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1

Flow properties of vegetable oil–diesel fuel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuel, but their inherently high viscosity compared to petroleum based diesel is undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be simply achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the rheological properties of diesel fuel

Z. Franco; Q. D. Nguyen

2011-01-01

2

Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures

Z. Franco; Q. D. Nguyen

2008-01-01

3

Survey of Straight Vegetable Oil Composition Impact on Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of straight vegetable oil (SVO) in internal combustion engines has shown conflicting results in emissions, power, and engine longevity. Many early studies suggested that SVO should not be considered for long term use in diesel engines. However, waste vegetable oil has been fueling adapted vehicles in progressive communities for years. The issues involved in the combustion of SVO

Syndi L. Nettles-Anderson; Daniel B. Olsen

4

Cetane number and thermal properties of vegetable oil, biodiesel, 1-butanol and diesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil derived fuels for diesel engines are becoming important as alternative to petroleum diesel fuels due to their\\u000a environmental friendliness and availability. Ignition quality in compression ignition (CI) engines is influenced by thermal\\u000a characteristics and fuel properties. In this study, the effects of vegetable oil transesterification and vegetable oil–1-butanol-diesel\\u000a blends on fuel properties, cetane number (CN) and thermal characteristics

F. Lujaji; A. Bereczky; L. Janosi; Cs. Novak; M. Mbarawa

2010-01-01

5

Modification of thermal and oxidative properties of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans esterification of three vegetable oils, sunflower oil, linseed oil and mixed oils as; sunflower- soyabean and olein were carried out using methanol, and potasium hydroxide as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol and characterized by physical-chemical methods to evaluate their thermal properties. This methods are determination of densities, cloud points, pour

G. El Diwani; S. El Rafie

6

Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity. PMID:24144052

Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

2013-10-01

7

Physicochemical Properties and Potential Food Applications of Moringa oleifera Seed Oil Blended with Other Vegetable Oils.  

PubMed

Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

2014-07-29

8

The effects of vegetable oil properties on injection and combustion in two different diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different vegetable oils, each in at least 3 different stages of processing, have been characterized according to their\\u000a physical and chemical properties, their injection and atomization characteristics, and their performance and combustion characteristics\\u000a in both a direct-injection and an indirect-injection diesel engine. The injection and atomization characteristics of the vegetable\\u000a oils are significantly different than those of petroleum-derived diesel

T. W. Ryan; L. G. Dodge; T. J. Callahan

1984-01-01

9

Vegetal oils as substitute for mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations on food quality vegetal oils have shown favorable dielectric characteristics as insulating material for electrical devices. In order to comply with possible applications, characterizations of different seed oils and chemical derivatives have been carried out. Results are compared to unused mineral oils and synthetic organic esters specified values: the electrical properties of vegetable products are close to those of

Y. Bertrand; L. C. Hoang

2003-01-01

10

Modeling Vegetable Oil Viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of their environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Vegetable oils do not contain any sulfur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, or crude oil residues. Short-term engine tests indicate good potential for vegetable oil fuels. Long-term endurance tests may show serious problems in injector coking, ring sticking, gum formation,

M. Balat

2008-01-01

11

Relationships derived from physical properties of vegetable oil and biodiesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to estimate mathematical relationships between higher heating value (HHV) and viscosity, density or flash point measurements of various biodiesel fuels. The HHV is an important property defining the energy content and thereby efficiency of fuels, such as vegetable oils and biodiesels. The biodiesels were characterized for their physical and main fuel properties including viscosity,

Ayhan Demirbas

2008-01-01

12

Biodiesel production from Eruca Sativa Gars vegetable oil and motor, emissions properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated, clean, facile and ecologically friendly approach of biodiesel production from Eruca Sativa Gars (ESG) vegetable oil focused on lab scaling up was reported in this study. Transesterification of ESG oil was heterogeneously catalyzed by Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 heteropolyacid salt. The properties of biodiesel from ESG were comparable to conventional diesel fuel and comply with the US Standard for Biodiesel (ASTM

Shiwu Li; Yunpeng Wang; Shengwu Dong; Yang Chen; Fenghua Cao; Fang Chai; Xiaohong Wang

2009-01-01

13

Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( ?) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both ? and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.

Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

2012-11-01

14

Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.  

PubMed

Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law. PMID:24191675

Prevc, Tjaša; Cigi?, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

2013-11-27

15

Properties and performance testing with blends of biomass alcohols, vegetable oils and diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a presentation of results from three related efforts to determine the technical feasibility of using alcohols and vegetable oils blended with Diesel oil as fuel for unmodified compression ignition engines. Several different vegetable oils were successfully tested in a single cylinder engine. Sunflower oil was blended from 50% to 80% by volume with Diesel fuel and used in a multicylinder engine. Thermophysical property data were gathered on pure and blended fuels and are reported. A spray parameter, epsilon, was found which would predict the necessary change in valve opening pressure to render the atomization of the new fuel similar to that for which the injection system was designed. Engine testing showed that fuel consumption was substantially reduced upon setting the injectors at the new VOP. 2 figures, 1 table.

Vinyard, S.; Hawkins, L.; Renoll, E.S.; Bunt, R.C.; Goodling, J.S.

1982-01-01

16

Polyurethanes from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are excellent but very heterogeneous renewable raw materials for polyols and polyurethanes. This review discusses the specific nature of vegetable oils and the effect of their structures on the structure of polyols and polyurethanes. One section is dedicated to polyols for rigid and flexible foams and methods of their preparation such as direct oxidation of oils, epoxidation followed

Zoran S. Petrovi?

2008-01-01

17

Tribological Properties of Vegetable Oils Modified by Reaction with Butanethiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn, canola, and castor-lauric estolide oils were chemically modified by photochemical direct reaction of butanethiol with\\u000a the double bonds on the hydrocarbon chains. The effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index (VI), pour\\u000a point (PP), cloud point (CP), oxidation stability (RPVOT), 4-ball anti-wear (AW), and extreme pressure (EP) were investigated.\\u000a The sulfide modified (SM) corn and canola oils showed

Girma BiresawGrigor; Grigor B. Bantchev; Steven C. Cermak

2011-01-01

18

Properties and performance testing with blends of biomass alcohols, vegetable oils and diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a presentation of results from three related efforts to determine the technical feasibility of using alcohols and vegetable oils blended with Diesel oil as fuel for unmodified compression ignition engines. Several different vegetable oils were successfully tested in a single cylinder engine. Sunflower oil was blended from 50% to 80% by volume with Diesel fuel and used

S. Vinyard; L. Hawkins; E. S. Renoll; R. C. Bunt; J. S. Goodling

1982-01-01

19

Correlating chemical structure and physical properties of vegetable oil esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of FA ester chemical structures on the rheology and crystallization temperature of those compounds was evaluated\\u000a using methyl, n-butyl, n-octyl, and 2-ethyl-1-hexyl FA esters with different chain lengths and different degrees of unsaturation. The rheological\\u000a properties were analyzed in a high-precision rheometer at various temperatures, and the crystallization temperatures were\\u000a determined by DSC. Esters produced from the esterification

Jorge de A. Rodrigues; Fabianne de P. Cardoso; Elizabeth R. Lachter; Luciana R. M. Estevão; Edson Lima; Regina S. V. Nascimento

2006-01-01

20

Vegetable oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1982-01-01

21

Low-temperature flow properties of vegetable oil\\/cosolvent blend diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are an attractive renewable source for alternative diesel fuels. However, the relatively high kinematic viscosity\\u000a of vegetable oils must be reduced to make them more compatible with conventional compression-ignition engines and fuel systems.\\u000a Cosolvent blending is a low-cost and easy-to-adapt technology that reduces viscosity by diluting the vegetable oil with a\\u000a low-M.W. alcohol (methanol or ethanol). The cosolvent

R. O. Dunn

2002-01-01

22

Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties.  

PubMed

Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud points, pour points and gross heat of combustion, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties, and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85% of the ester was from unsaturated acids. Substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared to their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in their mono or di glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended at 1 vol% treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola methyl ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the analyses performed, it was determined that the ester with the most potential for being an additive or a substitute for diesel fuel is the canola methyl ester, whose physical and chemical characteristics are similar to diesel fuel. PMID:14643986

Dmytryshyn, S L; Dalai, A K; Chaudhari, S T; Mishra, H K; Reaney, M J

2004-03-01

23

Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud

S. L. Dmytryshyn; A. K. Dalai; S. T. Chaudhari; H. K. Mishra; M. J. Reaney

2004-01-01

24

Evaluation of the oxidative stability and flow properties of quaternary mixtures of vegetable oils for biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, biodiesel, a biofuel obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats, is becoming increasingly important in power generation. The properties of biodiesel are tied to the chemical composition of the oil or fat from which it was obtained. Esters prepared with saturated fatty acids have a high cloud point, high viscosity, while the unsaturated esters are less viscous and more

Lécia M. S. Freire; José R. C. Filho; Carla V. R. Moura; Luiz E. B. Soledade; Luiz Stragevitch; Ângela M. T. M. Cordeiro; Ieda M. G. Santos; Antonio G. Souza

25

Physical and chemical properties of trans -free fats produced by chemical interesterification of vegetable oil blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat blends, formulated by mixing a highly saturated fat (palm stearin or fully hydrogenated soybean oil) with a native vegetable\\u000a oil (soybean oil) in different ratios from 10:90 to 75:25 (wt%), were subjected to chemical interesterification reactions\\u000a on laboratory scale (0.2% sodium methoxide catalyst, time=90 min, temperature=90°C). Starting and interesterified blends were\\u000a investigated for triglyceride composition, solid fat content, free

V. Petrauskaite; W. De Greyt; M. Kellens; A. Huyghebaert

1998-01-01

26

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

27

Key properties and blending strategies of hydrotreated vegetable oil as biofuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrotreating catalysis is becoming a promising alternative to transesterification for the production of biofuels derived from vegetable oils. They have potential advantages with respect to both biodiesel fuels and petroleum-derived diesel fuels in terms of production costs, engine emissions and adaptability to current engine designs, but they have also some limitations which may restrict their capability to replace diesel fuels.

Magín Lapuerta; Monserrat Villajos; John R. Agudelo; André L. Boehman

2011-01-01

28

Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil

Zongqiang GONG; Peijun LI; B. M. Wilke; Kassem Alef

2008-01-01

29

Pancreatic lipolysis of some brominated vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic lipolysis of several commercially used brominated vegetable oils has shown that although hydrolysis proceeds more\\u000a slowly, these oils are degraded in a similar way to the common vegetable oils.

H. B. S. Conacher; D. K. J. Hartman; R. K. Chadha

1970-01-01

30

Vegetable-oil-based printing ink formulation and degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Printing ink vehicles that did not require petroleum components were prepared from modified vegetable oil. The apparent average molecular weight (MW) of vehicles made from representative vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, safflower and canola oils were compared by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and a correlation between viscosity and apparent MW of these vehicles was established. Physical properties of

Sevim Z. Erhan; Marvin O. Bagby

1995-01-01

31

Vegetable oils for tractors  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

Moroney, M.

1981-11-14

32

Vegetable-oil-based dielectric coolants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical transformer insulation systems are evaluated based on economic, safety, and environmental standpoints using total life cycle analysis. Because of the inherent high efficiency of liquid-cooled transformer designs, new developments focus on improving the environmental and safety properties of fire resistant (less-flammable, high fire point) fluids. This article reports the latest findings on dielectric systems using natural ester (vegetable oil)

C. P. McShane

2002-01-01

33

Preparation of modified fats from vegetable oil and fully hydrogenated vegetable oil by randomization with alkali catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomization of fat blends, formulated by mixing vegetable oil with fully hydrogenated vegetable oil in various ratios, using alkali catalysts, have been investigated. The relationship between the structure and physical properties was examined. The fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of each original fat blend and the randomization products together with the physical properties such as melting, crystallization characteristics and solid

Štefan Schmidt; Silvia Hurtová; Jaroslav Zemanovi?; Stanislav Sekretár; Peter Šimon; Paul Ainsworth

1996-01-01

34

Instrumentation in vegetable oil processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of instrumentation to control properly all processes in the manufacture of vegetable oil is now well accepted.\\u000a Instrumentation and controls in oil processing can reduce manpower requirements, improve yields, improve quality, reduce energy\\u000a usage, reduce regrade or rework, and allow reduction in inventories. The best instrumentation system for a particular operation\\u000a is one that utilizes or takes into

W. E. Farr

1983-01-01

35

Diesel fuels from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification.

A. W. Schwab; M. O. Bagby; B. Freedman

1986-01-01

36

The use of antioxidants in vegetable oils - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shelf life of vegetable oils in food uses and their applicability in industrial situations is greatly dependent on their oxidative stabilities. Methods of improving oxidative stability values currently available include genetic modifications, compositional changes via chemical means, as well as the inhibition of oxidation by means of substances known as antioxidants. This paper reviews the properties of vegetable oils

Emmanuel O. Aluyor; Mudiakeoghene Ori-Jesu

2008-01-01

37

Ageing behavior of vegetable oil blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to concerns over the environmental impact of mineral oil, alternatives such as dodecylbenzene and vegetable oils have been proposed for high voltage applications. The ageing behavior of various vegetable oils has been previously investigated and it was found that oils offering the best ageing resistance were also the most expensive. The current work examines the ageing behavior of blends

I. L. Hosier; C. Rogers; A. S. Vaughan; S. G. Swingler

2010-01-01

38

Vegetable oil production in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  From this short description it may be concluded that in Brazil there already exist good factories for the extraction of cottonseed\\u000a oil by the American process, good refineries and factories for vegetable butter and similar products, and that it would be\\u000a in the interests of American capitalists to study the possibilities of this industry in Brazil. In 1928 Brazil exported

J. B. de Moraes Carvalho

1929-01-01

39

Lubrication Properties of Vegetable Oils Combined with Boric Acid and Determination of Their Effects on Wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubrication is essential in increasing a mechanical component's service duration and minimizing wear. Though synthetic and petrol-based oils are generally used in lubricants today, natural oils which are environment-friendly, biologically decomposable, and whose waste does not give harm to the environment have also begun to be used as lubricants recently thanks to an increasing awareness of the environment. In the

H. Düzcüko?lu; M. Acaro?lu

2009-01-01

40

The cooling rate effect on the microstructure and rheological properties of blends of cocoa butter with vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elasticity (G?) and yield stress (??) of blends of cocoa butter (CB) in vegetable oils (i.e., 30% CB\\/canola and 30% CB\\/soybean oil) crystallized at temperatures (TCr) between 9.5°C and 13.5°C and two cooling rates (1°C\\/min and 5°C\\/min) were determined, evaluating their relationship with parameters associated with the formation and structural organization of the crystal network [i.e., solid fat content

David Pérez-Martínez; C. Alvarez-Salas; M. Charó-Alonso; E. Dibildox-Alvarado; J. F. Toro-Vazquez

2007-01-01

41

Vegetable oil-based printing inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 75 black and 25 colored inks consisting of 100% vegetable oil-based vehicles were formulated. The physical properties\\u000a of these inks met or exceeded the industry standards for lithographic and letterpress newsprint applications. In addition,\\u000a elimination of petroleum-based resin and reduced pigment usage, due to the light vehicle color, provided a competitively priced\\u000a alternative to petroleumbased inks.

S. Z. Erhan; M. O. Bagby; H. W. Cunningham

1992-01-01

42

Performance evaluation of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, etc. are potentially effective

Deepak Agarwal; Lokesh Kumar; Avinash Kumar Agarwal

2008-01-01

43

Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

2008-08-01

44

Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials. PMID:24012607

Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

2014-04-01

45

Relative properties of the new combustion resistant vegetable oil based dielectric coolants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical distribution transformers insulation systems are being re-evaluated based on their total life cycle cost from economical, safety, and an environmental perspectives. Due to the inherently higher efficiency design offered by liquid cooled transformers, development has focused on fluids having improved environmental and health properties while maintaining the fire resistant properties of “less-flammable” fluids. This paper reports our findings from

C. Patrick McShane

2000-01-01

46

Relative properties of the new combustion resistant vegetable oil based dielectric coolants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical distribution transformers insulation systems are being re-evaluated based on their total life cycle from economical, safety and environmental perspectives. Due to the inherently higher efficiency design offered by liquid cooled transformers, development has focused on fluids having improved environmental and health properties while maintaining the fire resistant properties of “less-flammable” fluids. This paper reports findings from several years of

C. P. McShane

2001-01-01

47

Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

2013-01-01

48

Novel silicon-containing polyurethanes from vegetable oils as renewable resources. Synthesis and properties.  

PubMed

Hydrosilylation of methyl 10-undecenoate (UDM) with phenyl tris(dimethylsiloxy)silane (PTDS) followed by a reduction of carboxylate groups was used to obtain a silicon-containing polyol with terminal primary hydroxyl groups (PSi194). Biobased silicon-containing polyurethanes, with a silicon content between 1.7% and 9.0%, were prepared from epoxidized methyl oleate-based polyether polyol (P184), PSi194, and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI). The thermal, mechanical, and flame-retardant properties of these materials were examined. The most notable change resulting from the incorporation of PSi194 is the appearance of melting endotherms of variable enthalpy and position and a downward shift in the T(g). The incorporation of silicon does not change the thermal stability but enhances the stability of the char under air atmosphere. Polyurethanes with higher silicon content no longer burn in ambient air without complementary oxygen, which suggests that these biobased materials are very interesting for applications that require fire resistance. PMID:16903691

Lligadas, Gerard; Ronda, Juan C; Galià, Marina; Cádiz, Virginia

2006-08-01

49

19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings...

2012-04-01

50

19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings...

2011-04-01

51

19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.  

...TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings...

2014-04-01

52

Viscosity modification of different vegetable oils with EVA copolymer for lubricant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

During these last years, special attention has been paid to the protection of the environment against pollution exerted by lubricants and hydraulic fluids based on mineral oils. Thus, vegetable oil-based lubricants are being actively demanded for many green industrial activities. Although vegetable oils have some excellent properties for their potential use as lubricants, some inconveniences should be technologically improved, i.e.

L. A. Quinchia; M. A. Delgado; C. Valencia; J. M. Franco; C. Gallegos

2010-01-01

53

Factors influencing vegetable oil bleaching by adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil bleaching by adsorption involves the removal of color particles which are either dissolved or colloidally dispersed\\u000a in the oil. This type of adsorption follows an exponential relationship and the Freundlich equation was utilized in correlating\\u000a the data. In utilizing this equation, the color of the oil was assumed proportional to the concentration of the color particles,\\u000a and a

Lawrence E. Stout; Donald F. Chamberlain; James M. McKelvey

1949-01-01

54

Improvement of neat biodiesel characteristics by mixing with ozonated vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel can be used to reduce the emission pollution from diesel engines. The improvement of fuel properties through the use of (1% by wt) ozonated vegetable oil for neat biodiesel was evaluated. The pour point of biodiesel prepared from methanol transesterification of sunflower oil, linseed oil, and a mixed oil (from soy bean, sunflower and oleen oils) was dispersed to

Sh. El Rafie; Nahed Attia

2008-01-01

55

Recovery of Gasoline Range Fuels from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, interest has been focused on gasoline-rich engine fuel production from renewable sources. Possible acceptable recycling and re-refining processes of vegetable oils are cracking and pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a common practice and an effective method for recycling waste disposal. The properties of an important part of the liquid products obtained from catalytic pyrolysis are similar to gasoline. Compared

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

56

Vegetable oil fuels: not quite yet  

SciTech Connect

A report is presented on the first International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels held in Fargo, ND in August 1982. It included some 50 technical presentations, a panel discussion by representatives of engine manufacturers, plus special addresses by ASAE President G.W. Isaacs, US Senator Mark Andrews of North Dakota, and Nobel Prize winner Melvin Calvin, University of California, Berkeley. The proceedings, entitled Vegetable Oil Fuels are available from ASAE, 2950 Niles Rd., St. Joseph, MI 49085, $18.50 and $23.50 for members and non-members respectively.

Buckingham, F.

1982-10-01

57

Absence of aflatoxin from refined vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is the first definitive study of the fate of the aflatoxins in vegetable oils undergoing processing.\\u000a Crude oils, obtained by solvent extraction or by hydraulic pressing of ground moldy peanuts (not suitable for human consumption),\\u000a contained only small fractions of the aflatoxin originally present in the peanuts; the meals retained the bulk of the aflatoxin.\\u000a Conventional alkali

Wilbur A. Parker; Daniel Melnick

1966-01-01

58

Lipid composition of selected vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives analytical data on the composition of 14 selected consumer-available liquid vegetable oils, including soybean,\\u000a soybean-cottonseed blends, corn, safflower, peanut, olive and apricot kernel oils. Label information identified six samples\\u000a as specially processed or refined and three samples as cold pressed with no preservative added; the labels of the remaining\\u000a five samples did not mention processing. Data are

Dorothy L. Carpenter; Joanna Lehmann; Blanche S. Mason; Hal T. Slover

1976-01-01

59

Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

NONE

1996-12-31

60

Storage stability of cooked sausages containing vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Comminuted cooked sausages were produced using standard industrial practices, by substituting corn oil, sunflower oil, cotton seed oil, soybean oil and hydrogenated vegetable fat for animal fat. When processed, products were assessed for their stability with respect to autoxidation and change in organoleptic properties during vacuum-packed storage in a domestic refrigerator at 4 degrees C. Data obtained indicated that changes in thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and organoleptic properties of products produced using corn oil, sunflower oil and hydrogenated vegetable fat were similar to those observed for reference material produced using lard. In the case of samples produced using soybean and cotton seed oil, TBA value changes were more pronounced, but did not exceed acceptable limits. A more rapid deterioration of organoleptic characteristics was also observed for the same samples, which showed flavour problems after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C. Substitution of plant oils for lard considerably reduced the cholesterol content and increased the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids of cooked sausages. PMID:7732733

Papavergou, E J; Ambrosiadis, J A; Psomas, J

1995-01-01

61

Hydroprocessed vegetable oils for diesel fuel improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC), in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, investigated the use of conventional refinery technology to convert vegetable oils into a product resembling diesel fuel. SRC found that the use of a medium severity refinery hydroprocess yielded a product (‘super cetane’) in the diesel boiling range with a high cetane value (55–90).

Mark Stumborg; Al Wong; Ed Hogan

1996-01-01

62

Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

1981-05-26

63

Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils.  

PubMed

This work reports laboratory results obtained from the production of polyols with branched ether and ester compounds from epoxidized vegetable oils pertaining to annual, temperate climate crops (soybean, sunflower and high-oleic sunflower oils), focusing on their possible use as components of lubricant base stocks. To this end, two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring were studied. The first caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid (exclusively in a single organic phase) and the second using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol and ethanol, in acid media. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions: low synthesis temperature and short reaction times and with conversions above 99%. Spectroscopic (NMR), thermal (DSC) and rheological techniques were used to characterize the oils, their epoxides and polyols, to assess the impact of the nature of the vegetable oil and the chemical modifications introduced, including long-term storage conditions. Several correlations were employed to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oils with temperature, and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained. PMID:19716696

Campanella, Alejandrina; Rustoy, Eduardo; Baldessari, Alicia; Baltanás, Miguel A

2010-01-01

64

Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical

Bagby

1986-01-01

65

New Options for Conversion of Vegetable Oils to Alternative Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel from transesterification of vegetable oils is an excellent alternative fuel. There is, however, a need to develop a direct process for conversion of vegetable oils into gasoline-competitive biodiesel and other petroleum products. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the

Ayhan Demirba?; Huseyin Kara

2006-01-01

66

New utilization of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy crisis and growing fuel shortage is a global concern. This phenomenon is more conspicuous in the populous, developing\\u000a countries. In order to look for alternatives and extenders to the conventional fuels, studies were performed on the seed oil\\u000a of some relatively unknownPutranjiva roxburghii, a plant that is abundantly available in the Indian tropical subcontinent. In a prototype experiment, the

A. Nag; S. Bhattacharya; K. B. De

1995-01-01

67

Triterpene alcohols and sterols of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triterpene alcohols and sterols were separated by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography from the unsaponifiable\\u000a fractions of the following 18 vegetable oils: linseed, peanut, olive, rice bran, palm kernel, corn, sesame, oiticica, palm,\\u000a coconut, rapeseed, grape seed, sunflower, poppy seed, castor, tea seed, cocoa butter and soybean. Two triterpene alcohols,\\u000a cycloartenol and 24-methylene cycloartanol, were found in all of the

E. Fedeli; A. Lanzani; P. Capella; G. Jacini

1966-01-01

68

Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents utilizing vegetable oil emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of vegetable oil as an electron donor to enhance the reductive dechlorination of chlori- nated solvents as an in situ remediation technology is gaining significant traction. Vegetable oil is a cost-effective slow-release electron donor with greater hydrogen-release efficiency than other electron-donor products. However, neat vegetable oil can inhibit distribution in aquifers due to the oil droplets blocking the

William A. Newman; Ronald C. Pelle

2006-01-01

69

Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.  

PubMed

The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps). PMID:12523544

Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

2002-12-01

70

Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim

Wanignon Ferdinand Fassinou; Aboubakar Sako; Alhassane Fofana; Kamenan Blaise Koua; Siaka Toure

2010-01-01

71

A study of the decrease in fossil CO 2 emissions of energy generation by using vegetable oils as combustible  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article, properties of vegetable oils which make them suitable, either totally or in part, for replacing C-diesel oil (which is the most widely used combustible for this purpose in Spain) in thermal energy production are studied. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as well as improve energetic

J. A López Sastre; C Romero-Ávila Garc??a; E. J López Romero-Ávila; C Rodr??guez Alonso

2003-01-01

72

Thermal stabilized vegetable oil extended diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

A middle distillate fuel composition is described comprising: (a) a major portion of a middle distillate containing a hydrocarbon boiling in the middle distillate boiling range; (b) an extending portion of a vegetable oil; and (c) an effective thermal-stabilizing amount of a nitrogen-containing polymer prepared by reacting an ethylene/propylene copolymer with maleic anhydride, thereby forming a succinic anhydride, reacting the succinic anhydride, with an alcohol, thereby forming a succinate ester while leaving a portion of the succinic anhydride unreacted, and, reacting the succinate ester and the unreacted succinic anhydride with dimethylaminopropylamine, thereby forming a nitrogen-containing polymer.

Sweeney, W.M.; Lachowicz, D.R.

1986-03-11

73

Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

1997-02-01

74

Relative properties of the new combustion-resist vegetable-oil-based dielectric coolants for distribution and power transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical distribution transformer insulation systems are being reevaluated based on their total life-cycle cost from economical, safety, and environmental perspectives. Due to the inherently higher efficiency design offered by liquid-cooled transformers, development has focused on fluids having improved environmental and health properties while maintaining the fire-resistant properties of “less-flammable” fluids. This paper reports our findings from several years of research

C. Patrick McShane

2001-01-01

75

The Cold Temperature Fluidities of Biodiesel Prepared from Vegetable Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesels were prepared from five common vegetable oils by transesterification and catalytic cracking. Sample analysis, such as solidification point, cold filter plugging point, and viscosity were carried out. Experimental results showed that the solidification point of the biodiesel by transesterification was higher than that of virgin oil. Viscosity decreased by approximately 83%. Biodiesel derived from sunflower oil and corn oil

H. Li; B. X. Shen; P. H. Yu

2010-01-01

76

The viscosity of diesel oil and mixtures with straight vegetable oils: Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feed back experience of using straight vegetable oil (SVO) as a fuel in the existing diesel engines evidences the need for fitting several physical properties, among them the fuel viscosity. An empirical modelling is proposed in order to interpolate viscosity to any kind of diesel oil\\/SVO blend. This model is fitted on an experimental viscosity database on blends, varying

Abollé Abollé; Loukou Kouakou; Henri Planche

2009-01-01

77

Biodiesel production from vegetable oils by supercritical methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification of vegetable oils in supercritical methanol are carried out without using any catalyst. Methyl esters of vegetable oils or biodiesels have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives and can be used in any diesel engine without modification. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are molar ratio of

Ayhan Demirbas

78

Biodiesel Fuel Production from Vegetable Oils via Supercritical Ethanol Transesterification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the production and characterization of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils as well as the experimental work carried out via supercritical ethanol transesterification. Biodiesel, which can be used as an alternative diesel fuel, is made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oil and animal fats. More than 100 years ago, a brilliant inventor named Rudolph Diesel designed

M. Balat

2008-01-01

79

Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils  

SciTech Connect

Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if there are two degrees of unsaturation, then at carbon 15 (C15), if there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the synthesis and characterization of biobased

Phillip H. Henna

2008-08-18

80

The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean

Recep Alt?n; Selim Çetinkaya; Hüseyin Serdar Yücesu

2001-01-01

81

Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the status of fat and oil derived diesel fuels with respect to fuel properties, engine performance, and emissions is reviewed. The fuels considered are primarily the methyl esters of fatty acids derived from a variety of vegetable oils and animal fats, and referred to as biodiesel. The major obstacle to widespread use of biodiesel is the high

Michael S. Graboski; Robert L. McCormick

1998-01-01

82

Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

2012-12-01

83

Analyses of electro-chemical characteristics of vegetable oils as an alternative source to mineral oil-based dielectric fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable\\/seed-based oils are highly biodegradable, have no\\/negligible impact on the environment, human health and the ecosystem. These oils are produced from numerous oil seeds. While most of them are highly biodegradable and environmentally friendly, they may require some processing and modification to improve some of their physical and electro-chemical properties to assure their safe use in power and distribution transformers.

S. M. Islam; S. Chami; G. Ienco

2005-01-01

84

Analyses of physical characteristics of vegetable oils as an alternative source to mineral oil-based dielectric fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable\\/seed-based oils are highly biodegradable, have no\\/negligible impact on the environment, human health and the ecosystem. These oils are produced from numerous oil seeds. While most of them are highly biodegradable and environmentally friendly, they may require some processing and modification to improve some of their physical and electrochemical properties to assure their safe use in power and distribution transformers.

S. M. Islam; S. Chami; G. Ienco

2005-01-01

85

Rheology of vegetable oil analogs and triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological properties of two complex mixtures of short-chain triglycerides were experimentally determined. Dynamic or\\u000a absolute viscosities of the mixtures were measured for shear rates of 0.32 to 64.69 s?1 at temperatures between 25 and 80C. The compositions of the mixtures were based on the oil of the plant species Cuphea viscosissima VS-320, a natural source of short-chain triglycerides. The

Daniel P. Geller; John W. Goodrum

2000-01-01

86

Synthesis and applications of vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents on cotton fabrics.  

