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1

Dielectric properties of some vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The density, the refractive index and the dielectric constants at room temperature (26°) are determined for the solutions\\u000a of castor oil, olive oil, sesame oil and cocoanut oil in benzene. The dielectric constants were determined at 30 meters (10,000\\u000a Kc.) by observing the resonance with the help of a valve-voltmeter. It is found that in very dilute solutions the molecules

G. R. Paranjpe; P. Y. Deshpande

1935-01-01

2

Modification of thermal and oxidative properties of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans esterification of three vegetable oils, sunflower oil, linseed oil and mixed oils as; sunflower- soyabean and olein were carried out using methanol, and potasium hydroxide as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol and characterized by physical-chemical methods to evaluate their thermal properties. This methods are determination of densities, cloud points, pour

G. El Diwani; S. El Rafie

3

The effects of vegetable oil properties on injection and combustion in two different diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different vegetable oils, each in at least 3 different stages of processing, have been characterized according to their\\u000a physical and chemical properties, their injection and atomization characteristics, and their performance and combustion characteristics\\u000a in both a direct-injection and an indirect-injection diesel engine. The injection and atomization characteristics of the vegetable\\u000a oils are significantly different than those of petroleum-derived diesel

T. W. Ryan; L. G. Dodge; T. J. Callahan

1984-01-01

4

Novel polymeric materials from vegetable oils and vinyl monomers: preparation, properties, and applications.  

PubMed

Veggie-based products: Vegetable-oil-based polymeric materials, prepared by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations, range from soft rubbers to ductile or rigid plastics, and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. They display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and may find promising applications as alternatives to petroleum-based polymers.Vegetable oils are considered to be among the most promising renewable raw materials for polymers, because of their ready availability, inherent biodegradability, and their many versatile applications. Research on and development of vegetable oil based polymeric materials, including thermosetting resins, biocomposites, and nanocomposites, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This Minireview focuses on the latest developments in the preparation, properties, and applications of vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations. The novel vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained range from soft rubbery materials to ductile or rigid plastics and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. These vegetable oil based polymeric materials display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and should find useful applications as alternatives to their petroleum-based counterparts. PMID:19180601

Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

2009-01-01

5

Modeling Vegetable Oil Viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of their environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Vegetable oils do not contain any sulfur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, or crude oil residues. Short-term engine tests indicate good potential for vegetable oil fuels. Long-term endurance tests may show serious problems in injector coking, ring sticking, gum formation,

M. Balat

2008-01-01

6

Vegetable oils-based microemulsions: Formation, properties, and application for \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl esters of coconut oil (CME) and the saturated fraction of palm oil (PME) were prepared from precursor oils by transesterification. Phase diagrams of oil (CME or PME)\\/water\\/non-ionic surfactant (Synperonic 91\\/4) were studied as a function of system composition and temperature. Rheology measurements and X-ray diffraction of the monophases obtained indicated that they are free of cubic liquid crystals. Quasi-elastic

Marcia Bragato; Günter Subklew; Milan J. Schwuger; Omar A. El Seoud

2002-01-01

7

Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( ?) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both ? and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.

Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

2012-11-01

8

Polyurethanes from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are excellent but very heterogeneous renewable raw materials for polyols and polyurethanes. This review discusses the specific nature of vegetable oils and the effect of their structures on the structure of polyols and polyurethanes. One section is dedicated to polyols for rigid and flexible foams and methods of their preparation such as direct oxidation of oils, epoxidation followed

Zoran S. Petrovi?

2008-01-01

9

Vegetable oils as core of cationic polymeric nanocapsules: influence on the physicochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils might be alternatives to mineral or synthetic oils used in nanostructured systems for cutaneous application, due to their advantages with regard to skin care and protection. In this study, we propose the use of vegetable oils (Brazil nut, sunflower seed, olive, rose hip, grape seed and carrot oils) as oily core of Eudragit RS100® nanocapsules and determine their

Renata V. Contri; Kênia L. F. Ribeiro; Luana A. Fiel; Adriana R. Pohlmann; Silvia S. Guterres

2012-01-01

10

Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud

S. L. Dmytryshyn; A. K. Dalai; S. T. Chaudhari; H. K. Mishra; M. J. Reaney

2004-01-01

11

Density and viscosity of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized method was developed to estimate the liquid density of vegetable oils and fatty acids. The correlation for vegetable\\u000a oils was based on fatty acid critical properties and composition of the oil. The correlations predicted the density of vegetable\\u000a oils and fatty acids with an average absolute deviation of 0.21 and 0.77%, respectively. The present method is slightly more

C. M. Rodenbush; F. H. Hsieh; D. S. Viswanath

1999-01-01

12

Epoxidized Vegetable Oils Plasticized Poly(lactic acid) Biocomposites: Mechanical, Thermal and Morphology Properties.  

PubMed

Plasticized poly(lactic acid) PLA with epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO) were prepared using a melt blending method to improve the ductility of PLA. The plasticization of the PLA with EVO lowers the Tg as well as cold-crystallization temperature. The tensile properties demonstrated that the addition of EVO to PLA led to an increase of elongation at break, but a decrease of tensile modulus. Plasticized PLA showed improvement in the elongation at break by 2058% and 4060% with the addition of 5 wt % epoxidized palm oil (EPO) and mixture of epoxidized palm oil and soybean oil (EPSO), respectively. An increase in the tensile strength was also observed in the plasticized PLA with 1 wt % EPO and EPSO. The use of EVO increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The SEM micrograph of the plasticized PLA showed good compatible morphologies without voids resulting from good interfacial adhesion between PLA and EVO. Based on the results of this study, EVO may be used as an environmentally friendly plasticizer that can improve the overall properties of PLA. PMID:25299820

Chieng, Buong Woei; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Then, Yoon Yee; Loo, Yuet Ying

