004-09-01

387

Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

1999-04-01

388

Volumetric properties of sunflower methyl ester oil at high pressure.  

PubMed

Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel oil (DO), because it is a fuel obtained from renewable resources that has lower emissions than DO. Biomass production should promote agricultural activity to obtain fuels for the transport sector. The study of the behavior of biodiesel at varying pressure and temperature is very interesting because diesel engines are mechanical systems that work with fuels submitted to high pressure. The specific volume, isothermal compressibility, and cubic expansion coefficients of refined sunflower methyl ester oil (SMEO) and unrefined sunflower methyl ester oil (URSMEO) were obtained and compared with those of DO from 0.1 to 350 MPa and 288.15 to 328.15 K. This work shows that oil refinement did not significantly modify any of the properties studied of the final biodiesel. Compared with DO, both SMEOs were about 6% denser, whereas isothermal compressibility and cubic expansion coefficients were bigger or smaller for DO depending on pressure and temperature. PMID:17691803

Aparicio, Cristina; Guignon, Bérengère; Rodríguez-Antón, Luis M; Sanz, Pedro D

2007-09-01

389

Rapid determination of phospholipid content of vegetable oils by FTIR spectroscopy combined with partial least-square regression.  

PubMed

A rapid mid-FTIR method was developed to quantitatively determine the total phospholipid (PL) content of vegetable oils. The method simply requires that the oil be diluted 4:1 (w/w) with hexane, its spectrum taken and ratioed against a hexane background. A calibration was devised using partial least squares by adding purified soybean PL at levels of 0.02-2.0% to phospholipid-free oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower) using the spectral region encompassing 1,357-1,000 cm(-1) and validated using the AOCS 12-55. Using calibration and leave-one-out cross-validation predictive errors, a 200-20,000 ppm calibration was accurate to within ± 362 and 488 ppm, respectively, while for sub-calibrations ranging from 200 to 2000; 2000 to 8000 and 8000 to 20,000 ppm, they were ± 72-172, ± 119-220, and ± 242-371 ppm, respectively. Although limited to 3 oil types in this study, the calibration is simple to devise and can be broadened to the universe of oil types of interest, the analytical protocol being straightforward and the analysis readily automatable. PMID:24206718

Meng, Xianghe; Pan, Qiuyue; Ding, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

2014-03-15

390

Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic ?-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol levels but not HUFA levels. PMID:18577222

Leaver, Michael J; Villeneuve, Laure AN; Obach, Alex; Jensen, Linda; Bron, James E; Tocher, Douglas R; Taggart, John B

2008-01-01

391

Low Temperature Properties and Thermal Stability of Oligomerized Soybean Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean oil polymers with lower molecular weight prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) by cationic polymerization were investigated for their applications as lubricants and hydraulic fluids. The low-temperature properties were studied by measuring their cloud and pour points; while therm...

392

Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact  

PubMed Central

Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

2014-01-01

393

Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortification is an important criteria to achieve a health impact.  

PubMed

Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2-3 months, while PO2's shelf life was a few weeks and PO3's only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

2014-11-01

394

Soil property variations in relation to topographic aspect and vegetation community in the south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of soil property variations resulting from topographic aspect and vegetation changes will have implication on the proper management of marginal and environmentally sensitive areas. This study addressed the effects of topographic aspect and vegetation community types on soil physical and chemical properties in the Bale Mountains, south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia. At each stratified vegetation community; Schefflera–Hagenia, Hypericum–Erica–Schefflera, and Erica

Fantaw Yimer; Stig Ledin; Abdu Abdelkadir

2006-01-01

395

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

396

WET SEWAGE SLUDGE APPLICATION EFFECT ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND ELEMENT CONTENT OF LEAF AND ROOT VEGETABLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot experiments were conducted in a heated greenhouse to study the effects of increasing doses of sewage sludge application on vegetables grown for leaves (lettuce, endive, spinach) and roots (radish, carrots, beets), and on some soil properties. Results showed that sewage sludge application increased or decreased soil pH in cases of lower or higher values respectively, increased soil organic matter,

Efstathios Tamoutsidis; Ioannis Papadopoulos; Ioannis Tokatlidis; Stilianos Zotis; Theophilactos Mavropoulos

2002-01-01

397

Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem) of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were ?-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%). The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

Chekem, Marie Stéphanie Goka; Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tane, Pierre; Vilarem, Gerard; Cerny, Muriel

2010-01-01

398

The association of selected soil properties with the distribution of native vegetation  

E-print Network

of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Najor Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE ASSOCIATION OF SELECTED SOIL PROPERTIES WITH THE DISTRIBUTION OF NATIVE VEGETATION A Thesis by JAMES HUGH YANTIS Approved as to style and content by: Nova J. Shelvy... (Chair of Committee) H E. William E. Grant (Merrber) Michael T Longnecker (Menber) Charles T. Hallmark (Member) id J. Schmidly ( ead of Department) August 1991 111 ABSTRACT The Association of Selected Soil Properties with the Distribution...

Yantis, James H

1991-01-01

399

Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

2014-02-01

400

Flavor score correlation with pentanal and hexanal contents of vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of commercially processed soybean, cottonseed, and peanut oils were stored under controlled conditions then evaluated\\u000a for flavor by a 20-member trained, experienced oil panel and for pentanal and hexanal contents by direct gas chromatography.\\u000a The oils, which contained citric acid and\\/or antioxidants, were either aged from 0 to 16 days at 60 C or exposed to fluorescent\\u000a light for

K. Warner; C. D. Evans; G. R. List; H. P. Dupuy; J. I. Wadsworth; G. E. Goheen

1978-01-01

401

Ethyl esters from the single-phase base-catalyzed ethanolysis of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alcohol\\/oil molar ratio, base concentration, and temperature on the single-phase base-catalyzed ethanolyses\\u000a of sunflower and canola oils were determined. The use of tetrahydrofuran as co-solvent, as well as higher than usual alcohol\\/substrate\\u000a molar ratios, prevented glycerol separation. This allowed each reaction to reach equilibrium rather than just steady-state\\u000a conditions. High conversions of oil lowered the concentrations of

