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1

Friction properties of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are a renewable and an environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based oils in lubrication and other\\u000a important application areas. Vegetable oils fall into two broad chemical categories: triesters (or TG) and monoesters. Most\\u000a vegetable oils are triesters of glycerol with FA, whose characteristics are dependent on the chemistry and composition of\\u000a the FA residues. A small percentage of vegetable

G. Biresaw; A. Adhvaryu; S. Z. Erhan

2003-01-01

2

FRICTION PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are renewable and environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based oils in lubrication and other important application areas. Vegetable oils comprise a mixture of compounds that fall into two broad chemical categories: triesters (or triglycerides) and monoesters. Most vegeta...

3

Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions.

Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.; Heakin, A.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Schwab, A.W.

1982-11-01

4

Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

1981-01-01

5

ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils have several attractive features for use in lubrication. They are renewable, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly. They also have certain physical and chemical characteristics that make them potentially useful components for lubrication application. However, successful developme...

6

Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

7

Vegetable oil fuel standards  

SciTech Connect

Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

Pryde, E.H.

1982-01-01

8

Tribological Properties of Sulfide-Modified Vegetable Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In previous reports we described the synthesis of sulfide modified vegetable oil (SMVO) by radical addition of butanethiol to the double bonds of corn and canola oils. Corn and canola oils differ in the degree of the unsaturation. The modification resulted in eliminating the double bonds, introduc...

9

NEW USES OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are used in various industrial applications such as emulsifiers, lubricants, plasticizers, surfactants, plastics, solvents and resins. Research and development approaches take advantage of the natural properties of these oils. Vegetable oils have superb environmental credentials, su...

10

Cetane number and thermal properties of vegetable oil, biodiesel, 1-butanol and diesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil derived fuels for diesel engines are becoming important as alternative to petroleum diesel fuels due to their\\u000a environmental friendliness and availability. Ignition quality in compression ignition (CI) engines is influenced by thermal\\u000a characteristics and fuel properties. In this study, the effects of vegetable oil transesterification and vegetable oil–1-butanol-diesel\\u000a blends on fuel properties, cetane number (CN) and thermal characteristics

F. Lujaji; A. Bereczky; L. Janosi; Cs. Novak; M. Mbarawa

2010-01-01

11

Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity. PMID:24144052

Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

2013-10-01

12

Products from vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

Bagby, M.O. [Oil Chemical Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

1995-12-01

13

Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

2014-01-01

14

The effects of vegetable oil properties on injection and combustion in two different diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different vegetable oils, each in at least 3 different stages of processing, have been characterized according to their\\u000a physical and chemical properties, their injection and atomization characteristics, and their performance and combustion characteristics\\u000a in both a direct-injection and an indirect-injection diesel engine. The injection and atomization characteristics of the vegetable\\u000a oils are significantly different than those of petroleum-derived diesel

T. W. Ryan; L. G. Dodge; T. J. Callahan

1984-01-01

15

Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluents to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are being sought. Twenty four vegetable oils were screened using glycerol tris (2-ethylhexanoate) [GTEH] as a diluent to improve the low temperature properties. Epoxidized soybean oil (E...

16

Vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

17

Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.  

PubMed

Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law. PMID:24191675

Prevc, Tjaša; Cigi?, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

2013-11-27

18

Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( ?) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both ? and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.

Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

2012-11-01

19

Tribological Properties of Vegetable Oils Modified by Reaction with Butanethiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn, canola, and castor-lauric estolide oils were chemically modified by photochemical direct reaction of butanethiol with\\u000a the double bonds on the hydrocarbon chains. The effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index (VI), pour\\u000a point (PP), cloud point (CP), oxidation stability (RPVOT), 4-ball anti-wear (AW), and extreme pressure (EP) were investigated.\\u000a The sulfide modified (SM) corn and canola oils showed

Girma BiresawGrigor; Grigor B. Bantchev; Steven C. Cermak

2011-01-01

20

Tribological properties of vegetable oils modified by reaction with Butanethiol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn, canola and castor-lauric estolide oils were chemically modified by direct reaction of butanethiol with the double bonds on the hydrocarbon chains. The effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index (VI), pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), oxidation stability (OS), rotating pres...

21

Correlating chemical structure and physical properties of vegetable oil esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of FA ester chemical structures on the rheology and crystallization temperature of those compounds was evaluated\\u000a using methyl, n-butyl, n-octyl, and 2-ethyl-1-hexyl FA esters with different chain lengths and different degrees of unsaturation. The rheological\\u000a properties were analyzed in a high-precision rheometer at various temperatures, and the crystallization temperatures were\\u000a determined by DSC. Esters produced from the esterification

Jorge de A. Rodrigues; Fabianne de P. Cardoso; Elizabeth R. Lachter; Luciana R. M. Estevão; Edson Lima; Regina S. V. Nascimento

2006-01-01

22

Vegetable oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1982-01-01

23

Antioxidants for vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical compounds having antioxidant efficacy in food fats and oils and cleared for food use by governmental regulatory\\u000a agencies are available for such use by vegetable oil processors in many nations of the world. These antioxidants are reviewed\\u000a with particular attention to major benefits and possible shortcomings they may afford when added to vegetable oils. Some guidelines\\u000a in selecting

E. R. Sherwin

1976-01-01

24

Treatment of vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

Bessler, T.R.

1986-05-13

25

Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud

S. L. Dmytryshyn; A. K. Dalai; S. T. Chaudhari; H. K. Mishra; M. J. Reaney

2004-01-01

26

VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BASE STOCKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Vegetable Oil-Based Base Stocks" is a study of a series of vegetable oils selected for potential use as base fluids for industrial and automotive applications. Their thermal-oxidative stabilities and low-temperature properties are evaluated. Effects of diluents and additives on selected vegetable...

27

Heat Transfer Properties of a Series of Oxidized and Unoxidized Vegetable Oils in Comparison with Petroleum Oil-Based Quenchants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oils, especially soybean oil, exhibit substantially poorer thermal-oxidative stability than commercially available petroleum oil quenchant formulations. Therefore, to achieve any commercially interesting performance, vegetable oils must be stabilized by the addition of antioxidant inhibitors. This work describes the ability of two commercially available antioxidants, Irganox L 57 and Irganox L 109, to stabilize soybean oil against thermal-oxidative degradation. In addition, the effect of antioxidant stabilization on quenching performance was evaluated by determining the profile of heat transfer coefficient variation throughout the quenching process at different times after being subjected to an accelerated thermal-oxidation aging test. The results of this work are discussed here.

de Souza, Ester Carvalho; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Sarmiento, G. Sánchez; Agaliotis, Eliana; Carrara, Juan C.; Schicchi, Diego S.; Totten, George E.

2013-07-01

28

Vegetable oil fuels: A review  

SciTech Connect

Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01

29

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

30

Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluent to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are under development. Increased utilization of glycerol would help biodiesel producers to become more competitive and viable. Lubricants based on vegetable oils generally suffer from po...

31

Film-forming properties of vegetable oil-synthetic oil blends in elastohydrodynamic conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need for more environmentally-friendly and renewable lubricants that can be met by formulating lubricating blends with bio-based components. One of the most important properties of lubricants is its ability to form films between moving parts, such as those encountered in gears and bearing...

32

Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil

Zongqiang GONG; Peijun LI; B. M. Wilke; Kassem Alef

2008-01-01

33

Economics of vegetable oil processing  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils offer great promise as a diesel fuel substitute, given the similarity in their physical and chemical properties. This report examines the cost of converting oilseeds to oil, as a first step in evaluating the potential competitiveness of vegetable oil fuels. Processing costs for typical existing US facilities - including solvent, prepress-solvent, and mechanical extraction technologies - were reviewed. The capital costs of a dedicated rapeseed oil processing facility in the southeastern US were also estimated. A third objective was to estimate the costs of modifying existing processing facilities to crush multiple oilseeds, since the oilseed industry has considerable excess capacity. Using existing excess capacity to crush oilseeds for 60 days per year resulted in savings for each of the three extraction technologies with prepress-solvent extraction being the minimum cost technology. The 17 southeastern prepress-solvent facilities identified could produce over 34 million gallons of rapeseed oil per year if each are operated for an additional 60 days per year. This would require over 312,000 acres of winter rapeseed production, providing an excellent opportunity for early introduction of this crop for energy purposes. 57 figs.

Scheithauer, R.; Dripchak, K.

1988-05-01

34

VEGETABLE OILS IN METALWORKING LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils provide a number of advantages for application in metalworking lubricants. These include ease of biodegradablity impact, and free of any adverse health effect on operators. In addition, the fact that vegetable oils are obtained from renewable agricultural sources, makes them preferr...

35

USE OF VEGETABLE OILS IN FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils have a series of advantages which can be beneficial for a number of lubricant applications. They are readily biodegradable and essentially nontoxic, properties that are not exhibited by lubricants based on mineral oils. Volatility is very low due to high molecular weight triglycerid...

36

Lactones in autoxidized vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was demonstrated that bothgamma anddelta saturated lactones are present in highly peroxidized vegetable oils. In the oils which were investigated thegamma isomers are predominant. Additional lactones also form when the hydroperoxides are reduced. Although no lactones were detectable\\u000a in fresh, refined soybean oil, considerable amounts of bothgamma anddelta lactones were found to be present in highly peroxidized samples of

J. A. Fioriti; V. Krampl; R. J. Sims

1967-01-01

37

Improving the low-temperature properties of alternative diesel fuels: Vegetable oil-derived methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores near-term approaches for improving the low-temperature properties of triglyceride oil-derived fuels for\\u000a direct-injection compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Methyl esters from transesterified soybean oil were evaluated as a\\u000a neat fuel and in blends with petroleum middle distillates. Winterization showed that the cloud point (CP) of methyl soyate\\u000a may be reduced to ?16C. Twelve cold-flow additives marketed for distillates were

R. O. Dunn; M. W. Shockley; M. O. Bagby

1996-01-01

38

Vegetable oils for tractors  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

Moroney, M.

1981-11-14

39

Thermal modification of vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article reviews some literature, both old and recent, involving the hypothesis that the Diels-Alder reaction is operative in the thermal polymerization of vegetable oil. Both triacylglycerol oils and methyl esters are used to show that this mechanism is unlikely to be a significant contributor ...

40

Pancreatic lipolysis of some brominated vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic lipolysis of several commercially used brominated vegetable oils has shown that although hydrolysis proceeds more\\u000a slowly, these oils are degraded in a similar way to the common vegetable oils.

H. B. S. Conacher; D. K. J. Hartman; R. K. Chadha

1970-01-01

41

Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.  

PubMed

In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated. PMID:25541678

Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

2015-01-21

42

Modification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  From the analysis of several series of hydrogenated cottonseed, soybean, and linseed oils, made by the spectral and other\\u000a methods, estimates have been made of the relative readiness of hydrogenation of oleic, iso-oleic, linoleic, and linolenic\\u000a acids, and an isomer of linoleic acid which presumably has its double bonds in the 9:10 and 15:16 positions.\\u000a \\u000a The conclusions reached are as

A. E. Bailey; G. S. Fisher

1946-01-01

43

Modification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a An investigation has been made of the composition of mixtures of mono-, di-, and triglycerides formed by the reaction of hydrogenated\\u000a cottonseed oil with glycerol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a At temperatures below about 200?C., at equilibrium, and within the range of glycerol concentration in which the reaction product\\u000a becomes homogeneus, the proportions of free

R. O. Feuge; A. E. Bailey

1946-01-01

44

Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

45

The use of antioxidants in vegetable oils - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shelf life of vegetable oils in food uses and their applicability in industrial situations is greatly dependent on their oxidative stabilities. Methods of improving oxidative stability values currently available include genetic modifications, compositional changes via chemical means, as well as the inhibition of oxidation by means of substances known as antioxidants. This paper reviews the properties of vegetable oils

Emmanuel O. Aluyor; Mudiakeoghene Ori-Jesu

2008-01-01

46

Fuel properties of cottonseed oil  

SciTech Connect

The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E. [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-11-01

47

Vegetable oil production in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  From this short description it may be concluded that in Brazil there already exist good factories for the extraction of cottonseed\\u000a oil by the American process, good refineries and factories for vegetable butter and similar products, and that it would be\\u000a in the interests of American capitalists to study the possibilities of this industry in Brazil. In 1928 Brazil exported

J. B. de Moraes Carvalho

1929-01-01

48

Properties of margarine and spread from wax-vegetable oil organogel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food products such as margarine and spread need solid fats for a desired texture and typically these solid fats contain high contents of saturated fats and trans-fats. In this research organogels formed by plant wax and soybean oil were utilized to produce trans-fat free margarine and spread. Base...

49

Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

2008-08-01

50

MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environmental-friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low-temperature stability. This paper presents a series of structural modifications of veget...

51

Vegetable oils for liquid-filled transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several billion litres of transformer oil are used in transformers worldwide. To meet the challenges posed by environmental concerns, fully biodegradable vegetable oils have been developed for use in electrical equipment, particularly in transformers. Against this background the author discusses the development of vegetable oils for transformer use, their biodegradability, decomposition products, functional life test, fire hazard tests and the

T. V. Oommen

2002-01-01

52

Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials. PMID:24012607

Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

2014-04-01

53

Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel prepared from vegetable oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydrogel is a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. The unique properties of hydrogels make this kind of materials have many utilization potentials, such as drug delivery, gene therapy, wound care products, breast implant materials, cosmetic products, and tissue engineering. Hydroge...

54

VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The uncertainty in petroleum supply along with pollution and environmental health concerns is making a way for vegetable oils to be used as fuel and lubricants. The vegetable oils have some advantages like naturally renewable resource, environmentally safe, good lubricity and viscosity-temperature ...

55

Modification of Vegetable Oils for Lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current talk deals with a partial review of research for developing improved lubricants from vegetable oils through modifications of the chemical structure. The typical vegetable oil is a mixture of triesters of glycerin with linear fatty acids, most of them with one or more double bonds. The ...

56

Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

2014-10-01

57

Vegetable oils: Liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, were investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. Several thermophysical properties of four vegetable oils were investigated. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybeans, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination.

Ingley, H. A.

1980-02-01

58

SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATIONS OF BIOCATALYTICALLY DERIVED UV ABSORBING VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New and expanded markets are needed for commodity vegetable oils as a result of their over production. New uses for these oils can be applied once they have been modified to enhance their functional (physical/chemical) properties. Cost-effective and environmentally benign processing technologies m...

59

Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

60

Authentication of vegetable oils on the basis of their physico-chemical properties with the aid of chemometrics.  

PubMed

In food production, reliable analytical methods for confirmation of purity or degree of spoilage are required by growers, food quality assessors, processors, and consumers. Seven parameters of physico-chemical properties, such as acid number, colority, density, refractive index, moisture and volatility, saponification value and peroxide value, were measured for quality and adulterated soybean, as well as quality and rancid rapeseed oils. Chemometrics methods were then applied for qualitative and quantitative discrimination and prediction of the oils by methods such exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), radial basis function-artificial neural networks (RBF-ANN), and multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA. In general, the soybean and rapeseed oils were discriminated by PCA, and the two spoilt oils behaved differently with the rancid rapeseed samples exhibiting more object scatter on the PC-scores plot, than the adulterated soybean oil. For the PLS and RBF-ANN prediction methods, suitable training models were devised, which were able to predict satisfactorily the category of the four different oil samples in the verification set. Rank ordering with the use of MCDM models indicated that the oil types can be discriminated on the PROMETHEE II scale. For the first time, it was demonstrated how ranking of oil objects with the use of PROMETHEE and GAIA could be utilized as a versatile indicator of quality performance of products on the basis of a standard selected by the stakeholder. In principle, this approach provides a very flexible method for assessment of product quality directly from the measured data. PMID:18970766

Zhang, Guowen; Ni, Yongnian; Churchill, Jane; Kokot, Serge

2006-09-15

61

Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil  

E-print Network

are looking for alternative methods to improve conventional refining methods. During the last decade, energy efficient membrane separation technology has evolved dramatically. This thesis reports a study on degumming crude vegetable oil using membrane...

Lin, Lan

1997-01-01

62

Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives — Symposium overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information\\u000a presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests\\u000a will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more\\u000a research

E. H. Pryde

1984-01-01

63

Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

64

Research on Biodiesel and Vegetable Oil Fuels - Then and Now  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A vegetable oil was used as diesel fuel for the first time in 1900 and the first biodiesel dates from the 1930's. Significant insights into fuel properties were already gained in those times. This article briefly discusses such results and relates the author's own recent work on biodiesel fuel pro...

65

Sterol composition of 19 vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsaponifiables from 19 vegetable oils were divided into a sterol and three other fractions by thin-layer chromatography.\\u000a All except olive and palm kernel oils gave the sterol fraction in a large quantity. Compositions of the sterol fractions were\\u000a determined by gas liquid chromatography. Identification of each sterol was carried out by gas liquid chromatography and combined\\u000a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry.

T. Itoh; T. Tamura; T. Matsumoto

1973-01-01

66

Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

NONE

1996-12-31

67

VEGETABLE OIL BASED BIODEGRADABLE LUBRICANTS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Until recently, mineral oil had a significant cost advantage over vegetable oils and so petroleum has been the base oil of economic choice. A recent rise in oil prices along with the low vegetable oil prices has narrowed the price difference to close to $0.05/lb, and there is now more interest in v...

68

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

69

Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils.  

PubMed

This work reports laboratory results obtained from the production of polyols with branched ether and ester compounds from epoxidized vegetable oils pertaining to annual, temperate climate crops (soybean, sunflower and high-oleic sunflower oils), focusing on their possible use as components of lubricant base stocks. To this end, two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring were studied. The first caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid (exclusively in a single organic phase) and the second using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol and ethanol, in acid media. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions: low synthesis temperature and short reaction times and with conversions above 99%. Spectroscopic (NMR), thermal (DSC) and rheological techniques were used to characterize the oils, their epoxides and polyols, to assess the impact of the nature of the vegetable oil and the chemical modifications introduced, including long-term storage conditions. Several correlations were employed to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oils with temperature, and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained. PMID:19716696

Campanella, Alejandrina; Rustoy, Eduardo; Baldessari, Alicia; Baltanás, Miguel A

2010-01-01

70

21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

2012-04-01

71

21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

2011-04-01

72

21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

2013-04-01

73

21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and...Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with...

2014-04-01

74

Preparation of high hydroxyl equivalent weight polyols from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple novel vegetable oil-based polyols were synthesized from the reaction-addition to epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) by a series of acid acyl moieties derived from vegetable oils. The acid acyl moieties were linoleic acid (LA), ricinoleic acid (RC), ricinoleic acid estolide (RC estolide) and hydrolyzed bodied soybean oil (HBSBO). LA and RC were commercially available but RC estolide and HBSBO were

Pim-pahn Kiatsimkul; Galen J. Suppes; Fu-hung Hsieh; Zuleica Lozada; Yuan-Chan Tu

2008-01-01

75

Hydrogenated vegetable oils as candle wax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially hydrogenated soybean oil, referred to as soywax, is gaining attention as a renewable and biodegradable alternative\\u000a to paraffin wax for use in candles. However, current soywax candles suffer from several problems, especially poor melting\\u000a and solidification properties. Fully hydrogenated soybean oil exhibits improved melting properties but owing to its fragile\\u000a texture, it is not yet acceptable in most candle

Karamatollah Rezaei; Tong Wang; Lawrence A. Johnson

2002-01-01

76

Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview  

SciTech Connect

Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

Pryde, E.H.

1984-10-01

77

New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

78

Triterpene alcohols and sterols of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triterpene alcohols and sterols were separated by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography from the unsaponifiable\\u000a fractions of the following 18 vegetable oils: linseed, peanut, olive, rice bran, palm kernel, corn, sesame, oiticica, palm,\\u000a coconut, rapeseed, grape seed, sunflower, poppy seed, castor, tea seed, cocoa butter and soybean. Two triterpene alcohols,\\u000a cycloartenol and 24-methylene cycloartanol, were found in all of the

E. Fedeli; A. Lanzani; P. Capella; G. Jacini

1966-01-01

79

Viscosities of vegetable oils and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data for viscosity as a function of temperature from 24 to 110C (75 to 230F) have been measured for a number of vegetable\\u000a oils (crambe, rapeseed, corn, soybean, milk-weed, coconut, lesquerella) and eight fatty acids in the range from C9 to C22. The viscosity measurements were performed according to ASTM test methods D 445 and D 446. Several correlations were

H. Noureddini; B. C. Teoh; L. Davis Clements

1992-01-01

80

Determination of tocopherols in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid (ten minute) and selective method for measuring individual tocopherols found in vegetable oils has been developed\\u000a using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet absorbance detection. The samples are analyzed directly\\u000a following dissolution in the mobile phase. ? -and ?-tocopherols are quantitated based upon their peak areas relative to standard\\u000a calibration curves. The measurement of ? - and

1979-01-01

81

EFFECT OF JET-COOKING ON THE STRUCTURAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OILS AND FATTY ACID ESTERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, new technology was developed to produce highly stable starch-oil composites employing the technique of excess steam jet cooking mixtures of starches and lipids. In this process, the combination of high temperature and pressure in addition to the high-shear mixing action that occurs during...

82

Biobased oil structure on amphiphilic and tribological properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biobased oils are those derived from farm-based renewable raw materials. Most are vegetable oils (such as soybean, canola, corn, etc.) or chemical modifications of vegetable oils. They have a number of interesting structural features that impact their amphiphilic and lubrication properties. The basi...

83

Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

None

2012-01-01

84

Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.  

PubMed

The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps). PMID:12523544

Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

2002-12-01

85

Thermal analysis of alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively poor cold-flow properties of monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats (biodiesel) present a major\\u000a obstacle to their development as alternative fuels and extenders for combustion in direct injection compressionignition (diesel)\\u000a engines. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating and cooling curves of methyl soyate (SME), methyl tallowate\\u000a (TME), SME\\/TME admixtures, and winterized SME were analyzed.

Robert O. Dunn

1999-01-01

86

Base catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. Biofuel is becoming increasingly important as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. The use of non-edible vegetable oils for biofuel production is significant because of the increasing demand for edible oils as food. With the recent debate of food versus fuel, some non-edible oils like soapnut and Jatropha (Jatropha curcus. L) are being investigated as possible sources of biofuel. Recent research has focused on the application of heterogeneous catalysis. This review considers catalytic transesterification and the possibility of heterogeneous base catalysts. The process of transesterification, and the effect of parameters, mechanism and kinetics are reviewed. Although chromatography (GC and HPLC) are the analytical methods most often used for biofuel characterization, other techniques and some improvements to analytical methods are discussed. PMID:22574385

Mainali, Kalidas

2012-01-01

87

Beyond Biodiesel Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)  

E-print Network

on straight veg- etable oil." Rudolf Diesel's first engine ran on peanut oil at the World Exhibition in Paris. This is called air-blast injection, and worked reasonably well with pure oils derived from peanuts and oil seeds, high-precision sys- tems can only tolerate vegetable oil if it is specially processed and introduced

Kaye, Jason P.

88

Surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process: N2 sorption and XPS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the type of the silica gel pore structure on the surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process has been examined applying N2 sorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The nickel catalyst precursors with identical composition (SiO2/Ni = 1.0) has been synthesized by precipitation of Ni(NO3)2 · 6H2O solution with Na2CO3 solution on the three types of silica gel with different pore structures. It is shown that the usage of the silica gel supports with different texture as source of SiO2 causes different location of Ni-species into the support pores and on the external surface area. The XPS data confirm the formation of surface species with different strength of interaction and different dispersion. These surface characteristics of the precursors will predetermine the formation of the active nickel metallic phase as well as the mass transfer of the reactants and products to and from the catalytic sites.

Nikolova, D.; Krsti?, J.; Spasov, L.; Simeonov, D.; Lon?arevi?, D.; Stefanov, Pl.; Jovanovi?, D.

2011-12-01

89

One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum-base oils in lubricants applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of...

90

Oxidation Stability and Tribological Behavior of Vegetable Oil Hydraulic Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new generation of vegetable oil hydraulic fluids has a price advantage and provides field longevity comparable to synthetic esters at moderate temperature.This article investigates the oxidation stability and tribological behavior of fully formulated vegetable oil hydraulic fluids. Differences in origin (canola, soybean, and sunflower oil) and the degree of unsaturation are studied. Modified ASTM D943 (Dry TOST) was found

Alla M. Petlyuk; Richard J. Adams

2004-01-01

91

Oil property evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is useful to evaluate an oil property. It includes measures of investment worth, reserve analysis, production forecasting, costs, determining working and net revenue interest, severance and ad valorem taxes, a short discussion on the evaluation report. Contents include: Basic concepts; Time value of money; Investment decision analysis; Reserve estimation; Decline curves; Oil and gas prices; Oilfield deals; Costs,

R. S. Thompson; J. D. Wright

1984-01-01

92

Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels.

Suda, K.J.

1984-01-01

93

Green processing for commercial production of feruloylated vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Covalent incorporation of ferulic acid into vegetable oils produces a desirable product for cosmetic applications. Current practice involves the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil, followed by a molecular distillation step to remove unconsumed ethyl ferulate and the...

94

Delivery of vegetable oil suspensions in a shear thinning fluid for enhanced bioremediation.  

PubMed

In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising type of substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and maintain good longevity. Because they are non-aqueous phase liquids, distribution of vegetable oils in the subsurface has typically been approached by creating emulsified oil solutions for injection into the aquifer. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a shear-thinning xanthan gum solution as an alternative approach for delivery of vegetable oil to the subsurface. The stability, oil droplet size distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and the oil distribution in a porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil with xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into a porous medium. This study provides evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan gum solutions have favorable injection properties and are a potential substrate for in situ anaerobic bioremediation. PMID:25720668

Zhong, L; Truex, M J; Kananizadeh, N; Li, Y; Lea, A S; Yan, X

2015-01-01

95

Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil and its metabolic intermediates in oil-enriched freshwater sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of oil, but the presence of ferric hydroxide relieves the inhibition. The effect of ferric hydroxide is not due to physical or chemical interactions with long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) that are produced as intermediates during metabolism of vegetable-oil triglycerides. The anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil and

Zhengkai Li; Brian A. Wrenn; Albert D. Venosa

2005-01-01

96

Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills  

EPA Science Inventory

A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

97

Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils  

SciTech Connect

Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if there are two degrees of unsaturation, then at carbon 15 (C15), if there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the synthesis and characterization of biobased

Phillip H. Henna

2008-08-18

98

New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the growing global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial uses.  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of oilseed metabolism and in the development of new oilseed platforms and metabolic engineering technologies.

Lu, C; Napier, JA; Clemente, TE; Cahoon, EB

2011-01-01

99

Synthesis and characterization of novel derivatives from vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of our interest in utilizing vegetable oils as cheap and bio-renewable raw materials, we have found derivatization reactions, particularly with nitrogen-containing reagents, to be good pathways to achieve a range of new vegetable oil-based products. In this presentation an overview is given...

100

Friction and wear behavior of thioether hydroxy vegetable oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This work describes the tribochemical evaluation of vegetable oil based antiwear additive obtained through chemical modification. The sulfur was incorporated using a chemical reaction of epoxidized vegetable oil and common thiols, resulting in formation of a hydroxy thioether derivative of vegetabl...