2014-01-01

13

Estimation of the sharma constant and thermoacoustic properties of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density and volume of four Indian edible vegetable oils, sunflower, rice bran, groundnut and coconut, and one Indian nonedible\\u000a oil, castor oil, have been experimentally determined. The values obtained were used to estimate the volume expansivity ?,\\u000a hence the thermoacoustic parameters, such as the Sharma constantS\\u000a 0, the isochoric temperature coefficient of internal pressure\\u000a $$\\\\left[ {\\\\frac{{dlnPi}}{{dlnT}}} \\\\right]_V $$\\u000a ,

M. S. R. Subrahmanyam; H. Sumathi Vedanayagam; P. Venkatacharyulu

1994-01-01

14

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

15

Key properties and blending strategies of hydrotreated vegetable oil as biofuel for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrotreating catalysis is becoming a promising alternative to transesterification for the production of biofuels derived from vegetable oils. They have potential advantages with respect to both biodiesel fuels and petroleum-derived diesel fuels in terms of production costs, engine emissions and adaptability to current engine designs, but they have also some limitations which may restrict their capability to replace diesel fuels.

Magín Lapuerta; Monserrat Villajos; John R. Agudelo; André L. Boehman

2011-01-01

16

Characterization of Isopropanol Extracted Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of crushed seeds and grains of fourteen vegetables-Zea mays, Penisettum americanum, Sorghum bicolor, Citrullus lanatus, Citrullus coloncythis, Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis, Sesame indica, Theobroma cacao, Arachis hypogea, Butyrospermum paradoxum, Telefaria occidentalis, Mangifera indica and Irvingia gabonensis were extracted for their oils using isopropanol as solvent. The oils obtained were characterized by determining their physicochemical properties. The results obtained were:

F. O. Oyedeji; R. A. Oderinde

2006-01-01

17

Vegetable oils for tractors  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

Moroney, M.

1981-11-14

18

Optimisation of physical and mechanical properties of rubber compounds by response surface methodology––Two component modelling using vegetable oil and carbon black  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology was used for predicting the optimal composition of vegetable oil and carbon black in rubber compounding. Central composite rotatable design for two variables at five levels was chosen as the experimental design. The data obtained from measurement of properties was fitted as a two variable second order equation and were plotted as contour plots using programme developed

T. R. Kukreja; D. Kumar; K. Prasad; R. C. Chauhan; S. Choe; P. P. Kundu

2002-01-01

19

Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil  

E-print Network

Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who...

Lin, Lan

2012-06-07

20

Vegetable oil production in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  From this short description it may be concluded that in Brazil there already exist good factories for the extraction of cottonseed\\u000a oil by the American process, good refineries and factories for vegetable butter and similar products, and that it would be\\u000a in the interests of American capitalists to study the possibilities of this industry in Brazil. In 1928 Brazil exported

J. B. de Moraes Carvalho

1929-01-01

21

A Comparative Study of the Properties of Selected Melon Seed Oils as Potential Candidates for Development into Commercial Edible Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive compositional and characterization study was carried out on five seed oils from varieties of the melons Citrullus lanatus and C. colocynth in order to evaluate their suitability for large-scale exploitation as edible vegetable oils. The oils were extracted by\\u000a Soxhlet with a 3:1 mixture of n-hexane\\/2-propanol with yields that ranged from 24.8 to 30.0% (wt\\/wt). The refractive indices

M. B. Mabaleha; Y. C. Mitei; S. O. Yeboah

2007-01-01

22

Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

2008-08-01

23

Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil-based polyurethane dispersions.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation discusses the synthesis and characterization of environmentally-friendly waterborne vegetable oil-based polyurethane dispersions and their resulting films. The thermal and mechanical properties of the… (more)

Garrison, Thomas Frederick

2013-01-01

24

Vegetable oil replacements for petroleum oil adjuvants in Herbicide sprays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to observe plant response to vegetable oil sprays and to learn if vegetable oils — sunflower,\\u000a soybean, linseed, or camelina — can replace petroleum oil as an herbicide adjuvant.\\u000a \\u000a Vegetable oils were sprayed on grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) at 4 7 L\\/ha and were neither harmful nor

R. G. Robinson; W. W. Nelson

1975-01-01

25

Enhancing the oxidative stability of vegetable oils using metal oxide additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils have gained popularity as a dielectric material. It is an effective replacement for mineral oil due to its biodegradability, eco-friendly disposal and many other attractive properties. However, unsaturated bonds in the vegetable oil molecules makes them prone to oxidation. The mechanism of oxidation of oil is very similar to that of butene. This thesis studies the effect of

Varrun Ashok

2011-01-01

26

Authentication of vegetable oils on the basis of their physico-chemical properties with the aid of chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In food production, reliable analytical methods for confirmation of purity or degree of spoilage are required by growers, food quality assessors, processors, and consumers. Seven parameters of physico-chemical properties, such as acid number, colority, density, refractive index, moisture and volatility, saponification value and peroxide value, were measured for quality and adulterated soybean, as well as quality and rancid rapeseed oils.