Weiyang Zhou; Samir K. Konar; David G. B. Boocock

2003-01-01

402

Sterols, methylsterols, and triterpene alcohols in three Theaceae and some other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsaponifiables from threeTheaceae (Camellia japonica L.,Camellia Sasanqua Thunb., andThea sinensis L.) oils and alfalfa, garden balsam, and spinach seed oils and shea fat were separated into four fractions: sterols, 4-methylsterols,\\u000a triterpene alcohols, and less polar compounds by thin layer chromatography. While the sterol fraction was the major one for\\u000a the unsaponifiables from alfalfa and spinach seed oils, the triterpene

Toshihiro Itoh; Toshitake Tamura; Taro Matsumoto

1974-01-01

403

Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends  

SciTech Connect

Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

1982-07-01

404

Genetic diversity in oil and vegetable mustard ( Brassica juncea ) landraces revealed by SRAP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mustard (Brassica\\u000a juncea) is an important crop in both ancient and modern world. It has a broad resource of genetic diversity that is used primarily\\u000a as oilseed but as vegetables, condiment and medicines also. Its superior tolerance to adverse environments, e.g., drought,\\u000a high temperature and low fertility suggests its better adaptability in future possible harsh environments. Chinese vegetable\\u000a mustard displays

Xiao-ming Wu; Bi-yun Chen; Guangyuan Lu; Han-zhong Wang; Kun Xu; Gao Guizhan; Yunchun Song

2009-01-01

405

Characterization of volatile components in four vegetable oils by headspace two-dimensional comprehensive chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Edible oil adulteration is the biggest source of food fraud all over the world. Since characteristic aroma is an important quality criterion for edible oils, we analyzed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in four edible vegetable oils (soybean, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower seed oils) by headspace comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Headspace-GC×GC-TOFMS) in this study. After qualitative and quantitative analysis of VOCs, we used unsupervised (PCA) and supervised (Random forests) multivariate statistical methods to build a classification model for the four edible oils. The results indicated that the four edible oils had their own characteristic VOCs, which could be used as markers to completely classify these four edible oils into four groups. PMID:25127643

Hu, Wei; Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Wang, Xiupin; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Baocheng; Sun, Xiaoman; Ma, Fei; Ding, Xiaoxia

2014-11-01

406

Energy and exergy utilization, and carbon dioxide emission in vegetable oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and exergy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during production of soybean, sunflower, and olive oils are assessed. In all cases, agriculture is the most energy and exergy intensive process and emits most of the carbon dioxide, and diesel is the dominant energy and exergy source. The cumulative degree of perfection (CDP) for soybean and olive oil is 0.92 and

Mustafa Özilgen; Esra Sorgüven

2011-01-01

407

Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

408

Bioaugmented composting of Jatropha de-oiled cake and vegetable waste under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the effect of microbial inoculation in Jatropha cake composting with different vegetable waste. The microbial inoculums composed of fungal strains (Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and bacterial inoculums (Pseudomonas striata as phosphorus solublizer and Azotobacter chroococcum as nitrogen fixer) were added to the compost mixture after the thermophilic phase was over for bioaugmenting of Jatropha cake under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions. Addition of both fungal and bacterial inoculum with mixed substrate (Jatropha cake?+?vegetable waste) during composting (aerobic and partial anaerobic) showed, better results as compared to compost with only fungal inoculants. Increased enzymatic activity initially, during composting (like dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity and FDA) proved role of inoculated microbes in rapid decomposition. Analysis of compost (with both bacterial and fungal inoculum) showed presence of high humus (12.7%), humic acid (0.5%), fulvic acid (5.68%), soluble protein content and low C/N ratio. Decreased in concentration of extractable metals (Cu, Fe and Mn) were recorded at maturity in all the substrate composts. The C/N ratio was significantly correlated to parameters like humic acid, humus, fulvic acid, protein and also microbial activity parameters. We conclude that the composting of de-oiled Jatropha cake with different vegetables waste could be feasible and sustainable approach in recycling of agricultural and industrial residues in huge quantities. PMID:22736484

Chaturvedi, Shivani; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Balraj; Nain, Lata; Joshi, Monica; Satya, Santosh

2013-04-01

409

Lipase-mediated conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel using ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate was explored as an acyl acceptor for immobilized lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from the crude oils of Jatropha curcas (jatropha), Pongamia pinnata (karanj) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower). The optimum reaction conditions for interesterification of the oils with ethyl acetate were 10% of Novozym-435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) based on oil weight, ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 11:1 and the reaction period of 12h at 50 degrees C. The maximum yield of ethyl esters was 91.3%, 90% and 92.7% with crude jatropha, karanj and sunflower oils, respectively under the above optimum conditions. Reusability of the lipase over repeated cycles in interesterification and ethanolysis was also investigated under standard reaction conditions. The relative activity of lipase could be well maintained over twelve repeated cycles with ethyl acetate while it reached to zero by 6th cycle when ethanol was used as an acyl acceptor. PMID:16822671

Modi, Mukesh Kumar; Reddy, J R C; Rao, B V S K; Prasad, R B N

2007-04-01

410

Impacts and recovery of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on vegetation structure and function of coastal salt marshes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