PubMed

Vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents were prepared by chemical modifications of different vegetable oils - soybean and linseed oils through several reactions, including saponification, acidification, acylation of vegetable oil and trans-esterification with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol. The resulted fluorocarbon agents were then copolymerized with styrene. The structures of the vegetable oil based agents were characterized by FT-IR and NMR. By evaluating water contact angle and time of water disappearance on cotton fabrics, as well as whiteness and breaking strength of cotton fabrics that were treated by these agents, optimum fabric finishing conditions were explored. The cotton fabrics finished with the vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon agents showed excellent water repellency, while other properties of the cotton fabrics declined to certain level. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent displayed the highest water repellency among all modified oils. All the treated fabrics exhibited good durability of water repellency. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent demonstrated the best durability among all repellent agents. PMID:24750623

Zhao, Tao; Zheng, Junzhi; Sun, Gang

2012-06-01

87

Crystallization of fully hydrogenated and interesterified fat and vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Owing to public concern regarding the adverse health effects of trans fatty acids, an alternative technology to trans fats has recently become an important issue. The interesterification of fully hydrogenated vegetable oil and liquid oil blends is one of the most versatile options. This paper reports a physical analysis of high-melting fat (HMF) prepared through the interesterification of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and regular soybean oil, and through fractionation. The thermal and structural properties of the HMF blended with salad oil at a mass ratio of 4:1 (called the HMF blend, hereafter), which was prepared as a model fat blend for margarine, were assessed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarized light microscopy (POM). To observe the polymorphic transformation, all samples were aged after crystallization, and the development of granular crystals during the aging process was observed. We found that the granular crystals are made of SOS/SSO, POS/PSO, and (SOS+POS)/(SSO+PSO) molecular compounds, all of which easily transform into ? form with a double-chain-length structure. PMID:21606616

Zhang, Lu; Muramoto, Hisako; Ueno, Satoru; Sato, Kiyotaka

2011-01-01

88

Characteristics of low-fat meat emulsion systems with pork fat replaced by vegetable oils and rice bran fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vegetable oils prepared from olive, corn, soybean, canola, or grape seed, and rice bran fiber on the composition and rheological properties of meat batters were studied. Pork fat at 30% in the control was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils at 10% in addition to reducing the pork fat to 10%. The chemical composition, cooking

Yun-Sang Choi; Ji-Hun Choi; Doo-Jeong Han; Hack-Youn Kim; Mi-Ai Lee; Hyun-Wook Kim; Jong-Youn Jeong; Cheon-Jei Kim

2009-01-01

89

Potential of vegetable oils as a domestic heating fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence on imported oil for domestic heating has led to the examination of other potential fuel substitutes. One potential fuel is some form of vegetable oil, which could be a yearly-renewable fuel. In Western Canada, canola has become a major oilseed crop; in Eastern Canada, sunflowers increasingly are becoming a source for a similar oil; for this reason, the

A. C. S. Hayden; E. Begin; C. E. Palmer

1982-01-01

90

Mist Generation from Metalworking Fluids Formulated Using Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metalworking fluid emulsion formulations produced from vegetable oils may be less toxic and may reduce disposal costs when compared with fluids formulated with petroleum-based oils. Experiments were performed on experimental emulsions made with unmodified and modi- fied soybean oils to measure rates of mist production by impaction, centrifugal force and evaporation\\/recondensation mechanisms. Results were compared with measurements made using a

PETER C. RAYNOR; SEUNG WON KIM; MRINAL BHATTACHARYA

2005-01-01

91

Life cycle assessment of hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape, oil palm and Jatropha  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life cycle assessment of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) biofuel was performed. The study was commissioned by Volvo Technology Corporation and Volvo Penta Corporation as part of an effort to gain a better understanding of the environmental impact of potential future biobased liquid fuels for cars and trucks. The life cycle includes production of vegetable oil from rape, oil palm

Rickard Arvidsson; Sara Persson; Morgan Fröling; Magdalena Svanström

2011-01-01

92

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and lower alcohol with octanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles that are powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes. Deterrents to this concept are the generally inferior fuel properties of crude vegetable oils as compared to those of diesel oil. Of particular concern is the inherently high viscosity which causes poor atomization in direct-injected diesel engines. This results in fouling of the injectors and cylinders as well as a buildup of noncombusted fuel in the crankcase causing a thickening of the lubricating oil. This invention relates to a blended vegetable oil fuel which circumvents many of these problems.

Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

1984-08-08

93

Influence of vegetable oil on the thermal aging rate of kraft paper and its mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of new insulation materials, vegetable oil-the best substitute for mineral oil-has gradually been widely used in the liquid insulation of transformers. To investigate the influence of vegetable oil on the thermal aging rate of oil paper, Kraft paper impregnated with mineral oil and vegetable oil underwent thermally accelerated aging at three different temperatures. Degree Polymerization (DP) of

Lijun Yang; Ruijin Liao; Caixin Sun; Jianguo Yin; Mengzhao Zhu

2010-01-01

94

Influence of vegetable oil on the thermal aging of transformer paper and its mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of new insulation materials, vegetable oil—the best substitute for mineral oil—has gradually been widely used in the liquid insulation of transformers. To investigate the influence of vegetable oil on the thermal aging rate of oil paper, transformer paper impregnated with mineral oil and vegetable oil underwent thermally accelerated aging at three different temperatures. Degree Polymerization (DP) of

Lijun Yang; Ruijin Liao; Sun Caixin; Mengzhao Zhu

2011-01-01

95

Experimental Investigations on the use of Vegetable Oils as Biofuel for Compression Ignition Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of naturally aspirated Compression Ignition (CI) engine has effectively been employed for adopting vegetable oils as substitute fuels. In this study different vegetable oils (like sunower oil, karanja oil and neem oil) blends with diesel fuel have been used after esterication as CI engine fuel. The pro- portion of blend of vegetable oil and diesel used in the

K. ANBUMANI; A. P. SINGH

96

Processing biomass in conventional oil refineries: Production of high quality diesel by hydrotreating vegetable oils in heavy vacuum oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable liquid alkanes can be produced by hydrotreating of vegetable oils and vegetable oil–heavy vacuum oil (HVO) mixtures at standard hydrotreating conditions (i.e. 300–450°C) with conventional hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided NiMo\\/Al2O3). The reaction pathway involves hydrogenation of the CC bonds of the vegetable oils followed by alkane production by three different pathways: decarbonylation, decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. The straight chain alkanes can

George W. Huber; Paul O’Connor; Avelino Corma

2007-01-01

97

Use of vegetable oils and fatty acid methyl esters in the production of spherical activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using vegetable oils, i.e., rapeseed oil, soybean oil, linseed oil, tung oil, castor oil and dehydroxylated castor oil, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from them, for the agglomeration of bituminous coals was investigated. Both vegetable oils and FAMEs were found to be suitable bridging liquids for the production of spherical agglomerates-precursor of spherical activated

S Gryglewicz; K Grabas; G Gryglewicz

2000-01-01

98

Ultrasonically driven continuous process for vegetable oil transesterification.  

PubMed

A bench scale continuous process for the manufacture of biodiesel from neat vegetable oils under high power low frequency ultrasonic irradiation was investigated. The experimental studies explored variations in alcohol-oil stoichiometry and type of oil. Important parameters such as residence time and reaction volume were considered. The highest conversion was achieved when short residence time was employed. The transesterification under ultrasonic irradiation is mainly influenced by the residence time in the reactor and alcohol-oil molar ratio. PMID:17223376

Stavarache, Carmen; Vinatoru, M; Maeda, Y; Bandow, H

2007-04-01

99

Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

Farines, Marie; And Others

1988-01-01

100

Photochemical behavior of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The photodecomposition of herbicides may be affected by adding vegetable oils to the spray tank. In this study nine vegetable oils were compared to assess the photodecomposition of sethoxydim under natural light conditions. The experiment was conducted as completely randomized factorial design with three replicates at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Each herbicidal solution (with and without vegetable oil) was exposed to sunshine with time intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. The results revealed that the half-life value was increased by adding castor bean and cottonseed oils to 1.39- and 1.18-fold, respectively, compared to nonvegetable oil. These values for turnip, olive, corn, soybean, sunflower, canola, and sesame oils were decreased down to 4.74-, 2.38-, 1.81-, 1.75-, 1.52-, 1.28-, and 1.11-fold, respectively. A positive relationship existed between the half-life of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils and their viscosity. However, a negative relationship was monitored between unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and the monounsaturated value with half-life. A positive relationship also existed between saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid with half-life. This study revealed that the amount of fatty acids in vegetable oils is a determining factor in preventing or facilitating the photodecomposition of sethoxydim. PMID:24932839

Hammami, Hossein; Rashed Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan; Parsa, Mehdi; Bannayan-Aval, Mohammad; Zand, Eskandar; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Nassirli, Horiyeh

2014-07-01

101

The use of saponified vegetable oil distillates\\/ethanol microcellular solution as a diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are considered possible replacement fuels for diesel engines; however, past research has shown that long term engine durability is adversely affected by the use of these fuels. Most researchers have attempted to reduce the problems associated with vegetable oil fuels either by the formation of vegetable oil\\/diesel blends or the esterfication of the vegetable oils. In this investigation

L. D. Savage; S. Birell; C. E. Goering

1988-01-01

102

The modification and analysis of vegetable oil for cheese making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of this study were (i) to incorporate short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in vegetable oils to obtain a bland product\\u000a that could be used as a milk fat substitute in cheese making and (ii) to improve the methods for fatty acid analysis of vegetable\\u000a oils modified with SCFA. Short-chain triglycerides (SCTG) were synthesized by esterifying SCFA with glycerol, and using

Liangping Yu; Earl G. Hammond

2000-01-01

103

Polymerization of vegetable oils and their uses in printing inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ink vehicles were prepared by the polymerization of vegetable oils. By controlling the polymerization conditions, the desired\\u000a viscosity, color and molecular weight could be achieved for a variety of vegetable oils with a broad range of iodine values\\u000a and fatty acid compositions. The effect of temperature and catalyst on polymerization rates were evaluated, and polymerization\\u000a rate constants were calculated. Of

S. Z. Erhan; M. O. Bagby

1994-01-01

104

Alteration of phenolic antioxidants in heated vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to follow the fate of antioxidants in heated vegetable oil at temperatures approximating those of frying\\u000a conditions. Samples of vegetable oils spiked with 0.02% [14C] BHA or 0.02% [14C] TBHQ were heated at ca. 180–190 C for 4.5 hr. It was found that 24 and 48% of the radioactivity added as BHA and TBHQ,\\u000a respectively, remained in

F. S. Lin; C. R. Warner; T. Fazio

1981-01-01

105

Producing clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of our investigation was the production of partially bio-derived fuels in the gas oil boiling point range. Our aim\\u000a was the production of diesel fuel blending components by co-hydrogenation of mixtures of high-sulphur gas oil (about 1.0%)\\u000a and vegetable oil raw materials with different vegetable oil contents (0, 5, 15, 25 and 100%). The experiments were carried\\u000a out

Csaba Tóth; Péter Baladincz; Sándor Kovács; Jen? Hancsók

2011-01-01

106

Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil-vegetable oil mixtures for biofuels production.  

PubMed

Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil (VGO)--vegetable oil mixtures is a prominent process for the production of biofuels. In this work both pre-hydrotreated and non-hydrotreated VGO are assessed whether they are suitable fossil components in a VGO-vegetable oil mixture as feed-stocks to a hydrocracking process. This assessment indicates the necessity of a VGO pre-hydrotreated step prior to hydrocracking the VGO-vegetable oil mixture. Moreover, the comparison of two different mixing ratios suggests that higher vegetable oil content favors hydrocracking product yields and qualities. Three commercial catalysts of different activity are utilized in order to identify a range of products that can be produced via a hydrocracking route. Finally, the effect of temperature on hydrocracking VGO-vegetable oil mixtures is studied in terms of conversion and selectivity to diesel, jet/kerosene and naphtha. PMID:19231171

Bezergianni, Stella; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Vasalos, Iacovos A

2009-06-01

107

Shokubutsu haiyu no sekiyu daitai energy to shite no saisei kanosei chosa. (Research on feasibility of utilization of spent vegetable oils as substitutes for petroleum derived oils).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigation and study were conducted on spent vegetable oil in terms of its potential resource amount and adaptability to fuel when using it as petroleum substitution energy. Analysis of properties was made of spent soybean oil and rapeseed oil which fo...

1994-01-01

108

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with trialkylamine surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles, which are typically powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes. Deterrents to this concept are the generally inferior fuel properties of crude vegetable oils as compared to those of diesel oil. Of particular concern is the inherently high viscosity which causes poor atomization in direct-injected diesel engines. This invention relates to a blended vegetable oil fuel which circumvents these problems.

Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

1982-09-29

109

Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender - A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of literature concerning using vegetable oils as a replacement for diesel fuel. The term vegetable oils as used in this paper refers to vegetable oils which have not been modified by transesterification or similar processes to form what is called biodiesel. The oils studied include virgin and used oils of various types including soy, rapeseed,

Sam Jones; Charles L. Peterson

110

Fatty Acid Composition, Oxidative Stability, and Radical Scavenging Activity of Vegetable Oil Blends with Coconut Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) contains 55–65% oil, having C12:0 as the major fatty acid. Coconut oil has >90% saturates and is deficient in monounsaturates\\u000a (6%), polyunsaturates (1%), and total tocopherols (29 mg\\/kg). However, coconut oil contains medium chain fatty acids (58%),\\u000a which are easily absorbed into the body. Therefore, blends of coconut oil (20–80% incorporation of coconut oil) with other\\u000a vegetable oils

A. S. Bhatnagar; P. K. Prasanth Kumar; J. Hemavathy; A. G. Gopala Krishna

2009-01-01

111

Biodiesel Production Facilities from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, and used cooking oil including triglycerides. Biodiesel, an alternative biodegradable diesel fuel, is derived from triglycerides by transesterification with methanol and ethanol. Concerns about the depletion of diesel fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make biodiesel an attractive alternative motor fuel

A. Demirbas; S. Karslioglu

2007-01-01

112

TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT WATERS FROM VEGETABLE OIL REFINING  

EPA Science Inventory

A detailed investigation was done to characterize the wastewater from a vegetable oil refinery. A calcium chloride chemical treatment was installed which resulted in a net decrease in waste load of 71 percent from .0135 lb BOD5 per pound oil processed to .0039 lb BOD5 per pound o...

113

Vegetable oil enhances sophorolipid production by Rhodotorula bogoriensis.  

PubMed

The yeast Rhodotorula bogorensis produces sophorolipids of different structures to those produced by Candida bombicola. However, the yield is very low. To improve sophorolipid production by R. bogoriensis, vegetable oil was supplemented to the medium as a hydrophobic substrate: with rapeseed oil the sophorolipid yield was 1.26 g/l but without oil was 0.33 g/l. Cultures with meadowfoam oil produced 0.77 g sophorolipids/l. Lipase-treated meadowfoam oil, however, gave no significant increase in sophorolipid production. Possible explanations for the enhanced sophorolipid synthesis are discussed. PMID:21769647

Zhang, Jinxin; Saerens, Karen M J; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

2011-12-01

114

Antioxidant efficacy of sesame cake extract in vegetable oil protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of sesame cake was evaluated in soybean, sunflower, and safflower oils, using the Schaal oven method and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Results showed that sesame cake extract (SCE), at concentrations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 ppm in vegetable oils, could significantly (P<0.05) lower the peroxide value, diene value and p-anisidine value of oils

K. P. Suja; John T. Abraham; Selvam N. Thamizh; A. Jayalekshmy; C. Arumughan

2004-01-01

115

Floral and vegetative cues in oil-secreting and non-oil-secreting Lysimachia species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Unrelated plants pollinated by the same group or guild of animals typically evolve similar floral cues due to pollinator-mediated selection. Related plant species, however, may possess similar cues either as a result of pollinator-mediated selection or as a result of sharing a common ancestor that possessed the same cues or traits. In this study, visual and olfactory floral cues in Lysimachia species exhibiting different pollination strategies were analysed and compared, and the importance of pollinators and phylogeny on the evolution of these floral cues was determined. For comparison, cues of vegetative material were examined where pollinator selection would not be expected. Methods Floral and vegetative scents and colours in floral oil- and non-floral oil-secreting Lysimachia species were studied by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses, respectively, compared between oil- and non-oil-secreting species, and analysed by phylogenetically controlled methods. Key Results Vegetative and floral scent was species specific, and variability in floral but not vegetative scent was lower in oil compared with non-oil species. Overall, oil species did not differ in their floral or vegetative scent from non-oil species. However, a correlation was found between oil secretion and six floral scent constituents specific to oil species, whereas the presence of four other floral compounds can be explained by phylogeny. Four of the five analysed oil species had bee-green flowers and the pattern of occurrence of this colour correlated with oil secretion. Non-oil species had different floral colours. The colour of leaves was similar among all species studied. Conclusions Evidence was found for correlated evolution between secretion of floral oils and floral but not vegetative visual and olfactory cues. The cues correlating with oil secretion were probably selected by Macropis bees, the specialized pollinators of oil-secreting Lysimachia species, and may have evolved in order to attract these bees.

Schaffler, I.; Balao, F.; Dotterl, S.

2012-01-01

116

Plant sterols and tocols profile of vegetable oils consumed in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to quantify specific phytosterols\\/-stanols (ST) (campesterol, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitostanol and campestanol) and tocols [(TO), tocopherol and tocotrienol)] in the vegetable oils (corn oil, sunflower oil, blended oil and palm oil) available in the Egyptian market. Gas-liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography procedures were applied to 12 vegetable oils. The best source of ST

Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

2011-01-01

117

Rapid screening of biologically modified vegetable oils for fuel performance  

SciTech Connect

A process for the rapid screening of alternative diesel fuel performance was applied to analogues of genetically modified vegetable oils and a mixture with no. 2 diesel fuel. The oils examined contained 60 to 70% of low molecular weight, short-chain, saturated triglycerides compared to the 1 to 2% found in traditional vegetable oils. These oils have relatively low viscosity that is predicted to enhance their performance as alternative diesel fuels. The screening process utilizes an engine torque test sequence that accelerates the tendency of diesel fuels to coke fuel injectors, a key indicator of fuel performance. The results of the tests were evaluated using a computer vision system for the rapid quantification of injector coking. The results of the screen were compared to those using no. 2 diesel fuel as a baseline. Coke deposition from the modified vegetable oil analogues was not found to be significantly different than deposition from diesel fuel. Suggestions are made to guide further modification of vegetable oil biosynthesis for the production of alternative diesel fuel.

Geller, D.P.; Goodrum, J.W.; Campbell, C.C.

1999-08-01

118

Nutritive value of heated vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut, sesame and coconut oils were heated at 270C for 8 hr, in an open iron pan. These fats were fed to albino rats at 15%\\u000a level in otherwise adequate diets. All rats fed heated fats showed a growth depression. Livers of rats receiving heated oil\\u000a were congested and showed extensive periportal fatty infiltration. Rats on heated peanut oil showed

N. V. Raju; M. Narayana Rao; R. Rajagopalan

1965-01-01

119

Chemical and rheological characterizations of some vegetable oils derivatives commonly used in printing inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the characterization of vegetable oils and some of their derivatives which are commonly used in offset printing ink formulations. Chemical and rheological characterizations were performed in order to gain a better insight into their structure\\/properties relationships. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the quality and performance of printing inks on the basis of sound

Anne Blayo; Alessandro Gandini; Jean-François Le Nest

2001-01-01

120

Aging Performance and Moisture Solubility of Vegetable Oils for Power Transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the suitability of vegetable oil as an insulating medium in power transformers. A high flash point and very good environmental compatibility compared to conventional mineral oil are good reasons to use vegetable oil in power transformers. In this paper, the physical and electrical performance and the aging behaviour of three natural vegetable oils are compared to one

Stefan Tenbohlen; Maik Koch

2010-01-01

121

Nutritive Value of Heated Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

MUCH of the fat consumed by human beings, particularly in India, has been heated, and the conditions of heating vary widely and also with the nature of the foodstuff into which the oil or fat is incorporated. It is therefore necessary to have scientific data concerning the nutritive value of heated oils and fat.

N. V. Raju; R. Rajagopalan

1955-01-01

122

33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could...MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that...

2013-07-01

123

Improving the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated vegetable oils by blending with high-oleic sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing different proportions of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with polyunsaturated vegetable oils provides a simple method\\u000a to prepare more stable edible oils with a wide range of desired fatty acid composition. Oxidative stability of soybean, canola\\u000a and corn oils, blended with different proportions of HOSO to lower the respective levels of linolenate and linoleate, was\\u000a evaluated at 60°C. Oxidation was

E. N. Frankel; S. W. Huang

1994-01-01

124

Vegetable oil blends with ?-linolenic acid rich Garden cress oil modulate lipid metabolism in experimental rats.  

PubMed

Vegetable oil blends with modified fatty acid profile are being developed to improve n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) ratio in edible oils. The objective of this study is to develop vegetable oil blends with ?-linolenic acid (ALA) rich Garden cress oil (GCO) and assess their modulatory effect on lipid metabolism. Sunflower oil (SFO), Rice bran oil (RBO), Sesame oil (SESO) were blended with GCO at different ratios to obtain n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2.3-2.6. Native and GCO blended oils were fed to Wistar rats at 10% level in the diet for 60 days. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), LDL-C levels in GCO and GCO blended oil fed rats compared to native oil fed rats. ALA, EPA, DHA contents were significantly increased while linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in different tissues of GCO and GCO blended oils fed rats. In conclusion, blending of vegetable oils with GCO increases ALA, decreases n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio and beneficially modulates lipid profile. PMID:22980881

Umesha, S S; Naidu, K Akhilender

2012-12-15

125

Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock

Yarely Lugo

2010-01-01

126

New microemulsion systems using diesel and vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to rationalize the use of the conventional existing fuels, associated to the impositions of severe legislation for controlling the level of emissions, has been demanding the development of optional fuels and the increase in the efficiency of the current engines. This study presents new microemulsion systems containing diesel and different percentages of vegetable oils (soy, palm and ricin),

T Neuma de Castro Dantas; A. C da Silva; A. A. D Neto

2001-01-01

127

Application of UNIFAC to vegetable oil-alkane mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of the vapor-liquid equilibria of vegetable oil-hexane mixtures is studied. Activity coefficients are calculated\\u000a by the UNIFAC model. Different entropic contributions to activity coefficients from the literature are analyzed. These modifications\\u000a improve the performance of the original UNIFAC model in vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations.

Tiziana Fornari; Susana Bottini; Esteban A. Brignole

1994-01-01

128

Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

2006-01-01

129

Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as

O Schröder; A Munack; J Schaak; C Pabst; L Schmidt; J Bünger; J Krahl

2012-01-01

130

Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24632108

Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

2014-04-01

131

Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

2014-07-01

132

Mist generation from metalworking fluids formulated using vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Metalworking fluid emulsion formulations produced from vegetable oils may be less toxic and may reduce disposal costs when compared with fluids formulated with petroleum-based oils. Experiments were performed on experimental emulsions made with unmodified and modified soybean oils to measure rates of mist production by impaction, centrifugal force and evaporation/recondensation mechanisms. Results were compared with measurements made using a commercial metalworking fluid emulsion formulated using vegetable oil and another made from mineral oil. The results indicated that most of the experimental fluids produced about the same amount of mist as the commercial fluids by impaction and more mist than the petroleum-based fluid by centrifugal force. However, an air-oxidized modified soy oil produced less mist by impaction than the petroleum-based fluid and about the same by centrifugal force. The experimental fluids produced between 30 and 90% less mist than the commercial fluids by evaporation/recondensation. The air-oxidized soybean oil was the most promising candidate among the experimental fluids for further testing in more realistic machining conditions. PMID:15640308

Raynor, Peter C; Kim, Seung Won; Bhattacharya, Mrinal

2005-06-01

133

Feasibility and emissions of compression ignition engines fueled with waste vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and experience has shown that vegetable oil can be processed, by transesterification, into a useable fuel for compression ignition engines. Earlier research examined using straight vegetable oil as a fuel, but found it to cause detrimental engine problems. Trial and error has shown that heating the vegetable oil prior to injection, is a viable option. A diesel vehicle engine

Morgan H Crawford

2003-01-01

134

Systems study of vegetable oils and animal fats for use as substitute and emergency diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal findings are described as follows: leading issues, economic considerations, production potential for oilseed crops, oilseed processing, energy balance, diesel fuel and engine considerations, vegetable oil emissions, and research and development needs. The following appendices are included: profiles of selected vegetable oils and animal fats, economic information on vegetable oils and animal fats, the production potential for selected oilseed

E. S. Lipinsky; T. A. McClure; S. Kresovich; J. L. Otis; C. K. Wagner; D. A. Trayser; H. R. Applebaum

1981-01-01

135

Classification of vegetable oils by high-resolution 13 C NMR spectroscopy using chromatographically obtained oil fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

13C NMR spectra of oil fractions obtained chromatographically from 109 vegetable oils were obtained and analyzed to evaluate\\u000a the potential use of those fractions in the classification of vegetable oils and to compare the results with the NMR analysis\\u000a of complete oils. The oils included the following: virgin olive oils from different cultivars and regions of Europe and north\\u000a Africa;

Rosario Zamora; Gemma Gómez; Francisco J. Hidalgo

2002-01-01

136

Study of the vegetal oil as a substitute for mineral oils in distribution transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are so many factors that negatively affect distribution transformer operations, especially its electrical insulation system. Traditionally mineral oil has been used as insulating material, however, in the last years there is a growing interest in using vegetable oil, these fluids are currently being used in the range of small to medium distribution power transformers. The purpose of this work

A. R. Marulanda; M. A. Artigas; A. Gavidia; F. Labarca; N. Paz

2008-01-01

137

Formation of headspace volatiles by thermal decomposition of oxidized fish oils vs. oxidized vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the reasons for differences in oxidative stability among edible oils, the temperature dependence was investigated\\u000a for the development of volatile lipid oxidation products in fish oils and in vegetable oils. A rapid headspace capillary gas\\u000a chromatographic method was developed to determine volatile oxidation products of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fats (pentane\\u000a and hexanal) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fats (propanal)

E. N. Frankel

1993-01-01

138

Evaluation of several techniques and additives to de-moisturise vegetable oils and bench mark the moisture content level of vegetable oil-based dielectric fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly biodegradable and renewable seed-based oils can be an alternative source of dielectric fluids to replace the non-friendly mineral oil-based dielectric fluids. However, the high moisture content of vegetable oils is not suitable for a viable dielectric fluid formulation for safe, economic and trouble free operation of power and distribution transformers. The reduction of the moisture level of vegetable oils

M. Amanullah; S. M. Islam; S. Chami; G. Ienco

2008-01-01

139

Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

Black, Micah [University of Southern Mississippi, The; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Rawlins, James [University of Southern Mississippi, The

2011-01-01

140

Elastohydrodynamic properties of seed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The film-forming properties of canola (CAN), soybean (SBO), and jojoba (JO) seed oils under elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conditions\\u000a were investigated to determine whether differences in their chemical and physical properties affect their EHD properties.\\u000a Polyalphaolefin (PAO), whose EHD properties have been reported before, was used as the reference synthetic oil. The effect\\u000a of measurement variables (speed, load, and temperature) on the

G. Biresaw

2006-01-01

141

Detection of genetically modified soybean DNA in refined vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, four different protocols were tested for their ability to extract DNA from blended refined vegetable oils:\\u000a the in-house prepared Wizard and CTAB methods and the methods based on the use of the commercial kits Wizard® Magnetic DNA purification system for food and Nucleospin® for food. The performance of the extraction protocols was determined by end-point polymerase chain

Joana Costa; Isabel Mafra; Joana S. Amaral; M. Beatriz P. P. Oliveira

2010-01-01

142

Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils (VOs) is a promising alternative fuel to diesel regarding the limited resources of fossil fuel and the environmental concerns. In this work, an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel from VOs using heterogeneous catalyst was developed. Na\\/NaOH\\/?-Al2O3 heterogeneous base catalyst was firstly adopted for the production of biodiesel. A study

Hak-Joo Kim; Bo-Seung Kang; Min-Ju Kim; Young Moo Park; Deog-Keun Kim; Jin-Suk Lee; Kwan-Young Lee

2004-01-01

143

Highly Stable Nonionic Fatliquors Based on Ethoxylated Overused Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overused vegetable oils, which are considered to be a waste and available in huge quantities after frying processes, were\\u000a directly ethoxylated using a conventional cheap catalyst in order to obtain an economically valuable ethoxylated product to\\u000a replace the imported intermediate derivatives and at the same time the environment will be rid of one of its pollutants. Therefore,\\u000a this work was

EL-Shahat H. A. Nashy; Ghada A. Abo-ELwafa

144

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na2SO4 dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with

Umran Tezcan Un; A. Savas Koparal; Ulker Bakir Ogutveren

2009-01-01

145

Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing

S. M. Geyer; M. J. Jacobus; S. S. Lestz

1984-01-01

146

The adsorption of fatty acids from vegetable oils with zeolites and bleaching clay\\/zeolite blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of model fatty acids (hepatnoic, oleic), using spiked vegetable oils, was studied using different kinds of\\u000a zeolites (A-zeolite, X, Y-zeolites, mordenite), Y-zeolite exchanged with different cations (alkali, alkaline earth, transition\\u000a metal ions), and with bleaching clay\\/zeolite blends. The adsorption process was shown to be governed by the molecular sieving\\u000a properties of the zeolites involved as well as the

D. R. Taylor; C. B. Ungermann; Z. Demidowicz

1984-01-01

147

Depression of pour points of vegetable oils by blending with diluents used for biodegradable lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature properties need improvement before vegetable oils can receive wider recognition as biodegradable lubricants.\\u000a Effects of dilution with major biodegradable fluids, namely poly alpha olefin (PAO 2), diisodecyl adipate (DIDA), and oleates,\\u000a as well as impact of pour point depressant (PPD), were investigated. Since solidification of mixed unsaturated triacylglycerols\\u000a is a complex thermodynamic process, the study was limited to pour

Svajus Asadauskas; Sevim Z. Erhan

1999-01-01

148

Free radical addition of butanethiol to vegetable oil double bonds.  