Guowen Zhang; Yongnian Ni; Jane Churchill; Serge Kokot

2006-01-01

27

Ozonized vegetable oil as pour point depressant for neat biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ozonized vegetable oils as pour point depressant for neat biodiesel was evaluated. Ozonized vegetable oils (1–1.5% by weight) were effective in reducing the pour point of biodiesel prepared from sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil to ?24, ?12 and ?30°C, respectively. Cloud point however remained unaffected. In the case of palm oil biodiesel, significant reduction was

Nestor U. Soriano; Veronica P. Migo; Masatoshi Matsumura

2006-01-01

28

Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

29

Practical aspects of analyzing vegetable oils in fire debris.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils undergo burning, self-heating, and spontaneous ignition, resulting in their presence in fire debris. As these processes can affect the fatty acid content of vegetable oils, it is important that debris be properly handled in order to obtain reliable and informative data. This research investigated changes in vegetable oil content as a result of storage conditions and different types of burning. Material spiked with vegetable oils and burned was stored under various long-term conditions, and debris was tested by heating overnight using passive headspace concentration. Results indicated that refrigeration is ideal for fire debris samples suspected of containing vegetable oils and that including passive headspace concentration in the analytical scheme would not affect oils. Spontaneous ignition experiments were conducted to compare the effects of various burning processes on vegetable oil content. Vegetable oils that experienced nonpiloted ignition, self-heating, and spontaneous ignition produced noticeably different chromatograms from those that underwent piloted ignition. PMID:19467135

Schwenk, Lisa M; Reardon, Michelle R

2009-07-01

30

Densities of vegetable oils and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete data for density as a function of temperature have been measured for a number of vegetable oils (crambe, rapeseed,\\u000a corn, soybean, milkweed, coconut, lesquerella), as well as eight fatty acids in the range C9 to C22 at temperatures from above their melting points to 110C (230F). The specific gravity and density measurements were performed\\u000a according to American Society for

H. Noureddini; B. C. Teoh; L. Davis Clements

1992-01-01

31

Determination of tocopherols in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid (ten minute) and selective method for measuring individual tocopherols found in vegetable oils has been developed\\u000a using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet absorbance detection. The samples are analyzed directly\\u000a following dissolution in the mobile phase. ? -and ?-tocopherols are quantitated based upon their peak areas relative to standard\\u000a calibration curves. The measurement of ? - and

1979-01-01

32

Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

None

2012-01-01

33

Surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process: N2 sorption and XPS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the type of the silica gel pore structure on the surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process has been examined applying N2 sorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The nickel catalyst precursors with identical composition (SiO2/Ni = 1.0) has been synthesized by precipitation of Ni(NO3)2 · 6H2O solution with Na2CO3 solution on the three types of silica gel with different pore structures. It is shown that the usage of the silica gel supports with different texture as source of SiO2 causes different location of Ni-species into the support pores and on the external surface area. The XPS data confirm the formation of surface species with different strength of interaction and different dispersion. These surface characteristics of the precursors will predetermine the formation of the active nickel metallic phase as well as the mass transfer of the reactants and products to and from the catalytic sites.

Nikolova, D.; Krsti?, J.; Spasov, L.; Simeonov, D.; Lon?arevi?, D.; Stefanov, Pl.; Jovanovi?, D.

2011-12-01

34

Oxidation Stability and Tribological Behavior of Vegetable Oil Hydraulic Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new generation of vegetable oil hydraulic fluids has a price advantage and provides field longevity comparable to synthetic esters at moderate temperature.This article investigates the oxidation stability and tribological behavior of fully formulated vegetable oil hydraulic fluids. Differences in origin (canola, soybean, and sunflower oil) and the degree of unsaturation are studied. Modified ASTM D943 (Dry TOST) was found

Alla M. Petlyuk; Richard J. Adams

2004-01-01

35

The density and cloud point of diesel oil mixtures with the straight vegetable oils (SVO): Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The densities and cloud points of six vegetable oils mixed in variable proportions to diesel oils (commercial vehicle fuels) are measured. Simple correlations are reported between these properties and the fatty acids vegetable oil composition. A simple modelling summarises experimental data informations.

Abollé Abollé; Kouakou Loukou; Planche Henri

2009-01-01

36

Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim

Wanignon Ferdinand Fassinou; Aboubakar Sako; Alhassane Fofana; Kamenan Blaise Koua; Siaka Toure

2010-01-01

37

Direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus culture using vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A green, downstream process using common vegetable oils was used for the direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus. The process consists of a single integrated unit to extract astaxanthin with subsequent separation of the astaxanthin-containing oil extract. Without a cell harvest process step, the culture broth was directly mixed with the vegetable oils; the astaxanthin inside the cell was extracted into the vegetable oil phase by hydrophobic interactions, with recovery yields of 88% and above. The oil extracts were simply separated from the culture medium containing cell debris by gravity settling only. PMID:17972016

Kang, Chang Duk; Sim, Sang Jun

2008-03-01

38

New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the growing global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial uses.  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of oilseed metabolism and in the development of new oilseed platforms and metabolic engineering technologies.

Lu, C; Napier, JA; Clemente, TE; Cahoon, EB

2011-01-01

39

Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production processes using fresh and waste vegetable oil and supercritical methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three continuous biodiesel processes with production capacity of 40,000 tonne\\/yr, including a conventional alkali-catalyzed process using both fresh and waste vegetable oil and a supercritical methanol process using waste vegetable oil as the raw material, were simulated in HYSYS. In order to improve the simulation accuracy, the properties of triolein, a model compound of vegetable oil, were re-evaluated. The normal

Soojin Lee; Dusko Posarac; Naoko Ellis

40

Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills  

EPA Science Inventory

A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

41

Biodiesel production from vegetable oils by supercritical methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification of vegetable oils in supercritical methanol are carried out without using any catalyst. Methyl esters of vegetable oils or biodiesels have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives and can be used in any diesel engine without modification. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are molar ratio of

Ayhan Demirbas

42

Ultrasonic energy effect on vegetable oil based biodiesel synthetic process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing process of vegetable oil based biodiesel was introduced in experimental manner. Ultrasonic energy was irradiated to induce the transesterification of the vegetable oil. The ultrasonic irradiation had two effects, those were heating and mixing of the reactants. We performed the experiment under various manufacturing parameters, viz. the ultrasonic irradiation time, sonic power, and irradiation type at constant reaction