We investigated the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill on two dominant coastal saltmarsh plants, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the processes controlling differential species-effects and recovery. Seven months after the Macondo MC 252 oil made landfall along the shoreline salt marshes of northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the surface 2 cm of heavily oiled marsh soils were as high as 510 mg g(-1). Heavy oiling caused almost complete mortality of both species. However, moderate oiling impacted Spartina less severely than Juncus and, relative to the reference marshes, had no significant effect on Spartina while significantly lowering live aboveground biomass and stem density of Juncus. A greenhouse mesocosm study supported field results and indicated that S. alterniflora was much more tolerant to shoot oil coverage than J. roemerianus. Spartina recovered from as much as 100% oil coverage of shoots in 7 months; however, Juncus recovered to a much lesser extent. Soil-oiling significantly affected both species. Severe impacts of the Macondo oil to coastal marsh vegetation most likely resulted from oil exposure of the shoots and oil contact on/in the marsh soil, as well as repeated oiling events. PMID:22369124

Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A

2012-04-01

411

Application of random forests to select premium quality vegetable oils by their fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

In order to discriminate premium quality from inexpensive edible oils, the fatty acid profiles of tea, rapeseed, corn, sunflower and sesame oil were compared with the ones from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Fatty acid methyl esters were quantified by GC/MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and random forests (RF) were applied to cluster the samples. RF showed a better ability of discrimination and also revealed the contribution of each variable to the clustering model. The multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot of the RF proximity matrix demonstrated that tea oil was similar to EVOO. Meanwhile, it was observed that the total content of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (79.48%) in tea oil was close to EVOO (80.71%), especially the oleic acid (77.38% and 77.45%, respectively). The results suggest that tea oil might be a good edible oil choice, considering the high oleic acid content and similar fatty acid profiles compared to those of EVOO. PMID:24054269

Ai, Fang-Fang; Bin, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-min; Huang, Jian-hua; Wang, Jian-bing; Liang, Yi-zeng; Yu, Ling; Yang, Zhen-yu

2014-01-15

412

Irradiation Effect on Oxidative Condition and Tocopherol Content of Vegetable Oils  

PubMed Central

The effect on induction period and tocopherol content after ?-irradiation on samples of olive oil and seed oils (sunflower and soybean) was determined. In seed oil samples 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of ?-tocopherol were added before irradiation with 1, 2 and 3kGy. The results of induction period showed that, after irradiation, all samples presented a significant decreased in resistance to oxidation. However, this decrease was minimized when ?-tocopherol was added. Irradiation significantly decreased the level of tocopherols. ?-Tocopherol appeared more sensitive in irradiation process than ?- and ?-tocopherol. The addition of ?-tocopherol significantly reduced, in most cases, the depletion of the other tocopherols.

Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Tsaknis, John; Sflomos, Konstantinos

2007-01-01

413

Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

2005-11-01

414

Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

2005-08-01

415

Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from

J. W. Frankenfeld; W. F. Taylor

1980-01-01

416

Properties of soybean oil bodies and oleosin proteins as edible films and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleosins are major proteins associated with oil storage vesicles known as oil bodies in many plant seeds. These oil bodies and oleosins have recently gained attention, due to potential applications in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. The oleosin proteins coat the oil bodies making them very stable. This work studied the characterization and properties of oleosins with respect to aqueous solubility,

Linna Wang

2004-01-01

417

Biochemical characteristics of a novel vegetative tissue geraniol acetyltransferase from a monoterpene oil grass (Palmarosa, Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia) leaf.  

PubMed

Plants synthesize volatile alcohol esters on environmental insult or as metabolic induction during flower/fruit development. However, essential oil plants constitutively produce them as the oil constituents. Their synthesis is catalyzed by BAHD family enzymes called alcohol acyltransferases (AATs). However, no AAT has been characterized from plant foliage synthesizing acyclic monoterpenoids containing essential oils. Therefore, we have purified and biochemically characterized a geraniol: acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (GAAT) from Palmarosa aroma grass (Cymbopogon martinii) leaf. MALDI-assisted proteomic study of the 43kDa monomeric enzyme revealed its sequence motif novelties e.g. relaxed conservation at Phe and Trp in DFGWG'. This suggests permissiveness of variations in the conserved motif without loss of catalytic ability. Also, some new conserved/semi-conserved motifs of AATs were recognized. The GAAT k(cat)/K(m) values (300-700M(-1)s(-1)) were low (a generic characteristic for secondary metabolism enzyme) but higher than those of some floral AATs. Wide substrate acceptability for catalyzing acetylation of diverse primary alcohols (chain of ?C(6)) implied its catalytic description as a 'primary aliphatic alcohol acetyltransferase'. It signifies metabolic ability to deliver diverse aroma esters, should the acceptor alcohols be available in planta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detailed kinetics of a vegetal monoterpenol acyltransferase. PMID:23415329

Sharma, Pankaj K; Sangwan, Neelam S; Bose, Subir K; Sangwan, Rajender S

2013-04-01

418

Cuphea Oil as Source of Biodiesel with Improved Fuel Properties Caused by High Content of Methyl Decanoate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, is an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous common vegetable oils or fats as well as new or less common feedstocks. Major issues facing biodiesel include seve...

419

Lipase-mediated transformation of vegetable oils into biodiesel using propan-2-ol as acyl acceptor.  

PubMed

Propan-2-ol was used as an acyl acceptor for immobilized lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel. The optimum conditions for transesterification of crude jatropha (Jatropha curcas), karanj (Pongamia pinnata) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oils were 10% Novozym-435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) based on oil weight, alcohol to oil molar ratio of 4:1 at 50 degrees C for 8 h. The maximum conversions achieved using propan-2-ol were 92.8, 91.7 and 93.4% from crude jatropha, karanj and sunflower oils, respectively. Reusability of the lipase was maintained over 12 repeated cycles with propan-2-ol while it reached to zero by 7(th) cycle when methanol was used as an acyl acceptor, under standard reaction conditions. PMID:16642301

Modi, Mukesh Kumar; Reddy, J R C; Rao, B V S K; Prasad, R B N

2006-05-01

420

Determination of the oxidative stability by DSC of vegetable oils from the Amazonian area.  