PubMed

Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Further product characterization and analysis was conducted using GC and GC-MS on the fatty acid methyl esters obtained by the transesterification of the SMVO products. Investigation of the effect of reaction conditions showed that high yield and high conversion of double bonds into thiol were favored at low reaction temperatures and high butanethiol/vegetable oil ratios. Canola and corn oils gave similar double-bond conversions and yields of the desired SMVO product even though they have big differences in the relative numbers of single and multiple double bonds in their structures. Under best reaction conditions, up to 97% of double-bond conversion and 61% isolated yields of the purified SMVO products were attained. PMID:19166316

Bantchev, Grigor B; Kenar, James A; Biresaw, Girma; Han, Moon Gyu

2009-02-25

149

Reduction of epoxidized vegetable oils: a novel method to prepare bio-based polyols for polyurethanes.  

PubMed

A novel method, epoxidation/reduction of vegetable oils, is developed to prepare bio-based polyols for the manufacture of polyurethanes (PUs). These polyols are synthesized from castor oil (CO), epoxidized soybean oil, and epoxidized linseed oil and their molecular structures are characterized. They are used to prepare a variety of PUs, and their thermomechanical properties are compared to those of PU made with petroleum-based polyol (P-450). It is shown that PUs made with polyols from soybean and linseed oil exhibit higher glass transition temperatures, tensile strength, and Young's modulus and PU made with polyol from CO exhibits higher elongation at break and toughness than PU made with P-450. However, PU made with P-450 displays better thermal resistance because of tri-ester structure and terminal functional groups. The method provides a versatile way to prepare bio-polyols from vegetable oils, and it is expected to partially or completely replace petroleum-based polyols in PUs manufacture. PMID:24668919

Zhang, Chaoqun; Ding, Rui; Kessler, Michael R

2014-06-01

150

Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

2014-06-01

151

Characterization of Brominated Vegetable Oils by Normal and Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brominated vegetable oils are characterized by normal and reversed phase chromatography using UV absorbance detection at 220 nm. A series of seven brominated vegetable oil preparations are transesterified using acid methanolysis and the resulting dibromo-, tetrabromo- and hexabromostearate components quantitated by HPLC. The identification of the oils compare favorably with results obtained by gas chromatography.

James F. Lawrence; Rajinder K. Chadha; Henry B. S. Conacher

1987-01-01

152

Inedible vegetable oils and their derivatives for alternative diesel fuels in CI engines: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of inedible vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increased environmental problems including the great need for edible oil as food and the reduction of biodiesel production cost, etc. Of a lot of inedible vegetable oils which can be exploited for substitute fuel as

Soo-Young No

2011-01-01

153

Use of hydrogen to enhance the performance of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of vegetable oils in unmodified diesel engines leads to reduced thermal efficiency and increased smoke levels. In this work, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance while using small quantities of hydrogen in a compression ignition engine primarily fuelled with a vegetable oil, namely Jatropha oil. A single cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine designed to develop a power output

M. Senthil Kumar; A. Ramesh; B. Nagalingam

2003-01-01

154

Study on the use of alternative fuel made from waste vegetable oil in the diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a useful alternative fuel, vegetable oil is a kind of continuous renewed energy sources made from photosynthesis. In the paper, a performance comparison experiment of two kinds of fuel, alternative fuel made from waste vegetable oil and No.0 diesel oil, was conducted in the small type of diesel engine. Results showed that the alternative fuel is fit for the

Yan-yao Wang; Shu-qi Shang

2011-01-01

155

Determination of the total unsaturation in vegetable oils by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper multivariate calibration was used in conjunction with NIR-Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy for determination of the total degree of unsaturation in vegetable oils. For this purpose, different vegetable oils and some mixtures were employed as calibration standards. A calibration model based on partial least squares (PLS) was constructed and used to analyse oils with iodine values ranging from

Rosangela C Barthus; Ronei J Poppi

2001-01-01

156

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites.  

PubMed

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 degrees C of melting point, and 111 degrees C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance. PMID:20596546

Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

2009-01-01

157

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

2009-01-01

158

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

2009-07-01

159

Total antioxidant activity of selected vegetable oils and their influence on total antioxidant values in vivo: A photochemiluminescence based analysis.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils. PMID:24996369

Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R

2014-12-01

160

Physicochemical properties and crystallisation behaviour of bakery shortening produced from stearin fraction of palm-based diacyglycerol blended with various vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The stearin fraction of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAGS) was produced from dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG). Bakery shortening blends were produced by mixing PDAGS with either palm mid fraction, PMF (PDAGS/PMF), palm olein, POL(PDAGS/POL) or sunflower oil, SFO (PDAGS/SFO) at PDAGS molar fraction of XPDAGS=0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%. The physicochemical results obtained indicated that C16:0 and C18:1 were the dominant fatty acids for PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/POL, while C18:1 and C18:2 were dominant in the PDAGS/SFO mixtures. SMP and SFC of the PDAGS were reduced with the addition of PMF, POL and SFO. Binary mixtures of PDAGS/PMF had better structural compatibility and full miscibility with each other. PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/SFO crystallised in ?'+? polymorphs in the presence of 0.4-0.5% PDAGS while PDAGS/POL resulted in ? polymorphs crystal. The results gave indication that PDAGS: PMF at 50%:50% and 60%:40% (w/w) were the most suitable fat blend to be used as bakery shortening. PMID:23993569

Latip, Razam Ab; Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

2013-12-15

161

Vegetable Oils and Soap Production in Tanzania. Mafura as Tallow Substitute,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cooking oil and soap are essential consumer goods which are in great shortage in Tanzania. Although the natural conditions for producing vegetable oils in the country are good, the recorded production has been declining sharply during the last ten years. ...

V. Fupi K. Stenberg

1988-01-01

162

On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

?erban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

163

Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.  

PubMed

With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 ?g/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention. PMID:24016262

Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

2013-10-01

164

Investigations on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Vegetable Oil Biodiesels as Fuels in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neat vegetable oils having high viscosity and low volatility could result in incomplete combustion in engine operation. The remedy for this is conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesels in order to reduce viscosity and increase volatility, thereby improving the performance in a CI engine. Biodiesel is methyl ester derived from vegetable oils (edible and non edible oils) or animal fats.

M. Satyanarayana; C. Muraleedharan

2011-01-01

165

Characteristics of bread and buns made with lard and vegetable oils of different iodine values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good-quality white loaf of bread or rolls can be baked by substituting liquid vegetable oil (canola, soya and palm) for\\u000a the standard shortening,i.e. lard, tallow or partially hydrogenated vegetable shortening. Canola oil and soya oil produced lower specific volumes of 5.56\\u000a and 5.55 cm3\\/g and higher softness indices when used with mono- and diglycerides only. Palm oil and lard

Basil S. Kamel

1992-01-01

166

Extraction of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by vegetable oil-based organic solvents.  

PubMed

Various types of vegetable oil-based organic solvents (VOS), i.e. vegetable oils (corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils) with and without extractants (di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tributylphosphate (TBP)), were investigated into their potentiality as greener substitutes for the conventional petroleum-based organic solvents to extract Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The pH-extraction isotherms of Cu(II) using various vegetable oils loaded with both D2EHPA and TBP were investigated and the percentage extraction (%E) of Cu(II) achieved by different types of VOS was determined. Vegetable oils without extractants and those loaded with TBP alone showed a poor extractability for Cu(II). Vegetable oils loaded with both D2EHPA and TBP were found to be the most effective VOS for Cu(II) extraction and, thus, are potential greener substitutes for the conventional petroleum-based organic solvents. PMID:20638965

Chang, Siu Hua; Teng, Tjoon Tow; Ismail, Norli

2010-09-15

167

Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine using high-viscous vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-viscous vegetable oil of non-edible type was used in diesel engine to test the performance and emissions. Viscosity was reduced by ethanol blending. A single cylinder four stroke DI diesel engine was employed for testing. The blends used were 90 % oil with 10 % ethanol (E-10), 80 % oil with 20% ethanol (E-20), 70 % oil with 30% ethanol

S. Savariraj; T. Ganapathy; C. G. Saravanan

2012-01-01

168

Biodiesel Production by Ethanolysis of Various Vegetable oils Using Calcium Ethoxide as Solid Base Catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were produced from 4 different vegetable oils (sunflower, cotton seed, olive oil and used frying oil) using calcium ethoxide as a heterogeneous solid base catalyst. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil, the molar ratio of ethanol to

G. Anastopoulos; G. S. Dodos; S. Kalligeros; F. Zannikos

2012-01-01

169

Vegetable Oils as an on the Farm Diesel Fuel Substitute: The North Carolina Situation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanica...

H. J. Harwood

1981-01-01

170

APPLICATION OF CROSS-BOREHOLE RADAR TO MONITOR FIELD­ SCALE VEGETABLE OIL INJECTION EXPERIMENTS FOR BIOSTIMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-borehole radar methods were used to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), located downgradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil is intended to serve as

Frederick D. Day-Lewis; Roelof J. Versteeg; Clifton C. Casey

171

Taxonomic perspective of plant species yielding vegetable oils used in cosmetics and skin care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search conducted to determine the plants yielding vegetable oils resulted in 78 plant species with potential use in cosmetics and skin care products. The taxonomic position of these plant species is described with a description of vegetable oils from these plants and their use in cosmetics and skin care products. These species belonged to 74 genera and 45 plant

Mohammad Athar; Syed Mahmood Nasir

172

Straight vegetable oils usage in a compression ignition engine—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever increasing fossil fuel usage and cost, environmental concern has forced the world to look for alternatives. Straight vegetable oils in compression ignition engine are a ready solution available, however, with certain limitations and with some advantages as reported by many researchers. A comprehensive and critical review is presented specifically pertaining to straight vegetable oils usage in diesel engine.

R. D. Misra; M. S. Murthy

2010-01-01

173

Analysis of biodiesel and frying vegetable oils by means of FTIR photoacoustic spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy was used to determine the mid-infrared vibrational modes of biodiesel and vegetable oils. Our results indicate that this method can contribute significantly to the biodiesel wash process during the sample preparation. Besides, by analyzing the spectra of vegetable oils used to fry snacks we could to monitor the degradation in function of the fried time.

Lima, S. M.; Izida, T.; Figueiredo, M. S.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Del Ré, P. V.; Jorge, N.; Buba, E.; Aristone, F.

2008-01-01

174

Clean Cities, Fact Sheet, April 2006. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns about U.S. reliance on imported petroleum and fluctuating fuel prices have led to growing interest in using biodiesel, an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils. However, there is also interest in the direct use of vegetable oils as straight o...

2006-01-01

175

Thermal Properties of oil sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

2013-12-01

176

The comparison of solid phase microextraction-GC and static headspace-GC for determination of solvent residues in vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The objective of these investigations has been the determination of volatile organic compounds including residue solvents present in vegetable oil samples. Some olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy-bean oil, pumpkin oil, grape oil, rice oil as well as hazel-nut oil samples were analysed. Among residue solvents the following compounds have been mentioned: acetone, n-hexane, benzene, and toluene. Some experiments for the solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-flame ionisation detection (FID) were performed to examine extraction conditions such as fiber exposure time, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers such as polydimethylsiloxane, Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coatings were used for the isolation of tested compounds from vegetable oil samples. After optimisation of SPME, real vegetable oil samples were examined using SPME-GC/MS. Based on preliminary experiments the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of acetone, n-hexane, benzene and toluene were performed by SPME-GC-FID and static head-space (SHS)-GC-FID methods. The regression coefficients for calibration curves for the examined compounds were R(2) > or = 0.992. This shows that the used method is linear in the examined concentration range (0.005-0.119 mg/kg for SPME-GC-FID and 0.003-0.728 mg/kg for SHS-GC-FID). Chemical properties of analysed vegetable oils have been characterised by chemometric procedure (cluster analysis). PMID:18196521

Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

2008-02-01

177

Changes in Lipid Profile by Vegetable Oil Blends Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Rats with Hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different blended vegetable oils having different levels and profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on hypercholesterolemia by analyzing the changes in lipid profile in high-cholesterol diet fed rats. Three vegetable oils (soy oil, sunflower oil, and the nonconventional flaxseed oil) were blended to obtain blends rich in PUFA. Thirty

M. F. Ramadan; M. M. Afify Amer; S. S. El-Saadany; R. Abd El-Fatah El-Masry; A. El-Said Awad

2009-01-01

178

Fachgespraech 'Pflanzenoeltauglicher Diesel-Motor'. Ergebnisprotokoll. (Minutes of technical discussion on 'Diesel engine capable of using vegetable oil'. Results).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The minutes of technical discussions on 'Diesel engine capable of using vegetable oil' are submitted. Conclusions are appended to the subject areas, which are briefly outlined. There are individual reports on: Mixing vegetable oils for Diesels (no practic...

1987-01-01

179

Brominated vegetable oil myopathy: inhibition at multiple sites.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle lipid storage was induced by feeding rats brominated vegetable oil (BVO). The defect was examined by measuring radioactive substrate oxidation, intermediates of fatty acid oxidation, and activities of oxidative enzymes. One- and U-[14C] palmitate and 1-[14C] pyruvate oxidation were reduced in muscle after four doses of BVO. Inhibition of U-[14C] palmitate oxidation occurred after two doses. Short chain acylcoenzyme A(CoA) derivatives accumulated in the muscle. Several enzymes of beta-oxidation were significantly reduced, with the greatest reduction in 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. The inhibition probably affected multiple sites of CoA and CoA-derivative metabolism. PMID:6242313

Carroll, J E; Norris, B J; Villadiego, A; Wheeler, S D

1984-10-01

180

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

2009-01-01

181

Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements  

PubMed Central

Background There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

2011-01-01

182

Viscoelastic properties of heavy oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rheological low frequency measurements were carried out to analyze the viscoelastic properties of four heavy oil samples. At room conditions, the heavy oil samples exhibit non-Newtonian or viscoelastic behavior since they have a viscous component and an elastic component. The latter becomes very important for temperatures below 30°C, and for seismic to ultrasonic frequencies. Above this temperature, the viscous component increases significantly in comparison to the elastic component, and for seismic frequencies heavy oils can be considered as Newtonian fluids. A new viscosity model based on the concept of activation energy was derived to predict viscosity in terms of frequency and temperature for temperatures below 60°C. A new frequency-temperature dispersion model was derived to address the variation of the complex shear modulus (G*) with frequency and temperature for the heavy oil samples. This model fits the data well for seismic and sonic frequencies but it overpredicts G* at ultrasonic frequencies.

Rojas Luces, Maria Alejandra

183

Effects of replacing pork back fat with vegetable oils and rice bran fiber on the quality of reduced-fat frankfurters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of substituting olive, grape seed, corn, canola, or soybean oil and rice bran fiber on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, fatty acid composition, and sensory properties of low-fat frankfurters were investigated. Ten percent of the total fat content of frankfurters with a total fat content of 30% (control) was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils to

Yun-Sang Choi; Ji-Hun Choi; Doo-Jeong Han; Hack-Youn Kim; Mi-Ai Lee; Jong-Youn Jeong; Hai-Jung Chung; Cheon-Jei Kim

2010-01-01

184

Tribological studies of thermally and chemically modified vegetable oils for use as environmentally friendly lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boundary lubrication in a dynamic mechanical system is primarily governed by the formation of a stable tribochemical film. Polar functional groups in the triacylglycerol molecule of vegetable oil in conjunction with oil–additive–metal interaction during the metal rubbing process can significantly improve the wear resistance and extreme-pressure lubrication. Increasing the polar functionality of vegetable oil structure has a positive impact on

A Adhvaryu; S. Z Erhan; J. M Perez

2004-01-01

185

Alternative Diesel Fuel Study on Four Different Types of Vegetable Oils of Turkish Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, com, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20\\/80 (v\\/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1200 and 2100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods.

TURGUT ÖZAKTA; F?L?Z KARAOSMANOGLU

1997-01-01

186

Enzymatic Interesterification of Tripalmitin with Vegetable Oil Blends for Formulation of Caprine Milk Infant Formula Analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blendswasenzymaticallymodified,andtheblendswere incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to hu- man milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, andlinoleicacids,resemblingthecompositionofhuman milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterifica- tion reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blendcontaininga2.5:1.1:0.8ratioofcoconut,safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme

C. O. Maduko; C. C. Akoh; Y. W. Park

2007-01-01

187

Low-temperature phase behavior of vegetable oil\\/co-solvent blends as alternative diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils (triacylglycerols) have many characteristics that make them attractive candidates as renewable alternative\\u000a fuels for compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Unfortunately, vegetable oils are too viscous to be compatible with modern\\u000a direct-injection diesel fuel systems and engines. Co-solvent blending is a simple and flexible technology that reduces viscosity\\u000a by mixing the oil with low molecular weight alcohol. A co-solvent (A), consisting,

R. O. Dunn; M. O. Bagby

2000-01-01

188

Properties and postharvest behavior of the vegetable cactus Nopalea cochenillifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flattened stem segments (cladodes) of certain cactus species are eaten in Mexico as a vegetable, when still at the young tender stage (nopalitos). This study focuses on the properties and response under storage of vegetable cladodes of a spineless cactus species newly introduced to Israel, Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck. Cladodes of N. cochenillifera were found to be suitable for harvest

A. Nerd; M. Dumoutier; Y. Mizrahi

1997-01-01

189

Analyses of Vegetable Oil Triacylglycerols by Silver Ion High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver ion high performance liquid chromatography with a commercially available column with a simple isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile in hexane and flame ionization detection was employed to separate and quantitate triacylglycerol species of vegetable oils. Coconut, palm, cottonseed, olive, safflower, sunflower, corn, pumpkinseed, linseed, soybean, and canola oils were analyzed, as well as randomized corn and soybean oils, and

W. E. Neff; R. O. Adlof; G. R. List; M. El-Agaimy

1994-01-01

190

Performance and Emission Characteristics of Vegetable Oil as Diesel Fuel Extender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inedible vegetable oils that can be extracted from unexploited forest produce can provide solutions to energy requirements at the grass roots level, thus obviating dependence on fossil fuels. Short-term compression ignition engine tests were carried out using karanj (Pongamia pinnata) oil alone and also by blending it with diesel. The calorific value of karanj oil was 14.77% less than that

C. P. Sigar; S. L. Soni; J. Mathur; D. Sharma

2008-01-01

191

Vegetable oils and animal fats as alternative fuels for diesel engines with dual fuel operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils and animal fats are applicable as fuels in standard diesel engines after having adapted the fuel system for electronically controlled dual fuel regime oil\\/fat–fossil diesel. In this contribution, performance and emission characteristics of the engines running on rapeseed oil, lard, or chicken fat are given and compared to those of fossil diesel and fatty acid methyl esters. The

A. Kleinová; I. Vailing; J. Lábaj; J. Mikulec; J. Cvengroš

2011-01-01

192

Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts and dispersing MNPs in the oil media, without the use of any external reducing or stabilizing agents. These well-dispersed MNP-in-oil dispersions can be used directly, akin to commercially available paints, on nearly all kinds of surface such as wood, glass, steel and different polymers. The surfaces coated with silver-nanoparticle paint showed excellent antimicrobial properties by killing both Gram-positive human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The process we have developed here is quite general and can be applied in the synthesis of a variety of MNP-in-oil systems.

Kumar, Ashavani; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; John, George

2008-03-01

193

ETC Spills Technology Databases: Oil Properties Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Technology Center of Environment Canada provides a database which contains various properties of crude oils and petroleum products. In addition to the listing of oils, the database reports properties "which will likely determine the environmental behavior and effects of spilled oil." The user may select an oil from a pull-down menu that lists 412 oils. The data are organized into tables in the following areas: Origin, API Gravity, Density, Pour Point, Dynamic Viscosity, Hydrocarbon Groups, and Distillation.

Fieldhouse, B.; Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Lambert, P.; Mullin, J.; Wang, Z.

194

Experimental study of the effects of vegetable oil methyl ester on DI diesel engine performance characteristics and pollutant emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil methyl ester (VOME) is produced through the transesterification of vegetable oil and can be used as biodiesel in diesel engines as a renewable, nontoxic, and potentially environmentally friendly fossil fuel alternative in light of growing concerns regarding global warming and increasing oil prices. This study used VOME fuels produced from eight commonly seen oil bases to conduct a

Bai-Fu Lin; Jyun-Han Huang; Dao-Yi Huang

2009-01-01

195

Prediction of Acid Values of Vegetable Oils Having High Free Fatty Acids Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-edible vegetable oils are found to be a good option for diesel fuel, as these oils are renewable energy or green energy and less polluting to the environment. In developing countries like India, especially southern parts of the country (i.e., in Kerala), more land is cultivated with rubber trees. Rubber seed oil, a non-edible oil, can be used as an

M. Satyanarayana; C. Muraleedharan

2010-01-01

196

Effects of fish oil substitution with a mix blend vegetable oil on nutrient digestibility in Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii peelii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replacement of fish oil with vegetable based oils is a strategy which is increasingly being adopted by the aquafeed industry as an essential component to reduce the reliance on a limited supply of a natural resource, which in turn also provides cost benefits. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the lipid and fatty acid digestibility of

David S. Francis; Giovanni M. Turchini; Paul L. Jones; Sena S. De Silva

2007-01-01

197

Systems Study of Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats for Use as Substitute and Emergency Diesel Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal findings are described as follows: leading issues, economic considerations, production potential for oilseed crops, oilseed processing, energy balance, diesel fuel and engine considerations, vegetable oil emissions, and research and developm...

C. K. Wagner E. S. Lipinsky J. L. Otis S. Kresovich T. A. McClure

1981-01-01

198

Effect of iron on the sensitivity of hydrogen, acetate, and butyrate metabolism to inhibition by long-chain fatty acids in vegetable-oil-enriched freshwater sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial communities that develop when sediments are enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the absence of ferric hydroxide. This study examined the

Zhengkai Li; Brian A. Wrenn; Albert D. Venosa

2005-01-01

199

Differential sorption of 1-methylcyclopropene to fruit and vegetable tissues, storage and cell wall polysaccharides, oils, and lignins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the nature and multiplicity of non-specific 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) sorption sites in fruit and vegetable tissues. 1-MCP sorption rates and capacities were measured for plant tissues, cell wall polysaccharides, starch, oils, and lignins sealed in 130mL jars and provided with 18.6?LL?1 gaseous 1-MCP (SmartFresh™ Technology). Significant variation was noted in the sorption properties of the

Sun Tay Choi; Donald J. Huber

2009-01-01

200

Conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils has drawn considerable attention with increasing environmental consciousness. We attempted\\u000a continuous methanolysis of vegetable oil by an enzymatic process. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase was found to be the most effective for the methanolysis among lipases tested. The enzyme was inactivated by shaking\\u000a in a mixture containing more than 1.5 molar equivalents of methanol against the

Yuji Shimada; Yomi Watanabe; Taichi Samukawa; Akio Sugihara; Hideo Noda; Hideki Fukuda; Yoshio Tominaga

1999-01-01

201

Shape evolution of CdSe nanocrystals in vegetable oils: A synergistic effect of selenium precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, common vegetable oils are used as coordination solvents for synthesis of high quality CdSe nanocrystals. Various shaped nanocrystals (quantum dots, quantum rods, multipods, arc structure, etc.) can be produced free of alkylphosphonic acids. Shape evolution can be induced by three types of selenium precursors: ODE-Se, VO-Se and TOP-Se (ODE, 1-octadecene; VO, vegetable oil; TOP, trio-n-octylphosphine). The quantum

Ming Sun; Haizhou Yu; Wen Yang; Li Qi; Fan Yang; Xiurong Yang

2009-01-01

202

Oxidation and low temperature stability of vegetable oil-based lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as base fluid for eco-friendly lubricants because of their excellent lubricity, biodegradability, viscosity–temperature characteristics and low volatility. Their use, however, is restricted due to low thermo-oxidative stability and poor cold flow behavior. This paper presents a systematic approach to improve the oxidation behavior and low temperature fluidity of vegetable oil derivatives. Among the various possible

Sevim Z. Erhan; Brajendra K. Sharma; Joseph M. Perez

2006-01-01

203

Leafy vegetable extracts—antioxidant activity and effect on storage stability of heated oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation was undertaken with an objective of analyzing the antioxidant capacity of leafy vegetables (LV) and testing their efficacy on storage of heated oils. Four leafy vegetables viz., cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum), hongone (Alternanthera sessilis), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were analyzed for antioxidant activity by standard methods. The ethanol extracts of LV were added

B. N. Shyamala; Sheetal Gupta; A. Jyothi Lakshmi; Jamuna Prakash

2005-01-01

204

How does Biotech Labeling Affect Consumers' Purchasing Behavior? A Case Study of Vegetable Oils in Nanjing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes whether biotech labeling has an impact on consumers'? purchasing behavior in China using vegetable oils in Nanjing as a case study. Results from an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) based on retail scanning data suggest that biotech labeling induced only a modest switch in vegetable oils consumption away from labeled soybean and blended oils and toward non-biotech

Yingchun Dai; Francis C. Tuan; William W. Lin; Funing Zhong; Xi Chen

2006-01-01

205

Use of crude filtered vegetable oil as a fuel in diesel engines state of the art: Literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been published on vegetable oil use in diesel engines. The different authors unanimously acknowledge the potential and merits of this renewable fuel. Typically, Straight Vegetable Oils (SVOs) produced locally on a small scale, have proven to be easy to produce with very little environmental impact. However, as their physico-chemical characteristics differ from those of diesel oil, their

S. S. Sidibé; J. Blin; G. Vaitilingom; Y. Azoumah

2010-01-01

206

Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin  

SciTech Connect

Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

1997-02-01

207

Determination of brominated vegetable oils in soft drinks by gas liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the qualitative and quantitative determination of brominated vegetable oils in soft drinks. The\\u000a procedure involves treatment of the brominated oils with sodium methoxide followed by GLC analysis of the resulting methyl\\u000a esters using methyl pentadecanoate as internal standard. Recoveries on known amounts of these oils ranged between 93.7% and\\u000a 102.4%. The technique, applied to several

H. B. S. Conacher; R. K. Chadha; M. R. Sahasrabudhe

1969-01-01

208

Vegetable oil blend as alternative lipid resources in diets for gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent decreasing worldwide supplies of marine oils have forced the aquaculture industry to investigate alternative lipid\\u000a sources for use in marine fish feeds. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of dietary replacement of fish oil\\u000a by vegetable oils on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) growth performance, nutritive utilization, body composition, and fatty acid profile as well as

Elham A. Wassef; Norhan E. Saleh; Heyam A. El-Abd El-Hady

2009-01-01

209

Determination of antioxidant capacities of vegetable oils by ferric-ion spectrophotometric methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ferric-ion-based total antioxidant capacity methods: 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used for determination of antioxidant capacities (AC) of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of vegetable oils. The obtained mean Phen and FRAP values for acetonic extracts of olive oils, rapeseed, rice and four sunflower oils (39.3–336.5 and 39.5–339.6?mol Fe\\/100g) were higher than for methanolic extracts

Aleksandra Szyd?owska-Czerniak; Csilla Dianoczki; Katalin Recseg; György Karlovits; Edward Sz?yk

2008-01-01

210

Tocopherol, tocotrienol and plant sterol contents of vegetable oils and industrial fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tocopherol and tocotrienol (i.e. tocol) and plant sterol contents of 14 vegetable and 9 industrial fats and oils available on the Finnish market in 2005 were determined using NP-HPLC with fluorescence detection (tocols) and GC-FID (plant sterols). Best sources of ?-tocopherol were wheat germ (192mg\\/100g) and sunflower oil (59mg\\/100g). Oils richest in ?-tocopherol were camelina (72mg\\/100g), linseed (52mg\\/100g) and

Heidi Schwartz; Velimatti Ollilainen; Vieno Piironen; Anna-Maija Lampi

2008-01-01

211

Fast quality screening of vegetable oils by HPLC-thermal lens spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isocratic reversed-phase HPLC with thermal lens spectrometric (TLS) detection enabled identification of linseed, olive, sesame,\\u000a and wheat germ vegetable oils to control the authenticity of the oils based on characteristic carotenoid\\/carotene profiles.\\u000a Four characteristic regions of carotenoids (i.e., lutein, xanthophyll, carotene, and lycopene) have been identified in each\\u000a type of oil. The concentrations of total ?-carotene (BC) and ?-carotene (AC),

Svjetlana Luterotti; Mladen Franko; Dane Bicanic

2002-01-01

212

Correlation of viscosities of vegetable oil blends with selected esters and hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blending is often used to reduce the viscosity of vegetable oil lubricants. Experimental rheological results were compared\\u000a with traditional blending charts and calculation methods. Kinematic viscosities of 90% oleic sunflower, canola, and soybean\\u000a oils blended with adipates, oleates, polyalphaolefins, and mineral oil were determined at 40C using capillary viscometers.\\u000a Blending charts related the viscosities to blend composition with 5% inaccuracy

S. Z. Erhan; S. Asadauskas; A. Adhvaryu

2002-01-01

213

Colorimetric and potentiometric determination of acid numbers of vegetable and marine oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A discussion is presented of present official methods of determining the acid number of oils. A colorimetric method is presented\\u000a for the determination of acid numbers of marine and vegetable oils and related products. It involves the use of alcoholic\\u000a KOH, phenolphthalein, and a titration solvent consisting of 49.5% anhydrous isopropanol. 50% benzene, and 0.5% water. Most\\u000a oils are completely

Stanley R. Ames; S. B. Licata

1948-01-01

214

Low carbon flower buildup, low smoke, and efficient diesel operation with vegetable oils by conversion to mono-esters and blending with diesel oil or alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated DI Diesel engine is evaluated. Means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion is found. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits are measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. Both of the vegetable oil fuels generate an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they cause carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation. Practical solutions to overcome the problems are: increasing the fuel temperature to over 200/sup 0/C, blending 25 vol % diesel fuel in the vegetable oil, blending 20 vol % ethanol in the fuel, or converting the vegetable oils into methylesters.

Nobukazu, T.; Itow, K.

1984-01-01

215

Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust

M. J. Jacobus; S. M. Geyer; S. S. Lestz; T. M. Risby; W. D. Taylor

1983-01-01

216

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production using waste vegetable oil by Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2.  