Seung Bum Lee; Jae Dong Lee; In Kwon Hong

2011-01-01

43

Biodiesel Fuel Production from Vegetable Oils via Supercritical Ethanol Transesterification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the production and characterization of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils as well as the experimental work carried out via supercritical ethanol transesterification. Biodiesel, which can be used as an alternative diesel fuel, is made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oil and animal fats. More than 100 years ago, a brilliant inventor named Rudolph Diesel designed

M. Balat

2008-01-01

44

ForPeerReview From vegetable oils to polyurethanes: synthetic routes to  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview Only From vegetable oils to polyurethanes: synthetic routes to polyols and main polyols, polyurethanes, epoxidized vegetable oils, commercial polyols URL: http From vegetable oils to polyurethanes: synthetic routes to polyols and main industrial products Myriam

Boyer, Edmond

45

Direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus culture using vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A green, downstream process using common vegetable oils was used for the direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus. The process consists of a single integrated unit to extract astaxanthin with subsequent separation of the astaxanthin-containing\\u000a oil extract. Without a cell harvest process step, the culture broth was directly mixed with the vegetable oils; the astaxanthin\\u000a inside the cell was extracted

Chang Duk Kang; Sang Jun Sim

2008-01-01

46

Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

2012-12-01

47

Extraction, derivatization, and analysis of vegetable oils from fire debris.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils have the ability to spontaneously heat under certain conditions, which may lead to spontaneous ignition. While the oils are not often encountered in forensic casework, they may be suspected in some fire cases. As these oils are not effectively analyzed using traditional fire debris analysis methods, a protocol must be established for extracting vegetable oils from fire debris. In this study, a protocol was developed for the extraction, derivatization, and analysis of vegetable oils from fire debris. Three derivatization methods were compared to establish an optimal derivatization procedure to convert the fatty acids found in vegetable oils to the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) used in analysis. Three different gas chromatograph columns and programs were examined to determine which was best suited for the separation and analysis of FAMEs. The procedure was tested and refined using a variety of neat and burned vegetable oils, in addition to extractions from oils burned on commonly encountered fire debris materials. The findings of this research will serve as a starting point for further understanding and research of vegetable oils in fire debris. PMID:18808371

Gambrel, Abby K; Reardon, Michelle R

2008-11-01

48

Synthesis and applications of vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents on cotton fabrics.  

PubMed

Vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents were prepared by chemical modifications of different vegetable oils - soybean and linseed oils through several reactions, including saponification, acidification, acylation of vegetable oil and trans-esterification with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol. The resulted fluorocarbon agents were then copolymerized with styrene. The structures of the vegetable oil based agents were characterized by FT-IR and NMR. By evaluating water contact angle and time of water disappearance on cotton fabrics, as well as whiteness and breaking strength of cotton fabrics that were treated by these agents, optimum fabric finishing conditions were explored. The cotton fabrics finished with the vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon agents showed excellent water repellency, while other properties of the cotton fabrics declined to certain level. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent displayed the highest water repellency among all modified oils. All the treated fabrics exhibited good durability of water repellency. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent demonstrated the best durability among all repellent agents. PMID:24750623

Zhao, Tao; Zheng, Junzhi; Sun, Gang

2012-06-01

49

Performance of vegetable oils as a heat treat quenchant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to establish as a reference the base line performance of several vegetable oils as a quench medium. Furthermore, the project was funded by the Iowa Soybean Promotion Board to investigate the potential use of soybean oil as a quench medium. Several commodity and genetically modified seed oils (high oleic) were first tested in a {open_quotes}quenchalizer{close_quotes}. Also, 300 pieces of SAE 1524 steel bars were heat treated and quenched in a chemically modified (partially hydrogenated) soybean oil and in a control (paraffin) oil. Results included changes in the oil in terms of viscosity and cooling rate and in the steel in terms of hardness. Vegetable oils can perform as quench media, but they would require treatment to improve oxidative stability among others. Advantages of vegetable-based quenchants include: renewability, environmental-friendliness and potential benefits in terms of human safety and higher flash point.

Honary, L.A.T. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Waverly, IA (United States)

1996-12-31

50

Study of the co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil for hydrocarbon oil production.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon oil was obtained by co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil in the work. Results showed the weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil exerted a great effect on the quality of obtained hydrocarbon oil. The optimum weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil was 4.4:1, when alkanes with the content of 50.43% were detected in obtained hydrocarbon oil, with lower oxygen content of 2.52%, which resulted in higher calorific value-up to 43.36 MJ kg(-1). At the same time, removal rate of carbonyl group of vegetable oil in the mixture reached at least 75.11%. The overall efficiency of the deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and the decarboxylation of vegetable oil were both enhanced by adding vegetable oil into biomass. Compared with the oils obtained from vegetable oil and biomass, respectively, distribution of hydrocarbon oil obtained from the mixture was much more similar to that of diesel oil. PMID:20153171

Chen, Yigang; Wang, Chao; Lu, Weipeng; Yang, Zhengyu

2010-06-01

51

Processing biomass in conventional oil refineries: Production of high quality diesel by hydrotreating vegetable oils in heavy vacuum oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable liquid alkanes can be produced by hydrotreating of vegetable oils and vegetable oil–heavy vacuum oil (HVO) mixtures at standard hydrotreating conditions (i.e. 300–450°C) with conventional hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided NiMo\\/Al2O3). The reaction pathway involves hydrogenation of the CC bonds of the vegetable oils followed by alkane production by three different pathways: decarbonylation, decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. The straight chain alkanes can

George W. Huber; Paul O’Connor; Avelino Corma

2007-01-01

52

Vegetable oil enhances sophorolipid production by Rhodotorula bogoriensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Rhodotorula bogorensis produces sophorolipids of different structures to those produced by Candida bombicola. However, the yield is very low. To improve sophorolipid production by R. bogoriensis, vegetable oil was supplemented to the medium as a hydrophobic substrate: with rapeseed oil the sophorolipid yield was 1.26 g\\/l\\u000a but without oil was 0.33 g\\/l. Cultures with meadowfoam oil produced 0.77 g sophorolipids\\/l. Lipase-treated