PubMed

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a Rancimat method apparatus were applied to evaluate the oxidative stability of buriti pulp oil (Mauritia flexuosa Mart), rubber seed oil (Hevea brasiliensis), and passion fruit oil (Passiflora edulis). The Rancimat measurements taken for the oxidative induction times were performed under isothermal conditions at 100°C and in an air atmosphere. The DSC technique involved the oxidation of oil samples in an oxygen-flow DSC cell. The DSC cell temperature was set at five different isothermal temperatures: 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140°C. During the oxidation reaction, an increase in heat was observed as a sharp exothermic curve. The value T(0) represents the oxidative induction time, which is determined from the downward extrapolated DSC oxidative curve verses the time axis. These curves indicate a good correlation between the DSC T(0) and oxidative stability index (OSI) values. The DSC method is useful because it consumes less time and less sample. PMID:21411317

Pardauil, Juliana J R; Souza, Luiz K C; Molfetta, Fábio A; Zamian, José R; Rocha Filho, Geraldo N; da Costa, C E F

2011-05-01

421

Geometrical isomerization of linolenic acid during heat treatment of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat treatment of rapeseed (primor) and soybean oils resulted in the geometrical isomerization of linolenic acid. The geometrical\\u000a isomers were isolated from a rapeseed oil heated at 240 C for 10 hr by a combination of thin layer chromatography (TLC) of\\u000a the methoxy bromomercuric adducts of the total methyl esters and AgNO3-TLC. Three major isomers were identified after hydrazine reduction

A. Grandgirard; J. L. Sebedio; J. Fleury

1984-01-01

422

Effects of oil type on the properties of short oil alkyd coating materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-oil alkyd resins were prepared by using five different oil types: corn oil, rice bran oil, sunflower oil, soya bean\\u000a oil and dehydrated castor oil (DCO). Among these, soya bean oil gave alkyd resin with the darkest color because oxidation\\u000a occurred. Auto air-dried coating films were developed and it was shown that film prepared from rice bran oil-based alkyd exhibited

Vikkasit Atimuttigul; Siriporn Damrongsakkul; Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

2006-01-01

423

Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. PMID:21524540

He, M; Armentano, L E

2011-05-01

424

Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the production and characterization of biodiesel (BD or B) as well as the experimental work carried out by many researchers in this field. BD fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel (PD) fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. BD fuel can be used in any mixture with PD fuel as it has

Ayhan Demirbas

2005-01-01

425

Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. PMID:25465558

Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

2015-01-01

426

Tropical rain forest conversion to pasture: Changes in vegetation and soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of converting lowland tropical rainforest to pasture, and of subsequent succession of pasture lands to secondary forest, were examined in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Three replicate sites of each of four land-use types representing this disturbance-recovery sequence were sampled for changes in vegetation, pedological properties, and potential nitrogen mineralization and nitrification. The four land-use types included

W. A. Reiners; A. F. Bouwman; W. F. J. Parsons; M. Keller

1994-01-01

427

Biological soil crust and surface soil properties in different vegetation types of Horqin Sand Land, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and chemical properties (including coverage, thickness, hardness, moisture, particle size distribution, organic matter and nutrient contents etc.) of biological soil crust and 0–5.0cm surface soil under the crust in three types of vegetation (semi-shrub Artemisia frigida, shrub Salix gordejevii and tree Populus simonii) were surveyed in 2005 and 2006 in Horqin Sand Land to understand the effects of different

Ha-Lin Zhao; Yi-Rui Guo; Rui-Lian Zhou; Sam Drake

2010-01-01

428

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils: autoxidation of essential oils from laurel and fennel and effects of mixing with essential oil from coriander].  

PubMed

Changes in the composition of essential oils from the seeds of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling) and their mixture with essential oil from coriander were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography during storage in the dark and in light. Under these conditions, essential oil of laurel retained its composition for 12 months. Essential oil of fennel was rapidly oxidized in light. However, the rate of its oxidation in the dark was lower. The major component of essential oil of fennel, transanethol, had a lower antioxidant activity than essential oil of coriander. The mixture of essential oils from laurel and coriander possessed antioxidant properties and strongly inhibited the oxidation of components of the fennel oil. PMID:16358762

Misharina, T A; Polshkov, A N

2005-01-01

429

Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.  

PubMed

This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and ?-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant. PMID:24849850

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Ma?gorzata

2014-01-01

430

Antioxidant effect of vegetable oils containing conjugated linolenic acid isomers against induced tissue lipid peroxidation and inflammation in rat model.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the antioxidant activity of two typical oils obtained from two vegetables, bitter gourd seed and snake gourd seed, containing two different isomers of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) against oxidative stress induced by sodium arsenite in relation to tissue lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Male albino rats were taken as subject and divided into six groups: Group 1 was control and Group 2 was treated with sodium arsenite (Sa; 10mg/Kg BW); Groups 3-6 were orally treated with different doses of seed oils maintaining definite concentration of CLnA isomers (0.5% and 1.0% of total lipid for each CLnA isomer) along with sodium arsenite. There was significant increase in lipid peroxidation, pro-oxidant enzyme activity and decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity in brain due to Sa administration. Decrease in total protein content was also observed in plasma, liver and brain of Sa treated group. Significant decrease in phospholipid content and increase in total lipid content and cholesterol content were observed in arsenite treated group. There was significant increase in relative organ weight of liver due to Sa administration. Fatty acid profile of liver and brain lipid shows significant (P<0.05) reduction in most of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and increase in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) (75.23%) due to inflammation after arsenite treatment. Administration of experimental oils made almost complete restoration of those altered parameters. Overall, these two oils were effective in protecting tissue lipid profiles which were altered due to oxidative stress. PMID:21382362

Saha, Siddhartha S; Ghosh, Mahua

2011-04-25

431

Fingerprinting of vegetable oil minor components by multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography with dual detection.  