101

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANT BASESTOCKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Use of vegetable oil based lubricants will reduce petroleum imports and have a favorable environmental impact. The vegetable oils are derived from renewable sources, biodegradable, non-toxic, possess high flash points and have low volatility. Inadequate oxidative stability and poor low-temperature...

102

The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean

Recep Alt?n; Selim Çetinkaya; Hüseyin Serdar Yücesu

2001-01-01

103

Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the status of fat and oil derived diesel fuels with respect to fuel properties, engine performance, and emissions is reviewed. The fuels considered are primarily the methyl esters of fatty acids derived from a variety of vegetable oils and animal fats, and referred to as biodiesel. The major obstacle to widespread use of biodiesel is the high

Michael S. Graboski; Robert L. McCormick

1998-01-01

104

Direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus culture using vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A green, downstream process using common vegetable oils was used for the direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus. The process consists of a single integrated unit to extract astaxanthin with subsequent separation of the astaxanthin-containing\\u000a oil extract. Without a cell harvest process step, the culture broth was directly mixed with the vegetable oils; the astaxanthin\\u000a inside the cell was extracted

Chang Duk Kang; Sang Jun Sim

2008-01-01

105

Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

2012-12-01

106

Performance of vegetable oils as a heat treat quenchant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to establish as a reference the base line performance of several vegetable oils as a quench medium. Furthermore, the project was funded by the Iowa Soybean Promotion Board to investigate the potential use of soybean oil as a quench medium. Several commodity and genetically modified seed oils (high oleic) were first tested in a {open_quotes}quenchalizer{close_quotes}. Also, 300 pieces of SAE 1524 steel bars were heat treated and quenched in a chemically modified (partially hydrogenated) soybean oil and in a control (paraffin) oil. Results included changes in the oil in terms of viscosity and cooling rate and in the steel in terms of hardness. Vegetable oils can perform as quench media, but they would require treatment to improve oxidative stability among others. Advantages of vegetable-based quenchants include: renewability, environmental-friendliness and potential benefits in terms of human safety and higher flash point.

Honary, L.A.T. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Waverly, IA (United States)

1996-12-31

107

Elastohydrodynamic study of vegetable oil-polyalphaolefin blends  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two polyalphaolefins (PAOs), of higher and lower viscosity than vegetable oils, were used to make binary blends of varying compositions with soybean and canola oils. The pure oils and the blends were used in viscosity and film thickness investigations. The effect of composition and temperature on ...

108

Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

109

Lutein content of selected Indian vegetables and vegetable oils determined by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamins, minerals and carotenoids. In this study, lutein and zeaxanthin content of selected vegetables and vegetable oils commonly used in the Indian diet have been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data generated from this study are vital for the accurate determination of the dietary intake of lutein and development of comprehensive

G. Aruna; B. S. Mamatha; V. Baskaran

2009-01-01

110

Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils  

E-print Network

of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils olive, corn, soybean, canola century as base lubricants, vegetable oils were gradually replaced by mineral oils mainly for economic in environmental issues.2 A vegetable oil is a complex mixture of chemical substances3 with fatty acids among

Mandelis, Andreas

111

Processing biomass in conventional oil refineries: Production of high quality diesel by hydrotreating vegetable oils in heavy vacuum oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable liquid alkanes can be produced by hydrotreating of vegetable oils and vegetable oil–heavy vacuum oil (HVO) mixtures at standard hydrotreating conditions (i.e. 300–450°C) with conventional hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided NiMo\\/Al2O3). The reaction pathway involves hydrogenation of the CC bonds of the vegetable oils followed by alkane production by three different pathways: decarbonylation, decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. The straight chain alkanes can

George W. Huber; Paul O’Connor; Avelino Corma

2007-01-01

112

Novel biobased photo-crosslinked polymer networks prepared from vegetable oil and 2,5-furan diacrylate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Novel biobased crosslinked polymer networks were prepared from vegetable oil with 2,5-furan diacrylate as a difunctional stiffener through UV photopolymerization, and the mechanical properties of the resulting films were evaluated. The vegetable oil raw materials used were acrylated epoxidized soybe...

113

Cationic UV-cured coatings of epoxide-containing vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vernonia oil (VO), an epoxide containing vegetable oil, and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) have been used to formulate cationic ultraviolet (UV) cured coatings. The compatibility of VO or ESO with other coating ingredients affects their incorporation levels into cationic UV-curable coating formulations. Cationic-UV-cured VO and ESO coatings exhibited excellent adhesion, impact resistance, UV stability, gloss retention, and corrosion resistance properties.

S. F. Thames; H. Yu

1999-01-01

114

Microemulsions from vegetable oil and lower alcohol with octanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles that are powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes. Deterrents to this concept are the generally inferior fuel properties of crude vegetable oils as compared to those of diesel oil. Of particular concern is the inherently high viscosity which causes poor atomization in direct-injected diesel engines. This results in fouling of the injectors and cylinders as well as a buildup of noncombusted fuel in the crankcase causing a thickening of the lubricating oil. This invention relates to a blended vegetable oil fuel which circumvents many of these problems.

Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

1984-08-08

115

Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils  

E-print Network

, to identify related key design criteria, and optimize performance. The overall goal of this work was to design and optimize biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester “FAME”) production from vegetable oil. To achieve this goal, several interconnected research...

Myint, Lay L.

2009-05-15

116

Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

Farines, Marie; And Others

1988-01-01

117

Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

1985-03-12

118

Selection of a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage insulation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many items of high voltage plant employ a liquid both as a dielectric and a coolant. Currently these systems use a mineral oil, however, this suffers from the drawback of being potentially toxic and hence leakages and eventual disposal can be serious issues. To overcome this problem, an increasing trend in the UK is to backfill existing paper/oil cable systems with dodecylbenzene (DDB). This fluid possesses the advantages of improved gas absorption, good dielectric properties and biodegradability; nevertheless it is still derived from crude oil, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils offer the added advantage of being renewable although many types are available with very different properties. In order to select a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage applications, a standardised ageing and testing regime is required. In this paper, a wide range of vegetable oils were subjected to controlled laboratory ageing and the resulting aged oils were characterised by a number of analytical techniques. The results from these tests were then used to rank the different oils, and to select the most ageing resistant oil.

Hosier, I. L.; Guushaa, A.; Vaughan, A. S.; Swingler, S. G.

2009-08-01

119

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

120

TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT WATERS FROM VEGETABLE OIL REFINING  

EPA Science Inventory

A detailed investigation was done to characterize the wastewater from a vegetable oil refinery. A calcium chloride chemical treatment was installed which resulted in a net decrease in waste load of 71 percent from .0135 lb BOD5 per pound oil processed to .0039 lb BOD5 per pound o...

121

Emulsification of chemically modified vegetable oils for lubricant use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several previously uncharacterized emulsions were studied in this paper, including those made form epoxidized vegetable oils. A series of different surfactants were studied in order to obtain emulsions suitable for lubrication applications. The epoxidized oils were found to form stable emulsions i...

122

Synthesis and characterization of sulfide modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterize...

123

ENHANCEMENT OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AGAINST GRASSHOPPERS WITH VEGETABLE OIL CARRIERS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beauveria bassiana is registered in the U.S. for control of grasshoppers, but efficacious use rates and product costs have been serious deterrents of adoption. Canola and certain other vegetable oils contain the fatty acids that stimulate necrophily and necrophagy in grasshoppers. Using these oils ...

124

A New Approach to Prepare Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polymers from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, were prepared by cationic polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) was selected as catalyst. The resulting polymers have molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nu...

125

REMOVING SELENATE FROM WATER WITH A VEGETABLE OIL BASED BIOBARRIER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oil based permeable reactive biobarriers (PRBs) were evaluated as a method for remediating groundwater containing unacceptable amounts of selenate. PRBs formed by packing laboratory columns with sand coated with soybean oil were used. In an initial 24-week study a simulated groundwater c...

126

RESEARCH ON BIODIESEL AND VEGETABLE OIL FUELS - THEN AND NOW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of vegetable oils as diesel fuel is nearly as old as the diesel engine itself. The first biodiesel, in form of ethyl esters of palm oil, was described in the late 1930s. Significant technical insights on these fuels were gained up to the late 1940s. Beginning in the late 1970s, these "alt...

127

Vegetable Oil Spills On Salt Marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the wreck of the M.V. Kimya during which 1500 tonnes of sunflower oil was spilled, sandy sediments bound together with sunflower oil were discovered on the beach. These are still present 2½ years later. Sunflower and linseed oil were applied to salt marsh sediments to reproduce potential spills. Cores were taken and the vertical migration and degradation rates determined.

Stephen M. Mudge; Ian D. Goodchild; Matthew Wheeler

1995-01-01

128

Correlations of flavor score with volatiles of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, direct, gas chromatograph (GC) technique is described for eluting flavor-related volatile components from commercially\\u000a produced vegetable oils. A sample of oil was placed onto glass wool contained in a GC liner, and the liner was inserted in\\u000a the heated inlet of the GC. Volatiles from the oils were rapidly eluted by heat and carrier gas onto the GC

H. P. Dupuy; E. T. Rayner; J. I. Wadsworth

1976-01-01

129

Antioxidant efficacy of sesame cake extract in vegetable oil protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of sesame cake was evaluated in soybean, sunflower, and safflower oils, using the Schaal oven method and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Results showed that sesame cake extract (SCE), at concentrations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 ppm in vegetable oils, could significantly (P<0.05) lower the peroxide value, diene value and p-anisidine value of oils

K. P. Suja; John T. Abraham; Selvam N. Thamizh; A. Jayalekshmy; C. Arumughan

2004-01-01

130

Chemical modification of vegetable oils for lubricant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the unfavorable impact on the environment of mineral oil-based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the\\u000a demand for biodegradable, environment-friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace\\u000a or partially substitute conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable\\u000a and are thus promising candidates as base fluids

Brajendra K. Sharma; Atanu Adhvaryu; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

2006-01-01

131

Floral and vegetative cues in oil-secreting and non-oil-secreting Lysimachia species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Unrelated plants pollinated by the same group or guild of animals typically evolve similar floral cues due to pollinator-mediated selection. Related plant species, however, may possess similar cues either as a result of pollinator-mediated selection or as a result of sharing a common ancestor that possessed the same cues or traits. In this study, visual and olfactory floral cues in Lysimachia species exhibiting different pollination strategies were analysed and compared, and the importance of pollinators and phylogeny on the evolution of these floral cues was determined. For comparison, cues of vegetative material were examined where pollinator selection would not be expected. Methods Floral and vegetative scents and colours in floral oil- and non-floral oil-secreting Lysimachia species were studied by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses, respectively, compared between oil- and non-oil-secreting species, and analysed by phylogenetically controlled methods. Key Results Vegetative and floral scent was species specific, and variability in floral but not vegetative scent was lower in oil compared with non-oil species. Overall, oil species did not differ in their floral or vegetative scent from non-oil species. However, a correlation was found between oil secretion and six floral scent constituents specific to oil species, whereas the presence of four other floral compounds can be explained by phylogeny. Four of the five analysed oil species had bee-green flowers and the pattern of occurrence of this colour correlated with oil secretion. Non-oil species had different floral colours. The colour of leaves was similar among all species studied. Conclusions Evidence was found for correlated evolution between secretion of floral oils and floral but not vegetative visual and olfactory cues. The cues correlating with oil secretion were probably selected by Macropis bees, the specialized pollinators of oil-secreting Lysimachia species, and may have evolved in order to attract these bees. PMID:22634256

Schäffler, I.; Balao, F.; Dötterl, S.

2012-01-01

132

Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels. Performance and durability at low engine ratings are essentially the same as expected for operation on diesel fuel. However, at high engine ratings piston ring and cylinder linear wear are greater than expected for operation on diesel fuel. A laboratory program was successfully completed which resulted in a combustion system that would allow the higher rated prechamber engines to achieve normal life when burning 100% soybean oil. Fluid model tests utilizing high speed photography, single-cylinder engine tests utilizing fuel tracers, and a 200-hour multicylinder durability test were included. Extended endurance tests and experience with other vegetable oils are still required.

Suda, K.J.

1984-02-01

133

Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp waste is an important source of natural carotenoid. Studies were carried out to determine the extraction yield of shrimp waste carotenoids in different vegetable oils. Highest yield was obtained by extraction using refined sunflower oil compared to groundnut oil, gingelly oil, mustard oil, soy oil, coconut oil and rice bran oil. The extraction yield of carotenoids in sunflower oil

N. M. Sachindra; N. S. Mahendrakar

2005-01-01

134

Studies of unsaponifiables in several vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsaponifiable fractions of soybean, cottonseed, coconut, olive, and avocado oils have been studied in detail. The oils\\u000a differed in the contents of total unsaponifiables, squalene, tocopherols, and sterols and also in the composition of the tocopherol\\u000a and sterol fractions. The presence of absence of individual unsaponifiable components may help in establishing the identity\\u000a of each of the investigated oils

Tamar Gutfinger; A. Letan

1974-01-01

135

Plant sterols and tocols profile of vegetable oils consumed in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to quantify specific phytosterols\\/-stanols (ST) (campesterol, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitostanol and campestanol) and tocols [(TO), tocopherol and tocotrienol)] in the vegetable oils (corn oil, sunflower oil, blended oil and palm oil) available in the Egyptian market. Gas-liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography procedures were applied to 12 vegetable oils. The best source of ST

Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

2011-01-01

136

Deacidification of Vegetable Oils by Solvent Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The refining of edible oils requires a series of purification steps, with the most important being the decrease of the free fatty acid level of the crude oil. This step is very important for the quality of the final product and has a major impact on the economic feasibility of the whole process. Several techniques, alternative to the conventional caustic

Christianne E. C. Rodrigues; Cintia B. Gonçalves

2007-01-01

137

Biodegradable Photo-Crosslinked Thin Polymer Networks Based on Vegetable Oil Hydroxy Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel crosslinked thin polymer networks based on vegetable oil hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) were prepared by UV photopolymerization\\u000a and their mechanical properties were evaluated. Two raw materials, castor oil and 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) were used as sources of mono- and di-HFAs, respectively. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate\\u000a and poly(?-caprolactone) diacrylate were synthesized and used as crosslinking agents to form crosslinked polymer

Han-Min Kim; Hak-Ryul Kim; Ching T. Hou; Beom Soo Kim

2010-01-01

138

Rapid screening of biologically modified vegetable oils for fuel performance  

SciTech Connect

A process for the rapid screening of alternative diesel fuel performance was applied to analogues of genetically modified vegetable oils and a mixture with no. 2 diesel fuel. The oils examined contained 60 to 70% of low molecular weight, short-chain, saturated triglycerides compared to the 1 to 2% found in traditional vegetable oils. These oils have relatively low viscosity that is predicted to enhance their performance as alternative diesel fuels. The screening process utilizes an engine torque test sequence that accelerates the tendency of diesel fuels to coke fuel injectors, a key indicator of fuel performance. The results of the tests were evaluated using a computer vision system for the rapid quantification of injector coking. The results of the screen were compared to those using no. 2 diesel fuel as a baseline. Coke deposition from the modified vegetable oil analogues was not found to be significantly different than deposition from diesel fuel. Suggestions are made to guide further modification of vegetable oil biosynthesis for the production of alternative diesel fuel.

Geller, D.P.; Goodrum, J.W.; Campbell, C.C.

1999-08-01

139

Volatility and boiling points of biodiesel from vegetable oils and tallow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality control of fuel-related properties of Biodiesel, such as volatility, is needed to obtain consistent engine performance by fuel users. The vapor pressures and boiling points of selected methyl esters and vegetable oils are proposed as quality control metrics for Biodiesel. This type of data was obtained by a rapid new method using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). One atmosphere boiling points

J. W. Goodrum

2002-01-01

140

Improving the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated vegetable oils by blending with high-oleic sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing different proportions of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with polyunsaturated vegetable oils provides a simple method\\u000a to prepare more stable edible oils with a wide range of desired fatty acid composition. Oxidative stability of soybean, canola\\u000a and corn oils, blended with different proportions of HOSO to lower the respective levels of linolenate and linoleate, was\\u000a evaluated at 60°C. Oxidation was

E. N. Frankel; S. W. Huang

1994-01-01

141

Vegetable oil blends with ?-linolenic acid rich Garden cress oil modulate lipid metabolism in experimental rats.  

PubMed

Vegetable oil blends with modified fatty acid profile are being developed to improve n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) ratio in edible oils. The objective of this study is to develop vegetable oil blends with ?-linolenic acid (ALA) rich Garden cress oil (GCO) and assess their modulatory effect on lipid metabolism. Sunflower oil (SFO), Rice bran oil (RBO), Sesame oil (SESO) were blended with GCO at different ratios to obtain n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2.3-2.6. Native and GCO blended oils were fed to Wistar rats at 10% level in the diet for 60 days. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), LDL-C levels in GCO and GCO blended oil fed rats compared to native oil fed rats. ALA, EPA, DHA contents were significantly increased while linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in different tissues of GCO and GCO blended oils fed rats. In conclusion, blending of vegetable oils with GCO increases ALA, decreases n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio and beneficially modulates lipid profile. PMID:22980881

Umesha, S S; Naidu, K Akhilender

2012-12-15

142

Characteristics and composition of vegetable oil-bearing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the commercially most important oil-bearing fruits and seeds is presented. Their place in the nutrition of the\\u000a world’s population is sketched, both as a source of fat and as a potential source of protein. Origin and occurrence of a number\\u000a of oil fruits and seeds are treated, and their relative importance is discussed. Characteristics of the vegetable

A. Langstraat; Van den Bergh; Jurgens B

1976-01-01

143

Membrane-based simultaneous degumming and deacidification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient membrane based process for simultaneous degumming and deacidification of vegetable oil was investigated. Appropriate crude oil conditioning allow the formation of submicronic aggregates, composed with soaps molecules resulting from the neutralisation of FFA and PL, which are retained when microfiltrating. Initial flux for the 0.8 ?m membranes (?560 l\\/h m2) was about twice that of the 0.5 ?m

Abdellatif Hafidi; Daniel Pioch; Hamid Ajana

2005-01-01

144

ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SEED OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The film-forming properties of canola (CAN), soybean (SBO), and jojoba (JO) seed oils under elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conditions were investigated to determine if differences in their chemical and physical properties affect their EHD properties. Polyalphaolefin (PAO), whose EHD properties have been ...

145

Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric

Phillip H. Henna

2008-01-01

146

HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

147

Some important aspects of sterol analysis of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and composition of the sterol fraction is an important indicator of the value of vegetable oils, mainly due to the cholesterol-lowering effect of certain sterol compounds. Although many methods have been described in the literature, various steps may still cause errors during sample preparation. The present article covers some of the key steps in sterol analysis that are

Erkki Mäeorga; Peeter Läänistea; Juhan Jõudua; Uno Mäeorgb

148

Hydrocarbons for diesel fuel via decarboxylation of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxygenation reaction of vegetable oils over a carbon-supported metal catalyst was studied as a suitable reaction for production of diesel-fuel-like hydrocarbons. Stearic acid, ethyl stearate, and tristearine have been used as model compounds. Catalytic treatment of all the three reactants resulted in production of n-heptadecane as the main product with high selectivity.

Iva Kubi?ková; Mathias Snåre; Kari Eränen; Päivi Mäki-Arvela; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

2005-01-01

149

Production and applications of ferulate-modified vegetable oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse health and ecological effects of the commonly used sunscreen active ingredients. A sunscreen active ingredient can be derived from two natural plant components, ferulic acid and vegetable oil triglycerides. Transesterification of ferulic acid e...

150

Peroxide removal from organic solvents and vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxide contamination of organic solvents and related reagents, e.g. vegetable oils, has created potential problems for the toxicologist, biochemist and industrial hygienist. Because of tedious or complicated procedures to test for and remove, or prevent the formation of peroxides, the tendency of laboratory investigators has been to ignore the problem. In this study, straight?forward procedures for the testing and removal,

Howard G. Shertzer; M. Wilson Tabor

1985-01-01

151

Lipids for Health and Beauty: Enzymatic Modification of Vegetable Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferulic acid has been extensively investigated for its potential as a cosmetic and pharmaceutical agent. We have prepared lipophilic derivatives of ferulic acid by a simple, enzyme-catalyzed transesterification reaction of ethyl ferulate with vegetable oils. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B...

152

Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

2014-07-01

153

Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24632108

Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

2014-04-01

154

Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as

O Schröder; A Munack; J Schaak; C Pabst; L Schmidt; J Bünger; J Krahl

2012-01-01

155

Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

2006-01-01

156

Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil to hydrocarbon oil: Influence of temperature, residence time, and catalyst.  

PubMed

Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil was investigated under the conditions of different temperatures (350-500 °C) and residence time as well as catalyst using HZSM-5. Results suggested low temperature was favorable for the formation of diesel-like products, while high temperature caused more gasoline-like products. By the addition of HZSM-5, at 450 °C alkanes content of the obtained oil with low oxygen content of 2.28%, reached a maximum of 56.27%, resulting in the highest HHV of 43.8 MJ kg(-1). High temperature favored cracking activity of HZSM-5 which reduced the char formation and contributed to the removal of carbonyl. Compared to temperature, the effect of residence time on products was relatively less; experiments indicated the optimum residence time was 15 min at which obtained oil with the highest yield of 17.78%, had better properties. Preliminary analysis of mechanisms showed biomass provided hydrogen for vegetable oil, facilitating hydrogenation of CC bonds of vegetable oil. PMID:20843685

Chen, Yigang; Yang, Fan; Wu, Libin; Wang, Chao; Yang, Zhengyu

2011-01-01

157

Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

158

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AND ITS METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES IN OIL-ENRICHED FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of oil, but the presence of ferric hydroxide relieves the inhibition. The effect of ferric hydroxide is not due to physical or chemical interactions with long-chain fatt...

159

Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

1984-01-01

160

Formation of headspace volatiles by thermal decomposition of oxidized fish oils vs. oxidized vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the reasons for differences in oxidative stability among edible oils, the temperature dependence was investigated\\u000a for the development of volatile lipid oxidation products in fish oils and in vegetable oils. A rapid headspace capillary gas\\u000a chromatographic method was developed to determine volatile oxidation products of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fats (pentane\\u000a and hexanal) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fats (propanal)

E. N. Frankel

1993-01-01

161

Membrane processing of crude vegetable oils: Pilot plant scale remoyal of solvent from oil miscellas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of solvents used in the extraction step of edible oil processing is required for economical, environmental, and\\u000a safety considerations. The miscella (mixture of extracted oil and solvent) exits the extractor at 70 to 75 wt% solvent content.\\u000a Currently, the solvent is recovered by distillation.\\u000a \\u000a This paper reports the results of a study on separation of vegetable oils from

S. S. Köseoglu; J. T. Lawhon; E. W. Lusas

1990-01-01

162

NEW USES OF VEGETABLE OILS: NOVEL OXYGENATED FATTY ACIDS BY BIOTRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an effort to find new uses for surplus vegetable oils, we are looking for new value-added products produced from vegetable oils by bioprocesses. We have discovered many new oxygenated fatty acids produced from converting vegetable oils by microbial enzymes, which may be useful as starting materi...

163

Interaction of packaging materials and vegetable oils: oil stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different plastic films (polyethyleneterephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polypropylene and polystyrene) on the stability of olive, sunflower and palm oils were studied at 24 and 37°C during 60 days of storage. The changes in peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) were significantly higher (p?0.05) in the plastic bottles than in glass. Our study indicates that the plastic permeability

M. S Tawfik; A Huyghebaert

1999-01-01

164

[Benzo(a)pyrene contamination of vegetable oils].  

PubMed

Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) analysis was carried out with glass chromatographic column with alumina followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection. B(a)P level in 40 vegetable oils were as follow: from 0.11 to 0.38 microg/kg in olive; from 0.92 to 3.74 microg/kg in rape seed oils; from 0.11 to 2.25 microg/kg in sunflower oils and from 0.33 to 1.26 microg/kg in soya oils. In another investigated oils: arachide (peanut) corn, safflower, linen, hempen, sesame, pumpkin seeds, grape seeds---values from 0.10 to 1.44 microg/kg and 3.83 microg/kg in sea buckthorn oil were detected. B(a)P concentration in 4 from 40 investigated oils exceed the 2 ppb limit proposed by the European Commission. Heating of sample of oils: olive, rape, soya, linen, corn, sesame, peanut, in temp. 240 degrees C for 30 min. has not influence on decreased of B(a)P level. PMID:18807910

Jedra, Ma?gorzata; Starski, Andrzej; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

2008-01-01

165

Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

Lugo, Yarely

166

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1  

E-print Network

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1 *, Yew. Oil palm vegetation liquor thus represents a new source of phenolic bioactives. Key words: Oil palm , Krishnan Subramaniam5 , Soon-Sen Leow1 , Kenneth C. Hayes6 and Mohd Basri Wahid1 1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board

Sinskey, Anthony J.

167

Canola, corn and vegetable oils as alternative for wheat germ oil in fruit fly liquid larval diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four wheat germ oil alternatives (corn oil, vegetable oil, canola oil with 10% vitamin E, and canola oil with 20% vitamin E) purchased from a Hawaii local supermarket were added into a fruit fly liquid larval diet as a supplement for rearing fruit fly larvae and were evaluated for the possibility to...

168

Production and fuel properties of fast pyrolysis oil\\/bio-diesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the production and fuel properties of fast pyrolysis oil\\/bio-diesel blends. The bio-oils used in this study were produced from the fast pyrolysis of woody biomasses, oil mallee and pine. The bio-diesel employed was derived from canola vegetable oil. The conditions used to prepare the bio-oil\\/bio-diesel blends, as well as some of the fuel properties of the resulting

Manuel Garcia-Perez; Jun Shen; Xiao Shan Wang; Chun-Zhu Li

2010-01-01

169

Peroxide removal from organic solvents and vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Peroxide contamination of organic solvents and related reagents, e.g. vegetable oils, has created potential problems for the toxicologist, biochemist and industrial hygienist. Because of tedious or complicated procedures to test for and remove, or prevent the formation of peroxides, the tendency of laboratory investigators has been to ignore the problem. In this study, straight-forward procedures for the testing and removal, and/or prevention of formation of peroxides were investigated. Total peroxides were assayed by measuring Fe/sup III/(SCN)/sub 3/ formed by Fe/sup II/ oxidation and reaction with KSCN. Most solvents and reagents, as received from the manufacturer, were found to have low levels of peroxides. After opening the container, peroxides were formed rapidly in many solvents. Techniques for the complete retardation of peroxide formation in fresh solvents or reagents are described. For peroxides already present in organic solvents or vegetable oils, a novel technique for easy removal without introducing contaminants is described.

Shertzer, H.G.; Tabor, M.W.

1985-01-01

170

Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

Black, Micah [University of Southern Mississippi, The; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Rawlins, James [University of Southern Mississippi, The

2011-01-01

171

Trends in industrial usage for vegetable oils — symposium overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are firmly established components of many industrial products and contribute a small but important share to\\u000a the oleochemical and chemical industries-about 2% of total organic chemicals produced. The oleochemical industry is a mature\\u000a one with low profit margins and in need of novel products and product applications, the development of which will require\\u000a both basic and applied research.