Jinxin ZhangKaren; Karen M. J. Saerens; Inge N. A. Van Bogaert; Wim Soetaert

53

Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

Farines, Marie; And Others

1988-01-01

54

Supercritical fluid extraction of minor components of vegetable oils: ?-Sitosterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts of valuable vegetable oils containing a number of minor components (sterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, etc.) have added value as pharmaceuticals and food additives. Beta-sitosterol (BS) as minor component of vegetable oil was extracted from ground seeds of sea buckthorn with supercritical CO2 at pressures 15–60MPa and temperatures 40–80°C. The changes in the BS content in extract in the course

Helena Sovová; Anatolii A. Galushko; Roumiana P. Stateva; Kristina Rochová; Marie Sajfrtová; Milena Bártlová

2010-01-01

55

Fatty Acid Composition, Oxidative Stability, and Radical Scavenging Activity of Vegetable Oil Blends with Coconut Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) contains 55–65% oil, having C12:0 as the major fatty acid. Coconut oil has >90% saturates and is deficient in monounsaturates\\u000a (6%), polyunsaturates (1%), and total tocopherols (29 mg\\/kg). However, coconut oil contains medium chain fatty acids (58%),\\u000a which are easily absorbed into the body. Therefore, blends of coconut oil (20–80% incorporation of coconut oil) with other\\u000a vegetable oils

A. S. Bhatnagar; P. K. Prasanth Kumar; J. Hemavathy; A. G. Gopala Krishna

2009-01-01

56

Biodiesel Production Facilities from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, and used cooking oil including triglycerides. Biodiesel, an alternative biodegradable diesel fuel, is derived from triglycerides by transesterification with methanol and ethanol. Concerns about the depletion of diesel fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make biodiesel an attractive alternative motor fuel

A. Demirbas; S. Karslioglu

2007-01-01

57

Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender - A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of literature concerning using vegetable oils as a replacement for diesel fuel. The term vegetable oils as used in this paper refers to vegetable oils which have not been modified by transesterification or similar processes to form what is called biodiesel. The oils studied include virgin and used oils of various types including soy, rapeseed,

Sam Jones; Charles L. Peterson

58

Vegetable oil enhances sophorolipid production by Rhodotorula bogoriensis.  

PubMed

The yeast Rhodotorula bogorensis produces sophorolipids of different structures to those produced by Candida bombicola. However, the yield is very low. To improve sophorolipid production by R. bogoriensis, vegetable oil was supplemented to the medium as a hydrophobic substrate: with rapeseed oil the sophorolipid yield was 1.26 g/l but without oil was 0.33 g/l. Cultures with meadowfoam oil produced 0.77 g sophorolipids/l. Lipase-treated meadowfoam oil, however, gave no significant increase in sophorolipid production. Possible explanations for the enhanced sophorolipid synthesis are discussed. PMID:21769647

Zhang, Jinxin; Saerens, Karen M J; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

2011-12-01

59

Vegetable Oil Spills On Salt Marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the wreck of the M.V. Kimya during which 1500 tonnes of sunflower oil was spilled, sandy sediments bound together with sunflower oil were discovered on the beach. These are still present 2½ years later. Sunflower and linseed oil were applied to salt marsh sediments to reproduce potential spills. Cores were taken and the vertical migration and degradation rates determined.

Stephen M. Mudge; Ian D. Goodchild; Matthew Wheeler

1995-01-01

60

Chemical modification of vegetable oils for lubricant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the unfavorable impact on the environment of mineral oil-based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the\\u000a demand for biodegradable, environment-friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace\\u000a or partially substitute conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable\\u000a and are thus promising candidates as base fluids

Brajendra K. Sharma; Atanu Adhvaryu; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

2006-01-01

61

Biodegradable Photo-Crosslinked Thin Polymer Networks Based on Vegetable Oil Hydroxy Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel crosslinked thin polymer networks based on vegetable oil hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) were prepared by UV photopolymerization\\u000a and their mechanical properties were evaluated. Two raw materials, castor oil and 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) were used as sources of mono- and di-HFAs, respectively. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate\\u000a and poly(?-caprolactone) diacrylate were synthesized and used as crosslinking agents to form crosslinked polymer

Han-Min Kim; Hak-Ryul Kim; Ching T. Hou; Beom Soo Kim

2010-01-01

62

Physical, chemical and fuel related properties of tomato seed oil for evaluating its direct use in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil was extracted from tomato seeds, tested for several important alternative fuel properties and compared with other vegetable oils. The oil yield of tomato seeds is about 35% on a dry weight basis. This vegetable oil has low volatility, low sulphur, low ash content, and high viscosity. Cetane number, density as well as the cold flow properties are similar to

P. N. Giannelos; S. Sxizas; E. Lois; F. Zannikos; G. Anastopoulos

2005-01-01

63

Rapid screening of biologically modified vegetable oils for fuel performance  

SciTech Connect

A process for the rapid screening of alternative diesel fuel performance was applied to analogues of genetically modified vegetable oils and a mixture with no. 2 diesel fuel. The oils examined contained 60 to 70% of low molecular weight, short-chain, saturated triglycerides compared to the 1 to 2% found in traditional vegetable oils. These oils have relatively low viscosity that is predicted to enhance their performance as alternative diesel fuels. The screening process utilizes an engine torque test sequence that accelerates the tendency of diesel fuels to coke fuel injectors, a key indicator of fuel performance. The results of the tests were evaluated using a computer vision system for the rapid quantification of injector coking. The results of the screen were compared to those using no. 2 diesel fuel as a baseline. Coke deposition from the modified vegetable oil analogues was not found to be significantly different than deposition from diesel fuel. Suggestions are made to guide further modification of vegetable oil biosynthesis for the production of alternative diesel fuel.