PubMed

To produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from inexpensive substrates by bacteria, vegetable-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from a rice field using enrichment cultivation. The isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 showed clear orange or red spots of accumulated PHA granules when grown on phosphate and nitrogen limited medium containing vegetable oil as the sole carbon source and stained with Nile blue A. Up to 37.34% (w/w) of intracellular PHA was produced from corn oil, which consisted of three major 3-hydroxyalkanoates; octanoic (C8:0, 37.75% of the total 3-hydroxyalkanoate content of PHA), decanoic (C10:0, 36.74%), and dodecanoic (C12:0, 11.36%). Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated up to 23.52% (w/w) of PHAMCL from waste vegetable oil. The proportion of 3- hydroxyalkanoate of the waste vegetable-oil-derived PHA [hexanoic (5.86%), octanoic (45.67%), decanoic (34.88%), tetradecanoic (8.35%), and hexadecanoic (5.24%)] showed a composition ratio different from that of the corn-oil-derived PHA. Strain DR2 used three major fatty acids in the same ratio, and linoleic acid was the major source of PHA production. Interestingly, the production of PHA in Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 could not occur in either acetate- or butyrate-amended media. Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated a greater amount of PHA than other well-studied strains (Chromobacterium violaceum and Ralstonia eutropha H16) when grown on vegetable oil. The data showed that Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 was capable of producing PHA from waste vegetable oil. PMID:18756101

Song, Jin Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok; Choi, Mun Hwan; Yoon, Sung Chul; Park, Woojun

2008-08-01

217

Sesame oil. III. Antioxidant properties of sesamol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  Sesamol possesses marked antioxidant activity in lard and also exhibits a pronounced protection for vegetable oils, especially\\u000a for sesame oil.\\u000a \\u000a The antioxidant activity of sesamol strengthens the assumption that free sesamol is responsible for the unusual stability\\u000a of hydrogenated sesame oil, a subject which has been reported in another article in this series.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The use of sesamol as

Pierre Budowski

1950-01-01

218

Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.  

PubMed

The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

2012-02-17

219

Fuel properties of peanut oil blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic physical properties of crude peanut oil blended with ester, gasoline, butanol or diesel No. 2 were experimentally measured to help establish suitability for use in modern design diesel engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 10% increments from 1 to 100%, the following properties were found: heating value, specific gravity, and surface tension. Low temperature solubility limits

Goodrum

2009-01-01

220

Application of data mining methods for classification and prediction of olive oil blends with other vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to study tree-based ensemble methods, new emerging modelling techniques, for authentication of samples of olive oil blends to check their suitability for classifying the samples according to the type of oil used for the blend as well as for predicting the amount of olive oil in the blend. The performance of these methods has been investigated in chromatographic fingerprint data of olive oil blends with other vegetable oils without needing either to identify or to quantify the chromatographic peaks. Different data mining methods-classification and regression trees, random forest and M5 rules-were tested for classification and prediction. In addition, these classification and regression tree approaches were also used for feature selection prior to modelling in order to reduce the number of attributes in the chromatogram. The good outcomes have shown that these methods allow one to obtain interpretable models with much more information than the traditional chemometric methods and provide valuable information for detecting which vegetable oil is mixed with olive oil and the percentage of oil used, with a single chromatogram. PMID:24577575

Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; Cadenas, José M; Pelta, David A; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis

2014-04-01

221

Algae, Canola, or Palm Oils—Diesel Microemulsion Fuels: Phase Behaviors, Viscosity, and Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are being considered as a renewable energy alternative for diesel. The high viscosity of vegetable oils causes injector fouling and durability problems in compression–ignition engines. Microemulsification can be used to reduce vegetable oil viscosity without complex chemical transformation processes. The goal of our work is to formulate reverse micellar microemulsions of vegetable oils and No. 2 diesel fuel

Linh D. Do; Vinay Singh; Lixia Chen; Tohren C. G. Kibbey; Sub. R. Gollahalli; David A. Sabatini

2011-01-01

222

Quality and statistical classification of Brazilian vegetable oils using mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Palm oil, soy oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil, and rapeseed oil were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The quality of different oils was evaluated and statistically classified by principal component analysis (PCA) and a partial least squares (PLS) regression model. First, a calibration set of spectra was selected from one sampling batch. The qualitative variations in spectra are discussed with a prediction of oil composition (saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids) from mid-infrared analysis and iodine value from FT-Raman analysis, based on ratioing the intensity of bands at given wavenumbers. A more robust and convincing oil classification is obtained from two-parameter statistical models. The statistical analysis of FT-Raman spectra favorably distinguishes according to the iodine value, while the mid-infrared spectra are most sensitive to hydroxyl moieties. Second, the models are validated with a set of spectra from another sampling batch, including the same oil types as-received and after different aging times together with a hydrogenated castor oil and high-oleic sunflower oil. There is very good agreement between the model predictions and the Raman measurements, but the statistical significance is lower for mid-infrared spectra. In the future, this calibration model will be used to check vegetable oil qualities before using them in polymerization processes. PMID:22524961

Samyn, Pieter; Van Nieuwkerke, Dieter; Schoukens, Gustaaf; Vonck, Leo; Stanssens, Dirk; Van den Aabbeele, Henk

2012-05-01

223

Determination of tert-butylhydroquinone in vegetable oils using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Monitoring the level of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), a permissible antioxidant additive in edible vegetable oils in many countries, is important to ensure that oils and products that contain them comply with the relevant import regulations. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology coupled with chemometric methods including partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machine (SVM) regression was applied to determine levels of TBHQ in spiked corn oils (0 to 500 mg/kg, n = 40) and commercial vegetable oils (0 to 99.7 mg/kg, n = 25). The lowest detectable concentration was 5 mg/L for TBHQ in standard solutions and 10 mg/kg of TBHQ in vegetable oils from various plant sources. The TBHQ levels predicted by the PLS or SVM model had a high correlation with actual TBHQ levels in commercial oil samples (SVM: R(2) = 0.972, ratio of performance to deviation [RPD] = 5.55, root mean square error [RMSE] = 5.73 mg/kg; PLS: R(2) = 0.976, RPD = 6.43, RMSE = 4.94 mg/kg), indicating great potential of SERS methods for detection and quantification of TBHQ in oils from a variety of sources. PMID:24784825

Pan, Yun; Lai, Keqiang; Fan, Yuxia; Li, Chunying; Pei, Lu; Rasco, Barbara A; Huang, Yiqun

2014-06-01

224

Comparative performance evaluation of karanja vegetable oil and karanja biodiesel blends with diesel in C.I. engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

.com Abstract- Karanja oil (a non edible straight vegetable oil) and karanja biodiesel (methyl ester of karanja oil) were blended with petroleum diesel in various proportions to evaluate and compare the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection constant speed diesel engine. Diesel and karanja oil and karanja biodiesel (10%, 20%,30% and 40%) fuel blends were used

R. D. Misra; M. S. Murthy

2011-01-01

225

Bioremediation of chlorate or perchlorate contaminated water using permeable barriers containing vegetable oil.  

PubMed

A scale model of an in situ permeable barrier, formed by injecting vegetable oil onto laboratory soil columns, was used to remove chlorate and perchlorate from flowing groundwater. The hypothesis that trapped oil would serve as a substrate enabling native microorganisms to reduce chlorate or perchlorate to chloride as water flowed through the oil-rich zone had merit. Approximately 96% of the 0.2 mM chlorate and 99% of the 0.2 mM perchlorate present in the water was removed as water was pumped through columns containing vegetable oil barriers. The product formed was chloride. When nitrate at 1.4 mM was added to the water, both nitrate and chlorate were removed. High concentrations of chlorate or perchlorate can be treated; 24 m M chlorate and 6 mM perchlorate were completely reduced to chloride during microcosm incubations. Microorganisms capable of reducing perchlorate are plentiful in the environment. PMID:12192528

Hunter, William J

2002-10-01

226

Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel  

SciTech Connect

The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

1982-01-01

227

Fatty esters from vegetable oils for use as a diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification of sunflower and soybean oils to fatty esters has been carried out to study reaction variables such as: (1) molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, (2) alcohol type (methanol, ethanol, and 1-butanol), (3) catalyst type (alkaline and acidic), and (4) reaction temperature (60°, 45°, and 32°C). These studies showed that ester formation was 90 to 98% complete at

B. Freedman; E. H. Pryde

1982-01-01

228

Preparation of chitosan microparticles by water-in-vegetable oil emulsion coalescence technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an implantable vehicle for enhanced control of drug release into the body, chitosan (CS) microparticles were prepared where CS was chelated by a metal ion using the emulsion coalescence technique. Aqueous solutions of CS and metal ion were separately emulsified in vegetable oil containing lecithin. After both the water-in-oil (w\\/o) emulsions were mixed and stirred, CS

Kyoko Kofuji; Chun-Jun Qian; Yoshifumi Murata; Susumu Kawashima

2005-01-01

229

Continuous production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida antarctica lipase is inactivated in a mixture of vegetable oil and more than 1?2 molar equivalent of methanol against the total fatty\\u000a acids. We have revealed that the inactivation was eliminated by three successive additions of 1?3 molar equivalent of methanol\\u000a and have developed a three-step methanolysis by which over 95% of the oil triacylglycerols (TAG) were converted to

Yomi Watanabe; Yuji Shimada; Akio Sugihara; Hideo Noda; Hideki Fukuda; Yoshio Tominaga

2000-01-01

230

A rapid gas chromatographic method for the determination of BHA and BHT in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) technique has been developed which requires about 20 min for the determination of BHA and\\u000a BHT in vegetable oils. This method involves the addition of an internal standard to a weighed portion of the oil, dilution\\u000a of the mixture with carbon disulfide, and injection into the Gas Chromatograph. BHA and BHT are isolated from the

Kenneth T. Hartman; Lucien C. Rose

1970-01-01

231

Effects of Heated Vegetable Oils on Serum Lipids and Aorta of Ovariectomized Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of heated vegetable oils in estrogen deficient rats. Eighty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into eight groups and given treatment as follows: (I) intact (non- ovariectomised), basal diet (control group); (II) ovariectomised, basal diet; (III) ovariectomised, basal diet fortified with 15% weight\\/weight (w\\/w) fresh soya bean oil (FSO); (IV) ovariectomised, basal diet fortified with

2006-01-01

232

Enzymatic Synthesis of Biodiesel from Transesterification Reactions of Vegetable Oils and Short Chain Alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel synthesis by alcoholysis of three vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower and rice bran) catalyzed by three commercial\\u000a lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme TL-IM and Lipozyme RM-IM), and the optimization of the enzymes stability over repeated batches\\u000a is described. The effects of the molar ratio of alcohol to oil and the reaction temperature with methanol, ethanol, propanol\\u000a and butanol were also studied.

Rafael Costa Rodrigues; Giandra Volpato; Keiko Wada; Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub

2008-01-01

233

Effect of Some Turkish Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends on Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, com, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20\\/80 (v\\/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and

MET?N ERGENEMAN; TURGUT ÖZAKTA?; K. BARI? CI?IZO?LU; F?L?Z KARAOSMANO?LU; ERTU?RUL ARSLAN

1997-01-01

234

Effect of amount and source of supplemental dietary vegetable oil on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxicosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Addition of sunflower oil (SFO) at 30 or 60?g\\/kg or three vegetable oils, namely SFO, soybean (SBO) or groundnut (GNO), at 30?g\\/kg to isocaloric and isonitrogenous broiler chicken diets were evaluated for possible counteractive effects against aflatoxin (AF) (0·3?µg B1\\/g diet) from 0 to 42?d of age.2. Body weight, food intake and serum concentration of protein were lower in

M. V. L. N. Raju; S. V. Rama Rao; K. Radhika; A. K. Panda

2005-01-01

235

Effects of five vegetable oils on the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of five economically important vegetable (seed) oils, peanut, cottonseed, castor, soybean and sunflower, on adult\\u000a and immature stages of the sweetpotato whitefly(Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) [Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae]) were studied in the laboratory. Irrespective of origin, oil residues had similar effects\\u000a on immature stages and adult mortality, and on settling and oviposition deterrence. Trends for 5-h settling, 24-h oviposition\\u000a and

Annie Fenigstein; Miriam Eliyahu; S. Gan-Mor; D. Veierov

2001-01-01

236

An experimental investigation of the performance and gaseous exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using blends of a vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance and gaseous emission characteristics of a diesel engine when fuelled with vegetable oil and its blends of 25%, 50%, and 75% of vegetable oil with ordinary diesel fuel separately. Tests on ordinary diesel fuel have also been carried out for comparison purposes.A series of tests are conducted and repeated six

Y. D. Wang; T. Al-Shemmeri; P. Eames; J. McMullan; N. Hewitt; Y. Huang; S. Rezvani

2006-01-01

237

Solid base catalysis of calcium glyceroxide for a reaction to convert vegetable oil into its methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

When calcium oxide is employed for transesterification of vegetable oil at reflux of methanol, calcium oxide is turned into calcium glyceroxide by combining with glycerol of the by-product. As well as calcium oxide, calcium glyceroxide seemed to catalyze the vegetable oil transesterification. In the present paper, the solid base catalysis of calcium glyceroxide was investigated by IR spectroscopy using methanol

Masato Kouzu; Jyu-suke Hidaka; Kanako Wakabayashi; Michito Tsunomori

2010-01-01

238

Performance studies of a low heat rejection engine operated on non-volatile vegetable oils with exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent decades, considerable effort has been expended world-wide to reduce dependency on petroleum fuels for power generation and transportation through the search for suitable alternative fuels that are environmentally friendly. In this respect, vegetable oils are a promising alternative to diesel fuel. However, the high viscosity, poor volatility and cold flow characteristics of vegetable oils can cause some problems

N. R. Banapurmath; P. G. Tewari

2009-01-01

239

Environmentally Friendly Vegetable Oil Microemulsions Using Extended Surfactants and Linkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microemulsion formation of triglyceride oils at ambient conditions (temperature and pressure) and without the addition of\\u000a co-oil and\\/or alcohols is challenging at best. Undesirable phases, such as macroemulsions, liquid crystals and sponge phases,\\u000a are often encountered when formulating triglyceride microemulsions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of\\u000a extended surfactants, lipophilic linkers, and hydrophilic linkers in enhancing

Linh D. Do; Anuradee Withayyapayanon; Jeffrey H. Harwell; David A. Sabatini

2009-01-01

240

Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.  

PubMed

Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

2005-05-01

241

Type of vegetable oils used in cooking and risk of metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians.  

PubMed

There is little data on the type of vegetable oil used and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian Indians. Food frequency questionnaire was used to document the type of cooking oil in 1875 adults in Chennai city. MS was assessed by new harmonizing criteria. The prevalence of MS was higher among sunflower oil users (30.7%) than palmolein (23.2%) and traditional oil (17.1%, p < 0.001) users. The higher prevalence of MS in sunflower oil group persisted even when stratified according to body mass index, except in obese groups. The risk of MS was further compounded by quantity of refined cereals consumed. Higher LA%E and linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio in sunflower oil probably contributes to increased risk of MS. PMID:23025245

Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Praseena, Kallingal; Vijayalakshmi, Parthasarathy; Geetha, Gunasekaran; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mohan, Viswanathan

2013-03-01

242

Oxidation kinetic studies of oils derived from unmodified and genetically modified vegetables using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of oxidative stability of a series of vegetable oils and oils derived from genetically modified vegetables were carried out using pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC). The purpose of including the genetically modified oils along with other oils were to illustrate the effect of high oleic and linoleic content on the thermal and oxidative behavior of these oils. Kinetic and

A. Adhvaryu; S. Z. Erhan; Z. S. Liu; J. M. Perez

2000-01-01

243

Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

NONE

1995-03-01

244

Dielectric properties of Jordanian oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave heating has been suggested by various authors as a suitable technology for extraction of organic material from oil shales. However, one of the limiting factors in the development of this technology is a lack of accurate dielectric property data for design purposes. In this study the dielectric behaviour of El-lajun oil shale is quantified. The dielectric constant and loss

Mohammad Al-Harahsheh; Sam Kingman; Abdurrahman Saeid; John Robinson; Georgios Dimitrakis; Hani Alnawafleh

2009-01-01

245

Effects of replacing pork back fat with vegetable oils and rice bran fiber on the quality of reduced-fat frankfurters.  

PubMed

The effects of substituting olive, grape seed, corn, canola, or soybean oil and rice bran fiber on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, fatty acid composition, and sensory properties of low-fat frankfurters were investigated. Ten percent of the total fat content of frankfurters with a total fat content of 30% (control) was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils to reduce the pork fat content by 10%. The moisture and ash content of low-fat frankfurters with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber were all higher than the control (P<0.05). Low-fat frankfurters had reduced-fat content, energy values, cholesterol and trans-fat levels, and increased pH, cooking yield and TBA values compared to the controls (P<0.05). Low-fat frankfurters with reduced-fat content plus rice bran fiber had sensory properties similar to control frankfurters containing pork fat. PMID:20374824

Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

2010-03-01

246

Use of tetrabutylammonium tribromide for voltametric titration of unsaturation in vegetable oils and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of tetrabutylammonium tribromide as reagent for bromination of carbon-carbon double bonds of fatty acids and vegetable\\u000a oils, followed by a voltametric titration of tribromide and bromide ions, has been studied. This method is easy and fast,\\u000a and results show good accuracy and high sensitivity.

J. Berthelota; P. L. Desbène; A. Desbène-Monvernay

1993-01-01

247

Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5

Ashraf A. Yousef; Alaa B. Abbas; Bassam Sh. Badawi; Wafaa Y. Al-Jowhar; Esam A. Zain; Seham A. El-Mufti

2012-01-01

248

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with trialkylamine surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles, which are typically powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes.

A. W. Schwab; E. H. Pryde

1982-01-01

249

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and lower alcohol with octanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles that are powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes. Deterrents

A. W. Schwab; E. H. Pryde

1984-01-01

250

IGNITION DELAY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME TURKISH VEGETABLE OIL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils have chances to be used in Diesel engines as alternative fuels contributing to the solution of some agricultural, environmental and economical problems. Direct use of them has some technical problem yet but as blended fuels with diesel fuel or esters they have places on the application area. In this paper the effect of the compression ratio on ignition

Metin Ergeneman; Turgut Özakta?

1997-01-01

251

Reduction of diesel smoke opacity from vegetable oil methyl esters during transient operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is focused on the measurement and analysis of the smoke opacity resulting from a Diesel engine fuelled with conventional fuel and biofuels under transient conditions. Methyl esters obtained from used cooking and unused vegetable oils were tested as diesel fuels, pure and blended with 30% and 70% of a commercial diesel fuel which was also used pure. A

Octavio Armas; Juan J. Hernández; María D. Cárdenas

2006-01-01

252

From Vegetable Oils to Polyurethanes: Synthetic Routes to Polyols and Main Industrial Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of biobased polyols for polyurethanes are synthesized from vegetable oils. In the first part, the present review goes into details of these different synthetic routes to obtain polyols. First, olefinic functionalities of triglycerides could easily be epoxidized, leading to reactive epoxide groups. Second, triglycerides double bonds could undergo a wide ranges of reactions to yield polyols. Finally, the carbonyl

Myriam Desroches; Maxime Escouvois; Remi Auvergne; Sylvain Caillol; Bernard Boutevin

2012-01-01

253

Vegetation communities in continental boreal wetlands along a salinity gradient: Implications for oil sands mining reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands mining is a major disturbance to boreal landscapes in north-eastern Alberta, Canada. Freshwater peatlands dominate the landscape prior to mining, but the post-mining reclamation landscape will have wetlands that span a salinity gradient. Little is known about the native vegetation communities in subsaline and saline marshes in the boreal region, yet these communities offer the best potential for

Marsha Trites; Suzanne E. Bayley

2009-01-01

254

Effects of preheating vegetable oils on performance and emission characteristics of two diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance and emission characteristics of vegetable oils at elevated temperatures are studied. Fuels are run in two four-cycle, direct injection compression ignited engines having different number of cylinders, compression ratios, rated power and cooling systems but relatively close engine speed. Brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and CO, O2, Unburned HC and NO emissions are determined as a function of

Nadir Yilmaz; Byron Morton

2011-01-01

255

Use of straight vegetable oil mixtures of rape and camelina as on farm fuels in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibilities for using straight vegetable oil (SVO) from Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (camelina or false flax) and its mixtures with Brassica napus (rape) SVO as fuel in adapted diesel engines are described with chemical parameters, measurements in a test engine and a field test in a tractor. Camelina as a crop is attracting attention in organic farming and is often

Hans Marten Paulsen; V. Wichmann; U. Schuemann; B. Richter

2011-01-01

256

Vegetable Oil Derived Solvent, and Catalyst Free "Click Chemistry" Thermoplastic Polytriazoles  

PubMed Central

Azide-alkyne Huisgen “click” chemistry provides new synthetic routes for making thermoplastic polytriazole polymers—without solvent or catalyst. This method was used to polymerize three diester dialkyne monomers with a lipid derived 18 carbon diazide to produce a series of polymers (labelled C18C18, C18C9, and C18C4 based on monomer chain lengths) free of residual solvent and catalyst. Three diester dialkyne monomers were synthesized with ester chain lengths of 4, 9, and 18 carbons from renewable sources. Significant differences in thermal and mechanical properties were observed between C18C9 and the two other polymers. C18C9 presented a lower melting temperature, higher elongation at break, and reduced Young's modulus compared to C18C4 and C18C18. This was due to the “odd-even” effect induced by the number of carbon atoms in the monomers which resulted in orientation of the ester linkages of C18C9 in the same direction, thereby reducing hydrogen bonding. The thermoplastic polytriazoles presented are novel polymers derived from vegetable oil with favourable mechanical and thermal properties suitable for a large range of applications where no residual solvent or catalyst can be tolerated. Their added potential biocompatibility and biodegradability make them ideal for applications in the medical and pharmaceutical industries.

Floros, Michael C.; Leao, Alcides Lopes; Narine, Suresh S.

2014-01-01

257

Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in t...

1995-01-01

258

Evaluation of the thermal diffusivity of vegetable oils during frying by Thermal Lens Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report on the use of the Thermal Lens method to verify the evolution of the thermal diffusivity of sunflower and soybean vegetable oils utilized in preparation of twenty five snacks portions. Our results show that the thermal diffusivity for sunflower oil does not change between 1 and 25 portions of fried snacks. By another hand, the soybean thermal diffusivity exhibits a little decrease for higher portion of fried snacks, indicating that for this oil the triglyceride level is reduced as a degradation process.

Lima, S. M.; Bannwart, E. S.; Oliveira, R. G.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Del Ré, P. V.; Jorge, N.; Pedrochi, F.; Constantini, R.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.

2008-01-01

259

Determination of mixtures in vegetable oils and milk fat by analysis of sterol fraction by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid gas-chromatographic (GC) procedure was developed for the analysis of the total sterol fraction of vegetable oils,\\u000a milk fat or mixtures, to detect possible admixtures of sunflower with olive oil and the addition of vegetable oils to milk\\u000a fat. The method, which employs alkali-catalyzed transesterification with KOH\\/methanol, was compared with saponification procedures\\u000a with and without transformation of sterols into

L. Alonso; J. Fontecha; L. Lozada; M. Juárez

1997-01-01

260

Correlation scaling properties between soil moisture and vegetation indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and crop phenology are largely associated with climate, terrain characteristics and human activity. Remote sensing data provide the opportunity to monitor crop dynamics and its changes. The images of earth surface obtained by satellites with a high resolution give huge information on these being the main characteristic of these images a high local variability in their digital values. Traditional segmentation techniques for image analysis are many times non useful when such complexity is found in the images. The images of Guadalajara (Central Spain), which correspond to an area of 250x250 km, have been studied. Normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) and soil humidity (NDSI) values which had been extracted with a resolution of 512x512 pixels for this area at March and June of 2006 were analyzed using multifractal analysis (MFA). The MFA gives a new representation of two images at different times, which allows the analysis of the vegetation scenario using different parameters from the multifractal spectrum. The scaling properties of the correlation between soil humidity and vegetation index at two different moments are discussed and compared. This approach could be a powerful way to monitor various dynamic parameters of the vegetation in Central Spain.

Alonso, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.; Zuñiga, I.

2009-04-01

261

Genetically improved farmed Nile tilapia and red hybrid tilapia showed differences in fatty acid metabolism when fed diets with added fish oil or a vegetable oil blend  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2×2 factorial 14-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid metabolism in two different tilapia genotypes [Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, GIFT strain) and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)] fed a fish oil (FO)- or blended vegetable oil (BVO)-based semipurified diet. The BVO was formulated using olive oil (15%), sunflower oil (15%), linseed oil (30%) and refined, bleached,

Chaiw-Yee Teoh; Giovanni M. Turchini; Wing-Keong Ng

2011-01-01

262

Effect Of Iron On The Sensitivity Of Hydrogen, Acetate, And Butyrate Metabolism To Inhibition By Long-Chain Fatty Acids In Vegetable-Oil-Enriched Freshwater Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial c...

263

Characterization of the acylglycerols and resulting biodiesel derived from vegetable oil and microalgae (Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum).  

PubMed

Algal biofuels are a growing interest worldwide due to their potential in terms of sustainable greenhouse gas displacement and energy production. This article describes a comparative survey of biodiesel production and conversion yields of biodiesel via alkaline transesterification of acylglycerols extracted from the microalgae Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, grown under silicate or nitrate limitation, and that of model vegetable oils: soybean, and rapeseed oil. Acylglycerols were extracted with n-hexane and the total yield per biomass was determined by gravimetric assay. Under our conditions, the total acylglycerol yield from the microalgae studied was 13-18% of total dry weight. The biodiesel samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector to determine quantitative information of residual glycerol, mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerol concentrations in the biodiesel. All of the algal-based biodiesel demonstrated less mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerol concentrations than the vegetable-based biodiesel under identical transesterification conditions. The fatty acid compositions of all the feedstock oils and their resultant biodiesel were also analyzed and reported. Based on the fatty acid methyl ester compositions of our samples we qualitatively assessed the suitability of the algal-derived biodiesel in terms of cetane number (CN), cold-flow properties, and oxidative stability. PMID:22161571

Zendejas, Frank J; Benke, Peter I; Lane, Pamela D; Simmons, Blake A; Lane, Todd W

2012-05-01

264

Authentication of Olive Oil Adulterated with Vegetable Oils Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the authenticity of extra virgin olive oils has become more important in recent years following some infamous adulteration and contamination scandals. The study focused on application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the adulteration of olive oils. Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance measurements were made on pure olive oil and olive oil samples adulterated with varying concentrations of

A Tay; R. K Singh; S. S Krishnan; J. P Gore

2002-01-01

265

Effect of brominated vegetable oils on heart lipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal rats fed for 105 days on an experimental diet made up of standard laboratory chow supplemented with 0.5% of a mixture\\u000a of brominated sunflower-olive oil (BVO) developed a significant increase in the triacylglycerol content of the heart, liver\\u000a and soleus muscle compared to controls. In addition, BVO-treated rats had a decrease in plasma levels of triacylglycerol and\\u000a total and

Yolanda B. Lombardo; Adriana Chicco; María Z. Basílico; Claudio Bernal; Raul Gutman

1985-01-01

266

Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts

Ashavani Kumar; Praveen Kumar Vemula; Pulickel M. Ajayan; George John

2008-01-01

267

Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC-TOFMS  

PubMed Central

Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC–TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed.

Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh

2010-01-01

268

Low carbon flower buildup, low smoke, and efficient diesel operation with vegetable oils by conversion to mono-esters and blending with diesel oil or alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated DI Diesel engine is evaluated. Means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion is found. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits are measured for a number of

T. Nobukazu; K. Itow

1984-01-01

269

Biosynthesis of medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) by Comamonas testosteroni during cultivation on vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Comamonas testosteroni has been studied for its ability to synthesize and accumulate medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) during cultivation on vegetable oils available in the local market. Castor seed oil, coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil, groundnut oil, olive oil and sesame oil were supplemented in the mineral medium as a sole source of carbon for growth and PHAs accumulation. The composition of PHAs was analysed by a coupled gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). PHAs contained C6 to C14 3-hydroxy acids, with a strong presence of 3-hydroxyoctanoate when coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil and groundnut oil were supplied. 3-hydroxydecanoate was incorporated at higher concentrations when castor seed oil, olive oil and sesame oil were the substrates. Purified PHAs samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and 13C NMR analysis. During cultivation on various vegetable oils, C. testosteroni accumulated PHAs up to 78.5-87.5% of the cellular dry material (CDM). The efficiency of the culture to convert oil to PHAs ranged from 53.1% to 58.3% for different vegetable oils. Further more, the composition of the PHAs formed was not found to be substrate dependent as PHAs obtained from C. testosteroni during growth on variety of vegetable oils showed similar compositions; 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and/or 3-hydroxydecanoic acid being always predominant. The polymerizing system of C. testosteroni showed higher preference for C8 and C10 monomers as longer and smaller monomers were incorporated less efficiently. PMID:16084364

Thakor, Nehal; Trivedi, Ujjval; Patel, K C

2005-11-01

270

Performance of vegetable oils as a cooling medium in comparison to a standard mineral oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion quenching is the most widely used quenching technique today and is usually one of the last steps in heat treat processing. Improper hardening to incorrect cooling is generally a great loss and causes a great percentage of manufacturing costs. To avoid a failure in cooling, researchers are committed to describing the cooling effect as precisely as possible. The cooling of immersion cooled workpieces or probes is generally characterized by the process of wetting. Evaporable fluids exhibit the three well known stages of cooling: vapor blanket stage, boiling stage, and convective heat transfer. Therefore cooling behavior is influenced by a wide variety and depends on a number of parameters, that is, type of quenchant used, bath temperature, rate of agitation, and the physical and chemical properties of the quenched parts. Environmental pollution has caused the search for new products in har dening and shock cooling of steels. The use of soybean oils as quenching fluids is new, and compared with standard mineral oils, there are many advantages mainly concerning the environment and the health of workers.

Totten, G. E.; Tensi, H. M.; Lainer, K.