PubMed

The potentiality of a multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatographic (GC?×?GC) method, employing a simultaneous dual detection (FID and mass spectrometer), to generate peculiar two-dimensional chromatograms to be used as a chemical fingerprint, was investigated to characterize minor compounds in edible oil, particularly olive oil. The best column combination for this application was investigated comparing two column sets (orthogonal or reverse-type), equivalent in terms of theoretical plate number, but differing in stationary phase combination. The apolar?×?mid-polar set gave a superior separation power, thus was used for further characterization. Different levels of information were extrapolated from the two-dimensional chromatogram. Using the FID, reliable quantification of the alkyl esters fatty acids and waxes was obtained, comparable to the results obtained using the official method, as required by the European legislation. However, thanks to a slight modification of the sample preparation method, the increased separation power obtained using the GC?×?GC method, and the support of the mass spectrometer detector, further diagnostic information was extrapolated considering the free sterol and tocopherol fractions. In particular, the profiles of extra virgin olive oil samples were compared with a hazelnut oil sample, highlighting that the latter was characterized by a larger number of compounds, completely absent in the extra virgin olive oil samples, which can be used to detect illegal admixtures. PMID:25209809

Purcaro, Giorgia; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Conte, Lanfranco S

2015-01-01

432

Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a fivefold variation in tundra LUE was observed. LUE calculated from the functional type cover fractions was also correlated to a spectral vegetation index developed to detect vegetation chlorophyll content. The concurrence of these alternate methods suggest that hyperspectral remote sensing can distinguish functionally distinct vegetation types and can be used to develop regional estimates of photosynthetic LUE in tundra landscapes.

Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

433

Feasibility of using LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities conducted from February 1, 1985 to July 31, 1985 and preliminary conclusions regarding research objectives are summarized. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using LANDSAT data to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils. The general approach is to apply the climatic-climax hypothesis (Ealgeson, 1982) to natural water-limited vegetation systems using canopy cover estimated from LANDSAT data. Natural water-limited systems typically consist of inhomogeneous vegetation canopies interspersed with bare soils. The ground resolution associated with one pixel from LANDSAT MSS (or TM) data is generally greater than the scale of the plant canopy or canopy clusters. Thus a method for resolving percent canopy cover at a subpixel level must be established before the Eagleson hypothesis can be tested. Two formulations are proposed which extend existing methods of analyzing mixed pixels to naturally vegetated landscapes. The first method involves use of the normalized vegetation index. The second approach is a physical model based on radiative transfer principles. Both methods are to be analyzed for their feasibility on selected sites.

Eagleson, P. S.

1985-01-01

434

To Study of Vegetable Oils and Their Effects on Diesel Engine Performance  

E-print Network

Abstract- The rapid increasing the industrialization, motorization, in the world has remarkably raised the demand of the petroleum products. The reservations of such a petroleum based fuels are limited in the world. Furthermore, they are exhaustible and cost is rapidly increasing day to day. For those countries having not ability of petroleum recourses, are importing the petroleum fuels. So, it is quit necessary to focus on an alternative fuels which can be derived from the material available in the country. This paper reviews the combustion parameter and exhaust emission characterizes of different biofuels such as plastic oil, cocking oil, rubber seed oil, palm biodiesel, ethanol etc. the paper also reviews the experimental works carried out in various countries in this field and scope, challenges being faced in this area of research are clearly described.

Mr. Jalpesh Solanki; Prof Ashish Agarwal

435

Experimental investigations of a four-stroke single cylinder direct injection diesel engine operated on dual fuel mode with producer gas as inducted fuel and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) as injected fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. Vegetable oils present a very promising alternative to diesel oil since they are renewable and have similar properties. Vegetable oils offer almost the

N. R. Banapurmath; P. G. Tewari; R. S. Hosmath

2008-01-01

436

Modulation of mutagenic activity in meat samples after deep-frying in vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Previous studies have been carried out on the influence of frying fats on the formation of food mutagens, but most of them have been performed on model systems or under cooking conditions that are more frequent in northern countries. The objective of this work was to study the overall mutagenic activity generated in hamburgers and frankfurters deep-fried under cooking conditions that are normal practice in Spain and other Mediterranean countries, in order to determine if there was any modulation of the mutagenic activity with respect to other cooking conditions previously studied. Hamburgers were prepared from beef purchased in a butcher's shop. Frankfurters as well as the oils [olive, marc olive ('orujo'), sunflower and soya bean oil] and butter were purchased in a local supermarket. The samples were fried in a teflon-coated frying pan at 170-180 degrees C for 10, 20 or 30 min. The mutagens were extracted and the mutagenic activity evaluated using the Salmonella mammalian microsome assay with strain TA98. Two independent assays were carried out for each experimental condition. All the hamburgers showed a mutagenic activity that was more than four times higher than that of the controls. Frankfurters showed a lower mutagenic activity than hamburgers (fried under the same conditions) because they have a lower protein content and a higher fat content. Hamburgers fried in olive oil for 10 min showed a significant increase in the number of revertants with respect to the other oils, probably due to the fact that the temperature reached was approximately 10 degrees C higher. Longer frying times significantly increased the number of revertants in samples fried in oils, except in olive oil, probably due to its lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:11752235

Perez, C; Lopez de Cerain, A; Bello, J

2002-01-01

437

Vegetable oil based versus wood based stanol ester mixtures: effects on serum lipids and hemostatic factors in non-hypercholesterolemic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pine wood based stanol ester mixture-composed of sitostanol (92%) and campestanol (8%) effectively lowers cholesterol absorption and consequently LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It has been postulated that the less absorbable plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption more effectively. As sitostanol is absorbed less than campestanol, we decided to examine if a vegetable oil based stanol ester mixture with 68% sitostanol and 32%

Jogchum Plat; Ronald P Mensink

2000-01-01

438

Improved production of biosurfactant by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant using vegetable oil refinery wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa EBN-8 mutant was studied in shake flasks on separate wastes from canola, soybean and corn oil refineries. Of the substrates\\u000a tested, canola oil refinery waste (COD=20 g l?1) supplemented with sodium nitrate (at COD\\/N=20) showed the best microbial growth (4.50 g l?1) and rhamnolipid production (8.50 g l?1), at 10 d of incubation with the specific growth rate of 0.316 h?1 and specific

Zulfiqar Ali Raza; Asma Rehman; Muhammad Saleem Khan; Zafar M. Khalid

2007-01-01

439

Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.  