Geller, D.P.; Goodrum, J.W.; Campbell, C.C.

1999-08-01

64

Cooling rate effects on the microstructure, solid content, and rheological properties of organogels of amides derived from stearic and (R)-12-hydroxystearic acid in vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Using safflower oil as the liquid phase, we investigated the organogelation properties of stearic acid (SA), (R)-12-hydroxystearic acid (HSA), and different primary and secondary amides synthesized from SA and HSA. The objective was to establish the relationship between the gelator's molecular structure, solid content, and gels' microstructure that determines the rheological properties of organogels developed at two cooling rates, 1 and 20 °C/min. The results showed that the presence of a 12-OH group in the gelator molecule makes its crystallization kinetics cooling rate dependent and modifies its crystallization behavior. Thus, SA crystallizes as large platelets, while HSA crystallizes as fibers forming gels with higher solid content, particularly at 20 °C/min. The addition to HSA of a primary or a secondary amide bonded with an alkyl group resulted in gelator molecules that crystallized as fibrillar spherulites at both cooling rates. Independent of the cooling rate, gels of HSA and its amide derivatives showed thixotropic behavior. The rheological properties of the amide's organogels depend on a balance between hydrogen-bonding sites and the alkyl chain length bonded to the amide group. However, it might also be associated with the effect that the gelators' molecular weight has on crystal growth and its consequence on fiber interpenetration among vicinal spherulites. These results were compared with those obtained with candelilla wax (CW), a well-known edible gelling additive used by the food industry. CW organogels had higher elasticity than HSA gels but lower than the gels formed by amides. Additionally, CW gels showed similar or even higher thixotropic behavior than HSA and the amide's gels. These remarkable rheological properties resulted from the microstructural organization of CW organogels. We concluded that microstructure has a more important role determining the organogels' rheology than the solid content. The fitting models developed to describe the organogels rheological behavior support this argument. PMID:23697446

Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F; Morales-Rueda, Juan; Torres-Martínez, Adriana; Charó-Alonso, Miriam A; Mallia, V Ajay; Weiss, Richard G

2013-06-25

65

The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), ?-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and ?-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

2014-12-01

66

PROCESSING OF PURE VEGETABLE OILS IN A CONTINUOUS FCC PILOT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic objective of the presented work is the application of vegetable oils as an alternative CO2-neutral feedstock for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC). The experimental test program was conducted in a fully continuously operated FCC pilot plant with intern CFB-design at Vienna University of Technology. Vegetable oils with the highest global production (soy bean oil, palm oil and rapeseed oil)

Peter Bielansky; Alexander Reichhold; Christoph Schönberger

2011-01-01

67

Medium-chain sugar amphiphiles: a new family of healthy vegetable oil structuring agents.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are frequently structured to enhance their organoleptic and mechanical properties. This is usually achieved by increasing the net amount of saturated and/or trans fatty acids in the oil. With the risk of coronary heart diseases associated with these fatty acids, the food industry is looking for better alternatives. In this context, the medium-chain dialkanoates of low-calorie sugars (sugar alcohol dioctanoates) are investigated as a healthy alternative structuring agent. Precursors of sugar amphiphiles, being FDA-approved GRAS materials, exhibited high cell viability at a concentration ~50 ?g/mL. They readily formed nanoscale multilayered structures in an oil matrix to form a coherent network at low concentrations (1-3 wt %/v), which immobilized a wide range of oils (canola, soybean, and grapeseed oils). The structuring efficiency of sugar amphiphiles was computed in terms of mechanical, thermal, and structural properties and found to be a function of its type and concentration. PMID:24236574

Jadhav, Swapnil R; Hwang, Hyeondo; Huang, Qingrong; John, George

2013-12-11

68

Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric

Phillip H. Henna

2008-01-01

69

33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that...MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities...

2012-07-01

70

Hydrocarbons for diesel fuel via decarboxylation of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxygenation reaction of vegetable oils over a carbon-supported metal catalyst was studied as a suitable reaction for production of diesel-fuel-like hydrocarbons. Stearic acid, ethyl stearate, and tristearine have been used as model compounds. Catalytic treatment of all the three reactants resulted in production of n-heptadecane as the main product with high selectivity.

Iva Kubi?ková; Mathias Snåre; Kari Eränen; Päivi Mäki-Arvela; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

2005-01-01

71

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of the Triglycerides Present in Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of supercritical carbon dioxide to extract the triglycerides present in vegetable oils was studied over a temperature range of 40 to 80°C and at pressures of 100 to 300 bar. The solubility of the triglycerides was found to be dependent upon the solvent density and the solute volatility. Minimal selectivity for the different molecular weight triglycerides was observed

K. D. Tilly; R. P. Chaplin; N. R. Foster

1990-01-01

72

Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

2014-07-01

73

Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

2006-01-01

74

Preparation of foams from vegetable oil derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimer acid was hydroxyethylated at 110–240C in the presence of alkaline catalysts. Products having ethylene oxide: dimer acid\\u000a mole ratios of 0.8 to 1.4 were transformed into flexible urethane foams of density 2.0 to 4.4 lb\\/ft3. Hydrogenated “aldehyde oil” gave a rigid foam which had a density of 1.2 lb\\/ft3.

C. M. Thierfelder; H. M. Teeter; J. C. Cowan

1962-01-01

75

Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels.  