E. H. Pryde; K. D. Carlson

1985-01-01

172

Shift in the marginal supply of vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope  The consequential approach to system delimitation in LCA requires that consideration of the technologies and suppliers included\\u000a are ‘marginal’, i.e. that they are actually affected by a change in demand. Furthermore, coproduct allocation must be avoided\\u000a by system expansion. Vegetable oils constitute a significant product group included in many LCAs that are intended for use\\u000a in decision

Jannick H. Schmidt; Bo P. Weidema

2008-01-01

173

Capillary gas chromatographic analyses of headspace volatiles from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight different vegetable oils obtained commercially were analyzed for volatiles by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Volatiles\\u000a generated in a GC static headspace sampler at 180 C were injected automatically onto a chemically bonded capillary column.\\u000a Only a small number of GC peaks of low intensity were observed in the fresh samples, which varied in peroxide values from\\u000a 0.2 to 3.

J. M. Snyder; E. N. Frankel; E. Selke

1985-01-01

174

Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils (VOs) is a promising alternative fuel to diesel regarding the limited resources of fossil fuel and the environmental concerns. In this work, an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel from VOs using heterogeneous catalyst was developed. Na\\/NaOH\\/?-Al2O3 heterogeneous base catalyst was firstly adopted for the production of biodiesel. A study

Hak-Joo Kim; Bo-Seung Kang; Min-Ju Kim; Young Moo Park; Deog-Keun Kim; Jin-Suk Lee; Kwan-Young Lee

2004-01-01

175

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils].  

PubMed

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

2009-01-01

176

Authentication of vegetable oils by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses with emphasis on olive oil and pumpkin seed oil.  

PubMed

The authenticity of vegetable oils consumed in Slovenia and Croatia was investigated by carbon isotope analysis of the individual fatty acids by the use of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), and through carbon isotope analysis of the bulk oil. The fatty acids from samples of olive, pumpkin, sunflower, maize, rape, soybean, and sesame oils were separated by alkaline hydrolysis and derivatized to methyl esters for chemical characterization by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to isotopic analysis. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk oil and of the individual fatty acids are related to (1) a thermally induced degradation during processing (deodorization, steam washing, or bleaching), (2) hydrolytic rancidity (lipolysis) and oxidative rancidity of the vegetable oils during storage, and (3) the potential blend with refined oil or other vegetable oils. The impurity or admixture of different oils may be assessed from the delta(13)C(16:0) vs. delta(13)C(18:1) covariations. The fatty acid compositions of Slovenian and Croatian olive oils are compared with those from the most important Mediterranean producer countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, and France). PMID:11312892

Spangenberg, J E; Ogrinc, N

2001-03-01

177

Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.  

PubMed

In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. PMID:25151441

Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

2014-11-01

178

Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

2014-06-01

179

Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.  

PubMed

Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m?³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

2013-02-01

180

Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as {open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Several problems, however, remain, which include economics, combustion, some emissions, lube oil contamination, and low-temperature properties. An overview on all the mentioned aspects of biodiesel will be presented.

Knothe, G.; Bagby, M.O. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-10-01

181

Reduction of epoxidized vegetable oils: a novel method to prepare bio-based polyols for polyurethanes.  

PubMed

A novel method, epoxidation/reduction of vegetable oils, is developed to prepare bio-based polyols for the manufacture of polyurethanes (PUs). These polyols are synthesized from castor oil (CO), epoxidized soybean oil, and epoxidized linseed oil and their molecular structures are characterized. They are used to prepare a variety of PUs, and their thermomechanical properties are compared to those of PU made with petroleum-based polyol (P-450). It is shown that PUs made with polyols from soybean and linseed oil exhibit higher glass transition temperatures, tensile strength, and Young's modulus and PU made with polyol from CO exhibits higher elongation at break and toughness than PU made with P-450. However, PU made with P-450 displays better thermal resistance because of tri-ester structure and terminal functional groups. The method provides a versatile way to prepare bio-polyols from vegetable oils, and it is expected to partially or completely replace petroleum-based polyols in PUs manufacture. PMID:24668919

Zhang, Chaoqun; Ding, Rui; Kessler, Michael R

2014-06-01

182

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

2009-07-01

183

Heavy metal absorbing Thioether-functionalized ligands derived from vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sulfur-functionalized vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been shown to effectively remove Ag+ from aqueous solution. Interestingly, the absorption capacity differs depending upon the choice of which vegetable oil precursor is functionalized. In this study, we will provide data for oils ...

184

Use of hydrogen to enhance the performance of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of vegetable oils in unmodified diesel engines leads to reduced thermal efficiency and increased smoke levels. In this work, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance while using small quantities of hydrogen in a compression ignition engine primarily fuelled with a vegetable oil, namely Jatropha oil. A single cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine designed to develop a power output

M. Senthil Kumar; A. Ramesh; B. Nagalingam

2003-01-01

185

ADDITIVE-ADDITIVE INTERACTIONS IN VEGETABLE OIL: THE SEARCH FOR SYNERGISTIC ANTIOXIDANT USING PDSC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants based on mineral oils render unfavorable impact on the environment. Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and b...

186

Characterization of Brominated Vegetable Oils by Normal and Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brominated vegetable oils are characterized by normal and reversed phase chromatography using UV absorbance detection at 220 nm. A series of seven brominated vegetable oil preparations are transesterified using acid methanolysis and the resulting dibromo-, tetrabromo- and hexabromostearate components quantitated by HPLC. The identification of the oils compare favorably with results obtained by gas chromatography.

James F. Lawrence; Rajinder K. Chadha; Henry B. S. Conacher

1987-01-01

187

BIODIESEL: AN ALTERNATIVE DIESEL FUEL FROM VEGETABLE OILS OR ANIMAL FATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is defined as “a fuel comprised of the mono-alkyl ester of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats." Accordingly, biodiesel is derived from vegetable oils or animal fats by a transesterification reaction, in which the oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcoh...

188

Physicochemical properties and crystallisation behaviour of bakery shortening produced from stearin fraction of palm-based diacyglycerol blended with various vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The stearin fraction of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAGS) was produced from dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG). Bakery shortening blends were produced by mixing PDAGS with either palm mid fraction, PMF (PDAGS/PMF), palm olein, POL(PDAGS/POL) or sunflower oil, SFO (PDAGS/SFO) at PDAGS molar fraction of XPDAGS=0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%. The physicochemical results obtained indicated that C16:0 and C18:1 were the dominant fatty acids for PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/POL, while C18:1 and C18:2 were dominant in the PDAGS/SFO mixtures. SMP and SFC of the PDAGS were reduced with the addition of PMF, POL and SFO. Binary mixtures of PDAGS/PMF had better structural compatibility and full miscibility with each other. PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/SFO crystallised in ?'+? polymorphs in the presence of 0.4-0.5% PDAGS while PDAGS/POL resulted in ? polymorphs crystal. The results gave indication that PDAGS: PMF at 50%:50% and 60%:40% (w/w) were the most suitable fat blend to be used as bakery shortening. PMID:23993569

Latip, Razam Ab; Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

2013-12-15

189

Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

1982-01-01

190

Total antioxidant activity of selected vegetable oils and their influence on total antioxidant values in vivo: a photochemiluminescence based analysis.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils. PMID:24996369

Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R

2014-12-01

191

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives.  

PubMed

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products annually. This aqueous stream is rich in phenolic antioxidants, which were investigated for their composition and potential in vitro biological activity. We have identified three isomers of caffeoylshikimic acid as major components of oil palm phenolics (OPP). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay confirmed potent free radical scavenging activity. To test for possible cardioprotective effects of OPP, we carried out in vitro LDL oxidation studies as well as ex vivo aortic ring and mesenteric vascular bed relaxation measurements. We found that OPP inhibited the Cu-mediated oxidation of human LDL. OPP also promoted vascular relaxation in both isolated aortic rings and perfused mesenteric vascular beds pre-contracted with noradrenaline. To rule out developmental toxicity, we performed teratological studies on rats up to the third generation and did not find any congenital anomalies. Thus, these initial studies suggest that OPP is safe and may have a protective role against free radical damage, LDL oxidation and its attendant negative effects, as well as vascular constriction in mitigating atherosclerosis. Oil palm vegetation liquor thus represents a new source of phenolic bioactives. PMID:21736792

Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, YewAi; Sundram, Kalyana; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Sambandan, T G; Rha, ChoKyun; Sinskey, Anthony J; Subramaniam, Krishnan; Leow, Soon-Sen; Hayes, Kenneth C; Wahid, Mohd Basri

2011-12-01

192

ETC Spills Technology Databases: Oil Properties Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Technology Center of Environment Canada provides a database which contains various properties of crude oils and petroleum products. In addition to the listing of oils, the database reports properties "which will likely determine the environmental behavior and effects of spilled oil." The user may select an oil from a pull-down menu that lists 412 oils. The data are organized into tables in the following areas: Origin, API Gravity, Density, Pour Point, Dynamic Viscosity, Hydrocarbon Groups, and Distillation.

Fieldhouse, B.

193

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROXY THIO-ETHER DERIVATIVES OF VEGETABLE OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biobased additives are desirable commodities due to their eco-friendly nature. These additives can demonstrate physical and chemical properties comparable to those of conventional mineral oil based products. Sulfur incorporated triacylglycerol can function as an antiwear/antifriction additive for ...

194

Complex role of monoacylglycerols in the oxidation of vegetable oils: different behaviors of soybean monoacylglycerols in different oils.  

PubMed

The relationship between fatty acid composition of oils and their oxidative stability in the presence of monoacylglycerols was investigated. Purified vegetable oils were added at increasing amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of monoacylglycerols obtained from purified soybean oil and submitted to an oven test (60 °C for 18 days). The obtained results showed a generally antioxidant effect of monoacylglycerols, with remarkable differences among oils. The antioxidant effect was significantly higher in less unsaturated oils, such as palm and olive oils. Among the more unsaturated vegetable oils, peanut and sunflower oils showed an almost linear slowdown of oxidation, slightly less pronounced in sunflower oil, which was the most susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of linoleic acid. A peculiar trend was highlighted for soybean oil, where the antioxidant effect of high amounts of monoacylglycerols was opposed to a pro-oxidant effect observed up to 1%. PMID:25310182

Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppina; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

2014-11-01

195

On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

?erban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

196

The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward ensuring global food security for high-oleic vegetable oils. PMID:22790166

Wilson, Richard F

2012-01-01

197

Manufacturing of vegetable oils-based epoxy and composites for structural applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T g) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower Tg, versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs.

Wang, Rongpeng

198

Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

2013-01-01

199

Lubrication properties of new crop oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oils from new crops such as lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.), and cuphea PSR-23 (Cuphea viscosissima × Cuphea lanceolata) were investigated and compared with vegetable oils from commodity crops such as castor, corn, and soybea...

200

METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF UNUSUAL FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS FOR ENHANCED VEGETABLE OIL QUALITY AND PLANT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hundreds of unusual fatty acids occur in plants, and many of these fatty acids have chemical, physical, or nutritional properties that make them attractive targets for the biotechnological enhancement of vegetable oils. My lab has maintained a long research interest in the identification of genes a...

201

Effect of Seafoods (Periwinkle, Bonkafish and Crayfish) and Vegetable Oils Enriched Meal on Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periwinkle (Tympanotonus fustcatus), Crayfish (cambarellus diminutus) and Bonka fish (Ethimalosa fimbriata) are local marine food sources of omega-3 fatty acid. Groundnut oil, corn oil and soybean oil are notably high in omega-6 fatty acids. The present study compared changes in haematological and biochemical indices in rats fed with local marine foods (periwinkle, bonka fish and crayfish) and vegetable oils (groundnut,

J. I. Ndem; M. I. Akpanabiatu; E. U. Essien

2008-01-01

202

Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil fuels have not been acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for Diesel engines. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, but some engine performance problems still exist. The purpose of

Ayhan Demirba?

2003-01-01

203

Investigations on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Vegetable Oil Biodiesels as Fuels in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neat vegetable oils having high viscosity and low volatility could result in incomplete combustion in engine operation. The remedy for this is conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesels in order to reduce viscosity and increase volatility, thereby improving the performance in a CI engine. Biodiesel is methyl ester derived from vegetable oils (edible and non edible oils) or animal fats.

M. Satyanarayana; C. Muraleedharan

2011-01-01

204

[Chemical and biological properties of coriander fatty oil].  

PubMed

The authors studied fatty-acid composition and the content of biologically active components of a new type of vegetable oil prepared from coriander seeds. It has been found that 82% of the total content of fatty acids are monoenic (oleinic and petroselinic acids), the share of petroselinic acid comprising 50-60%. Biological properties of coriander fatty oil were studied in an experiment on growing white rats, the oil was included into the food ration for the animals (25% of calorie value) during 12 days. It has been established that deodorized coriander fatty oil produces no detrimental effect on the growing animal body, however, it has a lower food value as compared to sunflower oil. PMID:2042323

Mironova, A N; Filippova, G I; Fedina, N I; Volkova, Z D; Kozlova, V L; Alymova, T B; Gorshkova, E I; Bykova, S F

1991-01-01

205

The comparison of solid phase microextraction-GC and static headspace-GC for determination of solvent residues in vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The objective of these investigations has been the determination of volatile organic compounds including residue solvents present in vegetable oil samples. Some olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy-bean oil, pumpkin oil, grape oil, rice oil as well as hazel-nut oil samples were analysed. Among residue solvents the following compounds have been mentioned: acetone, n-hexane, benzene, and toluene. Some experiments for the solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-flame ionisation detection (FID) were performed to examine extraction conditions such as fiber exposure time, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers such as polydimethylsiloxane, Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coatings were used for the isolation of tested compounds from vegetable oil samples. After optimisation of SPME, real vegetable oil samples were examined using SPME-GC/MS. Based on preliminary experiments the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of acetone, n-hexane, benzene and toluene were performed by SPME-GC-FID and static head-space (SHS)-GC-FID methods. The regression coefficients for calibration curves for the examined compounds were R(2) > or = 0.992. This shows that the used method is linear in the examined concentration range (0.005-0.119 mg/kg for SPME-GC-FID and 0.003-0.728 mg/kg for SHS-GC-FID). Chemical properties of analysed vegetable oils have been characterised by chemometric procedure (cluster analysis). PMID:18196521

Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

2008-02-01

206

Analysis of biodiesel and frying vegetable oils by means of FTIR photoacoustic spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy was used to determine the mid-infrared vibrational modes of biodiesel and vegetable oils. Our results indicate that this method can contribute significantly to the biodiesel wash process during the sample preparation. Besides, by analyzing the spectra of vegetable oils used to fry snacks we could to monitor the degradation in function of the fried time.

Lima, S. M.; Izida, T.; Figueiredo, M. S.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Del Ré, P. V.; Jorge, N.; Buba, E.; Aristone, F.

2008-01-01

207

The Applied Research of Dynamic Clustering Algorithm in Identifying Vegetable Oil Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more practical, efficient, fast identification for food raw materials is favorable to improve the current food security situation. In order to improve this kind of condition, this paper presents a vegetable oils discrimination based on improved K-Means algorithm and according the GC of vegetable oil. And this algorithm is improved in selecting original center of clustering so that the

Xintian Cheng; Hongmei Zhang

2009-01-01

208

Taxonomic perspective of plant species yielding vegetable oils used in cosmetics and skin care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search conducted to determine the plants yielding vegetable oils resulted in 78 plant species with potential use in cosmetics and skin care products. The taxonomic position of these plant species is described with a description of vegetable oils from these plants and their use in cosmetics and skin care products. These species belonged to 74 genera and 45 plant

Mohammad Athar; Syed Mahmood Nasir

209

Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: Self-assemblies and dynamic  

E-print Network

- 1 - Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: Self your paper to) Keywords: Amphiphilic copolymer; polyoxazoline; grape seed vegetable oil; self-013-1626-1 #12;- 2 - The behavior in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

New Bio-Based Materials From Vegetable Oil: Amination and Click Reactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For some time we have been interested in utilizing vegetable oils as cheap and bio-renewable raw materials. We have found derivatization reactions with nitrogen-containing reagents to be good pathways to achieve a range of new vegetable oil-based products. One of our approaches is to derivatize ep...

211

Brominated vegetable oil myopathy: inhibition at multiple sites.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle lipid storage was induced by feeding rats brominated vegetable oil (BVO). The defect was examined by measuring radioactive substrate oxidation, intermediates of fatty acid oxidation, and activities of oxidative enzymes. One- and U-[14C] palmitate and 1-[14C] pyruvate oxidation were reduced in muscle after four doses of BVO. Inhibition of U-[14C] palmitate oxidation occurred after two doses. Short chain acylcoenzyme A(CoA) derivatives accumulated in the muscle. Several enzymes of beta-oxidation were significantly reduced, with the greatest reduction in 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. The inhibition probably affected multiple sites of CoA and CoA-derivative metabolism. PMID:6242313

Carroll, J E; Norris, B J; Villadiego, A; Wheeler, S D

1984-10-01

212

In vitro accessibility of carotenes from green leafy vegetables cooked with sunflower oil or red palm oil.  

PubMed

Although vegetables and fruits are readily available and consumed in most areas of Tanzania, vitamin A deficiency is still prevalent. The objective of the present study was to measure the in vitro accessibility (available for absorption) of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene in vegetable relishes prepared with or without oil. Derived results were used to calculate the contribution of vegetable relish to recommended daily intake of retinol. Five sundried green leafy vegetables from Tanzania were cooked without oil, with sunflower oil or with red palm oil. The total amount and in vitro accessibility of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene from a portion (100 g) of vegetable relish was determined. The in vitro method used simulated the digestion process in the gastrointestinal tract. Carotenoids released after digestion were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total amount of beta-carotene varied between 1211 and 3659 microg/100 g among the five vegetable sources studied. From green leaves cooked without oil, 8-29% of the beta-carotene content became accessible after in vitro digestion and 39-94% from leaves cooked with sunflower oil or red palm oil. Adding red palm oil instead of sunflower oil resulted in about twice as much accessible beta-carotene, due to the high accessibility of its beta-carotene content. The red palm oil contributed also a considerable amount of alpha-carotene. The results showed that by eating vegetable relishes with added oil daily, it should be possible to provide the recommended intake level of vitamin A. PMID:12590739

Hedrén, Ellen; Mulokozi, Generose; Svanberg, Ulf

2002-11-01

213

The effect of consecutive steps of refining on squalene content of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of refining steps on the squalene content of some vegetable oils. A comparison\\u000a has been made between the crude oils and consecutive steps of refining process (neutralization, bleaching, deodorization,\\u000a winterization) in the amounts of squalene of the oil samples. Among the oils, virgin and refined olive oils contained higher\\u000a amounts

Cevdet Nergiz; Deniz Çelikkale

2011-01-01

214

Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts and dispersing MNPs in the oil media, without the use of any external reducing or stabilizing agents. These well-dispersed MNP-in-oil dispersions can be used directly, akin to commercially available paints, on nearly all kinds of surface such as wood, glass, steel and different polymers. The surfaces coated with silver-nanoparticle paint showed excellent antimicrobial properties by killing both Gram-positive human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The process we have developed here is quite general and can be applied in the synthesis of a variety of MNP-in-oil systems.

Kumar, Ashavani; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; John, George

2008-03-01

215

Alternative Diesel Fuel Study on Four Different Types of Vegetable Oils of Turkish Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, com, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20\\/80 (v\\/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1200 and 2100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods.

TURGUT ÖZAKTA; F?L?Z KARAOSMANOGLU

1997-01-01

216

Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean\\u000a and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and\\u000a degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of\\u000a 60 C or higher, molar ratios of at

B. Freedman; E. H. Pryde; T. L. Mounts

1984-01-01

217

Lightning Impulse Breakdown Characteristics and Electrodynamic Process of Insulating Vegetable Oil-Based Nanofluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insulating vegetable oils are considered environment-friendly and fire-resistant substitutes for insulating mineral oils. This paper presents the lightning impulse breakdown characteristic of insulating vegetable oil and insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids. It indicates that Fe3O4 nanoparticles can increase the negative lightning impulse breakdown voltages of insulating vegetable oil by 11.8% and positive lightning impulse breakdown voltages by 37.4%. The propagation velocity of streamer is reduced by the presence of nanoparticles. The propagation velocities of streamer to positive and negative lightning impulse breakdown in the insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids are 21.2% and 14.4% lesser than those in insulating vegetable oils, respectively. The higher electrical breakdown strength and lower streamer velocity is explained by the charging dynamics of nanoparticles in insulating vegetable oil. Space charge build-up and space charge distorted filed in point-sphere gap is also described. The field strength is reduced at the streamer tip due to the low mobility of negative nanoparticles.

Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhao-Tao; Zou, Ping; Du, Bin; Liao, Rui-Jin

2012-06-01

218

Economic implications for the potential development of a vegetable oil fuel industry  

SciTech Connect

The purposes in this paper were to (1) summarize the domestic and international oilseed situation with emphasis on trends which will affect the long-run supply and demand for oilseeds; (2) describe the existing oilseeds processing sector so as to focus on the existing linkage between food and potential fuel markets for vegetable oils; and (3) present a basic framework for analyzing the supply, demand, and price effects of significant use of vegetable oil as a fuel. The major determinants of demand worldwide for vegetable oils are price, incomes, and population. Government programs of taxes, quotas, or subsidies could affect vegetable oil supply and/or demand. International trade practices could change; altering the flow of oils between markets. The likely impact of a developing vegetable oils fuel market would be to increase vegetable oil prices. The size of the increase will depend on how large the fuel market demand ultimately becomes, and thus on the price of diesel fuel. It will also depend on how well oilseed production can be adapted, technologically, and in acreage, to meet the needs of a large fuels market while maintaining its critical role in the foods sector. There are many uncertainties in assessing the economic picture for vegetable oil use as a diesel fuel substitute. 1 figure, 3 tables. (DP)

Dunn, J.R.; Schneeberger, K.C.

1982-01-01

219

Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study  

SciTech Connect

This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the production, processing, and end use of the new fuels on a basis that is both technically attractive and economically rewarding to all of the elements of the system. The three subsystems, the farms that produce oilseed crops, the production of triglycerides and protein, and the manufacturers of the diesel engines and the owners of the present stock of auto-ignition engines, are discussed. It was concluded that vegetable oils and animal fats have substantial prospects as long-term substitutes for diesel fuels. If special auto-ignition engines were developed to handle vegetable oils, on-farm production and use might succeed. In the absence of such engine development, it is likely that large, centralized facilities to manufacture vegetable oils and their methylesters will be the successful processing route. Vegetable oils are likely to succeed first in geographical areas with benign climates. Vegetable oils and animal fats have limited prospects as diesel fuels for acute emergencies. The high viscosity of vegetable oils and the necessity to make substantial capital investments to obtain oils from oilseeds render the system relatively inflexible. 4 tables. (DP)

Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Appelbaum, H.R.; McClure, T.A.; Otis, J.L.; Trayser, D.A.

1982-01-01

220

Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

1984-10-01

221

Triglyceride species compositions of common edible vegetable oils and methods used for their identification and quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromatographic, spectrophotometric, and spectroscopic methods used for detection, identification, and quantification of the triglyceride (TG) species present in common edible vegetable oils are reviewed. The TG species identified in each kind of oil and their percentage distributions reported in literature are presented in tabular form. Data on oils from the following 10 sources are reviewed: corn, cottonseed, grapeseed, linseed,

Nikolaos K. Andrikopoulos

2002-01-01

222

A conductivity method for the determination of soap in refined vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

NE OF THE II~'IPI.TRITIES found in refined vegetable oil is soap. The alkalies in refining reagents react with the fatty acids present in the crude oil to produce sodium soaps. The soap concentration in the oil will vary throughout the refining process and is dependent upon the crude stock, the stage of the refining, the efficiency of the soap separation,

Howard Goff; F. E. Blachly

1957-01-01

223

Effects of unrefined vegetable oil addition on the flavor acceptability and oil oxidation of tuna oil enriched emulsion under singlet oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition effects of unrefined vegetable oil on the fishy flavor and singlet oxygen oxidation of tuna oil enriched O\\/W emulsion\\u000a were studied by sensory evaluation and determining hydroperoxide contents and headspace oxygen consumption. Emulsion consisted\\u000a of canola and tuna oil (2:1, w\\/w), acetic acid, egg yolk, and with\\/without unrefined oil (olive, sesame, mustard, or perilla\\u000a oil). Singlet oxygen was produced

Sojin An; Eunok Choe

2011-01-01

224

Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale modelling of magmatic intrusion in a deforming brittle crust  

E-print Network

Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale modelling of magmatic intrusion in a deforming. The model magma is a vegetable oil, which solidifies at room temperature. Its viscosity when molten is =2. Keywords: physical modelling; magma emplacement; brittle tectonics; vegetable oil; silica powder 1

Galland, Olivier

225

Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 ?l/cm² essential oil and 3.144 ?l/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC?? = 0.118 ?l/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC?? = 0.044 ?l/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD?? = 0.137 ?l/g) than the essential oil alone (LD?? = 0.193 ?l/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F? insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans. PMID:22410230

Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

2012-03-01

226

Rheological Properties of a Biological Thermo-Hydrogel Produced from Soybean Oil Polymers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at room temperature and viscous fluid b...

227

Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-VI is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-VI exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt. %) at room temperature and viscous fluid ...

228

Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG is a thermo-responsive gel, and it exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at roo...

229

Electrical properties of rape-seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to verify possible application fields of rape-seed oil as insulating material, detailed investigations of dielectric properties - like dielectric dissipation factor tan ?, relative permittivity ?r, specific DC resistance ? - and breakdown strength under AC stress have been carried out. Relevant parameters, with respect to electrical and dielectric properties, are water content and oil temperature as well

M. Hemmer; R. Badent; A. J. Schwab

2002-01-01

230

Silicone/vegetable oil Janus emulsion: Topological stability versus interfacial tensions and relative oil volumes.  

PubMed

Several aspects were studied of the formation and destabilization in bulk of silicone/vegetable oil, SO/VO, Janus emulsions, stabilized by Tween 80. In the formation of the emulsions, it was unexpectedly found that the dispersions tended to contain both single and flocculated drops irrespective of the emulsification intensity. Microscopy of the emulsions with no cover glass revealed flocculated drops of a large (200-500?m) central SO drop with many small VO drops attached. Applying a cover glass did not significantly change the drop size; instead two-oil Janus drops of well-defined contact angle were found. The emulsions showed rapid creaming irrespective of the preparation method, but a few days storage did not significantly change the drop size in the creamed layer, nor was separation of the oils detected. The total interfacial free energy of the Janus drops at equilibrium was compared to the two relevant alternatives; engulfed and separate drops. The Janus drop free energies were found less for all volume ratios of the oils, when the surfactant concentrations in the aqueous phase was sufficient to prevent spreading of VO on SO. Changing the surfactant concentration to bring the interfacial tensions closer to the critical value for spreading gave declining interfacial free energy difference to that of engulfed drops. PMID:25443127

Leonardi, G R; Perrechil, F A; Silveira, L P; Brunca, H O; Friberg, S E

2014-10-14

231

Effect of endogenous antioxidants of sesame seeds and sesame oil to the thermal stability of edible vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differently processed sesame seeds were used for the preparation of sesamol, seed extract, oil extract or unsaponifiable matter. Analysis of these sesame extracts revealed that dehulling and roasting of seeds had an adverse effect on their lignan and phenolic compounds content. Various concentrations of the extracts were incorporated in vegetable oils and their effectiveness in retarding the oxidative deterioration of

Zoe Konsoula; Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides

2010-01-01

232

Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.  