1999-08-01

271

Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants in the Mediterranean basin, such as vine and olive trees, have developed an array of antioxidant defences to protect themselves from environmental stress. Accordingly, the incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers is lower in the Mediterranean area, where olive oil is the dietary fat of choice. As opposed to other vegetable oils, extra virgin olive oil, which

Francesco Visioli; Giorgio Bellomo; Claudio Galli

1998-01-01

272

GC\\/MS evaluation of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) oil composition and variations during the vegetative cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary GC\\/MS analysis based on polar and non-polar columns has been applied to evaluation of the volatile oils hydrodistilled from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) plants. The adopted methodology has been used to monitor seasonal variations in the composition of the oil obtained from thyme herbs harvested at different periods during the plant vegetative and life cycles. Oils from thyme plants

Mohammad Hudaib; Ester Speroni; Anna Maria Di Pietra; Vanni Cavrini

2002-01-01

273

Investigation on nonedible vegetable oil as a compression ignition engine fuel in sustaining the energy and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, a high free fatty acid (FFA) crude rice bran oil (CRBO), a renewable nonedible vegetable oil was tested on a direct injection compression ignition engine to find its ability to replace diesel oil and reduce the pollutants emitted. Three CRBO samples of different FFAs were tested in blended form to analyze the effects of high FFA

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao

2010-01-01

274

Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

1982-01-01

275

Experimental Studies on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Neat Preheated Vegetable Oils in a DI Diesel Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study of experimentation, locally available biofuels, such as rubber seed oil (non edible oil), coconut oil, and palm oil (edible oils), were used as alternative fuels to diesel in a compression ignition engine. The properties of these oils, such as viscosity, specific gravity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point, were determined. The effect of temperature on

M. Satyanarayana; C. Muraleedharan

2012-01-01

276

Determination of antioxidant capacities of vegetable oils by ferric-ion spectrophotometric methods.  

PubMed

Two ferric-ion-based total antioxidant capacity methods: 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used for determination of antioxidant capacities (AC) of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of vegetable oils. The obtained mean Phen and FRAP values for acetonic extracts of olive oils, rapeseed, rice and four sunflower oils (39.3-336.5 and 39.5-339.6 micromol Fe/100g) were higher than for methanolic extracts (22.8-307.3 and 23.5-300.1 micromol Fe/100g). However, antioxidant capacities of methanolic extracts of corn oil, blended oils and two sunflower oils with garden green flowers (56.5-312.9 and 53.9-306.5 micromol Fe/100g for Phen and FRAP methods, respectively) were higher than for acetonic extracts of these oils (54.2-249.2 and 52.9-244.7 micromol Fe/100g for Phen and FRAP methods, respectively). There is a linear and significant correlation between these two analytical methods (r=0.9989 and 0.9986 for acetonic and methanolic extracts). Also, total phenolic compounds (TPC) in the studied oils correlated with their antioxidant capacities determined by Phen and FRAP methods (r=0.9012, 0.7818 and 0.8947, 0.7830 for acetonic and methanolic extracts, respectively). The comparable precision (R.S.D.=0.8-4.6%, 0.9-4.9% and 0.7-4.0%, 0.6-4.0% for acetonic and methanolic extracts, respectively) and sensitivity (epsilon=1.27 x 10(4), 1.11 x 10(4) and 2.62 x 10(4)dm(3)mol(-1)cm(-1)) for the proposed Phen and the modified FRAP methods, demonstrate the benefit of the Phen method in the routine analysis of antioxidant capacities of vegetable oils. PMID:18656676

Szyd?owska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Dianoczki, Csilla; Recseg, Katalin; Karlovits, György; Sz?yk, Edward

2008-08-15

277

Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects  

PubMed Central

Background In the existing literature, the evidence regarding the effects of certain oils on the amelioration of hyperglycemia contains ambiguities and contradictions; and with regard to other oils, the quantity of existing studies is scant. Objective To assess the influence of sesame, garden rocket, organic olive, thyme, fenugreek, hazelnut, and cod liver oil on serum glucose, liver function, and kidney functions. Methods Male albino rats were injected with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg BW). The duration of the experiment was 28 days. Maximum recovery of occurred wasting attributable to diabetes was found in the sesame and cod liver groups. Results With respect to ameliorating and/or preventing the side effects of diabetes on liver function, this experiment showed that thyme, organic olive, cod liver, and fenugreek oils were efficacious. Turning to serum lipid profile, organic olive oil not only ameliorated but also prevented the changes of TC, HDL, LDL, and AI. Vegetable and cod liver oil diets resulted in a marked amelioration of renal dysfunction, but they were unable to prevent this side effect. Similar, oil diets were unable to mask the increase in serum glucose due to diabetes mellitus. Conclusion On the basis of these findings, it could be recommended that when attempting oil diet treatment for the side effects of diabetes, a blend of the various specific treatments which showed best results should be employed in order to achieve improvement with respect to all parameters; and in part, this is because a synergism between the various treatments can be expected.

2013-01-01

278

Simultaneous determination of five synthetic antioxidants in edible vegetable oil by GC-MS.  

PubMed

A simple, quick and nontoxic analytical method for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic antioxidants [t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), 2,6-di-t-butyl-hydroxytoluene (BHT), t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), ethoxyquin (EQ) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxymethyl-phenol (Ionox 100)] in edible vegetable oil has been developed. The analytes were extracted by ethanol, then separated and detected by GC-MS. Extraction conditions such as volume of ethanol required, mixing time and number of extractions were investigated and optimized by an orthogonal array experimental design. The five compounds behaved linearly in the 0.100 approximately 20.0 mg/L concentration range, and the limits of detection (LOD) for BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EQ and Ionox-100 were 1.00, 0.92, 11.5, 0.83 and 1.39 microg/L, respectively. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.00, 20.0 and 100 mg/kg were 75.6 approximately 123%, with coefficients of variation<10.0%. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of the five antioxidants in soybean oil, tea oil, edible blended oil, rap oil, peanut oil, peanut blended oil and sesame oil samples purchased from local supermarkets. PMID:16972057

Guo, Lan; Xie, Ming-Yong; Yan, Ai-Ping; Wan, Yi-Qun; Wu, Yu-Mei

2006-11-01

279

Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills.  

PubMed

Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85goil/g sorbent (in 24hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. PMID:15946707

Annunciado, T R; Sydenstricker, T H D; Amico, S C

2005-11-01

280

Blending of soybean oil with selected vegetable oils: impact on oxidative stability and radical scavenging activity.  

PubMed

Background: Soybean oil may protect against cancer of the breast and prostate. It may also exert beneficial influence in combination with other oils. Here, blends (20%, v/v) of sea buckthorn oil (SEBO), camellia oil (CAO), rice bran oil (RBO), sesame oil (SEO) and peanut oil (PEO) with soybean oil (SBO) were formulated. Materials and Methods: Oxidative stability (OS) and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of SBO and blends stored under oxidative conditions (60?) for 24 days were studied. By blending with different kinds oils, levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased, while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content increased. Progression of oxidation was followed by measuring peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine (PAV), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT). Results: Inverse relationships were noted between PV and OS at termination of storage. Levels of CD and CT in SBO, and blends, increased with increase in time. The impact of SEO as additives on SBO oxidation was the strongest followed by RBO, CAO, SEBO and PNO. Conclusions: Oxidative stability of oil blends was better than SBO, most likely as a consequence of changes in fatty acids and tocopherols' profile, and minor bioactive lipids found in selected oils. The results suggest that these oil blends could contribute as sources of important antioxidant related to the prevention of chronic diseases associated to oxidative stress, such as in cancer and coronary artery disease . PMID:24761868

Li, Yang; Ma, Wen-Jun; Qi, Bao-Kun; Rokayya, Sami; Li, Dan; Wang, Jing; Feng, Hong-Xia; Sui, Xiao-Nan; Jiang, Lian-Zhou

2014-01-01

281

Influence of partial substitution of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils on the metabolism of [1- 14 C] 18:3n-3 in isolated hepatocytes of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static or declining supply of fish oil from industrial fisheries demands the search of alternatives, such as plant (vegetable)\\u000a oils, for diets in expanding marine aquaculture. Vegetable oils are rich in C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids but devoid of the n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. Previous studies, primarily\\u000a with salmonids, have shown that including vegetable oils in

G. Mourente; J. R. Dick

2002-01-01

282

Assessment of aquatic toxicity and oxygen depletion during aerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil: effect of oil loading and mixing regime.  

PubMed

The potential ecological impacts of aerobic biodegradation of vegetable oils on contaminated water columns was investigated in the laboratory at different oil loadings (100, 333, and 1,000 gal acre(-1)) and mixing regimes (fully, moderately, and nonmixed microcosms). The impacts were estimated by use of the Microtox assay and dissolved oxygen concentration measurements. The results of the Microtox assay showed no major toxicity at the 100 gal acre(-1) loading. Furthermore, oxygen was not completely depleted from the water column at this oil coverage. At higher oil loadings, oxygen was fully depleted from the mixed and nonmixed water columns. A transient toxicity in the aqueous phase was observed in the case of the moderately mixed microcosms at 333 gal acre(-1) and was maintained at moderate levels (EC(50) ? 30%) in the nonmixed microcosms. A substantial increase in toxicity (EC(50) ? 10%) was observed in both mixing conditions when the initial oil loading was increased to 1,000 gal acre(-1). At all oil loadings, significant toxicity (EC(50) < 2%) was found in the solid phase due to the strong partition of lipids to the biomass. Long and medium chains fatty acids associated with the measured toxicity were detected in both liquid and solid phases. PMID:22264141

Salam, Darine A; Naik, Nita; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

2012-02-21

283

Novel approaches to analysis of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol esters in vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A sensitive and accurate method utilizing ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry based on orbitrap technology (orbitrapMS) for the analysis of nine 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) diesters in vegetable oils was developed. To remove the interfering triacylglycerols that induce strong matrix effects, a clean-up step on silica gel column was used. The quantitative analysis was performed with the use of deuterium-labeled internal standards. The lowest calibration levels estimated for the respective analytes ranged from 2 to 5 ?g kg(-1). Good recovery values (89-120%) and repeatability (RSD 5-9%) was obtained at spiking levels of 2 and 10 mg kg(-1). As an alternative, a novel ambient desorption ionization technique, direct analysis in real time (DART), hyphenated with orbitrapMS, was employed for no separation, high-throughput, semi-quantitative screening of 3-MCPD diesters in samples obtained by chromatographic fractionation. Additionally, the levels of 3-MCPD diesters measured in reallife vegetable oil samples (palm oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil) using both methods are reported. Relatively good agreement of the data generated by U-HPLC-orbitrapMS and DART-orbitrapMS were observed. With regard to a low ionization yield achieved for 3-MCPD monoesters, the methods presented in this paper were not yet applicable for the analysis of these contaminants at the naturally occurring levels. PMID:22287050

Moravcova, Eliska; Vaclavik, Lukas; Lacina, Ondrej; Hrbek, Vojtech; Riddellova, Katerina; Hajslova, Jana

2012-03-01

284

Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1997-10-01

285

Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

1999-12-01

286

A rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic\\u000a and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control\\u000a Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable\\u000a oil blends

Roger A. Korus; Jaiduk Jo; Charles L. Peterson

1985-01-01

287

Determination of tertiary butylhydroquinone in edible vegetable oil by liquid chromatography\\/ion trap mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive and accurate analytical method for quantification of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in edible vegetable oil was established by liquid chromatography\\/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC\\/ITMS). After extraction, 5?l of the extracts was directly injected into LC\\/ITMS for TBHQ determination. Ethanol was selected as the extraction solvent. The optimized fragmentation amplitude was 1.70V and electrospray ionization (ESI) was more suitable

Peng-Peng Hao; Jin-Ren Ni; Wei-Ling Sun; Wen Huang

2007-01-01

288

On the study of KF\\/Zn(Al)O catalyst for biodiesel production from vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A KF\\/Zn(Al)O catalyst was prepared by doping KF on calcined Zn–Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and tested for transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol to biodiesel. The obtained catalyst was characterized using techniques of nitrogen physisorption, Hammett indicator, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Its catalytic activity was compared with that of Zn–Al hydrotalcite-like compounds, Zn(Al)O, KF, KF\\/?-Al2O3 and

Chunli Xu; Jun Sun; Binbin Zhao; Qiang Liu

2010-01-01

289

The viability of pure vegetable oil as an alternative fuel for large ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy fuels are likely to remain the dominant fuel source for two-stroke, low-speed diesel engines for large ship propulsion for the next decade or more. There is however, potential for increased use of pure vegetable oils (PVO) as an alternative and, by emitting lower levels of several pollutants, this can help the attainment of Annex VI of the MARPOL 73\\/78

F. Jiménez Espadafor; M. Torres García; J. Becerra Villanueva; J. Moreno Gutiérrez

2009-01-01

290

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The experiment study of using bio-diesel from waste vegetable-oils in diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental study of using waste vegetable-oils bio-diesel in 2500 cc four cylinders and four strokes diesel engine. Engine performance indexes investigated in this work are torque, power and emission. The results obtained by using bio-diesel 100% (B 100) were compared to those obtained by using standard diesel. The performance of the test engine was measured using

Nuparb Yamtraipat

291

Combustion of fourteen different vegetable oils in two different diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A baseline DF-2 and fourteen different vegetable oils were tested at eight different speed-load conditions in two different heavy-duty diesel engines. The independent variables of the experiment were fuel, fuel temperature, speed, and load. The dependent variables included fuel consumption, Ihp, dQ\\/d = f( ), Q\\/sub t\\/, (anti x, anti y) various temperatures, and the gaseous exhaust emissions.

T. W. Ryan; T. J. Callahan; C. A. Moses

1983-01-01

292

Comparative characteristics of compression ignited engines operating on biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance and emission characteristics of two compression ignited engines of different compression ratios, number of cylinders, cooling system, and power output are studied. Waste vegetable oil-derived biofuel is used. Engines are fueled with B0, B20 and B100 mixtures. Thermal efficiency, brake specific consumption and engine emissions (CO, Unburned HC, O2 and NO) are reported and comparisons are made for fuel

Nadir Yilmaz; Byron Morton

2011-01-01

293

Textural and viscoelastic properties of pork frankfurters containing canola-olive oils, rice bran, and walnut.  

PubMed

Textural, rheological and microstructural properties of frankfurters made with 20% pork backfat, 20% canola or 20% canola-olive (3:1) oils, including rice bran (RB) and walnut extract (WE) as macronutrients (2.5%) were investigated. Textural parameters, including hardness, gumminess and rupture-force, were highly (P<0.05) influenced by the fat-oil composition. Addition of RB or WE in vegetable oil emulsions improved textural consistency (P<0.05). However, RB addition reduced gelling capacity, suggesting antagonistic interactions between fiber and oil droplets. Vegetable oil addition favored gel network formation, and, when combined with WE, showed the highest improvement of gel elasticity. These textural and gelling properties were corroborated by frankfurter micrographs, which revealed interactions between vegetable oils, RB, or WE with protein matrix and fat globules affecting these parameters. The results suggest that functional plant-derived ingredients can be valuable to the modification of frankfurter formulations for improved nutrition and as well as textural quality. PMID:22503483

Álvarez, D; Xiong, Y L; Castillo, M; Payne, F A; Garrido, M D

2012-09-01

294

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. (Quarterly progress report), December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal....

G. V. Smith R. D. Gaston R. Song J. Cheng F. Shi

1995-01-01

295

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with 1-butanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles, which are typically powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes. This invention relates to a blended vegetable oil fuel which circumvents these problems.

Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

1982-09-24

296

Effect of brominated vegetable oils on heart lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Normal rats fed for 105 days on an experimental diet made up of standard laboratory chow supplemented with 0.5% of a mixture of brominated sunflower-olive oil (BVO) developed a significant increase in the triacylglycerol content of the heart, liver and soleus muscle compared to controls. In addition, BVO-treated rats had a decrease in plasma levels of triacylglycerol and total and HDL cholesterol. Plasma fatty acid levels and plasma post-heparin lipolytic activities, such as H-TGL, LPL, T-TGL and MGH were similar to those of control animals fed the standard chow alone. Heart PDHa (active portion of pyruvate dehydrogenase) was dramatically decreased in the BVO-fed rats. A faster rate of spontaneous lipolysis was recorded in the isolated perfused preparation of hearts from the experimental animals. The addition of 10(-7) M of glucagon to the perfusate, however, revealed a lipolytic effect comparable to the one observed in the control rats. In summary, our findings of normal fatty acids and low triacylglycerol plasma levels associated with normal activities of the various PHLA (post-heparin lipolytic activity) enzymes suggest that accumulation of triacylglycerol in heart muscle may not be explained essentially in terms of an elevated uptake and/or increased delivery of plasma fatty acids or plasma triacylglycerol. A decreased in situ catabolism of tissue triacylglycerol also appears unlikely because the spontaneous as well as the glucagon induced lipolysis in the heart both were found to be unimpaired.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4033363

Lombardo, Y B; Chicco, A; Basílico, M Z; Bernal, C; Gutman, R

1985-07-01

297

Enhancement of the oxidative stability of some vegetable oils by blending with Moringa oleifera oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% w\\/w) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) with sunflower oil (SFO) and soybean oil (SBO) were prepared to evaluate the changes in fatty acid (FA) composition, oxidative and thermal stability of SFO and SBO. The blending of MOO with SFO and SBO in proportions of 0–80% resulted in the reduction of linoleic acid (C18:2) content of

Farooq Anwar; Abdullah Ijaz Hussain; Shahid Iqbal; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger

2007-01-01

298

Fast one-phase oil-rich processes for the preparation of vegetable oil methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A re-evaluation of kinetic data shows that the methoxide base-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil at 40°C (6:1 methanol:oil molar ratio) to form methyl esters proceeds approximately 15 times more slowly than butanolysis at 30°C. This is interpreted to be the result of a two-phase reaction in which methanolysis occurs only in the methanol phase. Low oil concentration in methanol causes

David G. B. Boocock; Samir K. Konar; Vinnie Mao; Hanif Sidi

1996-01-01

299

Changes in soil properties across a chronosequence of vegetation restoration on the Loess Plateau of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fertility is important for vegetation growth and productivity. The relationship between vegetation and soil fertility is important for both scientific and practical reasons. However, the effects of soil fertility on vegetation development and succession are poorly documented on the Loess Plateau. In this study, we compared soil properties of the Yanhe Watershed in northern Shaanxi across five different land

Feng Jiao; Zhong-Ming Wen; Shao-Shan An

2011-01-01

300

Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up.  

PubMed

A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all the oils were low (<0.2-0.8 microg kg(-1)), except for one sample of sunflower oil containing 11 microg kg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene. PMID:17613061

Fromberg, A; Højgård, A; Duedahl-Olesen, L

2007-07-01

301

Combined application of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. to inhibit bacteria and autochthonous microflora associated with minimally processed vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) essential oils against bacteria associated to minimally processed vegetables using the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index, kill-time assay in vegetal broth and application in vegetable matrices. Moreover, it was determined chemical composition of the essential oils

Geíza Alves de Azeredo; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Pollyana Campos Nunes; Nelson Justino Gomes Neto; Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira; Evandro Leite de Souza

2011-01-01

302

Acid methanolysis and gas chromatographic determination of brominated vegetable oils in soft drinks.  

PubMed

A gas chromatographic method has been developed for determination of brominated vegetable oils in citrus-flavored soft drinks. Oils were extracted from the drinks with ethyl ether and subjected to acid-catalyzed methanolysis. The resulting brominated methyl esters (dibromostearate, tetrabromostearate, and hexabromostearate) were separated and quantitated as single peaks on a 3% OV-3 column. Chromatography columns were stable for about 3 months of daily use; then the first 15 cm of column packing material was replaced or a new column was prepared. A number of citrus soft drinks were analyzed and contained 3.5-3.9 mg brominated oil/10 fl. oz. Recoveries from spiked samples after organic extraction and methanolysis were 94.5-105%. PMID:6643351

Lawrence, J F; Chadha, R K; Conacher, H B

1983-11-01

303

Fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes and influence of dietary vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), fed diets containing either 100% fish oil or a vegetable oil blend replacing 75% of the fish oil, were incubated with a range of seven 14C-labelled fatty acids. The fatty acids were [1-14C]16:0, [1-14C]18:1n-9, 91-14C]18:2n-6, [1-14C]18:3n-3, [1-14C]20:4n-6, [1-14C]20:5n-3, and [1-14C]22:6n-3. After 2 h of incubation, the hepatocytes and medium were analysed for acid

Ingunn Stubhaug; Douglas R. Tocher; J. Gordon Bell; James R. Dick; Bente E. Torstensen

2005-01-01

304

Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in

Michael J Leaver; Laure AN Villeneuve; Alex Obach; Linda Jensen; James E Bron; Douglas R Tocher; John B Taggart

2008-01-01

305

Model Concept for the Utilization of Balanites Aegyptiaca Fruits for the Production of Vegetable Oil and Animal Feed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The expert report proposing utilization of the Balanites aegyptiaca oil plants for production of vegetable oils and animal feed in the Sudan and other parts of the Sahel Zone covers composition and characteristics of the tree, its tropical fruit and oilse...

P. F. Bauer

1990-01-01

306

Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p?0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese. PMID:24434672

Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

2014-01-01

307

Performance and Emissions of a Small Agricultural Diesel Engine Fueled with 100% Vegetable Oil: Effects of Fuel Type and Elevated Inlet Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of a research project to evaluate performance and emissions of a small direct injection, naturally aspirated, agricultural diesel engine using vegetable oils. Semi-refined palm and soybean oils were solely used as fuel. The two types of vegetable oil appeared to affect the engine performance and emissions in a similar way and compared well with diesel

N. Tippayawong; T. Wongsiriamnuay; W. Jompakdee

308

Impact of Foliage Surface Properties on Vegetation Reflection and Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical properties of phytoelements and their distribution in the canopy space (i.e., canopy structure) are among key factors that determine light environment in vegetation canopies, which in turn drives various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. Canopy radiative response is the source of information about ecosystem properties from remote sensing. Understanding of how radiation interacts with foliage and traverses in the 3D vegetation canopy is essential to both modeling and remote sensing communities. Radiation scattered by a leaf includes information from two dissimilar sources - the leaf surface and leaf interior. The first component of scattered radiation emanates from light reflected at the air-cuticle interface. This portion of reflected radiation does not interact with biochemical constituents inside the leaf and depends on the properties of the leaf surface. The leaf cuticle acts as a "barrier" for photons to enter the mesophyll and be absorbed; thus, tending to increase the leaf scattering. The second component mainly results from radiation interactions within the leaf-interior. The canopy radiation regime is sensitive to canopy structure, leaf surface properties and leaf biochemical constituents. Impact of leaf surface properties on canopy reflection and absorption is poorly understood. Radiation scattered at the surface of leaves is partly polarized. Fresnel reflection is the principal cause of light polarization. Polarization measurements provide a means to assess the impact of leaf surface properties on canopy radiation regime. We measured Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) in the principal plane and its polarized portion of needles and shoots of two coniferous species in the 400 to 1000 nm spectral interval. The needle and shoot BRF spectra were decomposed into polarized (PBRF) and diffuse (DBRF) components: BRF=PBRF+DBRF. Our analyses indicate: 1) PBRF in forward directions can account for up to 70% of reflected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR); 2) PBRF can strongly affect the BRF shape in the PAR and near infrared spectral regions; 3) PBRF varies with species, suggesting that leaf surface properties cannot be neglected when interpreting BRF; 4) impact of needle surface properties is lower for shoots compared to needles; 5) the diffuse component follows spectrally invariant relationship: the DBRF to needle albedo ratio is linearly related to DBRF, where the slope and intercept are the recollision and escape probabilities; 6) the recollision and escape probabilities depend on within-shoot needle arrangement and are critical to parameterize shoot structure and consequently relationship between needle and shoot scattering and absorption; 7) PBRF exhibits a weak wavelength dependency (as expected). Our results suggest that neglecting leaf surface properties may lead to misinterpretation of measured canopy reflectance spectra. Leaf surface properties also should be accounted for in modeling canopy radiation regime and canopy absorptive and reflective properties.

Yang, B.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Yan, L.; Zhao, Y.; Jiao, J.

2013-12-01

309

Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamto vegetation encompasses savanna areas with contrasting tree densities, mixed with moist and dry forest areas. The different\\u000a savanna types are roughly organized according to topographical transects. The grass layer is dominated by grass tussock species\\u000a from the Andropogonaea family, whereas four species dominate the tree layer. Herbaceous species exhibit different phenological\\u000a patterns. In contrast, trees are all deciduous but

Jean-Claude Menaut; Luc Abbadie

310

Structural aspects of surfactant selection for the design of vegetable oil semi-synthetic metalworking fluids.  

PubMed

This paper presents a set of surfactant-selection guidelines that can be used to design bio-based semi-synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) microemulsions as a renewable alternative to conventional petroleum formulations. Ten surfactant classes (six anionic and four nonionic) with different head and tail structures and three vegetable base oils (canola oil, soybean oil, and a fatty acid trimethylolpropane ester) were investigated as representatives of oil and surfactant options currently under consideration in the MWF industry. All combinations of these surfactants and oils were formulated at the full range of oil to surfactant ratios and surfactant concentrations. The stability of each formulation was evaluated based on visual transparency, light transmittance, and droplet diameter. The experimental results yield the following guidelines that produce stable bio-based MWF microemulsions with minimum necessary concentrations of surfactants: (1) a combination of two surfactants, one nonionic and one water soluble co-surfactant (either nonionic or anionic) is preferred over a single surfactant; (2) the nonionic surfactant should have a carbon tail length greater than or equal to the nominal carbon chain length of the fatty acids in the oil as well as a head group that is not excessively small or large (e.g., 10-20 ethylene oxide groups for a polysorbitan ester, ethoxylated alcohol, or ethoxylated glyceryl ester); (3) the difference in tail lengths between the surfactant and the co-surfactant should be less than 6 to maximize the feasible range of oil to surfactant ratios yielding stable emulsions. These guidelines are consistent with general results of micelle solubilization theory and evidence is provided to suggest that common semi-synthetic MWF systems can be thought of as swollen micelle systems. PMID:17256551

Zhao, Fu; Clarens, Andres; Murphree, Ashley; Hayes, Kim; Skerlos, Steven J

2006-12-15

311

Feasibility of blending karanja vegetable oil in petro-diesel and utilization in a direct injection diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oil, a non-edible high viscosity (27.84cSt at 40°C) straight vegetable oil, was blended with conventional diesel in various proportions to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection constant speed diesel engine. Diesel and karanja oil fuel blends (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) were used to conduct short-term engine performance and emission tests

S. Bajpai; P. K. Sahoo; L. M. Das

2009-01-01

312

Inverting optical reflectance to estimate surface properties of vegetation canopies.  

SciTech Connect

An inversion method using a simple bidirectional reflectance model and data on optical reflectances remotely-sensed from satellites has been improved to derive surface properties such as the leaf area index (LAI). Such properties are important in deriving the resistance of the vegetative canopy to uptake of gaseous trace chemicals from the atmosphere and in the study of radiation transfer processes. We found that a multi-pass retrieval technique can greatly improve a model's ability to retrieve surface properties. Because the sensitivity of the model inversion to initial values is an important issue that depends on (1) the partial derivative of reflectance with respect to each parameters to be retrieved ( R/x ) and (2) the degree of independence among model parameters, we investigated the issue with synthetic data constructed by a bidirectional reflectance model. The results revealed that, although the surface optical properties are mostly independent of each other, their initial values did have some effect on the retrieved value of the LAI, with the worse case caused by leaf angle distribution index, n , at close-to-nadir solar and view zenith angles of the reflectance data. At near nadir angles, n and LAI were strongly correlated, and their retrieval was not unique. When applied to satellite remote sensing data obtained with the advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR), the model-retrieved seasonal variation of surface properties agreed reasonably well with independent ground measurements made in the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) campaign. Application to Landsat data to retrieve spatial variation was less successful, largely because of the close-to-nadir solar and view zenith angles in the data.

Qiu, J.; Gao, W.; Lesht, B. M.; Environmental Research

1998-01-01

313

Crude Oil Emulsion Properties and Their Application to Heavy Oil Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude Oil Emulsion Properties and their Application to Heavy Oil Transportation — Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilize the oil-water surfaces. The knowledge of surface tension alone is not sufficient to understand emulsion properties, and surface rheology plays an

D. Langevin; S. Poteau; I. Hénaut; J. F. Argillier

2004-01-01

314

Some correlation of diesel engine performance with injection characteristics using vegetable oil as fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the performance of a DI diesel engine is greatly affected by the injection and spray characteristics. These are influenced by the injection system design and by the properties of the fuel used. The effect of some of the physical properties of diesel fuel and soybean oil on the injection and spray parameters were measured and compared

Varde

1982-01-01

315

Comparison of effects of vegetable oils blended with southern hemisphere fish oil and decontaminated northern hemisphere fish oil on growth performance, composition and gene expression in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement of fish oil with sustainable alternatives, such as vegetable oil, in aquaculture diets has to be achieved without compromising the nutritional quality, in terms of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) content, of the product. This may be possible if the level of replacement is not too high and oil blends are chosen carefully but, if high levels of

J. Pratoomyot; E. Å. Bendiksen; J. G. Bell; D. R. Tocher

2008-01-01

316

A qualitative colorimetric test for brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks.  

PubMed

A simple and precise method of detecting brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks is described. After extraction of BVO using diethyl ether, the concentrated ethereal solution was treated with a small quantity of zinc dust to convert the organic bromide to inorganic form; the solution was subsequently treated with lead dioxide to liberate bromine. The bromine evolved was detected by means of fluorescein-impregnated filter paper strip that turns pink because eosin is formed. The test can detect as low as 10 ppm (2 mg/200 ml) of BVO under experimental conditions. Gas chromatography was carried out on sodium methoxide derivatives prepared from ether extract for quantitation. PMID:1917818

Krishna Murthy, M N; Rajalakshmi, S; Satyabodha, J A; Nagaraja, K V

1991-01-01

317

Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

1985-11-01

318

Influence of spray diluents on physicochemical properties, and physical and chemical compatibility of eight oil?based tank mixes of aminocarb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matacil 180F, a commercial formulation of aminocarb, was diluted with carrier diluents to provide eight different oil?based tank mixes. The diluents included three vegetable oils, Dowanol TPM (a glycol ether), kerosine and fuel oil (mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons), Cyclosol® 63 (a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons) and a 50:50 mixture of canola oil and Cyclosol 63. The interrelationships between physicochemical properties,

A. Sundaram; K. M. S. Sundaram

1989-01-01

319

Synthesis and application of polyaminoamide as new paraffin inhibitor from vegetable oil  

PubMed Central

In this work, a series of novel paraffin inhibitor, polyaminoamide (PAA), was designed and prepared by aminolysis and poly-condensation using soybean oil and canola oil as the raw material. The property of the PAAs as paraffin inhibitor was investigated, the results show several PAA samples are potent in paraffin inhibition, and PPC-2 is the most effective one. Besides, the paraffin crystal morphology analysis was carried out to provide the mechanism of paraffin inhibition.