PubMed

Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. PMID:22885021

Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

2012-12-01

440

30 CFR 210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Special-Purpose Forms and Reports-Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources § 210.155 What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties? (a)...

2010-07-01

441

Soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions: effects of polyol functionality and hard segment content on properties.  

PubMed

The environmentally friendly vegetable-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions with very promising properties have been successfully synthesized without difficulty from a series of methoxylated soybean oil polyols (MSOLs) with different hydroxyl functionalities ranging from 2.4 to as high as 4.0. The resulting soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane (SPU) dispersions exhibit a uniform particle size, which increases from about 12 to 130 nm diameter with an increase in the OH functionality of the MSOL from 2.4 to 4.0 and decreases with increasing content of the hard segments. The structure and thermophysical and mechanical properties of the resulting SPU films, which contain 50-60 wt % MSOL as renewable resources, have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and mechanical testing. The experimental results reveal that the functionality of the MSOLs and the hard segment content play a key role in controlling the structure and the thermophysical and mechanical properties of the SPU films. These novel films exhibit tensile stress-strain behavior ranging from elastomeric polymers to rigid plastics and possess Young's moduli ranging from 8 to 720 MPa, ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 4.2 to 21.5 MPa, and percent elongation at break values ranging from 16 to 280%. This work has addressed concerns regarding gelation and higher cross-linking caused by the high functionality of vegetable-oil-based polyols. This article reports novel environmentally friendly biobased SPU materials with promising applications as decorative and protective coatings. PMID:18937404

Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

2008-11-01

442

Release properties on gelatin-gum arabic microcapsules containing camphor oil with added polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, gelatin blended with arabic gum microcapsules containing camphor oil with added polystyrene were fabricated by a compound coacervation method. The parameters of oil\\/wall volume ratio, emulsification stirring speed, concentration of cross-linking agent, treated time and oil release properties were investigated. In order to improve the constant release effect of camphor oil, oil-soluble polystyrene (PS) was used as

Chih-Pong Chang; Ting-Kai Leung; Shang-Ming Lin; Che-Chang Hsu

2006-01-01

443

The Use of Vegetation For Estimating Broken-Cloud Optical Properties From Surface Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is known that because of complex three-dimensional (3D) radiative effects of broken clouds, the retrieval of cloud optical properties from upward measurements based on a one-dimensional (1D) inversion technique almost surely fails. To remove radiative effects of 3D cloud structure, we have developed a new technique that retrieves cloud optical thickness for broken clouds above green vegetation from simultaneous surface measurements in the VIS and Near Infrared (NIR) spectral regions. The theoretical basis of the method is the very different spectral behavior of cloud liquid water drops and green vegetation. For example, cloud optical properties, and hence cloud reflectivities, change little between 650 and 860 nm, while the vegetated surface albedo changes from 0.05 to 0.5 between the same two wavelengths. This spectral contrast in surface albedo suggests using ground measurements at both wavelengths not independently, but as an algebraic combination (a spectral index). For a spectral band in the NIR region, the green vegetation acts as a powerful reflector that "illuminates" horizontally inhomogeneous clouds from below. This provides the extra information needed to largely remove the 3D radiative effects, especially in the case of broken clouds; this in turn allows the retrieval of cloud optical depth using traditional 1D radiative transfer theory. This approach is similar to the so-called Green's function problem for radiative transfer where a laser beam illuminates clouds and the resulting "spot-size" of the reflected light around the beam characterizes cloud properties. We generalize Green's function theory to surf ace-cloud interaction and develop new spectral indices from which broken-cloud optical depth can be retrieved.

Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Davis, A. B.; Wiscombe, W.

2000-01-01

444

CAPILLARY ELECTROCHROMATOGRAPHIC STUDY OF ANTIOXIDATIVE MINOR OIL CONSTITUENTS AND RELATED TOCOPHEROLQUINONES IN FRYING OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin E-active antioxidants are important minor constituents of vegetable oils for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The content and composition of the antioxidant components affect oil properties, quality and stability. In frying oils, these substances partially convert to quinonoidal oxida...

445

OXIDATION AND LOW TEMPERATURE STABILITY OF VEGETABLE OIL-BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The search for environmentally friendly materials that has potential to substitute mineral oil in various industrial applications is currently being considered a top priority research in the fuel and energy sector. This emphasis is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves an...

446

VEGETATIVE REHABILITATION OF ARID LAND DISTURBED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL SHALE AND COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Field experiments were established on sites disturbed by exploratory drilling in the oil shale region of northeastern Utah and on disturbed sites on a potential coal mine in south central Utah. Concurrently, greenhouse studies were carried out using soil samples from disturbed si...

447

Synthesis of formyl esters of vegetable oils: Milkweed, Pennycress and Soy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus, from the polyhydroxyl starting material, att...