PubMed

Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy. PMID:25528233

Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

2015-03-21

233

A comparative study of vegetable oil methyl esters (biodiesels)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, rubber seed oil, coconut oil and palm kernel oil, which are locally available especially in Kerala (India), are chosen and their transesterification processes have been investigated. The various process variables like temperature, catalyst concentration, amount of methanol and reaction time were optimized. Biodiesel from rubber seed oil (with high free fatty acid) was produced by employing

M. Satyanarayana; C. Muraleedharan

2011-01-01

234

Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

235

21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) ...DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific...hydrogenated oils of vegetable origin and polyethylene glycol...

2010-04-01

236

21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) ...DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific...hydrogenated oils of vegetable origin and polyethylene glycol...

2011-04-01

237

Conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils has drawn considerable attention with increasing environmental consciousness. We attempted\\u000a continuous methanolysis of vegetable oil by an enzymatic process. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase was found to be the most effective for the methanolysis among lipases tested. The enzyme was inactivated by shaking\\u000a in a mixture containing more than 1.5 molar equivalents of methanol against the

Yuji Shimada; Yomi Watanabe; Taichi Samukawa; Akio Sugihara; Hideo Noda; Hideki Fukuda; Yoshio Tominaga

1999-01-01

238

Lipase-catalyzed incorporation of n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of immobilized lipases IM60 fromMucor miehei and SP435 fromCandida antarctica to modify the fatty acid composition of selected vegetable oils by incorporation of n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into\\u000a the vegetable oils was studied. The transesterification was carried out in organic solvent with free acid and ethyl esters\\u000a of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as acyl donors.

Kuan-hsiang Huang; Casimir C. Akoh

1994-01-01

239

A simple method for estimation of cetane index of vegetable oil methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates a simple method for estimation of cetane indexes of vegetable oil methyl esters from their saponification\\u000a and iodine numbers. The range of the calculated values covers all the cetane numbers of vegetable oil methyl esters determined\\u000a experimentally. when it was applied to individual fatty acid methyl esters from C8 to C24, a straight line parallel to that

Kanit Krisnangkura

1986-01-01

240

First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

Ventura, L.M. (Mercedes-Benz do Brazil, Sao Paulo); Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

1982-01-01

241

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives  

E-print Network

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products ...

Sambandan, T. G.

242

Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

Goodrum, J.W.

1986-01-01

243

Minor constituents of vegetable oils during industrial processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the effects of individual steps of industrial refining, carried out in Brazil, on the alteration of selected minor\\u000a constituents of oils, such as corn, soybean, and rapeseed oils. Total sterols, determined by capillary gas chromatography\\u000a (GC), decreased by 18–36% in the fully refined oils, compared with the crude oils. The total steradienes, dehydration products\\u000a of sterols, were determinedvia

R. Ap. Ferrari; E. Schulte; W. Esteves; L. Brühl; K. D. Mukherjee

1996-01-01

244

Feruloylated vegetable oils: synthesis and applications of UV-absorbing/antioxidative lipids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an effort to produce higher value uses for vegetable oils, we have developed an environmentally “green” process to transesterify soybean oil with the phenylpropanoid, ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is a natural plant component that absorbs light within the UVB and UVA regions (290 to 370 nm) and pos...

245

A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

246

Agricultural land use in life cycle assessment (LCA): case studies of three vegetable oil crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for environmental assessment of agricultural land use is outlined. Environmental objectives and indicators of the land use quality are defined. The method is tested in case studies of cultivated vegetable oil crops: Swedish rape seed, Brazilian soybean and Malaysian oil palm. The results from this study lead us to believe that the indicators soil erosion, soil organic matter,

Berit Mattsson; Christel Cederberg; Lisa Blix

2000-01-01

247

Preparation of margarines from organogels of sunflower wax and vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It was previously reported that sunflower wax (SW) had high potential as an organogelator for soybean oil-based margarine and spread products. In this study twelve other vegetable oils were evaluated in a margarine formulation to test feasibility of utilization of SW as an alternative to solid fats ...

248

PAPER/POLYMERIZED VEGETABLE OIL COMPOSITES:BIODEGRADATION BEHAVIOR AND USE AS DEGRADABLE AGRICULTURAL MULCH FILM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Kraft paper was coated with different types of vegetable oil-based polyesters in order to increase wet strength, decrease biodegradation rates and create an alternative to non-degradable polyethylene mulch films. Paper saturated with natural polyunsaturated oils and then oxidatively polymerized (Co...

249

Vegetable Oil-based Diesel Fuels From 1900 to the Present  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diesel engine, invented and developed by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890's, was displayed at the Paris World Exposition in 1900. At that occasion, one of the displayed diesel engines ran on peanut oil. This event marks the beginning of the use of vegetable oils and, later, derivatives thereof as die...

250

Rapid detection of copper chlorophyll in vegetable oils based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The addition of copper chlorophyll and its derivatives (Cu-Chl) to vegetable oils to disguise them as more expensive oils, such as virgin olive oils, would not only create public confusion, but also disturb the olive oil market. Given that existing detection methods of Ch-Chl in oils, such as LC-MS are costly and time consuming, it is imperative to develop economical and fast analytical techniques to provide information quickly. This paper demonstrates a rapid analytical method based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect Cu-Chl in vegetable oils; the spectroscopic markers of Cu-Chl are presented and a detection limit of 5 mg kg(-1) is demonstrated. The analysis of a series of commercial vegetable oils is undertaken with this method and the results verified by a government agency. This study shows that a SERS-based assessment method holds high potential for quickly pinpointing the addition of minute amounts of Cu-Chl in vegetable oils. PMID:25822695

Lian, Wei-Nan; Shiue, Jessie; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Hong, Wei-Chen; Shih, Po-Han; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Huang, Ching-Yi; Hsing, Cheng-Rong; Wei, Ching-Ming; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

2015-05-01

251

Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 18 billion pounds of soybean oil is produced annually in the United States with a yearly carryover of more than 300 million pounds. How to utilize this surplus oil effectively becomes a large economic issue in the U.S. agricultural community. Soybean oil is a relatively cheap raw materia...

252

Modified vegetable oils for environmentally friendly lubricant applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synthetic lubricant base oils offer improved stability and performance characteristics over refined petroleum oils, but at a price. Most of the biodegradable synthetic oils are chemical esters that offer superior thermal and oxidative stability [8.9]. Prices for these niche products are higher tha...

253

Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non-regulated exhaust gas components, some deviations from this linear trend were detected.

Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

2012-05-01

254

Low carbon flower buildup, low smoke, and efficient diesel operation with vegetable oils by conversion to mono-esters and blending with diesel oil or alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated DI Diesel engine is evaluated. Means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion is found. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits are measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. Both of the vegetable oil fuels generate an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they cause carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation. Practical solutions to overcome the problems are: increasing the fuel temperature to over 200/sup 0/C, blending 25 vol % diesel fuel in the vegetable oil, blending 20 vol % ethanol in the fuel, or converting the vegetable oils into methylesters.

Nobukazu, T.; Itow, K.

1984-01-01

255

Quantification of blending of olive oils and edible vegetable oils by triacylglycerol fingerprint gas chromatography and chemometric tools.  

PubMed

A reliable procedure for the identification and quantification of the adulteration of olive oils in terms of blending with other vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, seeds, sesame and soya) has been developed. From the analytical viewpoint, the whole procedure relies only on the results of the determination of the triacylglycerol profile of the oils by high temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chromatographic profiles were pre-treated (baseline correction, peak alignment using iCoshift algorithm and mean centering) before building the models. At first, a class-modeling approach, Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was used to identify the vegetable oil used blending. Successively, a separate calibration model for each kind of blending was built using Partial Least Square (PLS). The correlation coefficients of actual versus predicted concentrations resulting from multivariate calibration models were between 0.95 and 0.99. In addition, Genetic algorithms (GA-PLS), were used, as variable selection method, to improve the models which yielded R(2) values higher than 0.90 for calibration set. This model had a better predictive ability than the PLS without feature selection. The results obtained showed the potential of this method and allowed quantification of blends of olive oil in the vegetable oils tested containing at least 10% of olive oil. PMID:22366282

Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; Marini, Federico; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; González-Casado, Antonio

2012-12-01

256

Phospholipids determination in vegetable oil by thin-layer chromatography and imaging densitometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid reliable method was developed to measure vegetable oil phospholipid content by thin-layer chromatography–imaging densitometry. Phospholipid samples were obtained from crude soybean oil by water degumming and then analyzed and quantified by thin-layer chromatography and imaging densitometry. Phosphatidyl choline (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidyl inositol (PI) standard curves were generated. The total phospholipid content of the oil was

J. M Nzai; A Proctor

1998-01-01

257

Tocopherol, tocotrienol and plant sterol contents of vegetable oils and industrial fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tocopherol and tocotrienol (i.e. tocol) and plant sterol contents of 14 vegetable and 9 industrial fats and oils available on the Finnish market in 2005 were determined using NP-HPLC with fluorescence detection (tocols) and GC-FID (plant sterols). Best sources of ?-tocopherol were wheat germ (192mg\\/100g) and sunflower oil (59mg\\/100g). Oils richest in ?-tocopherol were camelina (72mg\\/100g), linseed (52mg\\/100g) and

Heidi Schwartz; Velimatti Ollilainen; Vieno Piironen; Anna-Maija Lampi

2008-01-01

258

Vegetable oil blend as alternative lipid resources in diets for gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent decreasing worldwide supplies of marine oils have forced the aquaculture industry to investigate alternative lipid\\u000a sources for use in marine fish feeds. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of dietary replacement of fish oil\\u000a by vegetable oils on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) growth performance, nutritive utilization, body composition, and fatty acid profile as well as

Elham A. Wassef; Norhan E. Saleh; Heyam A. El-Abd El-Hady

2009-01-01

259

Utilization of ethyl ester of waste vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan relies heavily on expensive and unreliable imported oil. Therefore, this study was initiated to investigate the potential of ethyl ester used as vegetable oil (VO; biodiesel) to substitute oil-based diesel fuel. The fuels tested were several ester\\/diesel blends including 100% ester in addition to diesel fuel, which served as the baseline fuel. Variable-speed tests were run on all fuels

Mohamad I Al-Widyan; Ghassan Tashtoush; Moh'd Abu-Qudais

2002-01-01

260

Oxidative Stability of Conventional and High-Oleic Vegetable Oils with Added Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative stability of conventional and high-oleic varieties of commercial vegetable oils, with and without added antioxidants,\\u000a was evaluated using the oil stability index (OSI). Oil varieties studied were soybean (SOY), partially-hydrogenated soybean\\u000a (PHSOY), corn (CORN), sunflower (SUN), canola (CAN), high-oleic canola (HOCAN), very high-oleic canola (VHOCAN), oleic safflower\\u000a (SAF) and high-oleic sunflower (HOSUN). One or more commercial antioxidants were

Lilon I. Merrill; Oscar A. Pike; Lynn V. Ogden; Michael L. Dunn

2008-01-01

261

Determination of brominated vegetable oils in soft drinks by gas liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the qualitative and quantitative determination of brominated vegetable oils in soft drinks. The\\u000a procedure involves treatment of the brominated oils with sodium methoxide followed by GLC analysis of the resulting methyl\\u000a esters using methyl pentadecanoate as internal standard. Recoveries on known amounts of these oils ranged between 93.7% and\\u000a 102.4%. The technique, applied to several

H. B. S. Conacher; R. K. Chadha; M. R. Sahasrabudhe

1969-01-01

262

Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin  

SciTech Connect

Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

1997-02-01

263

Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.  

PubMed

The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

2012-02-17

264

Separation of steroids using vegetable oils in microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography.  

PubMed

The steroids, hydrocortisone, androstenedione, 17-?-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, 17-?-methyltestosterone, and progesterone were separated with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) and detected with UV absorption. The microemulsion phases were prepared from both artificial and vegetable oils, from them the first was made of alkane and alcohol and the latter from colza, olive, linseed, and walnut oils. The electrolyte solutions were made to emulsions using sodium dodecyl sulfate and alkaline tetraborate. The solution mixtures made from ethyl acetate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, and sodium tetraborate were used as the reference solutions to evaluate the performance of the vegetable oil emulsions. Our study showed that the lipophilic organic phase in the microemulsion did provide resolution improvements but not selectivity changes. The results also correlate with real interactions of the steroids with the lipophilic organic microemulsion phase. The quality of the oils between the manufacturers did not have importance, which was noticed from the equal behavior of the steroids in the vegetable oil emulsions. Detection limits of the steroids in vegetable oil emulsions were at the level of 0.20-0.43?g/L. Thus, they were 2-10 times higher than the concentrations in the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC), which we have obtained earlier. The repeatability (RSD%) of the electrophoretic mobilities of the steroids was between 0.50 and 3.70. The RSD% values between the inter-day separations were below 1%, but when walnut and olive oils were used the values exceeded even 10%. PMID:24355214

Sirén, Heli; Vesanen, Sari; Suomi, Johanna

2014-01-15

265

Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. PMID:24491744

Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

2014-06-15

266

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production using waste vegetable oil by Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2.  

PubMed

To produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from inexpensive substrates by bacteria, vegetable-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from a rice field using enrichment cultivation. The isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 showed clear orange or red spots of accumulated PHA granules when grown on phosphate and nitrogen limited medium containing vegetable oil as the sole carbon source and stained with Nile blue A. Up to 37.34% (w/w) of intracellular PHA was produced from corn oil, which consisted of three major 3-hydroxyalkanoates; octanoic (C8:0, 37.75% of the total 3-hydroxyalkanoate content of PHA), decanoic (C10:0, 36.74%), and dodecanoic (C12:0, 11.36%). Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated up to 23.52% (w/w) of PHAMCL from waste vegetable oil. The proportion of 3- hydroxyalkanoate of the waste vegetable-oil-derived PHA [hexanoic (5.86%), octanoic (45.67%), decanoic (34.88%), tetradecanoic (8.35%), and hexadecanoic (5.24%)] showed a composition ratio different from that of the corn-oil-derived PHA. Strain DR2 used three major fatty acids in the same ratio, and linoleic acid was the major source of PHA production. Interestingly, the production of PHA in Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 could not occur in either acetate- or butyrate-amended media. Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated a greater amount of PHA than other well-studied strains (Chromobacterium violaceum and Ralstonia eutropha H16) when grown on vegetable oil. The data showed that Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 was capable of producing PHA from waste vegetable oil. PMID:18756101

Song, Jin Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok; Choi, Mun Hwan; Yoon, Sung Chul; Park, Woojun

2008-08-01

267

Algae, Canola, or Palm Oils—Diesel Microemulsion Fuels: Phase Behaviors, Viscosity, and Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are being considered as a renewable energy alternative for diesel. The high viscosity of vegetable oils causes injector fouling and durability problems in compression–ignition engines. Microemulsification can be used to reduce vegetable oil viscosity without complex chemical transformation processes. The goal of our work is to formulate reverse micellar microemulsions of vegetable oils and No. 2 diesel fuel

Linh D. Do; Vinay Singh; Lixia Chen; Tohren C. G. Kibbey; Sub. R. Gollahalli; David A. Sabatini

2011-01-01

268

Studies on antioxidant treatments of crude vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments of crude safflowerseed, soybean, sunflowerseed and cottonseed oils with the antioxidant compounds butylated hydroxyanisole\\u000a (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) have been investigated. PG and TBHQ were effective in inhibiting\\u000a oxidative degradation of the crude oils subjected to long term storage as determined by measurement of peroxide formation\\u000a in the oils during storage and by determination of

E. R. Sherwin; B. M. Luckadoo

1970-01-01

269

Classification and adulteration detection of vegetable oils based on fatty acid profiles.  

PubMed

The detection of adulteration of high priced oils is a particular concern in food quality and safety. Therefore, it is necessary to develop authenticity detection method for protecting the health of customers. In this study, fatty acid profiles of five edible oils were established by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode. Using mass spectral characteristics of selected ions and equivalent chain length (ECL), 28 fatty acids were identified and employed to classify five kinds of edible oils by using unsupervised (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis), supervised (random forests) multivariate statistical methods. The results indicated that fatty acid profiles of these edible oils could classify five kinds of edible vegetable oils into five groups and are therefore employed to authenticity assessment. Moreover, adulterated oils were simulated by Monte Carlo method to establish simultaneous adulteration detection model for five kinds of edible oils by random forests. As a result, this model could identify five kinds of edible oils and sensitively detect adulteration of edible oil with other vegetable oils about the level of 10%. PMID:25078260

Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Sun, Xiaoman; Wang, Xuefang; Xu, Baocheng; Wang, Xiupin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia

2014-08-27

270

Bidirectional reflectance, leaf optical and physiological properties of prairie vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular multiband radiometer is used to measure reflected radiation from the vegetative surface of a prairie. The data are compared to estimates of incoming radiation by measuring the reflection from a molded halon panel, and the bidirectional reflectance factors are measured at seven view-zenith angles and various incidence angles. The canopy-reflectance results are compared to leaf-optical and other vegetative physiological properties, and a direct relationship is reported.

Walter-Shea, E. A.; Blad, B. L.; Starks, P. J; Hays, C. J.; Mesarch, M. A.; Middleton, E. M.

1990-01-01

271

Continuous Transethylation of Vegetable Oils by Microwave Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of continuous preparation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from coconut, rice bran and used frying (palm) oils in a modified home made microwave oven (800 Watts) are described. Good yields FAEEs are obtained with 1.0 % sodium hydroxide (in excess) as a catalyst. With the alcohol to oils molar ratio of 9:1, 100% conversion is obtained within

V. Lertsathapornsuk; P. Ruangying; R. Pairintra; K. Krisnangkura

272

Reaction pathways for the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and related model compounds.  

PubMed

Vegetable oil-based feeds are regarded as an alternative source for the production of fuels and chemicals. Paraffins and olefins can be produced from these feeds through catalytic deoxygenation. The fundamentals of this process are mostly studied by using model compounds such as fatty acids, fatty acid esters, and specific triglycerides because of their structural similarity to vegetable oils. In this Review we discuss the impact of feedstock, reaction conditions, and nature of the catalyst on the reaction pathways of the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and its derivatives. As such, we conclude on the suitability of model compounds for this reaction. It is shown that the type of catalyst has a significant effect on the deoxygenation pathway, that is, group?10 metal catalysts are active in decarbonylation/decarboxylation whereas metal sulfide catalysts are more selective to hydrodeoxygenation. Deoxygenation studies performed under H2 showed similar pathways for fatty acids, fatty acid esters, triglycerides, and vegetable oils, as mostly deoxygenation occurs indirectly via the formation of fatty acids. Deoxygenation in the absence of H2 results in significant differences in reaction pathways and selectivities depending on the feedstock. Additionally, using unsaturated feedstocks under inert gas results in a high selectivity to undesired reactions such as cracking and the formation of heavies. Therefore, addition of H2 is proposed to be essential for the catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil feeds. PMID:23913576

Gosselink, Robert W; Hollak, Stefan A W; Chang, Shu-Wei; van Haveren, Jacco; de Jong, Krijn P; Bitter, Johannes H; van Es, Daan S

2013-09-01

273

Short communication: rapid detection of milk fat adulteration with vegetable oil by fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

This study assessed the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy in detecting adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil and characterizing the samples according to the source of the fat. Pure butterfat was adulterated with different vegetable oils at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40%). Nonfat and reduced-fat milk were also adulterated with vegetable oils to simulate full-fat milk (3.2%). The 2- and 3-dimensional front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to obtain the fluorescence spectra and fatty acid profile, respectively. Principal component analysis and 3-way partial least squares regression analysis were applied to analyze the data. The pure and adulterated samples were discriminated based on the total concentration of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, and also on the 3 major fluorophores: tryptophan, tocopherols, and riboflavin. Fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect up to 5% of adulteration of vegetable oil into the butterfat. The saturated fatty acids showed higher predictability than the unsaturated fatty acids (R(2) = 0.73-0.92 vs. 0.20-0.65, respectively). The study demonstrated the high potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly detect adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil, and discriminate commercial butter and milk according to the source of the fat. PMID:23415535

Ntakatsane, M P; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

2013-04-01

274

The use of saponified vegetable oil distillates/ethanol microcellular solution as a diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils are considered possible replacement fuels for diesel engines; however, past research has shown that long term engine durability is adversely affected by the use of these fuels. Most researchers have attempted to reduce the problems associated with vegetable oil fuels either by the formation of vegetable oil/diesel blends or the esterfication of the vegetable oils. In this investigation of an alternative approach, the performance of saponified soybean oil/aqueous ethanol microcellular solutions were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The products of the pyrolytic distillation of crude soybean oil were mixed with 150 proof ethanol in the ratio of 4:1 by volume and saponified with anhydrous ammonia gas. This ''parent fuel'' was then diluted with 150 proof ethanol to obtain two test fuels, one with 30 percent ethanol concentration and the other with 40 percent ethanol concentration. The fuels were used in the engine under various loads at two speeds, and the performance was compared to the performance using No. 2-D commercial diesel fuel.

Savage, L.D.; Birell, S.; Goering, C.E.

1988-01-01

275

Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors.

Carde, T.

2001-09-12

276

Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.  

PubMed

Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2)?=?0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE?=?104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2)?=?0.70 and RMSE?=?110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

2013-01-01

277

Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China  

PubMed Central

Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m?2 to 5.3 g m?2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg?1 to 652 mg kg?1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R2?=?0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE?=?104.2 mg kg?1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg?1 to 106.8 mg kg?1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R2?=?0.70 and RMSE?=?110.1 mg kg?1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

2013-01-01

278

Lubricant properties of Moringa oil using thermal and tribological techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing application of biobased lubricants could significantly reduce environmental pollution and contribute to the\\u000a replacement of petroleum base oils. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates\\u000a for use as base fluids in formulation of environment friendly lubricants. Although many vegetable oils have excellent lubricity,\\u000a they often have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. Here

Brajendra K. Sharma; Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Sevim Z. Erhan

2009-01-01

279

Trends in industrial use of vegetable oils in coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkyd resins continue to be a major factor in coatings. Increased oil consumption in alkyd manufacture is not expected to\\u000a be significant. Projections indicate a modest growth in total coatings usage at 2–3% per year. The industry is facing diverse\\u000a coating performance demands that will bring unusual, more costly ingredients into use, probably at the expense of traditional\\u000a oil-based alkyd

Richard W. Fulmer

1985-01-01

280

Does vegetable oil attenuate the beneficial effects of fish oil in reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,Contradictory reports on the protective effect of fish consumption,on cardiovascular,disease (CVD) risk could be due,to variations,in the,intake,of n-3 and,n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Metabolic competition,between n-3 and n-6 PUFAs suggests,that n-6,PUFAs in,vegetable,oils could attenuate,the efficacy,of n- 3 PUFAs in fish oil to favorably,alter endpoints,relevant,to CVD,risk. We,determined,the,effects,of varying,dietary,amounts,of fish oil on,lipid and,thrombotic,end- points,relevant,to risk factors,for CVD and,whether,these,effects were attenuated by vegetable

Daniel H Hwang; Prithiva S Chanmugam; Donna H Ryan; Mary D Boudreau; Marlene M Windhauser; Richard T Tulley; Ellen R Brooks

281

VEGETATIVE STABILIZATION OF SPENT OIL SHALES: VEGETATION MOISTURE SALINITY AND RUNOFF, 1973-76  

EPA Science Inventory

Disposal of massive amounts of spent shale will be required if an oil shale industry using surface retorting is developed. Field studies were initiated in 1973 on two types of spent oil shale--coarse-textured (USBM), and fine-textured (TOSCO). The objectives of these studies were...

282

Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

283

Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants in the Mediterranean basin, such as vine and olive trees, have developed an array of antioxidant defences to protect themselves from environmental stress. Accordingly, the incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers is lower in the Mediterranean area, where olive oil is the dietary fat of choice. As opposed to other vegetable oils, extra virgin olive oil, which

Francesco Visioli; Giorgio Bellomo; Claudio Galli

1998-01-01

284

Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel  

SciTech Connect

The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

1982-01-01

285

A rapid gas chromatographic method for the determination of BHA and BHT in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) technique has been developed which requires about 20 min for the determination of BHA and\\u000a BHT in vegetable oils. This method involves the addition of an internal standard to a weighed portion of the oil, dilution\\u000a of the mixture with carbon disulfide, and injection into the Gas Chromatograph. BHA and BHT are isolated from the

Kenneth T. Hartman; Lucien C. Rose

1970-01-01

286

Sources of Methyl Ester Yield Reduction in Methanolysis of Recycled Vegetable Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled vegetable oil (RVO) is a relatively cheap raw material for biodiesel production, but biodiesel grade methyl ester\\u000a yields from RVO were found to be considerably lower than those from pure plant oil. The present paper investigates sources\\u000a of yield loss during methanolysis of RVOs with free fatty acids (FFA) contents of 0.4–3.3%, and makes suggestions for the\\u000a improvement of

András Fröhlich; Bernard Rice

2009-01-01

287

Effect of amount and source of supplemental dietary vegetable oil on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxicosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Addition of sunflower oil (SFO) at 30 or 60?g\\/kg or three vegetable oils, namely SFO, soybean (SBO) or groundnut (GNO), at 30?g\\/kg to isocaloric and isonitrogenous broiler chicken diets were evaluated for possible counteractive effects against aflatoxin (AF) (0·3?µg B1\\/g diet) from 0 to 42?d of age.2. Body weight, food intake and serum concentration of protein were lower in

M. V. L. N. Raju; S. V. Rama Rao; K. Radhika; A. K. Panda

2005-01-01

288

Preparation of chitosan microparticles by water-in-vegetable oil emulsion coalescence technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an implantable vehicle for enhanced control of drug release into the body, chitosan (CS) microparticles were prepared where CS was chelated by a metal ion using the emulsion coalescence technique. Aqueous solutions of CS and metal ion were separately emulsified in vegetable oil containing lecithin. After both the water-in-oil (w\\/o) emulsions were mixed and stirred, CS

Kyoko Kofuji; Chun-Jun Qian; Yoshifumi Murata; Susumu Kawashima

2005-01-01

289

Effect of randomization on oxidative stability of vegetable oils at two different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five vegetable oils were each randomized by chemical means (with the use of a sodium potassium alloy) and by enzymatic means\\u000a (using a nonspecific lipase). The success of the randomization procedure was confirmed via positional analysis. The oxidative\\u000a stabilities of the native and chemically randomized oils were determined at storage temperatures of 28°C and 55°C using absorbance\\u000a at 234 nm

C. L. Tautorus; A. R. McCurdy

1990-01-01

290

Oxidative stability of fat substitutes and vegetable oils by the oxidative stability index method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative Stability Index (OSI) of carbohydrate fatty acid polyesters, fat substitutes and vegetable oils were measured with\\u000a the Omnion Oxidative Stability Instrument according to the new AOCS Standard Method Cd 12 B-92 (The Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, edited by D. Firestone, AOCS, Champaign, 1991). The stability of crude and refined, bleached and deodorized

Casimir C. Akoh

1994-01-01

291

Continuous production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida antarctica lipase is inactivated in a mixture of vegetable oil and more than 1?2 molar equivalent of methanol against the total fatty\\u000a acids. We have revealed that the inactivation was eliminated by three successive additions of 1?3 molar equivalent of methanol\\u000a and have developed a three-step methanolysis by which over 95% of the oil triacylglycerols (TAG) were converted to

Yomi Watanabe; Yuji Shimada; Akio Sugihara; Hideo Noda; Hideki Fukuda; Yoshio Tominaga

2000-01-01

292

Effects of five vegetable oils on the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of five economically important vegetable (seed) oils, peanut, cottonseed, castor, soybean and sunflower, on adult\\u000a and immature stages of the sweetpotato whitefly(Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) [Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae]) were studied in the laboratory. Irrespective of origin, oil residues had similar effects\\u000a on immature stages and adult mortality, and on settling and oviposition deterrence. Trends for 5-h settling, 24-h oviposition\\u000a and

Annie Fenigstein; Miriam Eliyahu; S. Gan-Mor; D. Veierov

2001-01-01

293

Dietary methylmercury and vegetable oil affects brain lipid composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).  