PubMed

A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in the cleanup of oiled sands (up to 96%) than recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel (70%). In microcosm and mesocosm experiments, oiled sediments were sprayed with biodiesel and subjected to simulated tides. Microcosm experiments revealed that, of those tested, the highest ratio of biodiesel to crude oil, had the highest effectiveness for cleaning fine sands, with ratios of 2:1 (biodiesel:crude oil) giving the best results. In the mesocosm experiments a ratio 1:1 of soybean biodiesel to crude oil removed 80% of the oil in cobbles and fine sands, 50% in coarse sand and 30% in gravel. Most of the oil was removed with the surface water, with only a small amount being flushed through the sediments. Particle size and pore size were important determinants in the cleanup and mobility of crude oil in the sediments in these static systems. It is expected that the biodiesel effectiveness should improve in the natural environment particularly in exposed beaches with strong wave action. However, more laboratory and field trials are required to confirm the operational use of biodiesel as a shoreline cleaner. PMID:14575742

Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M

2004-01-01

76

Synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil with large amounts of free fatty acids using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of carbonized vegetable oil asphalt. This catalyst was employed to simultaneously catalyze esterification and transesterification to synthesis biodiesel when a waste vegetable oil with large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of this catalyst were characterized by a variety of techniques.

Qing Shu; Jixian Gao; Zeeshan Nawaz; Yuhui Liao; Dezheng Wang; Jinfu Wang

2010-01-01

77

Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

Lugo, Yarely

78

Formation of headspace volatiles by thermal decomposition of oxidized fish oils vs. oxidized vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the reasons for differences in oxidative stability among edible oils, the temperature dependence was investigated\\u000a for the development of volatile lipid oxidation products in fish oils and in vegetable oils. A rapid headspace capillary gas\\u000a chromatographic method was developed to determine volatile oxidation products of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fats (pentane\\u000a and hexanal) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fats (propanal)

E. N. Frankel

1993-01-01

79

Coconut oil as base oil for industrial lubricants—evaluation and modification of thermal, oxidative and low temperature properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of coconut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil and a commercial 2T oil under nitrogen and oxygen environment to study their thermal and oxidative degradation and the analysis of the low-temperature properties of the vegetable oils using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A molecular dynamics simulation software (Spartan 02, Wavefunction Inc.) has been used to

N. H. Jayadas; K. Prabhakaran Nair

2006-01-01

80

Interaction of packaging materials and vegetable oils: oil stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different plastic films (polyethyleneterephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polypropylene and polystyrene) on the stability of olive, sunflower and palm oils were studied at 24 and 37°C during 60 days of storage. The changes in peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) were significantly higher (p?0.05) in the plastic bottles than in glass. Our study indicates that the plastic permeability

M. S Tawfik; A Huyghebaert

1999-01-01

81

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to

Philip Mercurio; Andrew P Negri; Kathryn A Burns; Andrew J Heyward

2004-01-01

82

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na2SO4 dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with

Umran Tezcan Un; A. Savas Koparal; Ulker Bakir Ogutveren

2009-01-01

83

Density estimation for fatty acids and vegetable oils based on their fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid density of fatty acids can be accurately estimated by the modified Rackett equation over a wide range of temperatures.\\u000a The modified Rackett equation requires the critical properties and an empirical parameter,Z\\u000a \\u000a RA\\u000a , for each acid as the basis for computing density as a function of temperature. The liquid density of vegetable oils can\\u000a be estimated by using

J. D. Halvorsen; L. D. Clements

1993-01-01

84

Properties of biodiesel oils formulated using different biomass sources and their blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel which can be obtained from the transesterification of vegetable oils with simple alcohols. This process decreases the viscosity, density and flash point of the raw material. The biodiesel molecular structure, consisting of linear esters, allows similar physical–chemical properties compared to mineral diesel oil. Some important properties of the oil, such as viscosity, melting point,

M. C. G. Albuquerque; Y. L. Machado; A. E. B. Torres; D. C. S. Azevedo; C CAVALCANTEJR; L. R. Firmiano; E. J. S. Parente

2009-01-01

85

Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.  

PubMed

Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m?³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

2013-02-01

86

Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.  

PubMed

In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. PMID:25151441

Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

2014-11-01

87

Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

2014-06-01

88

Reduction of epoxidized vegetable oils: a novel method to prepare bio-based polyols for polyurethanes.  

PubMed

A novel method, epoxidation/reduction of vegetable oils, is developed to prepare bio-based polyols for the manufacture of polyurethanes (PUs). These polyols are synthesized from castor oil (CO), epoxidized soybean oil, and epoxidized linseed oil and their molecular structures are characterized. They are used to prepare a variety of PUs, and their thermomechanical properties are compared to those of PU made with petroleum-based polyol (P-450). It is shown that PUs made with polyols from soybean and linseed oil exhibit higher glass transition temperatures, tensile strength, and Young's modulus and PU made with polyol from CO exhibits higher elongation at break and toughness than PU made with P-450. However, PU made with P-450 displays better thermal resistance because of tri-ester structure and terminal functional groups. The method provides a versatile way to prepare bio-polyols from vegetable oils, and it is expected to partially or completely replace petroleum-based polyols in PUs manufacture. PMID:24668919

Zhang, Chaoqun; Ding, Rui; Kessler, Michael R

2014-06-01

89

Use of hydrogen to enhance the performance of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of vegetable oils in unmodified diesel engines leads to reduced thermal efficiency and increased smoke levels. In this work, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance while using small quantities of hydrogen in a compression ignition engine primarily fuelled with a vegetable oil, namely Jatropha oil. A single cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine designed to develop a power output

M. Senthil Kumar; A. Ramesh; B. Nagalingam

2003-01-01

90

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

2009-07-01

91

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils].  