2011-01-01

320

Microwave Dielectric Properties of Soil and Vegetation and Their Estimation From Spaceborne Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is largely tutorial in nature and provides an overview of the microwave dielectric properties of certain natural terrestrial media (soils and vegetation) and recent results in estimating these properties remotely from airborne and orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

Dobson, M. Craig; McDonald, Kyle C.

1996-01-01

321

Partial replacement of dietary fish oil with blends of vegetable oils (rapeseed, linseed and palm oils) in diets for European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) over a long term growth study: Effects on muscle and liver fatty acid composition and effectiveness of a fish oil finishing diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triplicate groups of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), of initial mass 5 g, were fed one of three practical type diets for 64 weeks. The three diets differed only in the added oil and were 100% fish oil (FO; diet A), 40% FO\\/60% vegetable oil blend (VO; diet B) where the VO blend was rapeseed oil, linseed oil and palm oil

G. Mourente; J. G. Bell

2006-01-01

322

Antimicrobial Properties of Some Essential Oils against Some Pathogenic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celikel N., Kavas G. (2008): Antimicrobial properties of some essential oils against some pathogenic microorganisms . Czech J. Food Sci., 26: 174-181. Investigations were carried out to assess the efficiency of five plant essential oils: thyme, myrtle, laurel, sage, and orange oils as natural food preservatives. The effect of the plant essential oils against escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes , Staphylococcus

Nazan Celikel

323

[Toxicological effects induced by the chronic intake of brominated vegetable oils].  

PubMed

Several biochemical parameters of male Wistar rats fed during 15 weeks with standard laboratory chow, supplemented with 0.1 g of brominated vegetable oil (olive, sunflower) per 100 g of diet, were compared to those of a control group fed a normal diet during the same period of time. The former group showed a significant increase of triglyceride content in both heart and soleus muscle, as well as of total and sterified cholesterol in heart muscle. This increase was accompanied by decreased plasma levels of total and HDL-cholesterol. Some of these abnormalities were similar to those observed in rats fed the same standard laboratory chow, supplemented with 0.5 g of brominated oil per 100 g of diet. The hepatic levels of triglycerides, total proteins and glycogen, as well as the weight gain and caloric intake of the animals which were fed 0.1 g of brominated oil per 100 g diet, were similar to those of the control group. In summary, the toxicologic effects observed during the chronic intake of diets supplemented with relatively low doses of brominated oils, suggest the need to undertake wider and deeper biochemical studies. The authors consider that these are necessary in order to ascertain the maximum tolerance levels for the use of these compounds, to minimize the risk of inducing important biological alterations. PMID:3632217

Bernal, C; Basílico, M Z; Lombardo, Y B

1986-09-01

324

Physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of selected seed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties and chemical composition of oil extracted from five varieties of plant seeds (bittermelon, Kalahari melon, kenaf, pumpkin and roselle seeds) were examined by established methods. The thermal properties of extracted oils by differential scanning calorimetry were also evaluated. Sensorial profiles of these seed oils were defined through the CieLab (L*, a*, b*) colour. Most of the quality

K. L. Nyam; C. P. Tan; O. M. Lai; K. Long; Y. B. Che Man

2009-01-01

325

Prediction of Palm Oil Properties using Artificial Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The palm oil industry in Malaysia has witnessed a prolific growth in recent years. For the past few decades, Malaysia has led the world in terms of production and export of palm oil. Therefore, physical properties and thermodynamic facts of palm oil have become one of the predominant parts in related chemical industries. Efforts to obtain physical properties of

Salwani Abdullah; Eow Chee Tiong

326

Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, III. Emission tests using methyl esters of used frying oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of methyl esters of used frying oil, available as waste from restaurants and households, is described. Fuel\\u000a specifications of this fuel are given, and values for gaseous (HC, CO, NOx) and particulate emissions, measured with a vehicle powered by a turbocharged, direct injection diesel engine, are shown.\\u000a The ester fuel shows slightly lower HC and CO emissions but

Martin Mittelbach; Peter Tritthartb

1988-01-01

327

Synthesis of sustainable polymers from vegetable oil: Applications in coatings and nanoparticle surface modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric materials are increasing being used in many household, industrial, and health and personal care products. These materials, being either non-degradable or slow degradable, remain in the environment for a long time and are posing increasingly significant threats to the ecosystem components including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and crustaceans. Renewable resource based materials are the best raw materials for the development of sustainable products. Vegetable oil and polyglycol based novel copolymers have been synthesized in this research. Poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers were synthesized from 2-(vinyloxyethyl) soyate (2-VEOS) and tri(ethylene glycol) ethyl vinyl ether (TEGEVE) via cationic polymerization. They were used in waterborne coating as self-dispersible polymers and as surfmers. Four different copolymers were synthesized having 2-VOES wt% as 10, 15, 25, 50 and rest being TEGEVE. In addition to that water insoluble poly(2-VOES) copolymers were synthesized from soybean oil. All copolymers were used as self-dispersible polymers and their coating property were analyzed by measuring glass transition temperature, drying time, gloss, transparency, contact angle, hysteresis, tensile strength, and hardness. Results showed that the coatings can be cured by autoxidation drying process within 6.1 to 8.2 h. Results also showed high transparency (coated in glass panel) with maximum 2% absorbance which is comparable to uncoated substrate (clean glass). Copolymer having 2-VOES wt% 15 and 50 were used as surfmers to disperse poly(2-VOES) and they were cured using autoxidation method. Results showed that the curing of film can be achieved within 2.6 to 8.0 h. High gloss and transparency confirmed that the surfmers get copolymerized with poly(2-VOES). Another set of poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers with 2-VOES wt% 15, 25, 50, 75 and 85 were synthesized and then functionalized with a carboxyl group. These carboxyl functionalized polymer were used to coat nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) to enhance their colloidal stability in aqueous media with an objective of using the coated particles for groundwater remediation. Structure property analysis of the coated NZVI showed that carboxyl functional copolymer with 15 wt% 2-VOES and 85 wt% TEGEVE had the best colloidal stability of the coated NZVI (CNZVI). Treatability study with CNZVI was carried out using trichloroethylene (TCE) and arsenic [As(V)] as model contaminants. Treatability data indicated that CNZVI can degrade 85 % of TCE (initial concentration 15 mgL-1 ) within 6 h and remove 99% of As(V) (initial concentration 15 mgL -1) within 0.5 h. Results also showed that CNZVI has higher contaminant (TCE and arsenic) removable rate compared to NZVI. The biodegradation behaviors of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES- r-TEGEVE) copolymers were analyzed by respirometric, microbial growth, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies. Respirometic test confirmed 90% degradations of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers within 28 d. Microbial growth and GPC studies also support the data obtained from respirometic tests.

Kalita, Harjyoti

328

Flow injection determination of free fatty acids in vegetable oils using capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.  

PubMed

A single line flow injection analysis (FIA) method that incorporated a preconcentrator column packed with C(18) particles and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) was developed for the determination of free fatty acid (FFA) in vegetable oils. The carrier stream was methanol/1.5 mM sodium acetate (pH 8) 80:20 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Calibration curve was well correlated (r(2)=0.9995) within the range of 1-200 mg L(-1) FFA (expressed as palmitic acid). Sampling rate of 40-60 h(-1) was achieved. Good agreement was found between the standard non-aqueous titrimetry method and the proposed method when applied to the determination of FFA in palm (crude, olein, and refined, bleached and deodorised) and other vegetable (soybean, rice bran, walnut, corn and olive) oils. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the official method, especially in terms of simplicity, high sampling rate, economy of solvents and sample, offering considerable promise as a low cost automated system that needs minimum human intervention over long periods of time. PMID:21565307

Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

2011-05-23

329

Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC-TOFMS.  

PubMed

Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC-TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC-TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

Haines, Troy D; Adlaf, Kevin J; Pierceall, Robert M; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W

2011-01-01

330

[Chronic consumption of brominated vegetable oils: their effect on liver secretion and catabolism of plasma lipoproteins].  

PubMed

We have previously reported that normal Wistar rats fed during 105 days with standard laboratory chow, supplemented with 0.5g of brominated vegetable oil (olive, sunflower) per 100 g of diet showed a significant increase of triglyceride and cholesterol content in both heart and liver. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of plasma lipid levels. Fluctuations in plasma triglyceride concentrations may be a result of either variations in the liver secretion rate of very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG), or changes in their removal rate by extrahepatic tissues or both. In the present work we have studied the contribution of both VLDL-TG secretion, and removal rates of plasma TG in the decrease of plasma TG levels, in rats fed during 105 days with a standard laboratory chow supplemented with 0.5 g per 100 g of brominated vegetable oil. VLDL-TG secretion was estimated by measuring the accumulation of plasma TG following the injection of TRITON WR 1339 and the removal rate of plasma TG by assaying plasma post-heparin lipolytic total (PHLA) and hepatic (H-TGL) lipase activities. In addition, the major lipid composition of plasma lipoprotein fractions were measured. Results were compared to those of a control group fed a laboratory chow diet during the same period of time. Our results show a decrease in both VLDL-TG secretion and plasma TG pool size accompanied by normal PHLA and H-TGL activities in animals fed the diet supplemented with brominated oils. However, the proportion of the major lipid components of the plasma lipoproteins fractions were unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1342177

Mocchiutti, N O; Bernal, C A; Lombardo, Y B

1992-12-01

331

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method will be investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. During this first quarter the selection of base for pretreatment and extraction (Task 1) has been completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. About 40% of sulfur is removed from IBC-108 coal using 5% NaOH for pretreatment followed by linseed oil oxidation in air and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

332

Power ultrasound in fatliquor preparation based on vegetable oil for leather application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, power ultrasound has taken a significant place in chemical and physical activities of the process industries as an effective and non-polluting method of activation. Oil in water emulsions known as fatliquors are used for the lubrication of tanned leather fibres to get softness and also to improve the strength properties. In the present study, ultrasound has been

V. Sivakumar; R. Poorna Prakash; P. G. Rao; B. V. Ramabrahmam; G. Swaminathan

2008-01-01

333

Development of a method to recovery and amplification DNA by real-time PCR from commercial vegetable oils.  

PubMed

This study describes the design of a suitable DNA isolation method from commercial vegetable oils for the application of DNA markers for food safety and traceability. Firstly, a comparative study was made of eight methods for the recovery of high quality DNA from olive, sunflower and palm oils, and a CTAB-based method was selected. In order to optimize this method, the effect of the organic compounds and several components in the lysis buffer and the lysis and precipitation time were evaluated. For the purpose of overcoming the limitations detected in spectrophotometric and PCR DNA yield evaluations, the performance of the extraction protocols during the optimization processes was evaluated using qPCR. The suggested DNA extraction optimized is less time consuming than other conventional DNA extraction methods, uses a reduced oil volume and is cheaper than available commercial kits. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully assayed in ten commercial vegetable oils and derivatives. PMID:24731357

Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

2014-09-01

334

Instantaneous characterization of vegetable oils via TAG and FFA profiles by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil and is performed without any pre-separation or chemical manipulation. It also causes no fragmentation of TAG ions hence diacylglyceride (DAG) and monoacylglyceride (MAG) profiles and contents can also be measured. The EASI(+/-)-MS profiles of TAG and FFA permit authentication and quality control and can be used, for instance, to access levels of adulteration, acidity, oxidation or hydrolysis of vegetable oils in general. PMID:20349539

Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

2010-04-01

335

Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Reduced consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is desirable to lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In practice, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) that contain both TFAs and other fatty acids are the unit of replacement and could be replaced with diverse alternative fats and oils. We performed quantitative estimates of CHD effects if a person's PHVO consumption were to be

D Mozaffarian; R Clarke

2009-01-01

336

Muscle lipid storage pattern, composition, and adipocyte distribution in different parts of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) fed fish oil and vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary oil source on lipid storage were evaluated in harvest size Atlantic salmon fed fish (FO) or vegetable oil (VO) based diets from start-feeding. Final weight and fat content were not significantly different for salmon fed FO and VO diets over a 27 month period. Fish fed these diets were scanned by computerized X-ray tomography (CT) and the

Dominic A. Nanton; Anne Vegusdal; Anna Maria Bencze Rørå; Bente Ruyter; Grete Baeverfjord; Bente E. Torstensen

2007-01-01

337

Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Expansion of aquaculture is seriously limited by reductions in fish oil (FO) supply for aquafeeds. Terrestrial alternatives\\u000a such as vegetable oils (VO) have been investigated and recently a strategy combining genetic selection with changes in diet\\u000a formulations has been proposed to meet growing demands for aquaculture products. This study investigates the influence of\\u000a genotype on transcriptomic responses to sustainable feeds

Sofia Morais; Jarunan Pratoomyot; John B Taggart; James E Bron; Derrick R Guy; J Gordon Bell; Douglas R Tocher

2011-01-01

338

Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

2008-01-01

339

Hepatocyte fatty acid desaturation and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of liver in salmonids: effects of dietary vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desaturation and elongation of [1-14C]18:3n-3 was investigated in hepatocytes from different populations and three different species of salmonids indigenous to Scotland, brown trout, Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr. Two groups of fish were sampled, before and after they were fed two experimental diets, a control diet containing fish oil and a diet containing vegetable oil (a 1:1 blend of

D. R. Tocher; J. G. Bell; P. MacGlaughlin; F. McGhee; J. R. Dick

2001-01-01

340

Studying the Relationship Between Vegetation and PhysicoChemical Properties of Soil, Case Study: Tabas Region, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the relationship between vegetation and physico-chemical properties of soil of the margins of Tabas Kavir (salty desert), vegetation and soil components were surveyed. Regarding to the soil and vegetation distribution and land use in this region, four distinct areas were selected and classified covering all factors. Then, based on different vegetation cover percentage, the minimum plots

2006-01-01

341

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF UTILIZATION OF NON-EDIBLE STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OILS (SVO'S) AS A SUBSTITUTE FUEL FOR DIESEL ENGINES: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straight vegetable oils (SVO's) have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels with the depletion in petroleum resources and concern of CO2 caused global warming. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines are reported in the literature, caused by their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. This viscosity can be

Avinash Kumar Agarwal

342

Project Study: Groundnut Shelling, Cottonseed Delinting, Vegetable Oil Extracation, Oil Refining, Plastic Container Manufacturing, Finished Oil Packaging, El Baqeir, Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Talaat Nagib & Bros of El Baqeir, Sudan. The main objective of the report is to assess the feasibility of expanding and increasing the efficiency of an existing oil extraction fac...

1984-01-01

343

An evaluation of the life cycle cost of rapeseed oil as a straight vegetable oil fuel to replace petroleum diesel in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of straight vegetable oil (SVO) as biofuel has been recognized as a valid substitute of diesel fuel in the agricultural sector under specific circumstances. Its direct use reduces most of the chemical processes involved when converting it into biodiesel, thus lowering harmful emissions. This study presents the economic analysis of a self-supply farming model that uses rapeseed as

Grau Baquero; Bernat Esteban; Jordi-Roger Riba; Antoni Rius; Rita Puig

2011-01-01

344

Transesterification of vegetable oils: Simulating the replacement of batch reactors with continuous reactors.  

PubMed

A kinetic model was employed to represent biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils. Reaction rate constants found in the open literature were used in order to compare the behavior of batch and continuous processes. A single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under the usual operation conditions was not capable of achieving the same productivity as a batch process. However, when reactors in series were used, the continuous process presented a behavior similar to batch processes. As a result, it was evidenced that a series of CSTRs can be an industrially feasible choice for replacing batch transesterification reactors in large scale biodiesel plants. Further, it was shown that the loss in productivity caused by changing from batch to continuous process can be compensated by means of using higher catalyst concentrations. PMID:20566283

Fonseca, Felipe A S; Vidal-Vieira, José A; Ravagnani, Sergio P

2010-11-01

345

Rice bran and raspberry seed oil-based nanocarriers with self-antioxidative properties as safe photoprotective formulations.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to develop advanced lipid nanocarriers based on renewable vegetable resources (rice bran oil and raspberry seed oil) that possess self-antioxidative properties, having advantages in terms of minimal side effects and exhibiting the ability to simultaneously co-encapsulate and co-release two active compounds. The focus has been oriented towards developing safe cosmetic formulations with broad-spectrum photoprotection based on these new lipid nanocarriers that contain large amounts of vegetable oils and low concentrations of synthetic UVA and UVB filters (butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane - BMDBM and octocrylene - OCT). The lipid nanocarriers have a spherical shape and show good physical stability, with a zeta potential in the range of -25.5 to -32.4 mV. Both vegetable oils play a key role in the preparation of efficient nanocarriers, leading to a less ordered arrangement of the lipid core that offers many spaces for the entrapment of large amounts of BMDBM (79%) and OCT (90%), as wells as improved antioxidant activity and UV absorption properties, particularly for the lipid nanocarriers prepared from rice bran oil. By formulating the lipid nanocarriers into creams containing only 3.5% of the UV filters and 10.5% of the vegetable oils, the resulting sunscreens exhibited improved photoprotection, reflecting up to 91% and 93% of UVA and UVB rays, respectively. A new direction of research achieved by this study is the multiple release strategy of both UV filters from the same lipid nanocarrier. After 24 hours, a slow release of BMDBM (less than 4%) and OCT (17.5%) was obtained through a Fick diffusion process. This study demonstrates a significant advance in the areas of both nanotechnology and cosmetics, developing safer cosmetic formulations that possess broad antioxidant, photoprotective and co-release effectiveness due to the existence of a high content of nanostructured vegetable oils combined with a low amount of synthetic UV filters in the same carrier system. PMID:24590004

Niculae, Gabriela; Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Stan, Raluca; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Meghea, Aurelia

2014-04-01

346

Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

2011-01-01

347

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with 1-butanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles, which are typically powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes.

A. W. Schwab; E. H. Pryde

1982-01-01

348

Impact of trans fatty acids of ruminant origin compared with those from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils on CHD risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a considerable overlap of trans fatty acid (TFA) isomers in fats of ruminant origin and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs), with many isomers in common. However, there is a considerable difference in the amount of individual TFAs in both sources. At present it is uncertain as to which component(s) of TFAs created by chemical hydrogenation are responsible for

Maria Pfeuffer; Jürgen Schrezenmeir

2006-01-01

349

FIELD STUDIES ON USBM AND TOSCO II RETORTED OIL SHALES: VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980  

EPA Science Inventory

Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cov...

350

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hy...

G. V. Smith R. D. Gaston R. Song J. Cheng F. Shi

1995-01-01

351

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hy...

G. V. Smith R. D. Gaston R. Song J. Cheng F. Shi

1996-01-01

352

Chemical Characterization of Emissions from Vegetable Oil Processing and Their Contribution to Aerosol Mass Using the Organic Molecular Markers Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic fraction of aerosol emitted from a vegetable oil processing plant was studied to investigate the contribution of emissions to ambient particles in the surrounding area. Solvent-soluble particulate organic compounds emitted from the plant accounted for 10% of total suspended particles. This percentage was lower in the receptor sites (less than 6% of total aerosol mass). Nonpolar, moderate polar,

Ilias G. Kavouras; Nikolaos Stratigakis; Euripides G. Stephanou

2001-01-01

353

Influence of heated vegetable oils and ??tocopheryl acetate supplementation on ??tocopherol, fatty acids and lipid peroxidation in chicken muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Chicks were fed on diets containing fresh, heated or ??tocopheryl acetate?supplemented heated vegetable oils. The effects on ??tocopherol status, and on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of thigh and breast muscle were determined.2. Plasma ??tocopherol was significantly correlated with ??tocopherol concentrations in thigh and breast muscle.3. The fatty acid profiles of muscle lipids reflected dietary fatty acid

P. J. A. Sheehy; P. A. Morrissey; A. Flynn

1993-01-01

354

The effects of cooking oil fume condensates (COFCs) on the vegetative growth of Salvinia natans (L.) All  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooking oil fumes (COF) and their condensates (COFCs), which are suspected of causing human lung cancers, are hazardous materials to environments. The effects of COFCs on the vegetative growth of Salvinia natans (L.) All., a free-floating aquatic fern, are discussed in this paper. The results showed that there were no differences of the number of floating leaves and the mean

Xinchuang Jiang; Shengnan Zhu; Yawen Wu; Huyin Huai

2009-01-01

355

A dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, and vegetable oils is associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous pregnant Norwegian women.  

PubMed

Several dietary substances have been hypothesized to influence the risk of preeclampsia. Our aim in this study was to estimate the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Women participating in MoBa answered questionnaires at gestational wk 15 (a general health questionnaire) and 17-22 (a FFQ). The pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Principal component factor analysis identified 4 primary dietary patterns that were labeled: vegetable, processed food, potato and fish, and cakes and sweets. Relative risks of preeclampsia were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils were at decreased risk [relative risk (OR) for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by processed meat, salty snacks, and sweet drinks were at increased risk [OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42]. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils decreases the risk of preeclampsia, whereas a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of processed meat, sweet drinks, and salty snacks increases the risk. PMID:19369368

Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Torjusen, Hanne; Trogstad, Lill; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2009-06-01

356

Modified vegetation indices for Ganoderma disease detection in oil palm from field spectroradiometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution field spectroradiometers are important for spectral analysis and mobile inspection of vegetation disease. The biggest challenges in using this technology for automated vegetation disease detection are in spectral signatures pre-processing, band selection and generating reflectance indices to improve the ability of hyperspectral data for early detection of disease. In this paper, new indices for oil palm Ganoderma disease detection were generated using band ratio and different band combination techniques. Unsupervised clustering method was used to cluster the values of each class resultant from each index. The wellness of band combinations was assessed by using Optimum Index Factor (OIF) while cluster validation was executed using Average Silhouette Width (ASW). 11 modified reflectance indices were generated in this study and the indices were ranked according to the values of their ASW. These modified indices were also compared to several existing and new indices. The results showed that the combination of spectral values at 610.5nm and 738nm was the best for clustering the three classes of infection levels in the determination of the best spectral index for early detection of Ganoderma disease.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Anuar, M. Izzuddin; Saripan, M. Iqbal

2009-10-01

357

Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.  

PubMed

Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization and growth but may affect fish health, since imbalances in dietary fatty acids may alter fish immunological status. The effect of dietary oils on different aspects of fish immune system has been reported for some species, but very little is known about the effect of dietary oils on immune-related genes expression in fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dietary oils on the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?) and Interleukine 1? (IL-1?) on intestine and head kidney after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae sp. piscicida. For that purpose, 5 iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets (45% crude protein, 22% crude lipid content) were formulated. Anchovy oil was the only lipid source used in the control diet (FO), but in the other diets, fish oil was totally (100%) or partially (70%) substituted by linseed (rich in n-3 fatty acids) or soybean (rich in n-6 fatty acids) (100L, 100S, 70L, 70S). Fish were fed experimental diets during 80 days and after this period were exposed to an experimental intestinal infection with the pathogen. Serum and tissue samples were obtained at pre-infection and after 1, 3 and 7 days of infection. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from intestine and head kidney and the level expression of TNF-? and IL-1? were assayed by using quantitative real time PCR. The expression level of genes analysed was represented as relative value, using the comparative Ct method (2(-??Ct)). Serum anti-bacterial activity was measured as serum bactericidal capacity and lysozyme activity. Reduction of FO tends to reduce basal (pre-infection) genetic expression of both cytokines. However, complete FO replacement caused an over expression of both pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly after 3 days of induced infection in fish fed soybean oil based diets. On the other hand, fish fed diets with low content of n-6 fatty acids showed better serum bactericidal capacity after infection, suggesting that the substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils containing high levels of n-6 fatty acids may induce imbalances on fish immune response, leading to a lower potential response against infections. PMID:20817101

Montero, D; Mathlouthi, F; Tort, L; Afonso, J M; Torrecillas, S; Fernández-Vaquero, A; Negrin, D; Izquierdo, M S

2010-12-01

358

Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process  

PubMed Central

Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms.

Tamada, Ivo S.; Montagnolli, Renato N.; Lopes, Paulo R. M.; Bidoia, Ederio D.

2012-01-01

359

One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.  

PubMed

A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

2012-10-01

360

Application of a Combustion Model to a Diesel Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the application of a three component model to the theoretical study of the combustion process of a Diesel engine fueled with sunflower oil and sunflower oil-Diesel fuel mixtures. The model assumes that the working fluid consists of three components: the fresh air, the flame and the burned gases. The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation: vc·Qc·d??=dU?+dL?+dQw?, [1] where vc is the fuel cyclic dose, Qc is the fuel heating value, ??=vc?/vc, vc? is the quantity of burned fuel up to the moment ?, U? is the internal energy of the working fluid, Qw? is the heat exchanged through the cylinder walls and L? is the mechanical work. The heat release law was assumed to be a Vibe type one: ??=Rc·[1-exp(-6.9·AmPp+1)]+(1-Rc)·[1-exp(-6.9·Amd+1)], [2] where: ·Ap=(?-?d)/(?P-?d) and A=(?-?d)/(?F-?d) ·?d-start of combustion angle ·?f-end of combustion angle ·?P-end of rapid combustion angle. Using Eqs. [1] and [2] we have obtained the cylinder pressure during combustion, for the vegetable fuels taken into account; the peak values were confirmed during the experiments.

Radu, Rosca; Edward, Rakosi; Comsa, Iulian-Agape; Radu, Gaiginschi

361

Antimicrobial activity and evolution of the composition of essential oil from Algerian Anacyclus pyrethrum L. through the vegetative cycle.  

PubMed

Essential oils from the aerial parts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L. were analysed at three developmental stages (vegetative, floral budding and flowering). Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.019% w/w) was obtained at flowering stage. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 91 compounds. Whatever the analysed stage is, oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the most abundant group. Their level significantly increased during ripening and varied from 37.1% to 58.6%. The oil showed activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria strains. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that may potentially be used in pathogenic systems. PMID:23803147

Selles, Chaouki; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Beddou, Fawzia; Muselli, Alain; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean; Hammouti, Belkhir

2013-01-01

362

Physical Properties of Gum Karaya-Starch-Essential Oil Patches  

PubMed Central

Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene glycol, glycerol, emulsifier, and optionally, potato starch as filler. Inclusion of essential oil reduced patch strength, stiffness, and elasticity relative to patches without essential oil. Inclusion of starch in the essential-oil patches strengthened them, but reduced their elasticity. Patches' adhesion to substrate was examined by both peeling and probe-tack tests: the higher the inclusion of essential oils within the patch, the larger the decrease in its adhesion to substrate. Addition of starch to essential-oil-containing patches increased their adhesion relative to their essential-oil-only counterparts. Scanning electron micrographs of the patches provided evidence of entrapped starch granules. Although inclusion of essential oil reduced both the mechanical properties and adhesion of the patches, a high proportion of essential oil can still be included without losing patch integrity or eliminating its adhesiveness to the skin.

Shcherbina, Yulia; Roth, Zvi

2010-01-01

363

Influence of vegetation on acoustic properties of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible influences of vegetation on acoustically relevant soil parameters, such as porosity and soil structure, were considered. In situ measurements of sound interference patterns were performed in seven plant communities by means of an inclined track method. Normal acoustical specific impedances were calculated with a plane wave outdoor sound propagation model. The impedances found generally showed a real part constant

L. A. M. Heijden; V. Claessen; N. Cock

1983-01-01

364

Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of esters of monochloropropanediol in vegetable oil.  

PubMed

The presence of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MEs) in food is a recent concern raised due to the carcinogenicity of their hydrolysable moieties 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD). Several indirect methods for the quantification of MEs have been developed and are commonly in use until today, however significant discrepancies among analytical results obtained are challenging their reliability. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the trueness of an indirect method by comparing it to a newly developed direct method using palm oil and palm olein as examples. The indirect method was based on ester cleavage under acidic conditions, derivatization of the liberated 2- and 3-MCPD with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole and GC-MS determination. The direct method was comprised of two extraction procedures targeting 2-and 3-MCPD mono esters (co-extracting as well glycidyl esters) by the use of double solid phase extraction (SPE), and 2- and 3-MCPD di-esters by the use of silica gel column, respectively. Detection was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). Accurate quantification of the intact compounds was assured by means of matrix matched standard addition on extracts. Analysis of 22 palm oil and 7 palm olein samples (2- plus 3-MCPD contamination ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 ?g/g) by both methods revealed no significant bias. Both methods were therefore considered as comparable in terms of results; however the indirect method was shown to require less analytical standards, being less tedious and furthermore applicable to all type of different vegetable oils and hence recommended for routine application. PMID:22444428

Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Empl, Anna Maria; Donaubauer, Alfred; Seefelder, Walburga

2012-05-01

365

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly progress report], December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During this second quarter working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S. 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different extraction solvents, and different temperatures were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 1OO{degree}C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.; Ho, K.K.

1995-12-31

366

Determination of ?-tocopherol in vegetable oils using a molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biosensor.  

PubMed

We report the development of a novel hybrid "capture-detection" molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (MIPs-SERS) biosensor for the detection and quantification of ?-tocopherol (?-Toc) in vegetable oils. ?-Toc served as the template for MIPs synthesis. Methacrylic acid formed as the functional monomer. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the cross-linking agent, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile was used as the initiator. The synthesized MIPs functioned to rapidly and selectively adsorb and separate ?-Toc from oil components. We validated a dendritic silver nanostructure synthesized by a displacement reaction to be a suitable SERS substrate for the enhancement of Raman signals. Second-derivative transformations and chemometric models based upon SERS spectral features confirmed the possibility of a rapid and precise detection and quantification of different spiking levels of ?-Toc in four different sources of vegetable oils (Mahalanobis distance from 15.93 to 34.01 for PCA model; R > 0.92, RMSE < 0.41 for PLSR model). The MIPs-SERS biosensor had a high sensitivity as well as a good recovery for ?-Toc analysis in vegetable oils. The entire analysis required 15 min or less to complete with limited sample preparation. PMID:24099154

Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Fang; Chen, Zhiwen; Grant, Edward; Kitts, David D; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

2013-11-01

367

Erratum to “Genetically improved farmed Nile tilapia and red hybrid tilapia showed differences in fatty acid metabolism when fed diets with added fish oil or a vegetable oil blend”  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2×2 factorial 14-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid metabolism in two different tilapia genotypes [Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, GIFT strain) and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)] fed a fish oil (FO)- or blended vegetable oil (BVO)-based semipurified diet. The BVO was formulated using olive oil (15%), sunflower oil (15%), linseed oil (30%) and refined, bleached,

Chaiw-Yee Teoh; Giovanni M. Turchini; Wing-Keong Ng

2011-01-01

368

Characteristic of soil hydro-physical properties and water dynamics under different vegetation restoration types  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining the observation of the soil profile at field and the chemical and physical analysis in laboratory, a study on\\u000a the hydro-physical properties of soil in six different vegetation types and the dynamics of water content after rain was conducted\\u000a in Wanchanggou, Guangyuan City to find out the vegetation types with effective water-conservation functions in order to serve\\u000a the

Ma Zelong; Gong Yuanbo; Hu Tingxing

2006-01-01

369

[Antiradical properties of oregano, thyme, and savory essential oils].  