PubMed

The interaction between methylmercury (MeHg) and marine fatty acids is of great interest in risk benefit assessments, and is increasingly important also in fish nutrition when fish oil is replaced with vegetable oils. To assess the effects of replacing fish oil (high dietary n-3/n-6 ratio) by soybean oil (low dietary n-3/n-6 ratio) in combination with MeHg, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were fed experimental diets (fish oil (FO) or vegetable oil (VO) based, with or without the addition of MeHg) for 3 months. As expected replacing dietary fish oil by soybean oil had greater effect on the fatty acid composition in white muscle compared to brain. In brain, the relative levels of 18:2 n-6 and 20:4 n-6 increased in all lipid classes in fish fed the VO based diets whereas the levels of marine omega-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) were unaffected. Different dietary lipid sources did not affect the accumulation of mercury in brain nor muscle. However, exposure to dietary MeHg resulted in decreased levels of 20:4 n-6 (arachidonic acid; ARA) in phosphatidylinositol in brain of VO fed fish. The decreased amounts of ARA in VO fish is suggested to be caused by interaction between high n-6 level and MeHg. PMID:22251570

Amlund, Heidi; Andreasen, Lise; Torstensen, Bente E

2012-03-01

294

Temperature Dependence of HNE Formation in Vegetable Oils and Butter Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependence of the formation of toxic 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) was investigated in high and low linoleic acid (LA) containing oils such as corn, soybean and butter oils.\\u000a These oils contain about 60, 54 and 3–4% of LA for corn, soybean and butter oils, respectively. The oils were heated for 0,\\u000a 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h at 190 °C and for

In Hwa Han; A. Saari Csallany

2008-01-01

295

Vegetable Oil Deodorizer Distillate: Characterization, Utilization and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depending on the sources, deodorizer distillates usually have significantly different characteristics, uses, and value. Soybean oil deodorizer distillate has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as natural source of squalene and as a good raw material for the production of fatty acid steryl esters, tocopherols, free phytosterols and fatty acids. The aim of this review paper is to

Setiyo Gunawan

2009-01-01

296

Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial

Hasan A. Al-Sanad; Walid K. Eid; Nabil F. Ismael

1995-01-01

297

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

298

PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and Pesticides in Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (marker and dioxin-like congeners), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA 15 + 1), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (14 predominant congeners) and pesticides (74 compounds) in various cold-pressed vegetable oils. Poppy seed oil, rapeseed oil, sesame seed oil, pumpkinseed oil, hempseed oil, linaire oil, borage oil and evening star oil were investigated. Results of this study revealed that concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and PAHs were low in majority of the investigated samples. However, high concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides were found. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the pesticide residues most commonly found in the studied oils. Concentration of 15 + 1 EPA PAHs was within the 17.85-37.16 ?g kg(-1) range, concentration of (marker) PCBs varied from 127 to 24,882 pg g(-1), dioxin-like TEQ values were below 0.1 pg TEQ g(-1). Concentration of PBDEs was below LOQ in most cases. PMID:22389518

Roszko, M; Szterk, A; Szymczyk, K; Waszkiewicz-Robak, B

2012-03-01

299

Novel approach to evaluate the oxidation state of vegetable oils using characteristic oxidation indicators.  

PubMed

Four vegetable oils with typical fatty acid compositions were chosen to determine their indicators of lipid oxidation under the conditions of accelerated oxidation. Good linear correlations were observed between the total nonpolar carbonyl amount and the total oxidation value (TOTOX, R(2) = 0.89-0.97) or peroxide value (POV, R(2) = 0.92-0.97) during 35 days of accelerated oxidation. Additionally, nonanal in camellia oil (oleic acid mainly) increased significantly, and correlated linearly with TOTOX (21.6 TOTOX - 595, R(2) = 0.92); propanal increased significantly in perilla oil (linolenic acid mainly) and correlated linearly with TOTOX (8.10 TOTOX + 75.0, R(2) = 0.90). Hexanal (9.56 TOTOX + 913, R(2) = 0.90, and 7.10 TOTOX + 342, R(2) = 0.78, respectively) and nonenal (10.5 TOTOX + 691, R(2) = 0.95, and 6.65 TOTOX + 276, R(2) = 0.84, respectively) in sunflower oil (linoleic acid mainly) and palm oil (palmitic and oleic acids mainly) also had good linear correlations with TOTOX. Considering the change patterns of these four aldehydes, it was found that the oxidation stability was in the order sunflower oil < camellia oil < perilla oil < palm oil, which was same as POV, TOTOX, and total nonpolar carbonyls. It was concluded that the four aldehydes nonanal, propanal, hexanal, and nonenal could be used as oxidation indicators for the four types of oils. PMID:25487776

Cao, Jun; Deng, Long; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Fan, Yawei; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Li, Jing; Deng, Ze-Yuan

2014-12-31

300

The use of isotope ratios (13C/12C) for vegetable oils authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes are now increasingly used for the control of the geographical origin or authenticity of food products. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. In this study 22 vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, palm, maize) commercialized on Romanian market were investigated by mean of ?13C in bulk oil and the obtained results were compared with those reported in literature in order to check the labeling of these natural products. The obtained results were in the range of the mean values found in the literature for these types of oils, thus providing their accurate labeling.

Cristea, G.; Magdas, D. A.; Mirel, V.

2012-02-01

301

Evaluation of the thermal diffusivity of vegetable oils during frying by Thermal Lens Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report on the use of the Thermal Lens method to verify the evolution of the thermal diffusivity of sunflower and soybean vegetable oils utilized in preparation of twenty five snacks portions. Our results show that the thermal diffusivity for sunflower oil does not change between 1 and 25 portions of fried snacks. By another hand, the soybean thermal diffusivity exhibits a little decrease for higher portion of fried snacks, indicating that for this oil the triglyceride level is reduced as a degradation process.

Lima, S. M.; Bannwart, E. S.; Oliveira, R. G.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Del Ré, P. V.; Jorge, N.; Pedrochi, F.; Constantini, R.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.

2008-01-01

302

Vegetable Oil Derived Solvent, and Catalyst Free “Click Chemistry” Thermoplastic Polytriazoles  

PubMed Central

Azide-alkyne Huisgen “click” chemistry provides new synthetic routes for making thermoplastic polytriazole polymers—without solvent or catalyst. This method was used to polymerize three diester dialkyne monomers with a lipid derived 18 carbon diazide to produce a series of polymers (labelled C18C18, C18C9, and C18C4 based on monomer chain lengths) free of residual solvent and catalyst. Three diester dialkyne monomers were synthesized with ester chain lengths of 4, 9, and 18 carbons from renewable sources. Significant differences in thermal and mechanical properties were observed between C18C9 and the two other polymers. C18C9 presented a lower melting temperature, higher elongation at break, and reduced Young's modulus compared to C18C4 and C18C18. This was due to the “odd-even” effect induced by the number of carbon atoms in the monomers which resulted in orientation of the ester linkages of C18C9 in the same direction, thereby reducing hydrogen bonding. The thermoplastic polytriazoles presented are novel polymers derived from vegetable oil with favourable mechanical and thermal properties suitable for a large range of applications where no residual solvent or catalyst can be tolerated. Their added potential biocompatibility and biodegradability make them ideal for applications in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25032224

Floros, Michael C.; Leão, Alcides Lopes; Narine, Suresh S.

2014-01-01

303

Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5

Ashraf A. Yousef; Alaa B. Abbas; Bassam Sh. Badawi; Wafaa Y. Al-Jowhar; Esam A. Zain; Seham A. El-Mufti

2012-01-01

304

APPLE SCAB MANAGEMENT ASSISTED BY TREE DEFOLIATION WITH VEGETABLE OIL EMULSIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) was applied to 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apple trees after harvest to induce defoliation and reduce apple scab. Applied in the fall at 2%, 4% or 6%, VOE induced leaf abscission, with the highest concentration causing the most defoliation. At the same concentrations, VOE applie...

305

Consumer purchase motives and product perceptions: a laddering study on vegetable oil in three countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A means-end approach is proposed to analyse cross-cultural differences in product preferences, product perception and purchase motives. Using a modified version of the laddering technique, data on consumer preference, perception and purchase motives concerning vegetable oil were collected in Denmark, England and France. The results show considerable differences between the three consumer groups both with regard to general knowledge about

N. A Nielsen; T Bech-Larsen; K. G Grunert

1998-01-01

306

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME ORGANIC CARBONATES DERIVED FROM VEGETABLE OILS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils, their derivatives, and glycerin represent renewable raw materials that are firmly established components in many industrial products. Their use continues to be of interest to many researchers and the development of approaches to functionalize these compounds to derive oleochemicals ...

307

Use of straight vegetable oil mixtures of rape and camelina as on farm fuels in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibilities for using straight vegetable oil (SVO) from Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (camelina or false flax) and its mixtures with Brassica napus (rape) SVO as fuel in adapted diesel engines are described with chemical parameters, measurements in a test engine and a field test in a tractor. Camelina as a crop is attracting attention in organic farming and is often

Hans Marten Paulsen; V. Wichmann; U. Schuemann; B. Richter

2011-01-01

308

From Vegetable Oils to Polyurethanes: Synthetic Routes to Polyols and Main Industrial Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of biobased polyols for polyurethanes are synthesized from vegetable oils. In the first part, the present review goes into details of these different synthetic routes to obtain polyols. First, olefinic functionalities of triglycerides could easily be epoxidized, leading to reactive epoxide groups. Second, triglycerides double bonds could undergo a wide ranges of reactions to yield polyols. Finally, the carbonyl

Myriam Desroches; Maxime Escouvois; Remi Auvergne; Sylvain Caillol; Bernard Boutevin

2012-01-01

309

Use of tetrabutylammonium tribromide for voltametric titration of unsaturation in vegetable oils and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of tetrabutylammonium tribromide as reagent for bromination of carbon-carbon double bonds of fatty acids and vegetable\\u000a oils, followed by a voltametric titration of tribromide and bromide ions, has been studied. This method is easy and fast,\\u000a and results show good accuracy and high sensitivity.

J. Berthelota; P. L. Desbène; A. Desbène-Monvernay

1993-01-01

310

Influence of Animal and Vegetable Oil in Layer Diets on Performance and Serum Lipid Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: This experimental was conducted to determine the effects of the dietary animal fat and vegetable oils on performance and lipid metabolism in serum of laying hens. Two hundred Isabrown hens at 67 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups containing 40 hens each therefore there were five dietary treatments groups, control group (CO) was fed basal

2006-01-01

311

Hydrogenated soy ethyl ester (HySEE) from ethanol and waste vegetable oil  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel is gaining recognition in the United States as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel without any modifications to the engine. Currently the cost of this fuel is the factor that limits its use. One way to reduce the cost of biodiesel is to use a less expensive form of vegetable oil such as waste oil from a processing plant. These operations use mainly hydrogenated soybean oil, some tallow and some Canola as their frying oils. It is estimated that there are several million pounds of waste vegetable oil from these operations. Additional waste frying oil is available from smaller processors, off-grade oil seeds and restaurants. This paper reports on developing a process to produce the first 945 liters (250 gallons) of HySEE using recipes developed at the University of Idaho; fuel characterization tests on the HySEE according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552; short term injector coking tests and performance tests in a turbocharged, DI, CI engine; and a 300 hour screening test in a single cylinder, IDI, CI engine.

Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

312

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater than 97% after 15--20 min. Some geometric isomerization of the linolenic acids was observed at reaction temperatures as low as 250 C. Reactions carried out at higher temperatures and pressures, up to the critical point of water, produced either/or degradation, pyrolysis, and polymerization, of the oils and resultant fatty acids.

Holliday, R.L.; King, J.W.; List, G.R. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)] [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

1997-03-01

313

Characteristics of Palm Fatty Acid Ester (PFAE), a New Vegetable Based Insulating Oil for Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed new vegetable based insulating oil for transformers called PFAE (Palm Fatty Acid Ester). PFAE has 0.6 times less viscosity and 1.3 times higher dielectric constant compared to mineral oil. The oxidative stability, biodegradability and acute toxicity to fish of PFAE has also been determined to be superior to mineral oil. In this paper, in order to optimize the characteristics of fatty acid esters originating from palm oil, several kinds of fatty acid alkyl esters were first synthesized in the laboratory by the molecular design technique and the transesterification from fatty acid methyl esters and alkyl alcohols. Next the electro-chemical characteristics of the fatty acid alkyl esters as insulating oil were analyzed.

Suzuki, Takashi; Kanoh, Takaaki; Koide, Hidenobu; Hikosaka, Tomoyuki

314

Effect of brominated vegetable oils on heart lipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal rats fed for 105 days on an experimental diet made up of standard laboratory chow supplemented with 0.5% of a mixture\\u000a of brominated sunflower-olive oil (BVO) developed a significant increase in the triacylglycerol content of the heart, liver\\u000a and soleus muscle compared to controls. In addition, BVO-treated rats had a decrease in plasma levels of triacylglycerol and\\u000a total and

Yolanda B. Lombardo; Adriana Chicco; María Z. Basílico; Claudio Bernal; Raul Gutman

1985-01-01

315

Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts

Ashavani Kumar; Praveen Kumar Vemula; Pulickel M. Ajayan; George John

2008-01-01

316

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

2013-12-01

317

Comparison and analysis of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in eight vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils. PMID:22054411

Li, Changmo; Yao, Yunping; Zhao, Guozhong; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Yao; Wang, Shuo

2011-12-14

318

Biosynthesis of medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) by Comamonas testosteroni during cultivation on vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Comamonas testosteroni has been studied for its ability to synthesize and accumulate medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) during cultivation on vegetable oils available in the local market. Castor seed oil, coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil, groundnut oil, olive oil and sesame oil were supplemented in the mineral medium as a sole source of carbon for growth and PHAs accumulation. The composition of PHAs was analysed by a coupled gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). PHAs contained C6 to C14 3-hydroxy acids, with a strong presence of 3-hydroxyoctanoate when coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil and groundnut oil were supplied. 3-hydroxydecanoate was incorporated at higher concentrations when castor seed oil, olive oil and sesame oil were the substrates. Purified PHAs samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and 13C NMR analysis. During cultivation on various vegetable oils, C. testosteroni accumulated PHAs up to 78.5-87.5% of the cellular dry material (CDM). The efficiency of the culture to convert oil to PHAs ranged from 53.1% to 58.3% for different vegetable oils. Further more, the composition of the PHAs formed was not found to be substrate dependent as PHAs obtained from C. testosteroni during growth on variety of vegetable oils showed similar compositions; 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and/or 3-hydroxydecanoic acid being always predominant. The polymerizing system of C. testosteroni showed higher preference for C8 and C10 monomers as longer and smaller monomers were incorporated less efficiently. PMID:16084364

Thakor, Nehal; Trivedi, Ujjval; Patel, K C

2005-11-01

319

Characterization of the acylglycerols and resulting biodiesel derived from vegetable oil and microalgae (Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum).  

PubMed

Algal biofuels are a growing interest worldwide due to their potential in terms of sustainable greenhouse gas displacement and energy production. This article describes a comparative survey of biodiesel production and conversion yields of biodiesel via alkaline transesterification of acylglycerols extracted from the microalgae Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, grown under silicate or nitrate limitation, and that of model vegetable oils: soybean, and rapeseed oil. Acylglycerols were extracted with n-hexane and the total yield per biomass was determined by gravimetric assay. Under our conditions, the total acylglycerol yield from the microalgae studied was 13-18% of total dry weight. The biodiesel samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector to determine quantitative information of residual glycerol, mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerol concentrations in the biodiesel. All of the algal-based biodiesel demonstrated less mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerol concentrations than the vegetable-based biodiesel under identical transesterification conditions. The fatty acid compositions of all the feedstock oils and their resultant biodiesel were also analyzed and reported. Based on the fatty acid methyl ester compositions of our samples we qualitatively assessed the suitability of the algal-derived biodiesel in terms of cetane number (CN), cold-flow properties, and oxidative stability. PMID:22161571

Zendejas, Frank J; Benke, Peter I; Lane, Pamela D; Simmons, Blake A; Lane, Todd W

2012-05-01

320

Acyl Migration Kinetics of Vegetable Oil 1,2-Diacylglycerols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acyl migration kinetics of long-chain 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) to form 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) over the temperature\\u000a range of 25–80 °C were examined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of high-oleic sunflower oil, followed by a series of solvent extraction steps,\\u000a generated high purity 1,2-DAG (0.93 mol fraction of the DAG content). The 1,2-DAG mole fraction of 0.32 at equilibrium was\\u000a found to be insensitive

Joseph A. Laszlo; David L. Compton; Karl E. Vermillion

2008-01-01

321

Textural and viscoelastic properties of pork frankfurters containing canola-olive oils, rice bran, and walnut.  

PubMed

Textural, rheological and microstructural properties of frankfurters made with 20% pork backfat, 20% canola or 20% canola-olive (3:1) oils, including rice bran (RB) and walnut extract (WE) as macronutrients (2.5%) were investigated. Textural parameters, including hardness, gumminess and rupture-force, were highly (P<0.05) influenced by the fat-oil composition. Addition of RB or WE in vegetable oil emulsions improved textural consistency (P<0.05). However, RB addition reduced gelling capacity, suggesting antagonistic interactions between fiber and oil droplets. Vegetable oil addition favored gel network formation, and, when combined with WE, showed the highest improvement of gel elasticity. These textural and gelling properties were corroborated by frankfurter micrographs, which revealed interactions between vegetable oils, RB, or WE with protein matrix and fat globules affecting these parameters. The results suggest that functional plant-derived ingredients can be valuable to the modification of frankfurter formulations for improved nutrition and as well as textural quality. PMID:22503483

Álvarez, D; Xiong, Y L; Castillo, M; Payne, F A; Garrido, M D

2012-09-01

322

Effect Of Iron On The Sensitivity Of Hydrogen, Acetate, And Butyrate Metabolism To Inhibition By Long-Chain Fatty Acids In Vegetable-Oil-Enriched Freshwater Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial c...

323

Environmentally adapted hydraulic oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison has been carried out between one mineral based hydraulic oil and three environmentally adapted hydraulic oils. Two of these are semi-synthetic oils, i.e. mixtures of vegetable base oil and synthetic esters, and the last is based on synthetic esters only. Technical properties such as viscosity, pour point etc., and chemical properties such as phosphorus and sulphur content etc.

Elisabet Kassfeldt; Göran Dave

1997-01-01

324

Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

1982-01-01

325

Direct use of sunflower oil as a heating oil  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils in particular have exceptional importance since they can be used as a fuel oil (heating oil type) alternative. In this research evaluation, the possibilities of sunflower oil as a heating oil candidate have been investigated. The fuel oil property tests of sunflower oil were performed according to standard methods. An overall evaluation of data indicates that sunflower oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for heating oil.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Kurt, G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-11-01

326

Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

2012-12-01

327

Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills.  

PubMed

Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85goil/g sorbent (in 24hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. PMID:15946707

Annunciado, T R; Sydenstricker, T H D; Amico, S C

2005-11-01

328

Fast one-phase oil-rich processes for the preparation of vegetable oil methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A re-evaluation of kinetic data shows that the methoxide base-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil at 40°C (6:1 methanol:oil molar ratio) to form methyl esters proceeds approximately 15 times more slowly than butanolysis at 30°C. This is interpreted to be the result of a two-phase reaction in which methanolysis occurs only in the methanol phase. Low oil concentration in methanol causes

David G. B. Boocock; Samir K. Konar; Vinnie Mao; Hanif Sidi

1996-01-01

329

[Determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in vegetable oils by double clean-up-gas chromatography].  

PubMed

To investigate the residues of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetable oils, a method was established for the determination of trace PCBs in vegetable oils by double clean-up coupled with gas chromatography (GC). After extracted with acetonitrile, the sample extract was concentrated to dryness followed by re-dissolving with hexane. And the solution was pretreated by adding concentrated sulfuric acid followed cleaned-up with silica gel in dispersive solid-phase extraction protocol, then analyzed by GC with external standard meth- od. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the analysis was carried out with a capillary column (HP-5, 30 m x 0.32 mm x 0.25 ?m) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and the sample volume was 1.00 ?L. Monitoring with an electron-capture detector, all the target analytes were separated by temperature-programming of the column. Good linearities were obtained in the range of 10-500 ?g/L for the seven indicator PCBs with the correlation coefficients greater than 0. 999. For different matrices, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) were in the range of 1.8-8.9 pg/kg and 5.9-29.8 ?g/kg, respectively. At three spiked levels of 10, 20 and 100 ?g/kg of the seven indicator PCBs in olive oil, palm oil and peanut oil blank samples, the average recoveries ranged from 71.0% to 105.5% with the RSDs of 4.0%-11.3%. The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and can be used for the routine analysis of the indicator PCBs in vegetable oils. PMID:25764663

Ding, Liping; Cai, Chunping; Wang, Danhong

2014-11-01

330

Conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats into paraffinic cetane enhancers for diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

The two principal methods of producing biodiesel fuels are (a) transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with a monohydric alcohol, and (b) direct hydrotreating of tree oils, vegetable oils and animal fats. The patented hydrotreating technology is based on the catalytic processing of biomass oils and fats with hydrogen, under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The typical mix of hydrotreated products is as follows: 5-15% light distillate (naphta), 40-60% middle distillate (cetane), 5-15% heavy distillate and 5-10% burner gas. The naptha fraction may be used as a gasoline supplement. The middle distillate is designed for use as a cetane booster for diesel fuels. Both heavy distillate and light hydrocarbon gases are usable as power boiler fuels. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This new diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of the basic diesel fuel, for direct use in diesel engines without any modifications. The basic hydrotreatment technology has been evaluated further in the laboratory on degummed soya oil, yellow grease and animal tallow. The preliminary findings suggest that the technology can provide efficient conversion of these materials into cetane enhancers for diesel fuels.

Wong, A.; Feng, Y. [Arbokem, Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Hogan, E. [CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)

1995-11-01

331

Novel approaches to analysis of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol esters in vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A sensitive and accurate method utilizing ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry based on orbitrap technology (orbitrapMS) for the analysis of nine 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) diesters in vegetable oils was developed. To remove the interfering triacylglycerols that induce strong matrix effects, a clean-up step on silica gel column was used. The quantitative analysis was performed with the use of deuterium-labeled internal standards. The lowest calibration levels estimated for the respective analytes ranged from 2 to 5 ?g kg(-1). Good recovery values (89-120%) and repeatability (RSD 5-9%) was obtained at spiking levels of 2 and 10 mg kg(-1). As an alternative, a novel ambient desorption ionization technique, direct analysis in real time (DART), hyphenated with orbitrapMS, was employed for no separation, high-throughput, semi-quantitative screening of 3-MCPD diesters in samples obtained by chromatographic fractionation. Additionally, the levels of 3-MCPD diesters measured in reallife vegetable oil samples (palm oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil) using both methods are reported. Relatively good agreement of the data generated by U-HPLC-orbitrapMS and DART-orbitrapMS were observed. With regard to a low ionization yield achieved for 3-MCPD monoesters, the methods presented in this paper were not yet applicable for the analysis of these contaminants at the naturally occurring levels. PMID:22287050

Moravcova, Eliska; Vaclavik, Lukas; Lacina, Ondrej; Hrbek, Vojtech; Riddellova, Katerina; Hajslova, Jana

2012-03-01

332

Quantitative high resolution 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance of the olefinic and carbonyl carbons of edible vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acyl distribution and acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of triacylglycerols derived from edible vegetable\\u000a oils has been examined by13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acyl profile of three natural oils (corn, peanut, canola) and one specialty\\u000a oil (high oleic sunflower oil, Trisun 80) has been defined from the high resolution (medium field 75.4 MHz) spectrum of the

Kurt F. Wollenberg

1990-01-01

333

Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1997-10-01

334

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. Technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During the second quarter, working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S, 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different extraction solvents were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 100[degrees]C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents. During this third quarter the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different temperatures, and different reaction times were completely examined. The effects of alkali on sulfur removal were further investigated. Best organic sulfur removal reaches 34% using ammonia pretreatment, then oil and finally aqNA2CO3 extraction.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.

1995-12-31

335

Effect of brominated vegetable oils on heart lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Normal rats fed for 105 days on an experimental diet made up of standard laboratory chow supplemented with 0.5% of a mixture of brominated sunflower-olive oil (BVO) developed a significant increase in the triacylglycerol content of the heart, liver and soleus muscle compared to controls. In addition, BVO-treated rats had a decrease in plasma levels of triacylglycerol and total and HDL cholesterol. Plasma fatty acid levels and plasma post-heparin lipolytic activities, such as H-TGL, LPL, T-TGL and MGH were similar to those of control animals fed the standard chow alone. Heart PDHa (active portion of pyruvate dehydrogenase) was dramatically decreased in the BVO-fed rats. A faster rate of spontaneous lipolysis was recorded in the isolated perfused preparation of hearts from the experimental animals. The addition of 10(-7) M of glucagon to the perfusate, however, revealed a lipolytic effect comparable to the one observed in the control rats. In summary, our findings of normal fatty acids and low triacylglycerol plasma levels associated with normal activities of the various PHLA (post-heparin lipolytic activity) enzymes suggest that accumulation of triacylglycerol in heart muscle may not be explained essentially in terms of an elevated uptake and/or increased delivery of plasma fatty acids or plasma triacylglycerol. A decreased in situ catabolism of tissue triacylglycerol also appears unlikely because the spontaneous as well as the glucagon induced lipolysis in the heart both were found to be unimpaired.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4033363

Lombardo, Y B; Chicco, A; Basílico, M Z; Bernal, C; Gutman, R

1985-07-01

336

Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.  