448

Synchronized Analysis of FTIR Spectra and GCMS Chromatograms for Evaluation of the Thermally Degraded Vegetable Oils  

PubMed Central

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) are two common instruments used for analysis of edible oils. The output signal is often analysed on the software attached to the workstations. The processing software is usually individualised for a specific source. The output of GCMS cannot be analysed on the FTIR hence analysts often need to juggle between instruments when multiple techniques are employed. This could become exhaustive when a large dataset is involved. This paper reports a synchronised approach for analysis of signal from FTIR and GCMS. The algorithm is demonstrated on a dataset of edible oils to investigate the thermal degradation of seven types of edible oils treated at 100°C and 150°C. The synchronised routines identify peaks present in FTIR and GCMS spectra/chromatograms where the information is subsequently extracted onto peak tables for further analysis. In this study, it is found that palm based products and corn oils were relatively more stable with higher content of antioxidants tocopherols and squalene. As a conclusion, this approach allows simultaneous analysis of signal from multiple sources and samples enhancing the efficiency of the signal processing process. PMID:24563804

Mohd Irwan Lu, Nurul Aida Lu; Samling, Benedict

2014-01-01

449

Synchronized Analysis of FTIR Spectra and GCMS Chromatograms for Evaluation of the Thermally Degraded Vegetable Oils.  

PubMed

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) are two common instruments used for analysis of edible oils. The output signal is often analysed on the software attached to the workstations. The processing software is usually individualised for a specific source. The output of GCMS cannot be analysed on the FTIR hence analysts often need to juggle between instruments when multiple techniques are employed. This could become exhaustive when a large dataset is involved. This paper reports a synchronised approach for analysis of signal from FTIR and GCMS. The algorithm is demonstrated on a dataset of edible oils to investigate the thermal degradation of seven types of edible oils treated at 100°C and 150°C. The synchronised routines identify peaks present in FTIR and GCMS spectra/chromatograms where the information is subsequently extracted onto peak tables for further analysis. In this study, it is found that palm based products and corn oils were relatively more stable with higher content of antioxidants tocopherols and squalene. As a conclusion, this approach allows simultaneous analysis of signal from multiple sources and samples enhancing the efficiency of the signal processing process. PMID:24563804

Sim, Siong Fong; Lee, Terri Zhuan Ean; Mohd Irwan Lu, Nurul Aida Lu; Samling, Benedict

2014-01-01

450

Evidence contrary to the accepted Diels-Alder mechanism in the thermal modification of vegetable oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A transesterified oleochemical product has been made using two routes. Soybean oil was thermally polymerized anaerobically at 330 deg C. and the material was then transesterified using base catalyst and methanol. Alternatively, a similar product can be obtained by heating methyl linoleate to the sam...

451

Modeling and simulation of the supercritical CO 2 extraction of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model of broken and intact cells has been applied to the experimental results on oil seed supercritical extraction obtained by various authors and on several species of seeds. The results analyzed are related to various extraction apparatus ranging from very low laboratory scale to pilot plants. Moreover, a wide range of operating conditions has been covered, CO2 flow rates

E Reverchon; C Marrone

2001-01-01

452

Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, VI: Specifications and quality control of biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the rising importance of biodiesel as alternative fuel in many countries, it is absolutely necessary to establish standards for the description of the quality of the product. The parameters and the corresponding threshold values defining the quality of rapeseed-oil methyl esters (RME) used as biodiesel according to the latest Austrian standardization (Ö-NORM) are presented and discussed. The difference

Martin Mittelbach

1996-01-01

453

Ris Energy Report 2 Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils that have been  

E-print Network

(canola) oil with methanol. Biodiesel can be burned directly in diesel engines. Robert Diesel himself-friendly fuel for diesel engines; · to reduce health and safety risks; and · to provide customers biodiesel warranties from diesel engine man- ufacturers and; · implementing supportive legal measures

454

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

O'Toole, Alice J.

455

Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans (0-10 kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal increased remarkably as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans.

Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Il-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Hayashi, Yukako; Mori, Tomohiko

1996-02-01

456

Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans (0-10kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increase induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal content remarkably increased as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans.

Byun, M. W.; Kang, I. J.; Kwon, J. H.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, T.

1995-02-01

457

Progress report Idaho on-road test with vegetable oil as a diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel is among many biofuels being considered in the US for alternative fueled vehicles. The use of this fuel can reduce US dependence on imported oil and help improve air quality by reducing gaseous and particulate emissions. Researchers at the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University of Idaho have pioneered rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Although UI has conducted many laboratory and tractor tests using raw rapeseed oil and rape methyl ester (RME), these fuels have not been proven viable for on-road applications. A biodiesel demonstration project has been launched to show the use of biodiesel in on-road vehicles. Two diesel powered pickups are being tested on 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent diesel. One is a Dodge 3/4-ton pickup powered by a Cummins 5.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled engine. This engine is direct injected and is being run on 20 percent RME and 80 percent diesel. The other pickup is a Ford, powered by a Navistar 7.3 liter, naturally aspirated engine. This engine has a precombustion chamber and is being operated on 20 percent raw rapeseed oil and 80 percent diesel. The engines themselves are unmodified, but modifications have been made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. In order to give maximum vehicle range, fuel mixing is done on-board. Two tanks are provided, one for the diesel and one for the biodiesel. Electric fuel pumps supply fuel to a combining chamber for correct proportioning. The biodiesel fuel tanks are heated with a heat exchanger which utilizes engine coolant circulation.

Reece, D.; Peterson, C.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1993-12-31

458

Effects of an Oil Spill on the Regrowth of Emergent Vegetation in a Northern Alberta Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a train derailment in August 2005, Wabamun Lake (Alberta, Canada) was exposed to ~149,500 L of bunker “C” oil, much\\u000a of which became entrained in the abundant Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus validus) beds in the eastern basin of the lake. We assessed the regrowth of emergent macrophytes during the subsequent two growing\\u000a seasons. Postspill measures of productivity, including transect length, total

Barbara G. Wernick; Adrian M. H. deBruyn; Luanne Patterson; Peter M. Chapman

2009-01-01

459

Influence of the type of vegetable oil on the drug release profile from lipid-core nanocapsules and in vivo genotoxicity study.  