PubMed

In model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, the antiradical properties of essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgare), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and savory (Satureja hortensis) that are similar in the qualitative composition, but differ in the quantitative content of the main components, were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol. The reaction rates of components of essential oils with the radical were almost identical for all essential oils and were twice the reaction rate of ionol. The antiradical efficiency values were close to each other for all essential oils and by an order of magnitude smaller than for ionol. PMID:23662455

Alinkina, E S; Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D

2013-01-01

370

Rheological properties and lubricity of poly-alpha-olefin oils  

SciTech Connect

Oils were obtained by polymerization of alpha-olefins with a complex aluminum chloride catalyst, followed by neutralization of the polymerized product, distillation, and hydrogenation. Materials were tested to determine the kinematic viscosity at above- and below-freezing temperatures and dynamic viscosity at below-freezing temperatures. Poly-alpha-olefin oils were obtained at different levels of average molecular weight by varying the conditions of polymerization and distillation. The antiwear properties of petroleum, PAOO, and alkylbenzene oils having equal viscosities and an addition of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate were compared. The dialkylbenzene oil had strong associative-solvation properties with respect to the additive.

Tsvetkov, O.N.; Kolesova, G.E.; Bogdanov, S.K.; Toporishcheva, R.I.

1988-01-01

371

West Bank Olive Oil: Effect of Methods of Extraction on Its Physico-Chemical Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Olive oil production is a very important economic activity in the West Bank, but is threatened by cheap imports of Spanish olive oil and vegetable oil. This study identifies the major factors which affect oil quality in the West Bank and proposes a classi...

S. A. Assaf, N. Abdo, D. Jarrah, A. Daibes, K. Assaf

1983-01-01

372

Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.  

PubMed

Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid particles present in diverse organisms. PMID:1560029

Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

1992-04-01

373

Effects of dietary vegetable oil on atlantic salmon hepatocyte fatty acid desaturation and liver fatty acid compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acyl desaturase activities, involved in the conversion of the C18 EFA 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3 to the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) 20?4n?6, 20?5n?3, and 22?6n?3, are known to be under\\u000a nutritional regulation. Specifically, the activity of the desaturation\\/elongation pathway is depressed when animals, including\\u000a fish, are fed fish oils rich in n?3 HUFA compared to animals fed, vegetable oils

Douglas R. Tocher; J. Gordon Bell; James R. Dick; Viv O. Crampton

2003-01-01

374

Impacts of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions from oil sands operations on soils and vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to better understand the impacts of nitrogen oxides (NO x) emissions from oil sands development on soils and vegetation, a laboratory experiment was designed, which mimicked the natural and reclaimed boreal forest environment found in the Fort McMurray area. The primary objective of this research was to examine the effects of various types and concentrations of NOx under a controlled laboratory study, and to provide recommendations and management strategies with respect to NOx deposition management. Findings indicated that, for some vegetation types, significant relationships exist between NOx treatment and vegetation height, biomass, and percent total nitrogen responses. Furthermore, some soil chemical parameters exhibited significant differences due to treatment and or soil depth, and some appeared to serve as better indicators of NOx deposition. Recommendations are made with respect to future research considerations and management strategies for NOx emissions including consideration of both eutrophication and acidification potential.

Cartwright, Shaunna Lynn

375

Decision guide to farm fuel production: ethanol, methanol, or vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to inform farmers of the choices they have today regarding production of motor vehicle fuels. Its intent is to inform farmers of what is involved in producing an alternative fuel, its compatibility with existing engines, the costs involved, and the markets for the fuel and any by-products. This paper is not a how-to-do-it manual or a policy document. Some of the data has been developed from the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program managed by the Washington State Energy Office. Part One provides background information on Washington's fuel use patterns, highlighting the agricultural sector. In Part Two, general considerations common to all alternative fuels are covered. Part Three contains three detailed discussions of the alternative fuels most favored by Washington farmers for production and use - ethanol, vegetable oils, and methanol. The Appendix contains a brief summary of the 11 ethanol projects in Washington funded as a result of the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program. 5 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

Kerstetter, J.D.

1984-09-01

376

In situ bioremediation of uranium with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor.  

PubMed

A field test with a one-time emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection was conducted to assess the capacity of EVO to sustain uranium bioreduction in a high-permeability gravel layer with groundwater concentrations of (mM) U, 0.0055; Ca, 2.98; NO3(-), 0.11; HCO3(-), 5.07; and SO4(2-), 1.23. Comparison of bromide and EVO migration and distribution indicated that a majority of the injected EVO was retained in the subsurface from the injection wells to 50 m downgradient. Nitrate, uranium, and sulfate were sequentially removed from the groundwater within 1-2 weeks, accompanied by an increase in acetate, Mn, Fe, and methane concentrations. Due to the slow release and degradation of EVO with time, reducing conditions were sustained for approximately one year, and daily U discharge to a creek, located approximately 50 m from the injection wells, decreased by 80% within 100 days. Total U discharge was reduced by 50% over the one-year period. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was confirmed by synchrotron analysis of recovered aquifer solids. Oxidants (e.g., dissolved oxygen, nitrate) flowing in from upgradient appeared to reoxidize and remobilize uranium after the EVO was exhausted as evidenced by a transient increase of U concentration above ambient values. Occasional (e.g., annual) EVO injection into a permeable Ca and bicarbonate-containing aquifer can sustain uranium bioreduction/immobilization and decrease U migration/discharge. PMID:23697787

Watson, David B; Wu, Wei-Min; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Tang, Guoping; Earles, Jennifer; Lowe, Kenneth; Gihring, Thomas M; Zhang, Gengxin; Phillips, Jana; Boyanov, Maxim I; Spalding, Brian P; Schadt, Christopher; Kemner, Kenneth M; Criddle, Craig S; Jardine, Philip M; Brooks, Scott C

2013-06-18

377

Modeling the backscattering and transmission properties of vegetation canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.

Allen, C. T.; Ulaby, F. T.

1984-01-01

378

Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total microbial community. Bacterial richness rebounded after nine months, although community composition remained distinct from the pre-amendment conditions. Subsequent to the experiment we have isolated several of these organisms into pure culture including representatives of probable new species of Geobacter, Desulforegula and Desulfovibrio. A hypothesized model for the functioning of these limited communities will be verified in the laboratory using defined combinations of isolates from the field where possible. These results demonstrated EVO serves as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction, and subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction was likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

2011-12-01

379

Evaluation of multiblock NIR\\/MIR PLS predictive models to detect adulteration of diesel\\/biodiesel blends by vegetal oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the potential of using simultaneously near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for the quantification of vegetable oil in diesel\\/biodiesel blends. The two spectral ranges were used separately with PLS regressions. To combine the two pieces of information, first a concatenated matrix was used and then H-PLS and S-PLS models were constructed. The models were compared

V. Gaydou; J. Kister; N. Dupuy

2011-01-01

380

Analysis of volatile contaminants in vegetable oils by headspace solid-phase microextraction with Carboxen-based fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) efficiencies from vegetable oil of the recently available Carboxen–poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and divinylbenzene–Carboxen–PDMS fibres were found to be much greater than those of the PDMS fibre for a number of volatile contaminants. Using these Carboxen-based fibres, the commonly used HS-SPME equilibration times for aqueous matrices of 30–45 min at room temperature for a number of halogenated

B. Denis Page; Gladys Lacroix

2000-01-01

381

Effects of Partially Hydrogenated, Semi-Saturated, and High Oleate Vegetable Oils on Inflammatory Markers and Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on subclinical inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk are mainly derived\\u000a from studies conducted in Western populations. Little information is available on South East Asian countries. This current\\u000a study investigated the chronic effects on serum inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins of three vegetable oils. Healthy,\\u000a normolipidemic subjects (n = 41; 33 females, 8 males) completed a

Kim-Tiu Teng; Phooi-Tee Voon; Hwee-Ming Cheng; Kalanithi Nesaretnam

2010-01-01

382

FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for analysis of lard adulteration in some vegetable oils Espectroscopia FTIR combinada con quimiometría para el análisis de adulteración con grasa de cerdo de aceites vegetales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to develop a fast technique of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for detection and quantification of lard adulteration in some vegetable oils, namely canola oil (Ca?O), corn oil (CO), extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), soybean oil (SO), and sunflower oil (SFO). The FTIR spectra associated with Ca?O, CO, EVOO, SO, and SFO as well as their

A. Rohman; Yaakob B. Che Man; P. Hashim; A. Ismail

2011-01-01

383

Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-05-01

384

Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Narayna Prasad, Rachapudi Badari

2014-05-30

385

Physicochemical Properties of Garden Cress ( Lepidium sativum L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) is an edible, underutilised herb, grown mainly for its seeds in India. Physicochemical properties, minor components (unsaponifiable\\u000a matter, tocopherols, carotenoids), fatty acid composition and storage stability of garden cress seed oil (GCO) were studied.\\u000a Cold press, solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction methods were employed to extract the oil. The total oil content of garden cress

Bastihalli Tukaram Diwakar; Pinto Kumar Dutta; Belur Ramaswamy Lokesh; Kamatham Akhilender Naidu

2010-01-01

386

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

387

Surface reflection properties of oil paints under various conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method for measurement and analysis of surface reflection properties of oil paints under a variety of conditions. First, the radiance factor of a painting surface is measured at different incidence and viewing angles by using a gonio-spectro photometer. The samples are made from different oil paint materials on supporting boards with different paint thicknesses. Next, typical reflection models are examined for describing 3D reflection of the oil painting surfaces. The models are fitted to the observed radiance factors from the oil paint samples. The Cook- Torrance model describes well the reflection properties. The model parameters are estimated from the least-squared fitting to the genio-photometric measurements. Third, the reflection properties are analyzed on the basis of several material conditions such as pigment, supporting material, oil quantity, paint thickness, and support color.

Tominaga, Shoji; Nishi, Shogo

2008-01-01

388

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.

Mueller, Daniela; Ferrao, Marco Flores; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; de Cassia de Souza Schneider, Rosana

2013-01-01

389

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves for use in edible vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Supercritical extraction was employed to produce rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts with different composition and antioxidant activity. CO? was utilized as supercritical solvent and diverse extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, amount of cosolvent and fractionation scheme) were applied. The extracts with higher antioxidant content were selected to study their capability as natural antioxidant of several commercial edible vegetable oils. Linseed oil (LO), grape seed oil (GO) and sesame oil (SO) were oxidized under Rancimat conditions in presence of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of selected extracts. Antioxidant activity index (AAI) was estimated as the ratio of induction time in presence of extracts to induction time in absence of extract. Induction time in absence of extracts was 3.3, 7.9 and 23.4 h for LO, GO and SO, respectively. Regardless of these different susceptibilities, the highest AAI for the three oils was obtained for the extract with the highest antioxidant-enrichment (33.25% carnosic acid plus carnosol) and added at the highest level (300 mg/kg). However, at such conditions, the AAI was significantly higher (p<0.001) for LO (3.5), followed by SO (2.2) and the poorest value was for GO (1.1). Therefore, the magnitude of the AAI depended on the antioxidant-enrichment of the extracts, the level of addition within the oils, but also on the own individual oils. PMID:23196869

Vicente, Gonzalo; Martín, Diana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-01-01

390

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

SciTech Connect

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01

391

Study of a Neutralization Process of Vegetable Oils Used as Diesel Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The neutralization of palm oil, palm kernel oil and rapeseed oil is realized by esterification of free fatty acids with methanol and ion exchange resins as catalyst. Influence of temperature, methanol concentration water and catalyst are examined. Replace...

C. Masson

1986-01-01

392

Review of biomass pyrolysis oil properties and upgrading research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass fast pyrolysis liquefaction has aroused great attention and interests both at home and abroad extensively in recent years. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties and discusses the characteristics of the components and compositions of biomass pyrolysis oil. Furthermore, the problems and focuses were summarized with some suggestions presented on upgrading and applications of bio-oil in the decades.

Qi Zhang; Jie Chang; Tiejun Wang; Ying Xu

2007-01-01

393

Crystallization properties of palm oil by dry fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystallization, thermal, physical, chemical and morphological properties of palm oil were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, polarized microscopy, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC). The palm oil was fractionated into various stearin and olein (with iodine values (IV)>63) fractions by means of a dry fractionation process. During the cooling sequence, samples were taken at regular intervals

O Zaliha; C. L Chong; C. S Cheow; A. R Norizzah; M. J Kellens

2004-01-01

394

Method for evaluating deaeration properties of turbine oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a simple and objective method for determining the deaeration properties of turbine oils. The basis is the British Petroleum method, but the subjective evaluation of results has been replaced by an instrumental method that they have developed, based on transmission of a light beam through a sample of the oil and registration of the light beam

P. A. Kalinin; G. T. Novosartov; B. F. Kirdakov

1987-01-01

395

Effect of feeding blended and interesterified vegetable oils on antioxidant enzymes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding blended and interesterified oils prepared using coconut oil (CNO) with rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO), with a polyunsaturated\\/saturated (P\\/S) ratio of 0.8–1.0, on oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant system. Feeding blended oils resulted in significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxide levels in rats given blended oil CNO+RBO

Malongil B. Reena; Belur R. Lokesh

2011-01-01

396

Biological Properties of Olive Oil Phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Joe Vinson, Chemistry Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510 Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar

Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli

2002-01-01

397

Simultaneous determination of zearalenone and its derivatives in edible vegetable oil by gel permeation chromatography and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive gas chromatographic-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC-QqQ MS) analytical method, for the determination of zearalenone and its five derivatives in edible vegetable oil, was developed. After the vegetable oil samples were prepared using gel permeation chromatography, the eluent was collected, evaporated and dried with nitrogen gas. The residue was silylated with N,O-bis-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane. GC-QqQ MS was performed in the reaction-monitoring mode to confirm and quantify mycotoxins in vegetable oil. The limits of quantitation were 0.03-0.2?gkg(-1) for the six mycotoxins. The average recoveries, measured at 2, 20 and 200?gkg(-1), were in the range 80.3-96.5%. Zearalenone was detected in the range 5.2-184.6?gkg(-1) in nine maize oils and at 40.7?gkg(-1) in a rapeseed oil from the local market. PMID:25053023

Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Liqin; Jin, Nuo; Wang, Jianmei; Jiang, Kezhi

2015-01-01

398

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage. 229.1208... (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage. (a...year, the total gross and net productive wells, expressed separately for oil and...

2013-04-01

399

Characterization of fatty acids and triacylglycerols in vegetable oils by gas chromatography and statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids and triacylglycerols from Argania tree seeds (argania oil) were identified. Common fatty acids and triacylglycerols were quantified using gas chromatography on a capillary column. A frequent adulteration of some kinds of argania oil was determined using statistical methods. Hierarchical cluster analysis clearly distinguished between oil directly isolated from seeds and bought in a pharmacy, and oil bought in

Tomáš ?ezanka; Hana ?ezanková

1999-01-01

400

Performance and emissions characteristics of a naturally aspirated diesel engine with vegetable oil fuels - 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A naturally aspirated, direct injected diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a crude soybean oil, a 50 percent (by volume) mixture of crude soybean oil and no. 2 diesel fuel, and a degummed soybean oil. The data were compared with previous tests conducted on the same engine using diesel fuel, crude sunflower oil and

A. L. Humke; N. J. Barsic

1981-01-01

401

Behavioral and reproductive effects of chronic developmental exposure to brominated vegetable oil in rats.  

PubMed

Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% of the food additive brominated vegetable (soybean) oil (BVO) for 2 weeks prior to mating. After conception, the diets were continued throughout gestation and lactation for the females. The same diets were also provided to the dams' offspring throughout their development (up to 90-120 days of age). BVO at 2.0% of the diet completely blocked reproduction. BVO at 1.0% of the diet severely impaired conception, reduced maternal body weight, and produced slightly reduced litter sizes but no evidence of malformations. At this dose postnatal mortality was high, and survivors showed impaired growth and severe behavioral impairments on a battery of standardized tests of functional development. After weaning, adequate data could not be obtained because of the high mortality rate in this group. BVO at 0.5% of the diet produced less reproductive interference and much less offspring mortality or impairment of growth, but produced behavioral impairments almost as severe as seen in the BVO 1.0% group. In addition, this group exhibited severely reduced postweaning activity, delayed vaginal patency development, and reduced day-90 weight. BVO at 0.25% of the diet produced reproductive deficits similar to the BVO 0.5% group, but less severe effects on growth and behavioral development. This group showed no significant increase in offspring mortality. The data demonstrate clear evidence of dose-related physical and behavioral developmental toxicity. PMID:6665731

Vorhees, C V; Butcher, R E; Wootten, V; Brunner, R L

1983-12-01

402

Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

2013-08-01

403

Assessing the effect of vegetation in the estimation of soil properties with field VNIR radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroradiometric soil surveys (field radiometry) are a valuable technique for soil classification and properties estimation. Field radiometry combines -in a relatively easy-to-use procedure- a fast, accurate and non-destructive sampling method. A wide range of soil properties have been quantitatively estimated with field or laboratory radiometry. In addition, field radiometry is a basic stage in remote sensing studies. It allows the up-scaling process of soil, vegetation or water parameters from the ground level to the airborne or spaceborne sensors level. Field radiometry plays a crucial role in training and validation stages of quantitative remote sensing. A complex problem in remote sensing appears when several components are mixed within a pixel and the resulting pixel's spectrum is a combination of the individual components. This work assess the effect of vegetation in soil properties estimation with linear regression models. Field spectra were taken from soil-vegetation mixtures under natural illumination with a portable spectroradiometer in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Soil and vegetation samples for each radiometric sampling point were taken and analyzed in laboratory. Soil moisture content and soil organic carbon measured by the LOI (Loss-On-Ignition) method (Konen et al. 2002) were used in this approach. A derivative analysis of field spectra was used to determine the position and magnitude of absorption bands according to the method employed by Melendez-Pastor et al. (2008). Pearson correlations between soil parameters and each spectral band were computed and correlograms for the first and second derivate were obtained. Maximum (approximates to +1) and minimum (approximates to -1) Pearson correlations were used to normalize correlograms between 0 to 1. High relatively correlated bands (with values ranging from 0 to 0.1 or from 0-9 to 1 for the normalized correlograms) were identified and used as explicative variables in the regression models. In addition, vegetation water content and the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation index) computed from field spectra also were used as explicative variables. Four combinations of explicative variables were used to predict soil variables: 1) high correlated bands, 2) high correlated bands and a soil parameter (LOI is used to predict soil moisture and vice versa), 3) high correlated bands and vegetation parameters, and 4) high correlated bands with soil and vegetation parameters. Models were developed for LOI and soil moisture with the first and second derivate. Medium to high correlation coefficients (R) were obtained in all regression models. R values ranged from 0.7 for the first approach (just high correlated bands) to 0.9 for the prediction of soil moisture with high correlated bands of the second derivate with vegetation parameters. Regression models with the second derivative achieved better model's adjustments and were almost equal for all combinations of explicative variables. A small improvement was observed for first derivate regression models using soil and vegetation explicative variables. Vegetation moisture was the most important parameter for the improvement of soil properties estimation. The combined used of soil and vegetation parameters for quantitative remote sensing of soil parameters allows accuracy improvements and a better knowledge of land cover mixtures. Regression models with the second derivate spectral peaks are less sensitive to changes in the vegetation coverage and thus retrieves better soil parameters estimations. References Konen, M., P. Jacobs, C. Lee Burras, B. Talaga, J. Mason. (2002) Equations for predicting soil organic carbon using loss-on-ignition for north central U.S. soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66:1878-1881. Melendez-Pastor, I., J. Navarro-Pedreño, I. Gómez, M. Koch. (2008). Identifying optimal spectral bands to assess soil properties with VNIR radiometry in semi-arid soils. Geoderma, 147: 126-132.

Melendez-Pastor, I.; Córdoba-Sola, P.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gómez, I.; Koch, M.

2009-04-01

404

Changes in soil properties and vegetation following exclosure and grazing in degraded Alxa desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock grazing is recognized as one of the main causes of vegetation and soil degradation and desertification in arid and semiarid northern China. In this paper, soil properties and plant characteristics in a typical degraded area in desert steppe of Alxa were studied. The study focused on the effects of grazing on soil properties and vegetation changes under three management

Shifang Pei; Hua Fu; Changgui Wan

2008-01-01

405

HOW DOES BIOTECH FOOD LABELING AFFECT CONSUMERS' PURCHASING PREFERENCE AND MARKET SHARE IN SUPERMARKET? A CASE STUDY OF VEGETABLE OIL IN URBAN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether and how biotech labeling has an impact on Chinese consumers' vegetable oil purchasing decision using actual sales data from Nanjing and household survey data from Jiangsu province. It is found that the market share of biotech oils decreased as a result, though small in absolute terms but statistically significant. It is also found that individual consumers'

FUNING ZHONG; XI CHEN

406

Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

2011-12-01

407

Detection of Salt Marsh Vegetation Stress and Recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico Using AVIRIS Data  

PubMed Central

The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

2013-01-01

408

Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data.  

PubMed

The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill. PMID:24223872

Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J; Ustin, Susan L; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F; Roberts, Dar A

2013-01-01

409

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (PO)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2007-01-01

410

Biodegradation of Natural Oils in Seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spills of non-petroleum hydrocarbons including vegetable oils and fish oils are of environmental concern because of their potential to cause serious effects on marine life and coastal environments. Biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms is an important and potentially ubiquitous process affecting both the chemical composition and physical properties of contaminant oils. Data on the environmental persistence of non-petroleum oils is now

M. M. AL-DARBI; N. O. SAEED; M. R. ISLAM; K. LEE

2005-01-01

411

Profiling fatty acids in vegetable oils by reactive pyrolysis-gas chromatography with dimethyl carbonate and titanium silicate.  

PubMed

A novel methodology in on-line pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) for the fast analysis of fatty acids in vegetable oils with minimal sample treatment and the use of non-toxic reagents is described. Pyrolysis at 500 degrees C for 10 s of sub-microgram quantity of vegetable oil dissolved in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and in the presence of nanopowder titanium silicon oxide resulted in the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as unique products. Pyrolysis performed by means of a resistively heated filament pyrolyser interfaced to a GC-MS apparatus enabled the direct analysis of evolved FAMEs. The DMC/Py-GC-MS analysis was tested on soybean, coconut, linseed, walnut and olive oil and the results compared to the classical BF(3)-methanol as reference methodology. The DMC method exhibited a lower precision and was biased towards lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in comparison to the BF(3)-methanol method, but was more advantageous in terms of reduced sample treatment, waste generation and risk factors of employed chemicals. PMID:16216255

Fabbri, Daniele; Baravelli, Valentina; Chiavari, Giuseppe; Prati, Silvia

2005-12-30

412

Load of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils: importance of alkylated derivatives.  

PubMed

The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied in different samples of olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, and refined seed oils. A high number of PAHs have been found, with a wide range of molecular weights and in concentrations that are high or even very high compared with the data obtained by other authors, especially in the seed oils. Among the PAHs identified, more than half are alkylated compounds, which account for the major part of the total PAH concentration in some of the samples. The total PAH concentrations in olive oils and extra virgin olive oils are similar, but the former present a higher proportion of heavy PAHs than the latter. The seed oils, in general, have much higher concentrations than the different types of olive oil and their PAH profiles are different. One of the olive oil samples exhibited a PAH distribution similar to that observed in olive pomace oil, suggesting possible adulteration. These data reveal that, in some cases, PAH profile provides useful information in relation to the possible origin of the contamination. We also observed large differences in PAH distribution between oils with the same label but from different batches. PAHs with varying degrees of carcinogenicity have been identified in all the samples, including benzo[a]pyrene, although this PAH was identified neither in the extra virgin olive oils nor in two of the seed oil samples. PMID:15453580

Guillén, María D; Sopelana, Patricia

2004-09-01

413

Effects of dietary lipid level and vegetable oil on fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar  L.) over the whole production cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) induced by vegetable oil (VO) replacement of fish oil (FO) and high dietary oil in aquaculture diets can have negative impacts\\u000a on the nutritional quality of the product for the human consumer, including altered flesh fatty acid composition and lipid\\u000a content. A dietary trial was designed to investigate the twin

D. R. Tocher; J. G. Bell; F. McGhee; J. R. Dick; J. Fonseca-Madrigal

2003-01-01

414

Terahertz spectroscopy properties of the selected engine oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine oil, most of which is extracted from petroleum, consist of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of molecular weights in the range of 250-1000. Variable amounts of different additives are put into them to inhibit oxidation, improve the viscosity index, decrease the fluidity point and avoid foaming or settling of solid particles among others. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy contains rich physical, chemical, and structural information of the materials. Most low-frequency vibrational and rotational spectra of many petrochemicals lie in this frequency range. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the THz spectroscopic studies of petroleum products. In this paper, the optical properties and spectroscopy of selected kinds of engine oil consisting of shell HELIX 10W-40, Mobilube GX 80W-90, GEELY ENGINE OIL SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 5W-30, SMA engine oil SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 75W-90 have been studied by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the spectral range of 0.6-2.5 THz. Engine oil with different viscosities in the terahertz spectrum has certain regularity. In the THz-TDS, with the increase of viscosity, time delay is greater and with the increase of viscosity, refractive indexes also grow and their rank is extremely regular. The specific kinds of engine oil can be identified according to their different spectral features in the THz range. The THz-TDS technology has potentially significant impact on the engine oil analysis.

Zhu, Shouming; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Tian; Zhao, Songqing; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

415

Rapid determination of phospholipid content of vegetable oils by FTIR spectroscopy combined with partial least-square regression.  

PubMed

A rapid mid-FTIR method was developed to quantitatively determine the total phospholipid (PL) content of vegetable oils. The method simply requires that the oil be diluted 4:1 (w/w) with hexane, its spectrum taken and ratioed against a hexane background. A calibration was devised using partial least squares by adding purified soybean PL at levels of 0.02-2.0% to phospholipid-free oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower) using the spectral region encompassing 1,357-1,000 cm(-1) and validated using the AOCS 12-55. Using calibration and leave-one-out cross-validation predictive errors, a 200-20,000 ppm calibration was accurate to within ± 362 and 488 ppm, respectively, while for sub-calibrations ranging from 200 to 2000; 2000 to 8000 and 8000 to 20,000 ppm, they were ± 72-172, ± 119-220, and ± 242-371 ppm, respectively. Although limited to 3 oil types in this study, the calibration is simple to devise and can be broadened to the universe of oil types of interest, the analytical protocol being straightforward and the analysis readily automatable. PMID:24206718

Meng, Xianghe; Pan, Qiuyue; Ding, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

2014-03-15

416

Chemical compositions and antioxidative and antidiabetic properties of underutilized vegetable palm hearts from Plectocomiopsis geminiflora and Eugeissona insignis.  

PubMed

Underutilized vegetables are currently studied not only for their nutrient values but also for their health-promoting components for protection against chronic diseases. The present study was performed to evaluate chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of underutilized vegetable palm hearts, namely, lalis (Plectocomiopsis geminiflora) and pantu (Eugeissona insignis). Additionally, the vegetable extracts were evaluated for their activities in the inhibition of digestive enzymes and effects on insulin secretion using BRIN BD11 pancreatic cell lines. Both vegetables contain valuable sources of dietary fiber, potassium, and zinc. For the first time, the phenolic compounds of the vegetables were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Appreciable amounts of chlorogenic acid were found in the studied vegetables. The sample extracts exhibited potential antioxidant capacities through chemical and biological in vitro assays. High inhibition of ?-amylase activity (>50%) was found from the extracts. Thus, it was suggested the vegetable consumption could fulfill the nutrient requirements among local communities. PMID:24499380

Ahmad Aufa, Zabidah; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Hamid, Muhajir

2014-03-01

417

Properties of Oil sands and Bitumen in Athabasca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary SAGD(Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) is one of the most effective methods to produce bitumen (Fig.1). For seismic monitoring of the steam front and its effect on the formation, it is important to know correctly the properties of oil sands and bitumen. We measured the P- and S-wave velocities of oil sands and bitumen from Athabasca, Alberta, by ultrasonic measurement

Hisako Mochinaga; S. Onozuka; Fumio Kono; Toyokazu Ogawa; Akihisa Takahashi; Takahiro Torigoe

418

Effect of feeding blended and interesterified vegetable oils on antioxidant enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding blended and interesterified oils prepared using coconut oil (CNO) with rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO), with a polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratio of 0.8-1.0, on oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant system. Feeding blended oils resulted in significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxide levels in rats given blended oil CNO+RBO or CNO+SESO by 1.3 and 1.6-fold, respectively compared to rats fed diet containing CNO. The lipid peroxide level in erythrocyte membrane also increased in rats fed blended oil compared to rats fed with CNO. Rats fed interesterified oils prepared from these blended oils also showed increased lipid peroxide level compared to rats given CNO diet, however it was not significantly different from rats fed with their respective blends. There was a significant increase in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase after feeding blended and interesterified oils. The activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase were increased in rats fed blended and interesterified oils. These results indicated that the P/S ratio of dietary fat is an important factor in determining the oxidative stress, activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and activity of membrane bound enzymes. PMID:20937347

Reena, Malongil B; Lokesh, Belur R

2011-01-01

419

Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of nonpolar organochlorine pesticide residues in a crude vegetable oil and its refinery by-products.  