PubMed

Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. PMID:25151071

Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

2014-10-01

337

Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

1999-12-01

338

Margarines, butter and vegetable oils as sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in Finnish butter, margarines and vegetable oils\\u000a and their raw materials. In all the samples some degree of PAH contamination was found. The average per capita intake was\\u000a estimated at 0.6 g per day. The plant raw materials are supposed to be contaminated by combustion-derived atmospheric particles\\u000a during the growing period. Inappropriate

Anu Hopia; Heikki Pyysalo; Kim Wickström

1986-01-01

339

Chromium in basic foods of the Spanish diet: seafood, cereals, vegetables, olive oils and dairy products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was used to determine the content of total chromium in some basic foods of the Spanish diet. The seafood samples, vegetables and olive oils were mineralized previously with HNO3 and V2O5. A procedure of slurries with Triton X-100 was applied to dairy products. The temperature-time program was optimized for every

E Lendinez; M. L Lorenzo; C Cabrera; M. C López

2001-01-01

340

Tailoring of a cardioprotective muscle fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) fed vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding experiment was performed to investigate the possibility of feeding vegetable oils to Atlantic salmon, followed by a wash-out period to maintain salmon fillet as a product highly beneficial for human health, due to the high levels of VLCn?3 PUFA and high n?3\\/n?6 ratio. Six groups of Atlantic salmon, initial weight 142±1 g, were fed increasing dietary inclusion of

Bente E. Torstensen; Livar Frøyland; Robin Ørnsrud; Øyvind Lie

2004-01-01

341

A rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic\\u000a and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control\\u000a Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable\\u000a oil blends

Roger A. Korus; Jaiduk Jo; Charles L. Peterson

1985-01-01

342

AOCS collaborative study on sensory and volatile compound analyses of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An AOCS collaborative study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of sensory analysis and gas chromatographic analyses\\u000a of volatile compounds in measuring vegetable oils for levels of oxidation that ranged from none to high. Sixteen laboratories\\u000a from industry, government, and academia in Canada and the United States participated in the study to evaluate the flavor quality\\u000a and oxidative stability of

K. Warner; T. Nelsen

1996-01-01

343

A multivariate study of the correlation between tocopherol content and fatty acid composition in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main biochemical function of the tocopherols is believed to be the protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against\\u000a peroxidation. A critical question that must be asked in reference to this is whether there is a biochemical link between the\\u000a tocopherol levels and the degree of unsaturation in vegetable oils, the main source of dietary PUFA and vitamin E. We

Afaf Kamal-Eldin; Roger Andersson

1997-01-01

344

Fast formation of high-purity methyl esters from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have confirmed that the base-catalyzed methanolysis of vegetable oils occurs much slower than butanolysis because\\u000a of the two liquid phases initially present in the former reaction. For the same reason, second-order kinetics are not followed.\\u000a The use of a cosolvent such as tetrahydrofuran or methyl tertiary butyl ether speeds up methanolysis considerably. However,\\u000a like one-phase butanolysis, one-phase methanolysis initially

David G. B. Boocock; Samir K. Konar; V. Mao; C. Lee; Sonia Buligan

1998-01-01

345

Thin layer chromatography\\/flame ionization analysis of transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method was developed for analyzing mixtures containing fatty esters and tri- (TG), di- (DG) and monoglycerides\\u000a (MG) obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils. Analyses were performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC)\\/flame\\u000a ionization detection (FID) with an Iatroscan TH-10 instrument. Stearyl alcohol served as an internal standard. From plots\\u000a of area and weight ratios of methyl linoleate and

B. Freedman; E. H. Pryde; W. F. Kwolek

1984-01-01

346

Quantitative fatty acid analysis of vegetable oils by gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The fatty acid composition of a number of vegetable oils and of two synthetic mixtures of methyl esters are compared by gas-liquid\\u000a chromatography and by standard methods. The calculated iodine values from G.L.P.C. results are in good agreement with measured\\u000a iodine values and are indicative of the reliability of the G.L.P.C. values. Standard methods gave lower values for linoleic\\u000a acid

B. M. Craig; N. L. Murty

1959-01-01

347

Response of Broiler Chickens to Wood Charcoal and Vegetable Oil Based Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to determine whether Wood Charcoal (WC) would affect growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood profiles of broilers and to determine whether Vegetable Oil (VO) supplementation would influence similar parameters in broiler chickens fed WC. Dietary WC was incorporated into broiler starter and finisher diets at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% levels while diets containing 2.5

A. A. Odunsi; T. O. Oladele; A. O. Olaiya; O. S. Onifade

2007-01-01

348

Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (P<0.05) of motile cells compared to rest while no differences were found between different oil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research. PMID:23561943

Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

2013-05-01

349

Frying Performance of Canola Oil Triacylglycerides as Affected by Vegetable Oils Minor Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endogenous minor components from canola, rice bran, sesame and palm oils including selected phospholipids, and various\\u000a combinations of tocopherol isomers were tested during frying using canola oil triacylglycerols as the frying medium. Thermo-oxidative\\u000a degradation was assessed by measurement of the total polar components, the rate of volatile carbonyl compounds and 4-hydroxynonenal\\u000a formation. All the tested minor components protected to

Felix A. AladedunyeR; R. Przybylski

350

Effect of an olive phenolic extract on the quality of vegetable oils during frying.  

PubMed

The potential of a phenolic extract (PE) from olive vegetation water (OVW) to limit the negative effects of frying was tested after adding it at different concentrations to a refined olive oil (RO). Its efficacy was also compared to ROs containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with a high polyphenol content. Analyses of the oils collected after 30min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h of frying at 180°C, demonstrated that degradation of the polyphenols was proportional to the original content; at a concentration of at least 400mg/kg of polyphenols, PE was able to reduce oxidation of the tocopherols and the emission of low-molecular-weight aldehydes better than BHT and with similar results to the EVOO. In addition, secoiridoid oxidative compounds were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation. PMID:25624222

Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Di Maio, I; Urbani, S; Veneziani, G; Selvaggini, R; Sordini, B; Servili, M

2015-06-01

351

Acid methanolysis and gas chromatographic determination of brominated vegetable oils in soft drinks.  

PubMed

A gas chromatographic method has been developed for determination of brominated vegetable oils in citrus-flavored soft drinks. Oils were extracted from the drinks with ethyl ether and subjected to acid-catalyzed methanolysis. The resulting brominated methyl esters (dibromostearate, tetrabromostearate, and hexabromostearate) were separated and quantitated as single peaks on a 3% OV-3 column. Chromatography columns were stable for about 3 months of daily use; then the first 15 cm of column packing material was replaced or a new column was prepared. A number of citrus soft drinks were analyzed and contained 3.5-3.9 mg brominated oil/10 fl. oz. Recoveries from spiked samples after organic extraction and methanolysis were 94.5-105%. PMID:6643351

Lawrence, J F; Chadha, R K; Conacher, H B

1983-11-01

352

Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

2015-01-01

353

Factors other than phytosterols in some vegetable oils affect the survival of SHRSP rats.  

PubMed

Unusual survival-shortening activities of some vegetable oils were detected in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats, and phytosterol (PS) in the oils and the tissue tocopherol status have been suggested to be the factors for the activities. Here, we re-evaluated the contribution of PS to the survival-shortening, and examined the hepatic tocopherol status. A basal diet for rodents and a test oil were mixed at a 9:1 ratio, and the diet was given to male SHRSP rats upon weaning. The total and major PS contents of the diets and tissue lipids did not correlate with relative survival time. The free fatty acid fractions obtained by lipase and alkaline hydrolyses of canola oil (Can) and the original Can contained PS in comparable amounts but the free fatty acid fractions did not exhibit survival-shortening activities compared with the soybean oil (Soy) group. The activity was not detected in the ethyl acetate extracts of the aqueous phase after the hydrolysis. When a commercially available PS preparation was added to the Soy diet at an amount 2.8-fold higher than that in the Can diet, the mean survival time was shortened but was still significantly longer than that of the Can group. The hepatic tocopherol level was significantly higher in the Can group than in the hydrogenated Soy group and Soy group, but the former two groups exhibited a survival-shortening activity. These results indicate that factors other than PS, tocopherol status and fatty acid composition in some vegetable oils are critical for the survival-shortening activity observed in SHRSP rats. PMID:15234074

Tatematsu, Kenjiro; Fuma, Shin-Ya; Nagase, Tomoya; Ichikawa, Yuko; Fujii, Yoichi; Okuyama, Harumi

2004-09-01

354

Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.  

PubMed

Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751. PMID:21621409

Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

2011-08-01

355

Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.  

PubMed

The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods. PMID:20658661

Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

2010-07-01

356

Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor for the Oxidation Stability of Korean Vegetable Oils with or without Induced Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate whether the fatty acid composition could make a significant contribution to the oxidation stability of vegetable oils marketed in Korea. Ten kinds, 97 items of vegetable oils that were produced in either an industrialized or a traditional way were collected and analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and lipid oxidation products, in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Peroxidability index (PI) calculations based on the fatty acid composition ranged from 7.10 to 111.87 with the lowest value found in olive oils and the highest in perilla oils. In the absence of induced oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), the secondary lipid oxidation product, was generated more in the oils with higher PI (r=0.890), while the tendency was not observed when the oils were subjected to an oxidation-accelerating system. In the presence of the oxidative stress, the perilla oils produced in an industrialized manner generated appreciably higher amounts of MDA than those produced in a traditional way, although both types of oils presented similar PIs. The results implicate that the fatty acid compositions could be a predictor for the oxidation stability of the vegetable oils at the early stage of oil oxidation, but not for those at a later stage of oxidation. PMID:24471078

Yun, Jung-Mi; Surh, Jeonghee

2012-01-01

357

Production of biodiesel from non-edible herbaceous vegetable oil: Xanthium sibiricum Patr.  

PubMed

In this study, Xanthium sibiricum Patr oil, a non-edible oil, was investigated for the first time to produce biodiesel. X. sibiricum Patr has very good environmental adaptability and thus has plenty of wild resources. Its seed has a high oil content (42.34%) which gives potential annual output of 100,000 tons just in China. And the oil acid value is pretty low (1.38 mg KOH/g). Under the optimal conditions, the FAME content and yield of X. sibiricum biodiesel were 98.7 wt.% and 92.0%, respectively. The properties of the biodiesel product were tested and most properties were in accordance with EN 14214-08, ASTM D6751-10 and GB/T 20828-07 standards, except cetane number and oxidative stability. The results indicated that X. sibiricum Patr is a promising species as a biodiesel feedstock in China. PMID:23714693

Chang, Fei; Hanna, Milford A; Zhang, De-Jing; Li, Hu; Zhou, Quan; Song, Bao-An; Yang, Song

2013-07-01

358

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. II. Soybean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Soybean oil has been fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent distribution apparatus. Fractions have been obtained with iodine\\u000a values both too high and too low to conform to an even distribution. From the weight distribution curve, iodine value, and\\u000a spectrophotometric analyses the oil is estimated to contain 5.2% dilinoleo-linolenin, 13.7% trilinolein, 9.2% oleolinoleo-linolenin,\\u000a and 25.2% oleo-dilinolein. This composition is in agreement

C. R. Scholfield; Mary A. Hicks

1957-01-01

359

EFFECTS OF FERRIC HYDROXIDE ON THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION KINETICS AND TOXICITY OF VEGETABLE OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments exhibits self-inhibitory characteristics when it occurs under methanogenic conditions but not under iron-reducing conditions. The basis of the protective effect of iron was investigated by comparing its effects on oil biodeg...

360

A comparative investigation of the effects of south Louisiana crude oil on the vegetation of fresh, brackish and salt marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of south Louisiana crude oil on the dominant vegetation, Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens and Sagittaria lancifolia, of three types of coastal wetlands, salt, brackish and freshwater marshes, respectively, was studied. In the greenhouse, south Louisiana crude oil was applied to natural marsh sods at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16 and 24 l m?2. The photosynthetic rate of

Qianxin Lin; Irving A. Mendelssohn

1996-01-01

361

Viscosity and Specific Heat of Vegetable Oils as a Function of Temperature: 35°C to 180°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscosities and specific heat capacities of twelve vegetable oils were experimentally determined as a function of temperature (35 to 180°?C) by means of a temperature controlled rheometer and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Viscosities of the oil samples decreased exponentially with temperature. Out of the three models (modified WLF, power law, and Arrhenius) that were used to describe the effect

O. O. Fasina; Z. Colley

2008-01-01

362

Synthesis and application of polyaminoamide as new paraffin inhibitor from vegetable oil  

PubMed Central

In this work, a series of novel paraffin inhibitor, polyaminoamide (PAA), was designed and prepared by aminolysis and poly-condensation using soybean oil and canola oil as the raw material. The property of the PAAs as paraffin inhibitor was investigated, the results show several PAA samples are potent in paraffin inhibition, and PPC-2 is the most effective one. Besides, the paraffin crystal morphology analysis was carried out to provide the mechanism of paraffin inhibition. PMID:22152091

2011-01-01

363

Flow of vegetable oil-pesticide blank-formulation mixtures through agricultural spray nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of specific gravity, viscosity and flow rate were measured for cottonseed and soybean oil mixed with selected blank\\u000a pesticide formulations without the active ingredient, i.e., blank-formulations. Fluid temperature ranged from 5 to 70 C for\\u000a the measurements. Specific gravity of soybean oil mixtures was found to vary approximately 5% inversely with temperature over\\u000a the temperature range. Above 65 C

R. W. Whitney; L. O. Roth; T. L. Underwood

1986-01-01

364

Comparative Studies of Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil, Coconut Oil, and Palm Oil Including Thermogravimetric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High viscosity and low volatility of vegetable oils compared to diesel lead to injector fouling and carbon deposits in engine cylinders while using them directly in engines. Biodiesel from the vegetable oils produced by a transesterification process could reduce viscosity considerably and improve the volatility. The properties of methyl esters produced from rubber seed oil, coconut oil, and palm kernel

M. Satyanarayana; C. Muraleedharan

2011-01-01

365

Modification of vegetable oils. VII. Alkali catalyzed interesterification of peanut oil with ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE alkali-catalyzed displacement of the glycerol in a fat by methanol or ethanol is an important reaction in fat and oil technology. Besides producing monoesters for use as such, the reaction simplifies the manufacture of some soaps, especially anhydrous soaps (2, 3); and it is valuable in conjunction with processes for fraetionating fatty acids. Potentially the reaction is important in

R. O. Feuge; Audrey T. Gros

1949-01-01

366

Comparison of effects of vegetable oils blended with southern hemisphere fish oil and decontaminated northern hemisphere fish oil on growth performance, composition and gene expression in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement of fish oil with sustainable alternatives, such as vegetable oil, in aquaculture diets has to be achieved without compromising the nutritional quality, in terms of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) content, of the product. This may be possible if the level of replacement is not too high and oil blends are chosen carefully but, if high levels of

J. Pratoomyot; E. Å. Bendiksen; J. G. Bell; D. R. Tocher

2008-01-01

367

Sterol oxidation in meat- and fish-based homogenized baby foods containing vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Sterol oxidation was evaluated in commercial meat- and fish-based homogenized baby foods containing vegetable oil. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the analytical determination of 7-ketocholesterol and 7-ketositosterol, which were chosen as markers of sterol oxidation in lipids of animal origin and vegetable origin, respectively. Cholestanetriol was also quantified, because its negative effects on atherogenesis and other biological processes are well known. In meat-based samples, the levels of 7-ketocholesterol and 7-ketositosterol were 22-89 and 11-40 microg/serving, respectively, whereas the cholestanetriol levels were 7-38 microg/serving. The 7-ketocholesterol/cholesterol percent ratio was characteristic of each kind of meat and related to the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of animal lipids. In fish-based samples, the cholestanetriol and 7-ketocholesterol levels per serving were significantly lower than in meat samples, but in fish fillets they were about 20-25%, instead of 40%, of the ingredients. The values of the 7-ketocholesterol/cholesterol percent ratio in fish-based products were close to the values computed for chicken or turkey-based products. The detected values of cholestanetriol showed that the addition of vegetable oil enhances the development of the indirect bimolecular pathway of cholesterol oxidation, which was even more favorable in fish-based products. PMID:16640291

Zunin, Paola; Salvadeo, Paola; Boggia, Raffaella; Evangelisti, Filippo

2006-01-01

368

Plasma concentrations of dihydro-vitamin K 1 following dietary intake of a hydrogenated vitamin K 1 -rich vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dihydro-vitamin K1 is a dietary form of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) produced during the hydrogenation of vegetable oils. To determine if dihydro-vitamin K1 is present in plasma following dietary intake of a hydrogenated fat, eight healthy adults consumed each of two diets containing\\u000a 30% of calories from fat, of which 20% was either soybean oil or a partially hydrogenated soybean oil-based

Sarah L. Booth; Kenneth W. Davidson; Alice H. Lichtenstein; James A. Sadowski

1996-01-01

369

Effects of vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristic of growing swamp buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen, one year old swamp buffalo males with average liveweight of 200.5±9.5kg were randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design to receive three dietary treatments of supplemental vegetable oils in concentrate contained 140, 750, and 16g of crude protein, total digestible nutrient, and ether extract, respectively (T1=unsupplemented, T2=supplemental coconut oil and sunflower oil in ratio 50:50 at 6% of

M. Wanapat; C. Mapato; R. Pilajun; W. Toburan

2011-01-01

370

DPPH assay of vegetable oils and model antioxidants in protic and aprotic solvents.  

PubMed

The rate of reaction of phenolic antioxidants with DPPH depends on solvent composition. The rate constants can differ by more than two orders of magnitude for the same phenolic compound. Reactions are faster in alcohols than in ethyl acetate that is used routinely for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) of nonpolar samples such as vegetable oils. Incorporation of an acid base pair into the assay solvent buffers the system against acid impurities such as free fatty acids and CO2 from the air. This is shown to increase the rate of oxidation and number of electrons of phenolic compounds exchanged with DPPH. Typically, DPPH assays are performed for predetermined time intervals at which phenolic compounds are not fully oxidized and therefore higher reaction rates result in higher values of AOP. More than twofold AOP was obtained for oleuropein, sesamol, sinapic acid, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid in buffered alcohols than in ethyl acetate. The AOP of sesame, pumpkin seed and extra virgin olive oil is accordingly higher when determined in buffered alcohols. DPPH assays in ethyl acetate result in underestimation of AOP of unrefined vegetable oils. PMID:23618135

Prevc, Tjaša; Segatin, Nataša; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Cigi?, Blaž

2013-05-15

371

1 INTRODUCTION Oil sand has unique properties exhibits performance  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION Oil sand has unique properties exhibits performance akin to sandstone in winter seated on oil sand can sink after a number of cycles with ground softening oc- curring rapidly due true for unconsolidated sands such as oil sand. 2 ASSUMPTIONS Following the work of Sharif-Abadi (2006

Joseph, Tim Grain

372

Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of  

E-print Network

Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare and Pimpinella anisum biological activity (Farnsworth & Bingel, 1977). Essential oils extracted from higher plants have been of the essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Pimpinella anisum L. has been tested against PVX (potato

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Elastohydrodynamic properties of biobased heat-bodied oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat-bodied oils were prepared by thermal treatment of soybean oil under inert atmosphere. Different viscosity grades of heat-bodied oils synthesized by varying the reaction time were investigated for various properties including viscosity, viscosity index, elastohydrodynamic film thickness, and pre...

374

Antioxidant properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is relatively rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds thought to co...

375

A vegetable oil feeding history affects digestibility and intestinal fatty acid uptake in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future expansion of aquaculture relies on the use of alternatives to fish oil in fish feed. This study examined to what extent the nature of the feed oil affects intestinal lipid uptake properties in rainbow trout. The fish were fed a diet containing fish (FO), rapeseed (RO) or linseed (LO) oil for 8 weeks after which absorptive properties were assessed. Differences

Inge Geurden; Rolf-Erik Olsen; Kristina S. Sundell

2009-01-01

376

Classification of vegetable oils based on their concentration of saturated fatty acids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).  

PubMed

Spectrochemical analyses of organic liquid media such as vegetable oils and sweetened water were performed with the use of LIBS. The aim of this work is to study, on the basis of spectral analyses by LIBS technique of "Swan band" of C2 emitted by different vegetable oils in liquid phase, the characteristics of each organic media. Furthermore this paper proposes, as a classification, a single parameter that could be used to determine the concentration of saturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. A Nd:YAG operating at ?=532 nm and an energies per pulse of 30 mJ was focused onto the surface of the liquid in ambient air. Following ablation of vegetable oils and sweetened water, we find that vibrational bonds of C2 were released from the molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds linear. In the case of vegetable oils, we find a clear relationship between C2 emission from the plasma and the concentration of saturated fatty acids in the oil. PMID:24206726

Mbesse Kongbonga, Yvon G; Ghalila, Hassen; Onana, Marthe Boyomo; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

2014-03-15

377

Dispersive Micro-Solid-Phase Extraction of Herbicides in Vegetable Oil with Metal-Organic Framework MIL-101.  

PubMed

Dispersive microsolid-phase extraction based on metal-organic framework has been developed and applied to the extraction of triazine and phenylurea herbicides in vegetable oils in this work. The herbicides were directly extracted with MIL-101 from diluted vegetables oils without any further cleanup. The separation and determination of herbicides were carried out on high performance liquid chromatography. The effects of experimental parameters, including volume ratio of n-hexane to oil sample, mass of MIL-101, extraction time, centrifugation time, eluting solvent, and elution time were investigated. The Student's t test was applied to evaluate the selected experimental conditions. The limits of detection for the herbicides ranged from 0.585 to 1.04 ?g/L. The recoveries of the herbicides ranged from 87.3 to 107%. Our results showed that the present method is rapid, simple, and effective for extracting herbicides in vegetable oils. PMID:25665636

Li, Na; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Cao, Bocheng; Wang, Zhibing; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Sui, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

2015-03-01

378

Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, III. Emission tests using methyl esters of used frying oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of methyl esters of used frying oil, available as waste from restaurants and households, is described. Fuel\\u000a specifications of this fuel are given, and values for gaseous (HC, CO, NOx) and particulate emissions, measured with a vehicle powered by a turbocharged, direct injection diesel engine, are shown.\\u000a The ester fuel shows slightly lower HC and CO emissions but

Martin Mittelbach; Peter Tritthartb

1988-01-01

379

Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats.  

PubMed

It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components. PMID:20122175

Ratnayake, Sunil; Lewandowski, Paul

2010-01-01

380

Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil. PMID:22007968

Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

2011-11-23

381

Phase and chemical equilibria in the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with supercritical lower alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of thermodynamic data are performed for fatty acid triglycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters, participants of the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils that occurs in methanol. Using the obtained thermodynamic parameters, the phase diagrams for the reaction mixture are constructed, and the chemical equilibria of the esterification reaction of free fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of fatty acid triglycerides attained upon treatment with supercritical methanol are determined. Relying on our analysis of the obtained equilibria for the esterification reaction of fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of triglycerides attained upon treatment with lower alcohols, we select the optimum conditions for performing the reaction in practice.

Anikeev, V. I.; Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.

2011-08-01

382

A qualitative colorimetric test for brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks.  

PubMed

A simple and precise method of detecting brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks is described. After extraction of BVO using diethyl ether, the concentrated ethereal solution was treated with a small quantity of zinc dust to convert the organic bromide to inorganic form; the solution was subsequently treated with lead dioxide to liberate bromine. The bromine evolved was detected by means of fluorescein-impregnated filter paper strip that turns pink because eosin is formed. The test can detect as low as 10 ppm (2 mg/200 ml) of BVO under experimental conditions. Gas chromatography was carried out on sodium methoxide derivatives prepared from ether extract for quantitation. PMID:1917818

Krishna Murthy, M N; Rajalakshmi, S; Satyabodha, J A; Nagaraja, K V

1991-01-01

383

Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

1985-11-01

384

Impact of Foliage Surface Properties on Vegetation Reflection and Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical properties of phytoelements and their distribution in the canopy space (i.e., canopy structure) are among key factors that determine light environment in vegetation canopies, which in turn drives various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. Canopy radiative response is the source of information about ecosystem properties from remote sensing. Understanding of how radiation interacts with foliage and traverses in the 3D vegetation canopy is essential to both modeling and remote sensing communities. Radiation scattered by a leaf includes information from two dissimilar sources - the leaf surface and leaf interior. The first component of scattered radiation emanates from light reflected at the air-cuticle interface. This portion of reflected radiation does not interact with biochemical constituents inside the leaf and depends on the properties of the leaf surface. The leaf cuticle acts as a "barrier" for photons to enter the mesophyll and be absorbed; thus, tending to increase the leaf scattering. The second component mainly results from radiation interactions within the leaf-interior. The canopy radiation regime is sensitive to canopy structure, leaf surface properties and leaf biochemical constituents. Impact of leaf surface properties on canopy reflection and absorption is poorly understood. Radiation scattered at the surface of leaves is partly polarized. Fresnel reflection is the principal cause of light polarization. Polarization measurements provide a means to assess the impact of leaf surface properties on canopy radiation regime. We measured Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) in the principal plane and its polarized portion of needles and shoots of two coniferous species in the 400 to 1000 nm spectral interval. The needle and shoot BRF spectra were decomposed into polarized (PBRF) and diffuse (DBRF) components: BRF=PBRF+DBRF. Our analyses indicate: 1) PBRF in forward directions can account for up to 70% of reflected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR); 2) PBRF can strongly affect the BRF shape in the PAR and near infrared spectral regions; 3) PBRF varies with species, suggesting that leaf surface properties cannot be neglected when interpreting BRF; 4) impact of needle surface properties is lower for shoots compared to needles; 5) the diffuse component follows spectrally invariant relationship: the DBRF to needle albedo ratio is linearly related to DBRF, where the slope and intercept are the recollision and escape probabilities; 6) the recollision and escape probabilities depend on within-shoot needle arrangement and are critical to parameterize shoot structure and consequently relationship between needle and shoot scattering and absorption; 7) PBRF exhibits a weak wavelength dependency (as expected). Our results suggest that neglecting leaf surface properties may lead to misinterpretation of measured canopy reflectance spectra. Leaf surface properties also should be accounted for in modeling canopy radiation regime and canopy absorptive and reflective properties.

Yang, B.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Yan, L.; Zhao, Y.; Jiao, J.

2013-12-01

385

Carotenoid bioavailability from raw vegetables and a moderate amount of oil in human subjects is greatest when the majority of daily vegetables are consumed at one meal.  

PubMed

While the impact of food composition and processing on carotenoid bioavailability has been the subject of several investigations, the effect of meal patterning remains unknown. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of select consumption patterns on the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables. On three randomized testing days, subjects consumed raw salad vegetables and 8 g canola oil over a two meal period in three meal patterns. Meal patterns included consumption of 100% of vegetables and oil in the first meal and 0% in the second, 75% in the first meal and 25% in the second, and 50% in the first meal and 50% in the second. Additional protein-rich "chef's salad" ingredients were distributed equally between meals. We hypothesized that carotenoid absorption would be highest when 50% of vegetables and oil were consumed at each meal and lowest when 100% were consumed at once. Blood was collected 0 to 12 hours postprandially and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fractions (TRL) were isolated by ultracentrifugation. TRL carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Considering all carotenoids, absorption expressed as area under the curve was greatest when ?75% of vegetables were consumed in a single meal (P < .05). Absorption of carotenes also followed this trend (P < .05 for ?- and ?-carotene). For xanthophylls, consuming all vegetables in one meal increased absorption compared to intake of 50% at each meal (P < .05). These data suggest that carotenoid absorption may be the greatest when daily recommended vegetables are consumed in one meal compared to smaller doses over multiple meals. PMID:23684437

Goltz, Shellen R; Sapper, Teryn N; Failla, Mark L; Campbell, Wayne W; Ferruzzi, Mario G

2013-05-01

386

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Lab., Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1995-05-01

387

Effects of an oil spill on the regrowth of emergent vegetation in a northern Alberta Lake.  