PubMed

The use of rice bran (RB), soybean (SB) or sunflower seed (SF) oils to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) as controlled drug delivery systems was investigated. LNCs were prepared by interfacial deposition using the preformed polymer method. All formulations showed negative zeta potential and adequate nanotechnological characteristics (particle size 220-230? nm, polydispersity index < 0.20). The environmental safety was evaluated through an in vivo protocol (Allium cepa test) and LNCs containing RB, SB or SF oils did not present genotoxic potential. Clobetasol propionate (CP) was selected as a model drug to evaluate the influence of the type of vegetable oil on the control of the drug release from LNCs. Biphasic drug release profiles were observed for all formulations. After 168? h, the concentration of drug released from the formulation containing SF oil was lower (0.36 ?mg/mL) than from formulations containing SB (0.40? mg/mL) or RB oil (0.45 ?mg/mL). Good correlations between the consistency indices for the LNC cores and the burst and sustained drug release rate constants were obtained. Therefore, the type of the vegetal oil was shown as an important factor governing the control of drug release from LNCs. PMID:23978050

Rigo, Lucas Almeida; Frescura, Viviane; Fiel, Luana; Coradini, Karine; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Quatrin, Andréia; Tedesco, Solange; Silva, Cristiane B da; Guterres, Silvia Staniçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

2014-11-01

460

Berteroin present in cruciferous vegetables exerts potent anti-inflammatory properties in murine macrophages and mouse skin.  

PubMed

Berteroin (5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate) is a sulforaphane analog present in cruciferous vegetables, including Chinese cabbage, rucola salad leaves, and mustard oil. We examined whether berteroin exerts anti-inflammatory activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse skin inflammation models. Berteroin decreased LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Berteroin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of inhibitor of ?B? (I?B?) and nuclear factor-?B p65 translocation to the nucleus and DNA binding activity. Furthermore, berteroin suppressed degradation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase and phosphorylation of transforming growth factor ? activated kinase-1. Berteroin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and AKT. In the mouse ear, berteroin effectively suppressed TPA-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression as well as phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. These results demonstrate that berteroin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties and suggest that berteroin can be developed as a skin anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25393510

Jung, Yoo Jin; Jung, Jae In; Cho, Han Jin; Choi, Myung-Sook; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina; Kang, Young-Hee; Park, Jung Han Yoon

2014-01-01

461

Determination of nonprotein amino acids and betaines in vegetable oils by flow injection triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: a screening method for the detection of adulterations of olive oils.  

PubMed

A novel screening method using an automated flow injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system is proposed for the simultaneous determination of five nonprotein amino acids (?-alanine, alloisoleucine, ornithine, citrulline, pyroglutamic acid) and three betaines (glycine betaine, trigonelline, proline betaine) after derivatization with butanolic HCl. MS/MS experiments were carried out in a triple-quadrupole instrument using multiple reaction monitoring mode in <2 min. The proposed method provided high fingerprinting power to identify the presence of five of the studied compounds in different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, corn, olive) with LODs at parts per billion levels. The method was validated, and different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, achieving the typification for the detection of adulterations in extra virgin olive oils up to 2% w/w. The nonprotein amino acid ornithine was confirmed as a marker for adulteration in the olive oils analyzed. PMID:22229859

Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Nozal, Leonor; Marina, Maria Luisa; Crego, Antonio L

2012-02-01

462

Ecosystem properties self-organize in response to a directional fog-vegetation interaction.  

PubMed

Feedbacks between vegetation and resource inputs can lead to the local, self-organization of ecosystem properties. In particular, feedbacks in response to directional resources (e.g., coastal fog, slope runoff) can create complex spatial patterns, such as vegetation banding. Although similar feedbacks are thought to be involved in the development of ecosystems, clear empirical examples are rare. We created a simple model of a fog-influenced, temperate rainforest in central Chile, which allows the comparison of natural banding patterns to simulations of various putative mechanisms. We show that only feedbacks between plants and fog were able to replicate the characteristic distributions of vegetation, soil water, and soil nutrients observed in field transects. Other processes, such as rainfall, were unable to match these diagnostic distributions. Furthermore, fog interception by windward trees leads to increased downwind mortality, leading to progressive extinction of the leeward edge. This pattern of ecosystem development and decay through self-organized processes illustrates, on a relatively small spatial and temporal scale, the patterns predicted for ecosystem evolution. PMID:25000752

Stanton, Daniel E; Armesto, Juan J; Hedin, Lars O

2014-05-01

463

Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013+/-0.001, 0.0018+/-0.0002, and 0.0012+/-0.0001 mol C/mol absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals.

Huemmrich, Karl F.; Gamon, John; Tweedie, Craig; Campbell, Petya K.; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

464

Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

1988-01-01

465

Production of cocoa butter-like fat from interesterification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter-like fat was prepared from completely hydrogenated cottonseed and olive oils by enzymatic interesterification.\\u000a The optimum reaction time to produce the major-component of cocoa butter, 1(3)-palmitoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-2-monoolein (POS),\\u000a was 4 hr. The cocoa butter-like fat was isolated from the reaction mixture by two filtration steps. The yield of cocoa butter-like\\u000a fat was 19%, based on the weight of the original

M.-K. Chang; G. Abraham; V. T. John

1990-01-01

466

Determination of the fatty acid composition of saponified vegetable oils using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) for the determination of the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is described and illustrated with the analysis of palm kernel oil, palm oil, olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, vernonia oil, and castor oil. Solutions of the saponified oils, mixed with the matrix, meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin, provided reproducible MALDI-TOF spectra in which the ions were dominated by sodiated sodium carboxylates [RCOONa + Na]+. Thus, palm kernel oil was found to contain capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid. Palm oil had a fatty acid profile including palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic. The relative percentages of the fatty acids in olive oil were palmitoleic (1.2 +/- 0.5), palmitic (10.9 +/- 0.8), linoleic (0.6 +/- 0.1), linoleic (16.5 +/- 0.8), and oleic (70.5 +/