PubMed

A crude soybean oil, several of its refinery by-products (described as soapstock, deodorizer distillate, and clabber stock), and the completely refined oil were analyzed for pesticide residues. Fourteen organo-chlorine pesticides and pesticide metabolites were found in the deodorizer distillate; 5 of these were also found in the clabber stock. Levels in these by-products ranged from 0.3 to 8 ppm. Only endrin and dieldrin were detected in the crude oil at levels of 0.01 and 0.05 ppm, respectively. Forty to 150 times these levels were found in the deodorizer distillate and clabber stock. Pesticide residues were not detected in the refined oil or in the soapstock at limits of detection for dieldrin of about 0.01 and 0.1 ppm, respectively. The method used by the Food and Drug Administration to analyze fats and oils for multiple organohalogen pesticide residues was inadequate for the extraction of pesticide residues from vegetable oil refinery by-products. The method used to analyze the crude vegetable oil and the refinery by-products involved dissolution of the oil samples in ethyl acetate-toluene, filtration if necessary, cleanup by gel permeation chromatography, and then Florisil column chromatography. The oil was isolated from aqueous-oil mixtures by extraction with hexane before analysis. The crude soybean oil was fortified with 12 organohalogen pesticides and Aroclor 1254 at levels of 0.5-3.7 ppm. Recoveries ranged from 83 to 102%. PMID:6889594

Young, S J; Kamps, L R

1982-07-01

420

Physical properties of liquid edible oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature values of density, viscosity, adiabatic expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat (constant pressure),\\u000a ultrasonic velocity, and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient are compiled for a range of food oils and water at 20C, and a\\u000a series of empirical equations are suggested to calculate the temperature dependency of these parameters. The importance of\\u000a these data to the application of ultrasonic particle-sizing instruments

John N. Coupland; D. Julian McClements

1997-01-01

421

Alcoholic extraction of vegetable oils. I. Solubilities of cottonseed, peanut, sesame, and soybean oils in aqueous ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Solubilities of cottonseed, peanut, sesame, and soybean oils in aqueous alcoholic solutions at various temperatures were determined\\u000a directly. Solubility curves for the four oils in aqueous alcoholic solutions are presented.\\u000a \\u000a The critical solution temperaturesversus alcoholic concentrations data have been plotted and are in complete agreement with the previously published data of Japanese\\u000a workers in each case. It is observed that

Rama Kanth Rao; M. G. Krishna; S. H. Zaheer; L. K. Arnold

1955-01-01

422

Alcoholic extraction of vegetable oils. III. Solubilities of babassu, coconut, olive, palm, rapeseed, and sunflower seed oils in aqueous ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Solubilities of babassu, coconut, olive, palm, rapeseed, and sunflower seed oils in aqueous alcoholic solutions at various\\u000a temperatures were determined by a direct and simple method. Solubility curves for the six oils are presented.\\u000a \\u000a The critical solution temperatures increase with the water content of the alcohol, and in each case the relationship is linear.\\u000a The pressure in the system also

Rama Kanth Rao; Lionel K. Arnold

1956-01-01

423

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

2012-12-01

424

Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were investigated. A 90% conversion of brown grease in a semi-batch mode was obtained in 7 hours. In contrast, in a batch reaction the conversion was roughly 40% in the same reaction time. However, by pre-treating the "as received" brown grease with H 2, the conversion in a batch reactor was increased 1.4--fold; and when the H2 to BG ratio was increased to 3/1 (mol/mol), the conversion was further improved. Therefore, such a two-step processing with selective hydrogenation prior to the decarboxylation of BG improves the product selectivity. The commercial 5% Pd/C catalyst was highly active for the decarboxylation of brown grease to green diesel at 300 °C and 1.5 MPa. Second, a class of Pd catalyst supported on a silica-activated carbon nanocomposite for free fatty acid decarboxylation was developed, and displayed excellent activity and operation stability selectively for the green diesel hydrocarbons formation in the absence of hydrogen under mild reaction conditions. The decarboxylation activities of different amount of silica containing catalysts were investigated in a batch reactor under inert gas. Among them, the formulation with the fewer oxygen surface groups (Pd/Si--C--4) was the most active catalyst for the decarboxylation of an unsaturated fatty acid. The high activity of the Pd/Si--C--4 catalyst is attributed to its accessible and well-distributed metallic Pd nanoparticles inside hybrid mesopores as well as to its low acidity, weak surface interactions and inertness. Thus, Pd supported on carbon modified with silica may be regarded as a prospective decarboxylation catalyst for the removal of oxygen from vegetable oil/animal fat without the need of additional hydrogen. Third, in order to design a suitable catalyst for conversion of brown grease to green diesel, a systematic study of the model compounds--oleic acid was conducted on various catalysts in super-critical water to understand the reaction pathways in the absence of hydrogen. A Si--C support was more effective than activated carbon itself for both decarboxylation of oleic acid and hydrogenation of

Sari, Elvan

425

Chemical characterization of emissions from vegetable oil processing and their contribution to aerosol mass using the organic molecular markers approach.  

PubMed

The organic fraction of aerosol emitted from a vegetable oil processing plant was studied to investigate the contribution of emissions to ambient particles in the surrounding area. Solvent-soluble particulate organic compounds emitted from the plant accounted for 10% of total suspended particles. This percentage was lower in the receptor sites (less than 6% of total aerosol mass). Nonpolar, moderate polar, polar, and acidic compounds were detected in both emitted and ambient aerosol samples. The processing and combustion of olive pits yielded a source with strong biogenic characteristics, such as the high values of the carbon preference index (CPI) for all compound classes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) detected in emissions were associated with both olive pits and diesel combustion. The chromatographic profile of dimethylphenanthrenes (DMPs) was characteristic of olive pit combustion. Organic aerosols collected in two receptor sites provided a different pattern. The significant contribution of vehicular emissions was identified by CPI values (approximately 1) of n-alkanes and the presence of the unresolved complex mixture (UCM). In addition, PAH concentration diagnostic ratios indicated that emissions from catalyst and noncatalyst automobiles and heavy trucks were significant. The strong even-to-odd predominance of n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, and their salts indicated the contribution of a source with biogenic characteristics. However, the profile of DMPs at receptor sites was similar to that observed for diesel particulates. These differences indicated that the contribution of vegetable oil processing emissions to the atmosphere was negligible. PMID:11321912

Kavouras, I G; Stratigakis, N; Stephanou, E G

2001-04-01

426

The Role of Relict Vegetation in Maintaining Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in an Abandoned Stipa Grass Agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of rhizosphere physical-chemical and biological properties for dominant vegetation, including Stipa tenacissima and Rosmarinus officinalis, and for relict natural vegetation, namely Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris, Pistacia lentiscus, Retama sphaerocarpa, and Rhamnus lycioides, was carried out in an abandoned agricultural soil from a semiarid Mediterranean area. Rhizospheres of R. sphaerocarpa and S. tenacissima had the highest concentration of total

F. Caravaca; D. Figueroa; J. M. Barea; C. Azcón-Aguilar; J. Palenzuela; A. Roldán

2003-01-01

427

Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses. PMID:17201644

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ate?, Ay?e; Unver, Ahmet

2006-01-01

428

Energy and exergy utilization, and carbon dioxide emission in vegetable oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and exergy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during production of soybean, sunflower, and olive oils are assessed. In all cases, agriculture is the most energy and exergy intensive process and emits most of the carbon dioxide, and diesel is the dominant energy and exergy source. The cumulative degree of perfection (CDP) for soybean and olive oil is 0.92 and

Mustafa Özilgen; Esra Sorgüven

2011-01-01

429

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis with vegetable oils as co-solvent.  

PubMed

Soybean oil and olive oil were investigated as continuous co-solvents for supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Without co-solvents, only 25.40+/-0.79% efficiency was achieved with SC-CO(2) extraction at 70 degrees C and 40 MPa at a continuous flow rate of 3 mL min(-1) for 5h. In the presence of soybean oil or olive oil as a co-solvent, the extraction efficiency was enhanced, with the most appropriate level of soybean oil in the solvent mixture being 10% by volume. At this concentration and the above extraction conditions, the highest extraction efficiency of 36.36+/-0.79% was obtained for soybean oil, a 30% increase in extraction efficiency compared with SC-CO(2) extraction without soybean oil, whereas the 10% olive oil increased the extraction efficiency further to 51.03+/-1.08%, which was comparable to that obtained using ethanol as co-solvent. PMID:18068354

Krichnavaruk, Sontaya; Shotipruk, Artiwan; Goto, Motonobu; Pavasant, Prasert

2008-09-01

430

Feasibility of using LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities conducted from February 1, 1985 to July 31, 1985 and preliminary conclusions regarding research objectives are summarized. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using LANDSAT data to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils. The general approach is to apply the climatic-climax hypothesis (Ealgeson, 1982) to natural water-limited vegetation systems using canopy cover estimated from LANDSAT data. Natural water-limited systems typically consist of inhomogeneous vegetation canopies interspersed with bare soils. The ground resolution associated with one pixel from LANDSAT MSS (or TM) data is generally greater than the scale of the plant canopy or canopy clusters. Thus a method for resolving percent canopy cover at a subpixel level must be established before the Eagleson hypothesis can be tested. Two formulations are proposed which extend existing methods of analyzing mixed pixels to naturally vegetated landscapes. The first method involves use of the normalized vegetation index. The second approach is a physical model based on radiative transfer principles. Both methods are to be analyzed for their feasibility on selected sites.

Eagleson, P. S.

1985-01-01

431

Measuring and modeling of the dielectric properties and attenuation of vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dielectric properties of vegetation material--primarily agricultural plants--as a function of moisture content and microwave frequency was measured and used to develop dielectric mixing models for the vegetation-water mixture. A model for the loss factor of a vegetation canopy was also developed. During the first phase of this investigation, three waveguide transmission systems covering from 1 to 2-GHz, from 3.5 to 6.5-GHz, and from 7.5 to 8.5-GHz bands were constructed and calibrated. By measuring the magnitude and phase of the field transmission coefficient of a given sample, it was possible to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric constant of the sample. Measurements were made for numerous samples of leaves and stalks of wheat and corn, and for wheat heads. Also, dielectric measurements were made of the liquid included in the vegetation material after extraction by mechanical means. The propagation loss is more than an order of magnitude greater than had previously been assumed. Various types of dielectric mixing models were investigated in terms of the available data, and a propagation model was developed and evaluated against direct canopy attenuation measurements. The canopy measurements were made by transmitting a signal from a radar antenna mounted atop a truck-mounted boom, and using a small antenna mounted on a rail beneath the canopy to receive it.

Ulaby, F. T.

1984-01-01

432

Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation–soil relationships following vegetation restoration of mobile dunes in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative methods were used to examine soil properties and their spatial heterogeneity in a 0-year fenced mobile dune (MD0),\\u000a an 11-year fenced mobile dune (MD11) and a 20-year fenced mobile dune (MD20) in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. The objective\\u000a of the study was to assess the effect of vegetation restoration on heterogeneity of soil properties in sand dunes and

Xiaoan Zuo; Xueyong Zhao; Halin Zhao; Tonghui Zhang; Yirui Guo; Yuqiang Li; Yingxin Huang

2009-01-01

433

Buying oil and gas properties for fun and profit  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid 1980`s large and small companies have been downsizing, reducing staff size, and disposing of producing oil and gas leases. Property divestitures have been via bid and negotiated sales, and through oil and gas auctions. Geologists and petroleum engineers have acquired many of the properties as investments for themselves, their companies, or their clients and investors. Carefully selected properties can provide excellent rates of return. Success in acquiring properties depends on several factors: selection criteria, knowledge of evaluation methods, access to data, sources of investment capital, and a willingness to persevere in soliciting and screening many prospective purchase candidates. The paper will present the results of one company`s acquisition efforts over a ten-year period.

Gibbs, J.A. [Five States Energy Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

434

Emergent properties of climate-vegetation feedbacks in the North American Monsoon Macrosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change and associated disturbances (e.g. wildfires, spread of invasive species) is greatly affected by the stability of feedback interactions between climate and vegetation. In order to study climate-vegetation interactions, such as CO2 and H2O exchange in the North American Monsoon System (NAMS), we plan to couple a community land surface model (NoahMP or CLM) used in regional climate models (WRF) with an individual based, spatially explicit vegetation model (ECOTONE). Individual based modeling makes it possible to link individual plant traits with properties of plant communities. Community properties, such as species composition and species distribution arise from dynamic interactions of individual plants with each other, and with their environment. Plants interact with each other through intra- and interspecific competition for resources (H2O, nitrogen), and the outcome of these interactions depends on the properties of the plant community and the environment itself. In turn, the environment is affected by the resulting change in community structure, which may have an impact on the drivers of climate change. First, we performed sensitivity tests of ECOTONE to assess its ability to reproduce vegetation distribution in the NAMS. We compared the land surface model and ECOTONE with regard to their capability to accurately simulate soil moisture, CO2 flux and above ground biomass. For evaluating the models we used the eddy-correlation sensible and latent heat fluxes, CO2 flux and observations of other climate and environmental variables (e.g. soil temperature and moisture) from the Santa Rita experimental range. The model intercomparison helped us understand the advantages and disadvantages of each model, providing us guidance for coupling the community land surface model (NoahMP or CLM) with ECOTONE.

Mathias, A.; Niu, G.; Zeng, X.

2012-12-01

435

Microwave irradiation effects on the structure, viscosity, thermal properties and lubricity of soybean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean oil is a highly valuable agricultural commodity for the United States. To further add value to soybean oil, chemical and physical modifications, as well as additives, have been extensively used to change the oil characteristics and properties, broadening the potential industrial applications. Heat treatments such as heat-bodying have been implemented to change soybean oil properties, but no research has

Atanu Biswas; Atanu Adhvaryu; David G. Stevenson; Brajendra K. Sharma; J. L. Willet; Sevim Z. Erhan

2007-01-01

436

Fuel properties of tallow and soybean oil esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel properties of beef tallow, soybean oil, their esters, and blends with No. 2 diesel fuel and ethanol were determined.\\u000a Fuel properties tested were viscosity, specific gravity, API gravity, distillation ranges, calculated cetane index, energy\\u000a content, flash point, water content, sulfur content, carbon residue, particulate matter, acid value, copper-strip corrosion\\u000a test, ash content, melting point, cloud point, and pour point.

Yusuf Ali; Milford A. Hanna; Susan L. Cuppett

1995-01-01

437

Basic properties of palm oil biodiesel–diesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic properties of several palm oil biodiesel–diesel fuel blends were measured according to the corresponding ASTM standards. In order to predict these properties, mixing rules are evaluated as a function of the volume fraction of biodiesel in the blend. Kay’s mixing rule is used for predicting density, heating value, three different points of the distillation curve (T10, T50 and

Pedro Benjumea; John Agudelo; Andrés Agudelo

2008-01-01

438

Application of random forests to select premium quality vegetable oils by their fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

In order to discriminate premium quality from inexpensive edible oils, the fatty acid profiles of tea, rapeseed, corn, sunflower and sesame oil were compared with the ones from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Fatty acid methyl esters were quantified by GC/MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and random forests (RF) were applied to cluster the samples. RF showed a better ability of discrimination and also revealed the contribution of each variable to the clustering model. The multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot of the RF proximity matrix demonstrated that tea oil was similar to EVOO. Meanwhile, it was observed that the total content of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (79.48%) in tea oil was close to EVOO (80.71%), especially the oleic acid (77.38% and 77.45%, respectively). The results suggest that tea oil might be a good edible oil choice, considering the high oleic acid content and similar fatty acid profiles compared to those of EVOO. PMID:24054269

Ai, Fang-Fang; Bin, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-min; Huang, Jian-hua; Wang, Jian-bing; Liang, Yi-zeng; Yu, Ling; Yang, Zhen-yu

2014-01-15

439

Irradiation Effect on Oxidative Condition and Tocopherol Content of Vegetable Oils  

PubMed Central

The effect on induction period and tocopherol content after ?-irradiation on samples of olive oil and seed oils (sunflower and soybean) was determined. In seed oil samples 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of ?-tocopherol were added before irradiation with 1, 2 and 3kGy. The results of induction period showed that, after irradiation, all samples presented a significant decreased in resistance to oxidation. However, this decrease was minimized when ?-tocopherol was added. Irradiation significantly decreased the level of tocopherols. ?-Tocopherol appeared more sensitive in irradiation process than ?- and ?-tocopherol. The addition of ?-tocopherol significantly reduced, in most cases, the depletion of the other tocopherols.

Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Tsaknis, John; Sflomos, Konstantinos

2007-01-01

440

Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the production and characterization of biodiesel (BD or B) as well as the experimental work carried out by many researchers in this field. BD fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel (PD) fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. BD fuel can be used in any mixture with PD fuel as it has

Ayhan Demirbas

2005-01-01

441

FIBER ROLLS AS A TOOL FOR RE-VEGETATION OF OIL-BRINE CONTAMINATED WATERSHEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

We found that fibrijute burlap cylinders filled with organic matter and inoculated with salt tolerant plants and mycorrhizal fungi promoted remediation of an historic brine scar devoid of vegetation since the 1960's. Soils in plots that received a surface treatment of hay, org...

442

Quantitative determination of tocopherols in edible vegetable oils using electrochemical ultra-microsensors combined with chemometric tools.  

PubMed

We have developed an electroanalytical method to quantify different isomers of tocopherols in edible vegetable oils. The method uses the square wave voltammetry on a carbon fiber disk ultramicroelectrode in benzene/ethanol+0.1 mol L(-1)H2SO4. Because the oxidation peaks of these natural antioxidants show an important overlapping, we have used two chemometric tools to obtain the multivariate calibration model. One method was the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square (MCR-ALS), which assumes a linear behavior, i.e., the total signal is the sum of individual signals of components, and another nonlinear method such as artificial neuronal networks (ANNs). From the accuracy and precision analysis between nominal and estimated concentrations by both methods, we could infer that the ANNs method was a good model to quantify tocopherols in edible oil samples. Recovery percentages were between 94% and 99%. In addition, we found a difference of 1.4-6.8% between the total content of tocopherols in edible oil samples and the vitamin E content declared by the manufacturers. PMID:24148502

Robledo, Sebastián Noel; Zachetti, Vanessa Gimena Lourdes; Zon, María Alicia; Fernández, Héctor

2013-11-15

443

Impacts and recovery of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on vegetation structure and function of coastal salt marshes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

We investigated the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill on two dominant coastal saltmarsh plants, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the processes controlling differential species-effects and recovery. Seven months after the Macondo MC 252 oil made landfall along the shoreline salt marshes of northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the surface 2 cm of heavily oiled marsh soils were as high as 510 mg g(-1). Heavy oiling caused almost complete mortality of both species. However, moderate oiling impacted Spartina less severely than Juncus and, relative to the reference marshes, had no significant effect on Spartina while significantly lowering live aboveground biomass and stem density of Juncus. A greenhouse mesocosm study supported field results and indicated that S. alterniflora was much more tolerant to shoot oil coverage than J. roemerianus. Spartina recovered from as much as 100% oil coverage of shoots in 7 months; however, Juncus recovered to a much lesser extent. Soil-oiling significantly affected both species. Severe impacts of the Macondo oil to coastal marsh vegetation most likely resulted from oil exposure of the shoots and oil contact on/in the marsh soil, as well as repeated oiling events. PMID:22369124

Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A

2012-04-01

444

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

445

Effect of corrosive contaminants on lubricating properties of turbine oil  

SciTech Connect

In the operation of centrifugal and piston compressors on natural gas transmission lines, it is found that air, moisture, and hydrogen sulfide get into the lubricating oil. These contaminants, especially hydrogen sulfide, affect the lubricating properties of the oil to a great degree; however, this problem, which is directly related to the operating reliability of the moving parts of compressors, has not been studied adequately. Oxygen dissolved in the oil forms an iron oxide film on rubbing metal surfaces, protecting them from wear. When no oxygen is present, the wear becomes much more severe, all the way up to grabbing of the rubbing surfaces and pitting. Oil contaminants that form surface films with a different composition and structure, for example oxysulfide films, have received less attention. Using a procedure that we had developed, in which the oil can be saturated with hydrogen sulfide or other gases, we investigated the effects on wear rate and coefficient of friction from the presence of corrosive contaminants that find their way into turbine oil in the process of natural gas transmission.

Spirkin, V.G.; Gil`mutdinov, Sh.K.

1995-01-01

446

Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem) of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were ?-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%). The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

Chekem, Marie Stephanie Goka; Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tane, Pierre; Vilarem, Gerard; Cerny, Muriel

2010-01-01

447

Studies on the comparison of performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using three degummed non-edible vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates non-edible straight vegetable oils of Putranjiva, Jatropha and Karanja to find out the most suitable alternative diesel by a chemical processing. Degumming is an economical chemical process that is done by concentrated phosphoric acid. This process is applied to the above-mentioned non-edible oils to remove the impurities for the improvement of viscosity, cetane number and better combustion

S. K. Haldar; B. B. Ghosh; A. Nag

2009-01-01

448

Conversion of biomass to fuel: Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using KF loaded nano-?-Al 2O 3 as catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

KF-impregnated nanoparticles of ?-Al2O3 were calcinated and used as heterogeneous catalysts for the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol for the synthesis of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME). The ratio of KF to nano-?-Al2O3, calcination temperature, molar ratio of methanol\\/oil, transesterification reaction temperature and time, and the concentration of the catalyst were used as the parameters of the study.

Nezahat Boz; Nebahat Degirmenbasi; Dilhan M. Kalyon

2009-01-01

449

Brominated fatty acid distribution in tissues and fluids of rats fed brominated vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats dosed orally for four days with 0.24 g\\/kg body weight per day of brominated olive oil (BOO) or brominated sesame oil\\u000a (BSO) were found to accumulate dibromostearic (DBS) acid (from BOO) and DBS and tetrabromosteric (TBS) acids (from BSO) in\\u000a the liver, heart and adipose tissue. The metabolites, dibromopalmitic, and dibromomyristic acids (from BOO and BSO), as well\\u000a as

James F. Lawrence; Rajinder K. Chadha; Frank Iverson; Peter McGuire; Henry B. S. Conacher

1984-01-01

450

Performance of trans-free vegetable oils in shortenings and deep-fat frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A high-oleic, low-linolenic canola (rapeseed) has been created using conventional, non-transgenic, plant breeding methods. The oil from this canola seed contains 70% oleic acid, less than 3% linolenic acid and less than 7% saturated fatty acids. It is oxidatively stable without hydrogenation, is free of trans fatty acids and is among those oils with the lowest levels of saturated

Frank T. Orthoefer

451

Characterization of polymeric membranes used in vegetable oil\\/organic solvents separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of commercial membranes used in the separation of refined soybean oil\\/n-butane and n-hexane mixtures was studied in this work using different commercial ultrafiltration membranes, with cut-offs ranging from 1 to 5kDa. The membranes were used in the permeation of refined soybean oil\\/pressurized n-butane mixtures at 1:3 (w\\/w) and 1:1 (w\\/w) mass ratios in a continuous tangential flow module

Marcus V. Tres; Helen C. Ferraz; Rogério M. Dallago; Marco Di Luccio; J. Vladimir Oliveira

2010-01-01

452

A rapid method for analysis of refined vegetable oils for TBHQ by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid extraction technique using acetonitrile solvent has been used to extract TBHQ antioxidant from refined\\u000a soybean and cottonseed oils. The extracts have been analyzed by a gas Chromatographic technique, using silyl derivatization,\\u000a to quantitate the TBHQ content of the oil. The method has been calibrated using 14 data points for linear regression, showing\\u000a a coefficient of deter-mination

Richard E. Austin; David M. Wyatt

1980-01-01

453

Effects of crude oil residuals on soil chemical properties in oil sites, Momoge Wetland, China.  

PubMed

Crude oil exploration and production has been the largest anthropogenic factor contributing to the degradation of Momoge Wetland, China. To study the effects of crude oil on wetland soils, we examined the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), as well as pH and electricity conductivity (EC) from oil sites and uncontaminated areas in the Momoge Wetland. All contaminated areas had significantly higher (p < 0.05) contents of TPH and TOC, but significantly lower (p < 0.05) TN contents than those of the uncontaminated areas. Contaminated sites also exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) pH values, C/N and C/P ratios. For TP contents and EC, no significant changes were detected. The level of soil contamination and impact of oil residuals on soil quality greatly depended on the length of time the oil well was in production. Oil residuals had caused some major changes in the soils' chemical properties in the Momoge Wetland. PMID:19184478

Wang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Jiang; Zhao, Jimin

2010-02-01

454

Preliminary Studies on Two Vegetable Oil Based Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) for the Delivery of Metronidazole, A Poorly Water Soluble Drug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary evaluation was carried out on metronidazole-loaded Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) using two vegetable oils-Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) and Palm Oil (PO). Purification of oils, drug solubility in the oils, pre/post formulation isotropicity tests, emulsification times and release studies of metronidazole from the SEDDS were carried out. Results indicated solubility values of 4.441 and 4.654%w/w, respectively for metronidazole in PKO and PO. Preformulation isotropicity test revealed that out of the 24 batches evaluated 10 of the SEDDS formulations containing different oil: surfactant ratios and PKO:PO admixtures were found to be isotropic after 5 h. However when the SEDDS were loaded with metronidazole there was a reduction in the number (to 7) of formulations that maintained isotropicity and stability after 72 h. All the batches had emulsification times of less than two minutes except batch 4D with oil:surfactant concentration of 50:50. The release profile showed that most of the formulations released 50% of drug in less than 8 min and 85% of drug in less than 30 min. We therefore conclude that SEDDS containing the two vegetable oils are potential alternatives when immediate release and delivery of metronidazole is the primary motivation.

Obitte, N. C.; Ezeiruaku, H.; Onyishi, V. I.

455

Impact of straight vegetable oil–diesel blends application on vehicle regulated and non-regulated emissions over legislated and real world driving cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straight vegetable oil (SVO) has been considered as a possible alternative to fossil diesel-engine fuel since the development of diesel engines. In Europe, SVOs achieved a measurable share in biofuels market reaching 4%. This study attempts to identify the impact of untreated SVO application on fuel consumption and emissions, regulated and non-regulated, on a Euro 3 common rail diesel passenger

Georgios Fontaras; Marina Kousoulidou; Georgios Karavalakis; Evangelos Bakeas; Zissis Samaras

2011-01-01

456

Setting reclamation targets and evaluating progress: Submersed aquatic vegetation in natural and post-oil sands mining wetlands in Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands mining disturbs thousands of hectares of boreal landscape, about 65% of which is wetland. Its reclamation will constitute the largest wetland reclamation project in Canadian history. We developed a unified analytical framework that we used to set reclamation targets and evaluate reclamation progress using submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV). We sampled SAV in 38 minimally disturbed wetlands to establish

Rebecca C. Rooney; Suzanne E. Bayley

2011-01-01

457

Toxic Potential Evaluation of Particulate Matter Emitted from a Constant Speed Compression Ignition Engine: A Comparison between Straight Vegetable Oil and Mineral Diesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was primarily focused on analyzing particulate matter coming out of engine exhaust from diesel and straight vegetable oils (SVO) for the following parameters: (1) Benzene soluble organic fraction (BSOF), (2) Metal traces, and (3) Particulate surface morphology. Hence, the exhaust from a small compression ignition (CI) engine emitted under varying engine load conditions at constant engine speed was

Avinash Kumar Agarwal; Tarun Gupta; Abhishek Kothari

2010-01-01

458

Genome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals after intervention with vegetables and plant oil.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest increased cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with healthy individuals. The present study aims to assess whether T2DM is associated with increased genome instability and whether a healthy diet with natural foods can improve genome stability in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Seventy-six diabetic and 21 non-diabetic individuals were randomly assigned to either an 'intervention' or an 'information only' group. All participants received information about the beneficial effects of a healthy diet, while subjects of the intervention group received additionally 300g of vegetables and 25ml of plant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids per day for 8 weeks. Chromosomal damage was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome assay. Levels of chromosomal damage did not differ between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. However, diabetic individuals with MN frequency above the high 50th percentile had significantly higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and were at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score. Non-diabetic individuals with MN frequency above the 50th percentile had significantly lower vitamin B12 levels. The intervention with vegetables and plant oil led to significant increases in folate, ?-tocopherol, ?- and ?-carotene while vitamin B12 was significantly reduced. Levels of chromosomal damage were not altered, only apoptosis was slightly increased. The results suggest interactions between glycaemic control, CVD risk and genome stability in individuals with T2DM. However, a healthy diet does not improve genome damage in PBLs. PMID:23340810

Müllner, Elisabeth; Brath, Helmut; Toferer, Daniela; Adrigan, Sonja; Bulla, Marie-Therese; Stieglmayer, Roswitha; Wallner, Marlies; Marek, Reinhard; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

2013-03-01

459

New cost-effective method for conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel.  

PubMed

A low cost method to convert triglycerides to biodiesel by transesterification reaction has been investigated. The new approach is based on controlled feeding of oil into a pool of alcohol allowing easy dispersion of oil creating large interfacial area for mass transfer. It also enabled equilibrium constants to shift in the forward direction due to excess of alcohol in the dispersion. As a result product yield higher than 95% could be achieved at lower energy input compared to conventional method. Comparisons made with conventional batch and co-solvent enabled method show differences and highlight improvements. Reactions were conducted in one liter reactor at various residence time, temperature and molar ratio of canola oil with methanol in presence of potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. Samples were collected at regular intervals and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) to determine the reaction progress. PMID:22858462

Pal, K D; Prakash, A

2012-10-01

460

Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013+/-0.001, 0.0018+/-0.0002, and 0.0012+/-0.0001 mol C/mol absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals.

Huemmrich, Karl F.; Gamon, John; Tweedie, Craig; Campbell, Petya K.; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

461

Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

1988-01-01

462

Modification of palm oil for anti-inflammatory nutraceutical properties.  

PubMed

Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:19449050

Zainal, Zaida; Longman, Andrea J; Hurst, Samantha; Duggan, Katrina; Hughes, Clare E; Caterson, Bruce; Harwood, John L

2009-07-01

463

VEGETATIVE REHABILITATION OF ARID LAND DISTURBED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL SHALE AND COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Field experiments were established on sites disturbed by exploratory drilling in the oil shale region of northeastern Utah and on disturbed sites on a potential coal mine in south central Utah. Concurrently, greenhouse studies were carried out using soil samples from disturbed si...

464

Purification and Identification of Endogenous and Exogenous Minor Constituents from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor constituents are ubiquitous in plant origin sources, particularly plant derived oils. According to the origins of the minor cons