PubMed

Following a train derailment in August 2005, Wabamun Lake (Alberta, Canada) was exposed to approximately 149,500 L of bunker "C" oil, much of which became entrained in the abundant Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus validus) beds in the eastern basin of the lake. We assessed the regrowth of emergent macrophytes during the subsequent two growing seasons. Postspill measures of productivity, including transect length, total cover, and biomass were within the variability of prespill data collected in 2001, with the exception of a few specific areas in which biomass appeared to be affected. We conclude that exposure to oil during the late growing season in August 2005 and through the winter senescent period and regrowth in the summers of 2006 and 2007 did not cause large-scale changes to S. tabernaemontani communities. Physical factors such as cleanup activities and vegetation management appeared to be responsible for the reduced regrowth observed at some locations. Few previous studies have been published on the effects of oil spilled into freshwater on macrophyte communities; thus, the results of this study are expected to provide useful information for the assessment of future freshwater oil spills. PMID:19333646

Wernick, Barbara G; deBruyn, Adrian M H; Patterson, Luanne; Chapman, Peter M

2009-11-01

388

[Toxicological effects induced by the chronic intake of brominated vegetable oils].  

PubMed

Several biochemical parameters of male Wistar rats fed during 15 weeks with standard laboratory chow, supplemented with 0.1 g of brominated vegetable oil (olive, sunflower) per 100 g of diet, were compared to those of a control group fed a normal diet during the same period of time. The former group showed a significant increase of triglyceride content in both heart and soleus muscle, as well as of total and sterified cholesterol in heart muscle. This increase was accompanied by decreased plasma levels of total and HDL-cholesterol. Some of these abnormalities were similar to those observed in rats fed the same standard laboratory chow, supplemented with 0.5 g of brominated oil per 100 g of diet. The hepatic levels of triglycerides, total proteins and glycogen, as well as the weight gain and caloric intake of the animals which were fed 0.1 g of brominated oil per 100 g diet, were similar to those of the control group. In summary, the toxicologic effects observed during the chronic intake of diets supplemented with relatively low doses of brominated oils, suggest the need to undertake wider and deeper biochemical studies. The authors consider that these are necessary in order to ascertain the maximum tolerance levels for the use of these compounds, to minimize the risk of inducing important biological alterations. PMID:3632217

Bernal, C; Basílico, M Z; Lombardo, Y B

1986-09-01

389

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. I. Linseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Linseed oil has been fractionated in a 200-tube countercurrent-distribution apparatus. Iodine values of fractions ranged from\\u000a 51 to 261. As determined by the weight distribution curve, iodine values and spectrophotometric analyses, 18.2% trilinolenin,\\u000a 12.3% linoleo-dilinolenin, and 19.5% oleo-dilinolenin combined with 4.1% dilinoleo-linolenin were isolated. Based upon this\\u000a type of data and upon several methods of analysis and collation of the

H. J. Dutton; J. A. Cannon

1956-01-01

390

Synthesis of sustainable polymers from vegetable oil: Applications in coatings and nanoparticle surface modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric materials are increasing being used in many household, industrial, and health and personal care products. These materials, being either non-degradable or slow degradable, remain in the environment for a long time and are posing increasingly significant threats to the ecosystem components including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and crustaceans. Renewable resource based materials are the best raw materials for the development of sustainable products. Vegetable oil and polyglycol based novel copolymers have been synthesized in this research. Poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers were synthesized from 2-(vinyloxyethyl) soyate (2-VEOS) and tri(ethylene glycol) ethyl vinyl ether (TEGEVE) via cationic polymerization. They were used in waterborne coating as self-dispersible polymers and as surfmers. Four different copolymers were synthesized having 2-VOES wt% as 10, 15, 25, 50 and rest being TEGEVE. In addition to that water insoluble poly(2-VOES) copolymers were synthesized from soybean oil. All copolymers were used as self-dispersible polymers and their coating property were analyzed by measuring glass transition temperature, drying time, gloss, transparency, contact angle, hysteresis, tensile strength, and hardness. Results showed that the coatings can be cured by autoxidation drying process within 6.1 to 8.2 h. Results also showed high transparency (coated in glass panel) with maximum 2% absorbance which is comparable to uncoated substrate (clean glass). Copolymer having 2-VOES wt% 15 and 50 were used as surfmers to disperse poly(2-VOES) and they were cured using autoxidation method. Results showed that the curing of film can be achieved within 2.6 to 8.0 h. High gloss and transparency confirmed that the surfmers get copolymerized with poly(2-VOES). Another set of poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers with 2-VOES wt% 15, 25, 50, 75 and 85 were synthesized and then functionalized with a carboxyl group. These carboxyl functionalized polymer were used to coat nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) to enhance their colloidal stability in aqueous media with an objective of using the coated particles for groundwater remediation. Structure property analysis of the coated NZVI showed that carboxyl functional copolymer with 15 wt% 2-VOES and 85 wt% TEGEVE had the best colloidal stability of the coated NZVI (CNZVI). Treatability study with CNZVI was carried out using trichloroethylene (TCE) and arsenic [As(V)] as model contaminants. Treatability data indicated that CNZVI can degrade 85 % of TCE (initial concentration 15 mgL-1 ) within 6 h and remove 99% of As(V) (initial concentration 15 mgL -1) within 0.5 h. Results also showed that CNZVI has higher contaminant (TCE and arsenic) removable rate compared to NZVI. The biodegradation behaviors of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES- r-TEGEVE) copolymers were analyzed by respirometric, microbial growth, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies. Respirometic test confirmed 90% degradations of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers within 28 d. Microbial growth and GPC studies also support the data obtained from respirometic tests.

Kalita, Harjyoti

391

Antioxidant efficacy of potato peels and sugar beet pulp extracts in vegetable oils protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties of potato peels and sugar beet pulp, in comparison with synthetic antioxidant, were investigated. The bioactive materials were extracted with methanol and examined for their antioxidant activity under accelerated oxidation conditions, using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates at different concentrations for 72h at 70°C. Inverse relationships were noted between peroxide values and oxidative stabilities and

Adel Abdelrazek Abdelazim Mohdaly; Mohamed Atef Sarhan; Awad Mahmoud; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Iryna Smetanska

2010-01-01

392

Cuphea oil as a potential source of biodiesel with improved properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is usually produced from common vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), and palm as well as other feedstocks such as animal fats and used cooking oils. To enhance feedstock supply, other vegetable oils such as jatropha are of increasing interest. However, most of these feedsto...

393

Reformulating partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to maximise health gains in India: is it feasible and will it meet consumer demand?  

PubMed Central

Background The consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans fat is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases. In response to high intakes of PHVOs, the Indian government has proposed regulation to set limits on the amount of trans fat permissible in PHVOs. Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in order to optimise health benefits; however, little is known about the practicalities of implementation in low-income settings. The aim of this study was to examine the technical and economic feasibility of reducing trans fat in PHVOs and reformulating it using healthier fats. Methods Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with manufacturers and technical experts of PHVOs in India. Data were open-coded and organised according to key themes. Results Interviewees indicated that reformulating PHVOs was both economically and technically feasible provided that trans fat regulation takes account of the food technology challenges associated with product reformulation. However, there will be challenges in maintaining the physical properties that consumers prefer while reducing the trans fat in PHVOs. The availability of input oils was not seen to be a problem because of the low cost and high availability of imported palm oil, which was the input oil of choice for industry. Most interviewees were not concerned about the potential increase in saturated fat associated with increased use of palm oil and were not planning to use PUFAs in product reformulation. Interviewees indicated that many smaller manufacturers would not have sufficient capacity to reformulate products to reduce trans fat. Conclusions Reformulating PHVOs to reduce trans fat in India is feasible; however, a collision course exists where the public health goal to replace PHVOs with PUFA are opposed to the goals of industry to produce a cheap alternative product that meets consumer preferences. Ensuring that product reformulation is done in a way that maximises health benefits will require shifts in knowledge and subsequent demand of products, decreased reliance on palm oil, investment in research and development and increased capacity for smaller manufacturers. PMID:24308642

2013-01-01

394

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method will be investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. During this first quarter the selection of base for pretreatment and extraction (Task 1) has been completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. About 40% of sulfur is removed from IBC-108 coal using 5% NaOH for pretreatment followed by linseed oil oxidation in air and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

395

Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.  

PubMed

Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 ?L/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 ?L/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 ?L/L, while the addition of 200 ?L/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 ?L/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 ?L/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 ?L/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal. PMID:25077550

Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

2014-08-01

396

Antilisterial Properties of Cilantro Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of crude essential oil of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) and four fractions recovered by fractional distillation of the crude oil were determined against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi, Listeria innocua and Listeria seeligeri. Crude oil inhibited all the test strains at concentrations ? 0.01% (v\\/v) and the remaining fractions were effective at concentrations <

Pascal J. Delaquis; Kareen Stanich

2004-01-01

397

Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC–TOFMS  

PubMed Central

Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC–TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh

2010-01-01

398

[Chronic consumption of brominated vegetable oils: their effect on liver secretion and catabolism of plasma lipoproteins].  

PubMed

We have previously reported that normal Wistar rats fed during 105 days with standard laboratory chow, supplemented with 0.5g of brominated vegetable oil (olive, sunflower) per 100 g of diet showed a significant increase of triglyceride and cholesterol content in both heart and liver. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of plasma lipid levels. Fluctuations in plasma triglyceride concentrations may be a result of either variations in the liver secretion rate of very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG), or changes in their removal rate by extrahepatic tissues or both. In the present work we have studied the contribution of both VLDL-TG secretion, and removal rates of plasma TG in the decrease of plasma TG levels, in rats fed during 105 days with a standard laboratory chow supplemented with 0.5 g per 100 g of brominated vegetable oil. VLDL-TG secretion was estimated by measuring the accumulation of plasma TG following the injection of TRITON WR 1339 and the removal rate of plasma TG by assaying plasma post-heparin lipolytic total (PHLA) and hepatic (H-TGL) lipase activities. In addition, the major lipid composition of plasma lipoprotein fractions were measured. Results were compared to those of a control group fed a laboratory chow diet during the same period of time. Our results show a decrease in both VLDL-TG secretion and plasma TG pool size accompanied by normal PHLA and H-TGL activities in animals fed the diet supplemented with brominated oils. However, the proportion of the major lipid components of the plasma lipoproteins fractions were unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1342177

Mocchiutti, N O; Bernal, C A; Lombardo, Y B

1992-12-01

399

Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

2008-01-01

400

Development of a method to recovery and amplification DNA by real-time PCR from commercial vegetable oils.  

PubMed

This study describes the design of a suitable DNA isolation method from commercial vegetable oils for the application of DNA markers for food safety and traceability. Firstly, a comparative study was made of eight methods for the recovery of high quality DNA from olive, sunflower and palm oils, and a CTAB-based method was selected. In order to optimize this method, the effect of the organic compounds and several components in the lysis buffer and the lysis and precipitation time were evaluated. For the purpose of overcoming the limitations detected in spectrophotometric and PCR DNA yield evaluations, the performance of the extraction protocols during the optimization processes was evaluated using qPCR. The suggested DNA extraction optimized is less time consuming than other conventional DNA extraction methods, uses a reduced oil volume and is cheaper than available commercial kits. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully assayed in ten commercial vegetable oils and derivatives. PMID:24731357

Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

2014-09-01

401

Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-05-01

402

Surface reflection properties of oil paints under various conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method for measurement and analysis of surface reflection properties of oil paints under a variety of conditions. First, the radiance factor of a painting surface is measured at different incidence and viewing angles by using a gonio-spectro photometer. The samples are made from different oil paint materials on supporting boards with different paint thicknesses. Next, typical reflection models are examined for describing 3D reflection of the oil painting surfaces. The models are fitted to the observed radiance factors from the oil paint samples. The Cook- Torrance model describes well the reflection properties. The model parameters are estimated from the least-squared fitting to the genio-photometric measurements. Third, the reflection properties are analyzed on the basis of several material conditions such as pigment, supporting material, oil quantity, paint thickness, and support color.

Tominaga, Shoji; Nishi, Shogo

2008-01-01

403

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

SciTech Connect

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01

404

An evaluation of the life cycle cost of rapeseed oil as a straight vegetable oil fuel to replace petroleum diesel in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of straight vegetable oil (SVO) as biofuel has been recognized as a valid substitute of diesel fuel in the agricultural sector under specific circumstances. Its direct use reduces most of the chemical processes involved when converting it into biodiesel, thus lowering harmful emissions. This study presents the economic analysis of a self-supply farming model that uses rapeseed as

Grau Baquero; Bernat Esteban; Jordi-Roger Riba; Antoni Rius; Rita Puig

2011-01-01

405

The effect of elevated fuel inlet temperature on performance of diesel engine running on neat vegetable oil at constant speed conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept that engine design is all important in the use of vegetable oils as a diesel fuel has been pointed out by many researchers. One hundred percent of vegetable oil can be used safely in an indirect injection engine, but not in a direct injection engine due to the high degree of atomization required for this type. This problem

O. M. I Nwafor

2003-01-01

406

Vaporization and carbonization tendency of vegetable oils as a function of chemical composition: morphology of carbon deposits on steel surfaces at elevated temperatures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to investigate the volatility of a series of vegetable oils and to relate the results to the vegetable oil fatty acid profile and deposit forming tendency. Since the amount of maximum deposit is related to what remains to carbonize, volatility is a contributing facto...

407

Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5 and 98.5%. The calibration curves obtained were linear with correlation coefficients (r²) of 0.998, a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 5% and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 250 and 750?µg?l?¹, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of BVO in several commercial soft drinks which were found to contain BVO in the range 1.8-14.510?mg?l?¹. The method has less sources of error compared to previously published methods. PMID:22725649

Yousef, Ashraf A; Abbas, Alaa B; Badawi, Bassam Sh; Al-Jowhar, Wafaa Y; Zain, Esam A; El-Mufti, Seham A

2012-08-01

408

Synthesis, droplet combustion, and sooting characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

In light of the potential of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) as a renewable energy source, an innovative acid catalyzed process was developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. The synthesized biodiesels were analytically characterized for their major components, molar fraction and molecular weight of each component, the average molecular weight, and the heat of combustion. Their droplet combustion characteristics in terms of the burning rate, flame size, and sooting tendency were subsequently determined in a high-temperature, freely-falling droplet apparatus. Results show that the biodiesel droplet has higher burning rate, and that biodiesel in general has a lower propensity to soot because its molecular oxygen content promotes the oxidation of the soot precursors.

Li, T. X.; Zhu, D. L.; Akafuah, N.; Saito, K.; Law, C. K.

2011-01-01

409

Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.  

PubMed

Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-?-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA. PMID:22652378

Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

2012-05-01

410

Geophysical monitoring of vegetable oil emulsion biostimulation using cross-hole radar methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of cross-hole radar tomographic methods for geophysical imaging and monitoring of field-scale vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) biostimulation in saturated unconsolidated sediments is investigated through a combination of petrophysical modeling, laboratory-scale experiments, synthetic forward and inverse modeling, and field demonstration at a VOE biostimulation site at Fridley, Minnesota. The complex refractive index model (CRIM) model and petrophysical relationships between electromagnetic (EM) wave attenuation, Archie's law, and pore-fluid specific conductance were used to (1) predict VOE dielectric permittivity as a function of emulsion vegetable-oil fraction; (2) predict bulk dielectric permittivity changes resulting from VOE injection into saturated sand; and (3) develop methods to predict VOE saturation and changes in ground water total-dissolved-solids (TDS) based on measurement of radar slowness- and attenuation-differences. The results illustrate pixel-based tomographic inversion limitations including (1) poor target resolution; (2) overestimation of target horizontal extent; (3) anomaly blurring and streaking; and (4) a general underestimation of anomaly magnitude. In contrast, using OBI, the vertical and horizontal extent and shape of the target anomalies were accurately reproduced and anomaly magnitude errors were small, consistent with the data error. In geologic environments where VOE injection is controlled by horizontally stratified sediments, OBI slowness-difference tomograms can be analyzed to estimate VOE saturation and interpreted with greater confidence than pixel-based tomograms. Results of cross-hole radar monitoring of VOE injection demonstrate for the first time that radar-imaging methods can be used as a field scale remote sensing method for imaging and monitoring VOE biostimulation. Further more, the field study results indicate application of an appropriate inversion approach such as OBI can produce tomograms that (1) delineate VOE injectate and (2) provide a means to assess the magnitude of VOE pore-fluid displacement though estimation of VOE saturation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Lane, John William, Jr.

2005-11-01

411

Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale modelling of magmatic intrusion in a deforming brittle crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the upper crust, intrusive bodies adopt different configurations, depending on the tectonic setting. This paper describes a new technique for analogue modelling of such intrusions, specifically of low-viscosity magma into a deforming brittle crust. Proper dynamic scaling is an important consideration. If the crust has a Coulomb failure envelope, the model material should have a cohesion C of 40 Pa to 7500 Pa. If the intruding magma is highly mobile, the model fluid should have a viscosity of 4 × 10 - 9 Pa s to 75 Pa s. For the model crust, we have used crystalline silica powder (SI-CRYSTAL), siliceous microspheres (SI-SPHERE) of grain size < 30 ?m, and a mixture (SI-MIX) of both materials. The mechanical properties of these powders have been obtained by shear and tension-shear tests. SI-CRYSTAL powder is cohesive ( C ? 300 Pa, angle of internal friction ? ? 45°) and represents competent rock. SI-SPHERE powder is much less cohesive ( C ? 10 Pa, ? ? 25°) and represents incompetent rock. SI-MIX has intermediate properties. The model magma is a vegetable oil, which solidifies at room temperature. Its viscosity when molten is ? = 2 × 10 - 2 Pa s at 50 °C. Using these materials, we have done some preliminary experiments, to investigate the intrusion of low-viscosity magma into sedimentary basins. In non-deformed settings, intrusions were saucer-shaped cone sheets. In horizontal extension, they were steep dykes. Finally, in horizontal shortening, intrusions were basal sills that branched into thrust faults.

Galland, Olivier; Cobbold, Peter R.; Hallot, Erwan; de Bremond d'Ars, Jean; Delavaud, Gatien

2006-03-01

412

Antibacterial Properties of Vietnamese Cajuput Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 (NCTC 6571), Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 (NCTC 10418) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25668 (NCTC 10662) as well as bacteria isolated from patient's clinical material were tested for their resistance to different cajuput oil fractions. The antimicrobial effect of (?)-linalool, (?)-terpinen-4-ol, (±)-?-terpineol and 1,8-cineole as isolated constituents of cajuput oil have been demonstrated.

Nguyen Duy Cuong; Truong Thi Xuyen; O. Motl; K. Stránský; J. Presslová; Z. Jedlicková; V. Serý

1994-01-01

413

Biological Properties of Olive Oil Phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Joe Vinson, Chemistry Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510 Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar

Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli

2002-01-01

414

Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

415

Modified vegetation indices for Ganoderma disease detection in oil palm from field spectroradiometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution field spectroradiometers are important for spectral analysis and mobile inspection of vegetation disease. The biggest challenges in using this technology for automated vegetation disease detection are in spectral signatures pre-processing, band selection and generating reflectance indices to improve the ability of hyperspectral data for early detection of disease. In this paper, new indices for oil palm Ganoderma disease detection were generated using band ratio and different band combination techniques. Unsupervised clustering method was used to cluster the values of each class resultant from each index. The wellness of band combinations was assessed by using Optimum Index Factor (OIF) while cluster validation was executed using Average Silhouette Width (ASW). 11 modified reflectance indices were generated in this study and the indices were ranked according to the values of their ASW. These modified indices were also compared to several existing and new indices. The results showed that the combination of spectral values at 610.5nm and 738nm was the best for clustering the three classes of infection levels in the determination of the best spectral index for early detection of Ganoderma disease.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Anuar, M. Izzuddin; Saripan, M. Iqbal

2009-10-01

416

Green Printing: Colorimetric and Densitometric Analysis of Solvent-Based and Vegetable Oil-Based Inks of Multicolor Offset Printing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the measurable print attributes (Print Contrast and Dot Gain) and color gamut of solvent-based (SB) inks vs. vegetable oil-based (VO) inks of multicolor offset printing. The literature review revealed a lack of published research on this subject. VO inks tend to perform (color…

Dharavath, H. Naik; Hahn, Kim

2009-01-01

417

The effects of cooking oil fume condensates (COFCs) on the vegetative growth of Salvinia natans (L.) All  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooking oil fumes (COF) and their condensates (COFCs), which are suspected of causing human lung cancers, are hazardous materials to environments. The effects of COFCs on the vegetative growth of Salvinia natans (L.) All., a free-floating aquatic fern, are discussed in this paper. The results showed that there were no differences of the number of floating leaves and the mean

Xinchuang Jiang; Shengnan Zhu; Yawen Wu; Huyin Huai

2009-01-01

418

Simultaneous determination of glycerol, and mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of glycerol, mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters has been developed. Quantitative information about this group of organic contaminants is very important for the quality of these oleochemical products when used as automotive diesel fuel substitutes.Trimethylsilylation of glycerol, mono- and diglycerides, followed by GC using a 10-m capillary column

Christina Plank; Eberhard Lorbeer

1995-01-01

419

Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

2011-01-01

420

HPLC and HPLC-MS as tools to monitor the quality of vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

HPLC and HPLC-MS have become valuable tools to analyze the “functional lipids” in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, functional foods, and conventional foods. These functional lipids include phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. These analytical methods have provided a means to id...

421

[Determination of fatty acids in vegetable oils using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadropole mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with quadropole mass spectrometry (GC x GC-qMS) was applied to the detection of 31 fatty acids in vegetable oils. The sets of columns, modulation period, scan range of quadropole mass spectrometer were optimized. The results demonstrated that the separation was achieved in 50 min with the column set of DB-1 (30 m x0. 25 mm x 0.25 microm) as the 1st column and DB-Wax (3.2 m x 0.1 mm x 0. 1 microm) as the 2nd column. All fatty acids were accurately and sensitively determined while the modulation period was 3.5 s and the scan range of quadropole MS was m/z 40-350. Most of the fatty acids were identified by NIST library spectra search, the other fatty acid isomers were identified by single standard injection analysis. When applying this method to the real vegetable oil samples, not only the sensitivities were 100 times higher than those obtained with GC-qMS methods, but also some minor fatty acids were identified. This work suggested a new technical approach in analyzing fatty acid components in vegetable oils, which is meaningful to prohibit adulteration and ensuring the quality safety of edible vegetable oils. PMID:23451520

Zheng, Yueming; Feng, Feng; Guo, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Pan, Jiarong; Jia, Wei

2012-11-01

422

FIELD STUDIES ON USBM AND TOSCO II RETORTED OIL SHALES: VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980  

EPA Science Inventory

Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cov...

423

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2014-04-01

424

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2011-04-01

425

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2013-04-01

426

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2012-04-01

427

A simplified procedure for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls in edible vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A one-step extraction-purification multiresidue method for the determination of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in edible vegetable oils based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) has been developed. The experimental parameters affecting the recoveries and the efficiency of the cleanup procedure were thoroughly evaluated. Under an optimised condition, 0.5 g of oil sample was blended with 3.5 g of sulfuric acid-impregnated silica and 0.8 g of silica gel was used as co-column absorbent. The PCBs and OCPs were eluted by 10 mL of n-hexane/dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Good recoveries were obtained in the range of 69.6-105.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) values below 15% in most cases. The limits of detection (LOD), based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, were in the range of 0.04-0.74 ng/g. PMID:24423500

Li, Jindong; Liu, Donghui; Wu, Tong; Zhao, Wenting; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

2014-05-15

428

One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.  

PubMed

A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

2012-10-01

429

Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

2014-01-01

430

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

431

Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data.  

PubMed

The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000cm(-1)) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E=6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification. PMID:21397073

Balabin, Roman M; Safieva, Ravilya Z

2011-03-18

432

Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of esters of monochloropropanediol in vegetable oil.  

PubMed

The presence of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MEs) in food is a recent concern raised due to the carcinogenicity of their hydrolysable moieties 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD). Several indirect methods for the quantification of MEs have been developed and are commonly in use until today, however significant discrepancies among analytical results obtained are challenging their reliability. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the trueness of an indirect method by comparing it to a newly developed direct method using palm oil and palm olein as examples. The indirect method was based on ester cleavage under acidic conditions, derivatization of the liberated 2- and 3-MCPD with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole and GC-MS determination. The direct method was comprised of two extraction procedures targeting 2-and 3-MCPD mono esters (co-extracting as well glycidyl esters) by the use of double solid phase extraction (SPE), and 2- and 3-MCPD di-esters by the use of silica gel column, respectively. Detection was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). Accurate quantification of the intact compounds was assured by means of matrix matched standard addition on extracts. Analysis of 22 palm oil and 7 palm olein samples (2- plus 3-MCPD contamination ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 ?g/g) by both methods revealed no significant bias. Both methods were therefore considered as comparable in terms of results; however the indirect method was shown to require less analytical standards, being less tedious and furthermore applicable to all type of different vegetable oils and hence recommended for routine application. PMID:22444428

Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Empl, Anna Maria; Donaubauer, Alfred; Seefelder, Walburga

2012-05-01

433

Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Background Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Results Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on ?-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Conclusions Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have higher responsiveness to low dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, up-regulating the biosynthetic pathway when fed dietary VO. As global aquaculture searches for alternative oils for feeds, this study alerts to the potential of VO introducing contaminants and demonstrates the detoxifying role of intestine. Finally, data indicate genotype-specific responses in the intestinal transcriptome and proteome to dietary VO, including possibly structural properties of the intestinal layer and defence against cellular stress, with Lean fish being more susceptible to diet-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22943471

2012-01-01

434

Novel bio-based thermoset resins based on epoxidized vegetable oils for structural adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional engineered wood composites are bonded for the most part through formaldehyde-based structural adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF). Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen; the occupational exposure and emission after manufacturing of these binders is raising more and more concern. With increasing emphasis on environmental issues, there is clear incentive to replace these hazardous conventional formaldehyde-based binders with cco-friendly resins having similar properties but derived from renewable sources, bearing in mind the economics of the structural wood composite industry. In this thesis, the curing reaction of bio-derived epoxy thermosets with inexpensive, low-toxicity precursors, including polyimines and amino acids was investigated. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were successfully crosslinked with both branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and triethylenetetramine (fETA). Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) was crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI), having different molecular weights. Curing conditions were optimized through solvent uptake and soluble fraction analysis. Finally, the mechanical properties of the optimized compositions of rigid bioepoxies were evaluated using dynamic mechanical rheological testing (DMRT). While not as stiff as conventional materials, optimized materials have sufficient room temperature moduli to show promise for coatings and as binders in engineered wood products.

Sivasubramanian, Shivshankar

435

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly progress report], December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During this second quarter working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S. 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different extraction solvents, and different temperatures were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 1OO{degree}C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.; Ho, K.K.

1995-12-31

436

Borehole Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment Emplacement and Geochemical Changes During Vegetable Oil Biostimulation, Anoka County Riverfront Park, Fridley, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of geophysical investigations to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient from the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The pilot project was undertaken by the U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division, for the purpose of evaluating biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil was introduced to the subsurface to serve as substrate for naturally occurring microbes, which ultimately break down chlorinated hydrocarbons into chloride, carbon dioxide, and water through oxidation-reduction reactions. In support of this effort, the USGS collected cross-borehole radar data and conventional borehole geophysical data in five site visits over 1.5 years to evaluate the effectiveness of geophysical methods for monitoring emplacement of the vegetable oil emulsion and for tracking changes in water chemistry. Radar zero-offset profile (ZOP) data, radar traveltime tomograms, electromagnetic (EM) induction logs, natural gamma logs, neutron porosity logs, and magnetic susceptibility logs were collected and analyzed. In order to facilitate data interpretation and to test the effectiveness of radar for monitoring oil-emulsion placement and movement, three injection mixtures with different radar signatures were used: (1) vegetable oil emulsion, (2) vegetable oil emulsion with a colloidal iron tracer, and (3) vegetable oil emulsion with a magnetite tracer. Based on petrophysical modeling, mixture (1) was expected to increase radar velocity and decrease radar attenuation relative to background?a water-saturated porous medium; mixtures (2) and (3) were expected to increase radar velocity and increase radar attenuation because of their greater electrical conductivity compared to background ground water. Radar ZOP data and tomograms show increased EM velocity in the vicinity of injection wells. Comparison of pre- and post-injection datasets shows that velocity anomalies are observed only in planes connected to injection wells, indicating that the emulsified vegetable oil does not migrate far after injection. In contrast to the localization of velocity anomalies, radar attenuation anomalies are observed in all zero-offset profiles, particularly those downgradient from the injection wells. Despite the expected signatures of different tracers, increases in attenuation are observed downgradient from all three injection wells; thus, we infer that the attenuation changes do not result from the iron tracers alone. Over the period of data collection, the slowness (reciprocal velocity) anomalies are relatively stable, whereas the attenuation anomalies generally increase in magnitude and extent. One explanation for the attenuation changes is that products of vegetable oil-enhanced biodegradation (for example, chloride) increase the specific conductance of ground water and thus bulk electrical conductivity and radar attenuation. This interpretation is supported by the results of EM-induction and magnetic susceptibility logs, which indicate increases in electrical conductivity in the absence of magnetic anomalies that might result from the iron and magnetite. Based on the geophysical data, conceptual models of the distributions of emulsified vegetable oil and ground water with altered chemistry were developed. The field data indicate that, in several cases, the plume of ground water with altered chemistry would not be detected by direct chemical sampling given the construction of monitoring wells; hence the geophysical data provide valuable site-specific insights for the interpretation of water samples and monitoring of biostimulation projects. Application of geophysical methods to data from the ACP demonstrated the utility of radar for monitoring biostimulation injections.

Lane, John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.; Kochiss, Christopher S.

2007-01-01

437

Studies on phytosterol oxides. II: Content in some vegetable oils and in French fries prepared in these oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenated rapeseed oil\\/palm oil blend, sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil, and French fries fried in these oils\\u000a were assessed for contents of sterol oxidation products. Different oxidation products of phytosterols (7?- and 7?-hydroxy-sito-and\\u000a campesterol, 7-ketosito- and 7-ketocampesterol, 5?,6?-epoxy-sito- and campesterol, 5?,6?-epoxy-sito-and campesterol, dihydroxysitosterol\\u000a and dihydroxycampesterol) were identified and quantiated by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectroscopy. Rapeseed oil\\/palm\\u000a oil

Paresh Chandra Dutta

1997-01-01

438

Terahertz spectroscopy properties of the selected engine oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine oil, most of which is extracted from petroleum, consist of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of molecular weights in the range of 250-1000. Variable amounts of different additives are put into them to inhibit oxidation, improve the viscosity index, decrease the fluidity point and avoid foaming or settling of solid particles among others. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy contains rich physical, chemical, and structural information of the materials. Most low-frequency vibrational and rotational spectra of many petrochemicals lie in this frequency range. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the THz spectroscopic studies of petroleum products. In this paper, the optical properties and spectroscopy of selected kinds of engine oil consisting of shell HELIX 10W-40, Mobilube GX 80W-90, GEELY ENGINE OIL SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 5W-30, SMA engine oil SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 75W-90 have been studied by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the spectral range of 0.6-2.5 THz. Engine oil with different viscosities in the terahertz spectrum has certain regularity. In the THz-TDS, with the increase of viscosity, time delay is greater and with the increase of viscosity, refractive indexes also grow and their rank is extremely regular. The specific kinds of engine oil can be identified according to their different spectral features in the THz range. The THz-TDS technology has potentially significant impact on the engine oil analysis.

Zhu, Shouming; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Tian; Zhao, Songqing; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

439

Determination of ?-tocopherol in vegetable oils using a molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biosensor.  

PubMed

We report the development of a novel hybrid "capture-detection" molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (MIPs-SERS) biosensor for the detection and quantification of ?-tocopherol (?-Toc) in vegetable oils. ?-Toc served as the template for MIPs synthesis. Methacrylic acid formed as the functional monomer. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the cross-linking agent, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile was used as the initiator. The synthesized MIPs functioned to rapidly and selectively adsorb and separate ?-Toc from oil components. We validated a dendritic silver nanostructure synthesized by a displacement reaction to be a suitable SERS substrate for the enhancement of Raman signals. Second-derivative transformations and chemometric models based upon SERS spectral features confirmed the possibility of a rapid and precise detection and quantification of different spiking levels of ?-Toc in four different sources of vegetable oils (Mahalanobis distance from 15.93 to 34.01 for PCA model; R > 0.92, RMSE < 0.41 for PLSR model). The MIPs-SERS biosensor had a high sensitivity as well as a good recovery for ?-Toc analysis in vegetable oils. The entire analysis required 15 min or less to complete with limited sample preparation. PMID:24099154

Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Fang; Chen, Zhiwen; Grant, Edward; Kitts, David D; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

2013-11-01

440

Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2005, pp. 2533 Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Vegetation Properties among  

E-print Network

Heterogeneity of Vegetation Properties among Four Tundra Plant Communities at Ivotuk, Alaska, U.S.A. Sebastian M vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), and phytomass were compared for four tundra vegetation types at Ivotuk, Alaska, during summer 1999. The vegetation types included moist acidic tundra (MAT), moist

Edwards, Erika J.

441

Chemical Properties of Virgin Coconut Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the commercial virgin coconut oil (VCO) available in the Malaysian and Indonesian market was conducted. The paper\\u000a reported the chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of VCO. There was no significant difference in lauric acid\\u000a content (46.64–48.03%) among VCO samples. The major triacylglycerols obtained for the oils were LaLaLa, LaLaM, CLaLa, LaMM\\u000a and CCLa (La, lauric; C,

A. M. Marina; Y. B. Che Man; S. A. H. Nazimah; I. Amin

2009-01-01

442

SURFACE PROPERTIES OF SOY-BASED POLYSOAPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are obtained from abundantly available and renewable agricultural products. They are also biodegradable and safe to use. These properties make vegetable oils the preferred raw materials over petroleum-based oils for the manufacture of various consumer and industrial products. Veget...

443

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.  

PubMed

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1). PMID:14987805

Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

2004-05-01

444

26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the principal value of oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or such...in a corporation owning oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or interest...attributable to the sale of such oil or gas property...

2011-04-01

445

26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the principal value of oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or such...in a corporation owning oil or gas property...percent) of the selling price of such property or interest...attributable to the sale of such oil or gas property...

2010-04-01

446

Effect of feeding blended and interesterified vegetable oils on antioxidant enzymes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding blended and interesterified oils prepared using coconut oil (CNO) with rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO), with a polyunsaturated\\/saturated (P\\/S) ratio of 0.8–1.0, on oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant system. Feeding blended oils resulted in significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxide levels in rats given blended oil CNO+RBO

Malongil B. Reena; Belur R. Lokesh

2011-01-01

447

Coenzyme Q 10 and Q 9 contents in 6 commercial vegetable oils and their average daily intakes in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the concentration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and Q9 (CoQ9) in 6 commercial vegetable oils commonly consumed in Korea and estimated the average daily intake of CoQ9 and CoQ10 from oils selected. The analytical method employed saponification before solvent extraction and quantification using high\\u000a performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Contents of CoQ9 and CoQ10

Young-Hee Pyo

2010-01-01

448

Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total microbial community. Bacterial richness rebounded after nine months, although community composition remained distinct from the pre-amendment conditions. Subsequent to the experiment we have isolated several of these organisms into pure culture including representatives of probable new species of Geobacter, Desulforegula and Desulfovibrio. A hypothesized model for the functioning of these limited communities will be verified in the laboratory using defined combinations of isolates from the field where possible. These results demonstrated EVO serves as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction, and subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction was likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

2011-12-01

449

Accounting for spatial variation in vegetation properties improves simulations of Amazon forest biomass and productivity in a global vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic vegetation models forced with spatially homogeneous biophysical parameters are capable of producing average productivity and biomass values for the Amazon basin forest biome that are close to the observed estimates, but are unable to reproduce the observed spatial variability. Recent observational studies have shown substantial regional spatial variability of above-ground productivity and biomass across the Amazon basin, which is believed to be primarily driven by soil physical and chemical properties. In this study, spatial heterogeneity of vegetation properties is added to the IBIS land surface model, and the simulated productivity and biomass of the Amazon basin are compared to observations from undisturbed forest. The maximum Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and the woody biomass residence time (?w) were found to be the most important properties determining the modeled spatial variation of above-ground woody net primary productivity and biomass, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of these properties may lead to a spatial variability of 1.8 times in the simulated woody net primary productivity and 2.8 times in the woody above-ground biomass. The coefficient of correlation between the modeled and observed woody productivity improved from 0.10 with homogeneous parameters to 0.73 with spatially heterogeneous parameters, while the coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed woody above-ground biomass improved from 0.33 to 0.88. The results from our analyses with the IBIS dynamic vegetation model demonstrate that using single values for key ecological parameters in the tropical forest biome severely limits simulation accuracy. We emphasize that our approach must be viewed as an important first step and that a clearer understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that drive the spatial variability of carbon allocation, ?w and Vcmax are necessary.

de Almeida Castanho, A. D.; Coe, M. T.; Heil Costa, M.; Malhi, Y.; Galbraith, D.; Quesada, C. A.

2012-08-01

450

Production of biodiesel fuel by transesterification of different vegetable oils with methanol using Al?O? modified MgZnO catalyst.  

PubMed

An active heterogeneous Al2O3 modified MgZnO (MgZnAlO) catalyst was prepared and the catalytic activity was investigated for the transesterification of different vegetable oils (refined palm oil, waste cooking palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) with methanol to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis to ascertain its versatility. Effects of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on oil conversion were examined. Within the range of studied variability, the suitable transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 16:1, catalyst loading 3.32 wt.%, reaction time 6h, temperature 182°C), the oil conversion of 98% could be achieved with reference to coconut oil in a single stage. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for five cycles without significant deactivation. PMID:23395762

Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

2013-03-01

451

Home use of vegetable oils, markers of systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction among women1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Mostknowledgeaboutadversehealtheffectsoftrans fatswasmainlyderivedfromstudiesdoneinWesternpopulationsof European or American origins; few data are available in the under- studied region of the Middle East. Objective: We assessed the association between consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) and non-HVOs and circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers among Tehrani women aged 40-60 y. Design: Usual dietary intakes were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaireamong486apparentlyhealthywomen.PHVOs(com- monly used for cooking

Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Leila Azadbakht

452

Stimulation of calcium absorption and reduction in susceptibility to fasting-induced hypocalcaemia in pregnant ewes fed vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To test the hypothesis that susceptibility to fasting-induced hypocalcaemia could be reduced by prior stimulation of the ability of late-pregnant ewes to absorb calcium (Ca) from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by feeding a vegetable oil supplement. The supplement was expected to decrease the availability of the Ca supplied from a pasture diet, and stimulate the animals' homeostatic system.METHODS: Mature

GF Wilson

2001-01-01

453

Metabolism and Fatty Acid Profile in Fat and Lean Rainbow Trout Lines Fed with Vegetable Oil: Effect of Carbohydrates  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPAR? was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies. PMID:24124573

Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

2013-01-01

454

Chemical evaluation and thermal analysis of the essential oil from the fruits of the vegetable species Pimenta dioica Lindl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetal species Pimenta dioica Lindl, popularly known as Jamaican pepper, is a 6–15 m tall tree, which belongs to the Mirtaceae family. Its fruits have\\u000a an essential oil of great economic value in the international market, due to its high level of eugenol (its major compound),\\u000a which is largely used in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the extraction

O. S. Monteiro; A. G. Souza; L. E. B. Soledade; N. Queiroz; A. L. Souza; V. E. Mouchrek Filho; A. F. F. Vasconcelos

455

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...expressed separately for oil and gas (including synthetic oil and gas produced through wells) and the...productive wells) by geographic area. (b) Disclose, as of...

2010-04-01

456

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

457

Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

1999-04-01

458

Heat treatment of vegetable oils I. Isolation of the cyclic fatty acid monomers from heated sunflower and linseed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linseed and sunflower oils were heated at 275 C for 12 hr under nitrogen. The sunflower oil was also heated in a commercial\\u000a fryer at 200 C for 48 hr using a 2-hr daily cycle. The cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) formed during the heat treatment\\u000a of the linseed oil were isolated by a combination of saponification, esterification, column chromatography

J. L. Sebedio; J. Prevost; A. Grandgirard

1987-01-01

459

Classification of vegetable oils according to their botanical origin using n-alkane profiles established by GC-MS.  

PubMed

n-Alkane profiles established by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to classify vegetable oils according to their botanical origin. The n-alkanes present in corn, grapeseed, hazelnut, olive, peanut and sunflower oils were isolated by means of alkaline hydrolysis followed by silica gel column chromatography of the unsaponifiable fractions. The n-alkane fraction was constituted mainly of n-alkanes in the range C8-C35, although only those most abundant (15 n-alkanes, from 21 to 35 carbon No.) were used as original variables to construct linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models. Ratios of the peak areas selected by pairs were used as predictors. All the oils were correctly classified according to their botanical origin, with assignment probabilities higher than 95%, using an LDA model. PMID:25148956

Troya, F; Lerma-García, M J; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

2015-01-15

460

Simultaneous determination of zearalenone and its derivatives in edible vegetable oil by gel permeation chromatography and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive gas chromatographic-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC-QqQ MS) analytical method, for the determination of zearalenone and its five derivatives in edible vegetable oil, was developed. After the vegetable oil samples were prepared using gel permeation chromatography, the eluent was collected, evaporated and dried with nitrogen gas. The residue was silylated with N,O-bis-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane. GC-QqQ MS was performed in the reaction-monitoring mode to confirm and quantify mycotoxins in vegetable oil. The limits of quantitation were 0.03-0.2 ?g kg(-1) for the six mycotoxins. The average recoveries, measured at 2, 20 and 200 ?g kg(-1), were in the range 80.3-96.5%. Zearalenone was detected in the range 5.2-184.6 ?g kg(-1) in nine maize oils and at 40.7 ?g kg(-1) in a rapeseed oil from the local market. PMID:25053023

Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Liqin; Jin, Nuo; Wang, Jianmei; Jiang, Kezhi

2015-01-01

461

Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

462

A new breed of racing car runs on vegetable oil and chocolate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling Masterpiece: British Racing Team Creates F3 Car That Runs on Chocolatehttp://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/News/articleId=147889The Chocolate-Powered Carhttp://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/may2009/bw2009057_934211.htm?chan=top+news_top+news+index+-+temp_lifestyleWorld First Racinghttp://www.worldfirstracing.co.uk/Fuel Economyhttp://www.fueleconomy.gov/Chocolate Recipeshttp://www.godiva.com/recipes/default.aspxRacing a car around a track isn't exactly the most environmentally friendly activity, but it may be getting a bit better with the arrival of this rather unusual car. Designed by a British team, this Formula 3 car is powered by vegetable oil and chocolate. The WorldFirstRacing car is constructed out of recycled carbon fiber, along with plastic bottles and other organic materials. The car is sponsored by Warwick University and the Warwick Innovative Manufacturing Research Center, and their work is inspired by the general movement to "green" the technology used in racing cars. Interestingly enough, the lubricants used are all derived from plant oil and the radiators use a catalyst that reduces ground-level ozone by converting ozone molecules to oxygen. The team is still tweaking some aspects of the car, and it is scheduled to make a few test runs at the Goodwood Festival of Speed in Britain in early July.The first link will take users to an informative piece from Wired magazine's "Autopia" weblog that talks a bit more about this rather innovative racing car. The second link leads to an article from Edmunds.com, which talks in greater detail about the Formula 3 car's particulars. Moving on, the third article is from BusinessWeek magazine, and it includes a video of the car in action. The fourth link will whisk users away to the homepage of the WorldFirstRacing car, complete with a photo gallery, flying carrots, and a list of events where the car will appear. The fifth link leads to the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Economy website. Here visitors can learn about the importance of fuel economy and read up on gas mileage tips and hybrid vehicles. Finally, those who wish to use chocolate for a more conventional use will appreciate the last link, as it leads to some rather fine chocolate recipes, offered courtesy of Godiva Chocolates.

Grinnell, Max

2009-05-15

463

Determination of trace elements in biodiesel and vegetable oil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry following alcohol dilution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the simultaneous determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S and Zn in biodiesels and vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) has been developed. The method - based on the use of an ICP-OES instrument outfitted with a spectrometer in Paschen-Runge mount, equipped with linear charge coupled device detectors monitoring the entire spectrum from 130 to 770 nm - offers a high sample throughput as sample preparation is limited to dilution with alcohol, while all elements of interest are determined simultaneously. Ethanol is only suitable in the context of biodiesel analysis, whereas dilution with 1-propanol also allows application of the method, without any additional modification, to analysis of vegetable oils. As a result, the dilution with 1-propanol is preferable. Sample introduction was carried out with pneumatic nebulization and spectral interferences from carbon-containing compounds were reduced by cooling the cyclonic spray chamber to - 5 °C. The remaining spectral interferences in the low-UV region were efficiently corrected for by the background correction system offered in the software of the ICP-OES instrument used. Calibration was carried out against inorganic standards diluted in ethanol or 1-propanol, while Y was used as an internal standard, correcting for non-spectral interference and sensitivity drift. The accuracy of the method was verified through the analysis of the NIST SRMs 2772 and 2773 biodiesel reference materials. Additionally, as for most of the target elements only indicative concentration values are available for these reference materials, recovery tests have been performed using inorganic and organic standards. The results obtained were in good agreement with the values found on the certificate for both ethanol and 1-propanol sample dilution, while the recoveries were between 87 and 116% for biodiesel and between 95 and 106% for vegetable oils. The measurement precision expressed as relative standard deviation (n = 3) was lower than 5% and limits of detection were at the low ?g g -1 level. Subsequently, the method developed has been applied to the analysis of biodiesel and vegetable oil samples from different origins. Given the simple sample preparation, the limits of detection realized, the sufficient accuracy and precision obtained as well as the high sample throughput, this method is very well suited for routine analysis of biodiesel and vegetable oils.

Chaves, Eduardo S.; de Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T. C.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Vanhaecke, Frank

2011-09-01

464

Modeling the backscattering and transmission properties of vegetation canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.

Allen, C. T.; Ulaby, F. T.

1984-01-01

465

Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

2013-08-01

466

Behavioral and reproductive effects of chronic developmental exposure to brominated vegetable oil in rats.  

PubMed

Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% of the food additive brominated vegetable (soybean) oil (BVO) for 2 weeks prior to mating. After conception, the diets were continued throughout gestation and lactation for the females. The same diets were also provided to the dams' offspring throughout their development (up to 90-120 days of age). BVO at 2.0% of the diet completely blocked reproduction. BVO at 1.0% of the diet severely impaired conception, reduced maternal body weight, and produced slightly reduced litter sizes but no evidence of malformations. At this dose postnatal mortality was high, and survivors showed impaired growth and severe behavioral impairments on a battery of standardized tests of functional development. After weaning, adequate data could not be obtained because of the high mortality rate in this group. BVO at 0.5% of the diet produced less reproductive interference and much less offspring mortality or impairment of growth, but produced behavioral impairments almost as severe as seen in the BVO 1.0% group. In addition, this group exhibited severely reduced postweaning activity, delayed vaginal patency development, and reduced day-90 weight. BVO at 0.25% of the diet produced reproductive deficits similar to the BVO 0.5% group, but less severe effects on growth and behavioral development. This group showed no significant increase in offspring mortality. The data demonstrate clear evidence of dose-related physical and behavioral developmental toxicity. PMID:6665731

Vorhees, C V; Butcher, R E; Wootten, V; Brunner, R L

1983-12-01

467

Low Temperature Properties and Thermal Stability of Oligomerized Soybean Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean oil polymers with lower molecular weight prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) by cationic polymerization were investigated for their applications as lubricants and hydraulic fluids. The low-temperature properties were studied by measuring their cloud and pour points; while therm...

468

Basic properties of palm oil biodiesel–diesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic properties of several palm oil biodiesel–diesel fuel blends were measured according to the corresponding ASTM standards. In order to predict these properties, mixing rules are evaluated as a function of the volume fraction of biodiesel in the blend. Kay’s mixing rule is used for predicting density, heating value, three different points of the distillation curve (T10, T50 and

Pedro Benjumea; John Agudelo; Andrés Agudelo

2008-01-01

469

24 Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Did you read chapter 24  

E-print Network

(obtained from animals) & Oils (obtained from vegetables) Minerals Silicate Mineral Family Primarily Ionic24 Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Did you read chapter 24 before coming to class? A. Yes B. No IT'S ALL CHEMISTRY Atomic-Level Structure of Complex Materials Determines Properties Animals & Vegetables Fats

Hart, Gus

470

Interactions between protein and vegetable oils in the maternal diet determine the programming of the insulin axis in the rat.  

PubMed

The available evidence suggests that metabolic control mechanisms are programmed early in life. Previous studies of pregnant rats fed low-protein diets have suggested that the vegetable oils used in the experimental diets influence the outcome. The present study investigated the offspring of female rats fed semi-synthetic diets containing either 180 or 90g casein/kg with 70 g/kg (w/w) of either corn oil or soya oil during gestation. During lactation, the dams received stock diet, and the offspring were subsequently weaned onto the stock diet. The offspring of dams fed the low-protein diets were smaller at birth. At 25 weeks of age, the offspring were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test. In the offspring of dams fed the diet containing soya oil, the area under the insulin curve was affected by the protein content of the maternal diet. There was no effect of protein on the area under the insulin curve in the offspring of dams fed the diet prepared with corn oil. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentrations. The levels of mRNA for acetyl-CoA carboxylase- in the livers of female offspring were affected by the protein and oil content of the maternal diet. The level of carnitine palmitoyl transferase mRNA was affected by the protein content of the maternal diet. The present study suggests that PUFA in the maternal diet can interact with protein metabolism to influence the development of the offspring. This may involve the higher content of alpha-linolenic acid in soya oil compared with corn oil. PMID:17408526

Maloney, Christopher A; Lilley, Christina; Czopek, Alicja; Hay, Susan M; Rees, William D

2007-05-01

471

In situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 1. Vegetation recovery and soil temperature as a function of water depth, oil type, and marsh type.  

PubMed

In-situ burning of oiled wetlands potentially provides a cleanup technique that is generally consistent with present wetland management procedures. The effects of water depth (+10, +2, and -2 cm), oil type (crude and diesel), and oil penetration of sediment before the burn on the relationship between vegetation recovery and soil temperature for three coastal marsh types were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a key factor controlling marsh plant recovery. Both the 10- and 2-cm water depths were sufficient to protect marsh vegetation from burning impacts, with surface soil temperatures of <35 and 48 degrees C, respectively. Plant survival rate and growth responses at these water depth burns were not significantly different from the unburned control. In contrast, a water table 2 cm below the soil surface during the burn resulted in high soil temperatures, with 90-200 degrees C at 0-0.5 cm soil depth and 55-75 degrees C at 1-2 cm soil depth. The 2-cm soil exposure to fire significantly impeded the post-burn recovery of Spartina alterniflora and Sagittaria lancifolia but did not detrimentally affect the recovery of Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. Oil type (crude vs diesel) and oil applied to the marsh soil surface (0.5 L x m(-2)) before the burn did not significantly affect plant recovery. Thus, recovery is species-specific when no surface water exists. Even water at the soil surface will most likely protect wetland plants from burning impact. PMID:15819246

Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

2005-03-15

472

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

473

Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

2011-12-01

474

Changes in Marsh Vegetation, Stability and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Barataria Bay Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal wetlands in Southern Louisiana were contaminated by the release of record volumes of oil between April and July 2010. Barataria Bay was extensively impacted, resulting in the oiling and dieback of marsh grasses along a discontinuous margin up to 30m into the marshes. Shoreline stability and biogeochemistry have been monitored over three site visits between between July 10 and August 25, 2010. Initial observations in early July were that grasses, dominantly shape Spartina alterniflora and shape Juncus roemerianus, were bent over under the weight of a thick oil coating. The bent-over grasses were broken off along some reaches, leaving a stubbled shoreline more susceptible to erosion. Repeated site visits in mid and late August found visible erosion along some of the effected shorelines. Water samples were collected from the shoreline marsh remnants and from visibly unaffected marshes to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). In spite of visible oil sheens in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on vegetation in the “control” sites with no visible oil on vegetation, DOC concentrations were similar in impacted and visibly unimpacted sites in Barataria Bay. Subsequent samples in mid- and late-August had increased DOC concentrations relative to previous sample events regardless of whether the site was visibly impacted. There was a general increase in specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an index of aromaticity, with increasing DOC concentrations, either due to seasonal effects or continued dissolution of petroleum compounds. Further chemical characterization using fluorescence and gas chromatography will be used to confirm the presence of petroleum compounds. The ratio of DOC to TDN also increased over time, which may have implications for vegetation regrowth and plant community structure, including the shift of grass species dominating effected marshes. These initial findings suggest that while some shorelines have overtly visible impacts from the oil slick that reached Barataria Bay, there are also less visible indications that there may be a more comprehensive biogeochemical effect from the oil incursion throughout Barataria Bay.

Holloway, J. M.; Aiken, G.; Kokaly, R. F.; Heckman, D.; Butler, K.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.; Piazza, S.

2010-12-01

475

Detection of Salt Marsh Vegetation Stress and Recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico Using AVIRIS Data  

PubMed Central

The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill. PMID:24223872

Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

2013-01-01

476

Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data.  

PubMed

The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill. PMID:24223872

Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J; Ustin, Susan L; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F; Roberts, Dar A

2013-01-01

477

Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health