PubMed

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

2009-01-01

92

Thermal Properties of oil sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

2013-12-01

93

A review of the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples: spontaneous ignition, vegetable oils, and the forensic approach.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the literature on the analysis of vegetable (and animal) oil residues from fire debris samples. The process of self-heating and spontaneous ignition is well-known by fire investigators and causes many fires. Vegetable oils are often the chemicals that originate such phenomenon. Vegetable oils are composed of lipids, which contain fatty acids. The autooxidation of the double bonds present in unsaturated fatty acids is the exothermic reaction at the origin of the self-heating process. The degree of unsaturation of fatty acids directly influences the propensity of an oil to undergo self-heating and, eventually, spontaneous ignition. When fire debris samples are collected, it is possible to examine them at the laboratory to extract and identify vegetable oil residues. This is typically performed by solvent extraction, followed by gas chromatographic(-mass spectrometric) analysis of the extract. Such analyses differ from ignitable liquid residue analyses, so a different forensic approach is necessary. PMID:16225213

Stauffer, Eric

2005-09-01

94

Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.  

PubMed

With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 ?g/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention. PMID:24016262

Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

2013-10-01

95

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives.  

PubMed

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products annually. This aqueous stream is rich in phenolic antioxidants, which were investigated for their composition and potential in vitro biological activity. We have identified three isomers of caffeoylshikimic acid as major components of oil palm phenolics (OPP). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay confirmed potent free radical scavenging activity. To test for possible cardioprotective effects of OPP, we carried out in vitro LDL oxidation studies as well as ex vivo aortic ring and mesenteric vascular bed relaxation measurements. We found that OPP inhibited the Cu-mediated oxidation of human LDL. OPP also promoted vascular relaxation in both isolated aortic rings and perfused mesenteric vascular beds pre-contracted with noradrenaline. To rule out developmental toxicity, we performed teratological studies on rats up to the third generation and did not find any congenital anomalies. Thus, these initial studies suggest that OPP is safe and may have a protective role against free radical damage, LDL oxidation and its attendant negative effects, as well as vascular constriction in mitigating atherosclerosis. Oil palm vegetation liquor thus represents a new source of phenolic bioactives. PMID:21736792

Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, YewAi; Sundram, Kalyana; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Sambandan, T G; Rha, ChoKyun; Sinskey, Anthony J; Subramaniam, Krishnan; Leow, Soon-Sen; Hayes, Kenneth C; Wahid, Mohd Basri

2011-12-01

96

Reactivity of vegetable oil macromonomers in thiol-ene, cationic, and emulsion polymerizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oils were, and continue, to be a mainstay in unsaturated polyester ("alkyd") technology. Our endeavor is to use vegetable oil-based polymers in environmentally-friendly coatings. The role of vegetable oil cis-unsaturation has not been fully explored in polymers. To that end, vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) in three different systems were investigated to determine the involvement of cis-unsaturation in chain transfer, auto-oxidation, and copolymerization reactions. VOMMs were incorporated into UV curable thiol-ene coatings, UV cationic coatings, and acrylic solution copolymers and fundamental studies were conducted to determine how and to what extent cis-unsaturation contributes to film performance properties. In thiol-ene UV curable coatings, cis-unsaturation was involved in the initial curing reaction and to lesser degrees, in postcure crosslinking. Its behavior was determined to be dependent on the ene component. Thiol-ene photopolymerization yielded homogeneous networks but formulations containing VOMMs exhibited greater heterogeneity due to non-uniformity in the VOMM chemical structures, and the concurrent reactions occurring during thiol-ene photopolymerization and "dark cure". Partially epoxidized soybean oil was synthesized to contain varying levels of residual cis-unsaturation. Cationic photopolymerization of partially epoxidized soybean oil yielded lightly crosslinked films, but the influence of free radical decomposition byproducts has not been fully investigated. The low involvement of the cis-unsaturation in photopolymerization was attributed to its low reactivity and/or radical combination with antioxidants and molecular oxygen dissolved in the films. When used in emulsion polymerization, VOMMs lower the minimum filming temperature during coalescence and increase the Tg after application via auto-oxidation. Free radical polymerization of VOMMs is accompanied by chain transfer reactions between polymer radicals and VOMMs that reduces molecular weight and the auto-oxidation potential of the film. Retardation in polymerization rate correlated directly with increase in amount of unsaturation and conjugated unsaturation. Vegetable oils containing significant amounts of fatty acids with bisallylic hydrogen atoms were found to be more reactive towards chain transfer than fatty acids containing monoallylic hydrogen atoms. Model polymers were produced by functionalizing methacrylic copolymers through a mild reaction pathway in the absence of radicals. Copolymers with large quantities of bisallylic hydrogen atoms showed increased auto-oxidation reactivity as evidenced by greater consumption of cis-unsaturation and higher gel fractions.

Black, Micah Stephen

97

On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

?erban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

98

Vegetation and soil water interactions on a tailings sand storage facility in the athabasca oil sands region of Alberta Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between vegetation and soil water was studied on the Syncrude South West Sand Storage facility in the Athabasca Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. Soil water and relevant soil chemical and physical properties were measured at the soil surface, as well as above and below the reclamation soil and tailings sand interface, in areas of low and high

M. A. Naeth; D. S. Chanasyk; T. D. Burgers

2011-01-01

99

Complex role of monoacylglycerols in the oxidation of vegetable oils: different behaviors of soybean monoacylglycerols in different oils.  

PubMed

The relationship between fatty acid composition of oils and their oxidative stability in the presence of monoacylglycerols was investigated. Purified vegetable oils were added at increasing amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of monoacylglycerols obtained from purified soybean oil and submitted to an oven test (60 °C for 18 days). The obtained results showed a generally antioxidant effect of monoacylglycerols, with remarkable differences among oils. The antioxidant effect was significantly higher in less unsaturated oils, such as palm and olive oils. Among the more unsaturated vegetable oils, peanut and sunflower oils showed an almost linear slowdown of oxidation, slightly less pronounced in sunflower oil, which was the most susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of linoleic acid. A peculiar trend was highlighted for soybean oil, where the antioxidant effect of high amounts of monoacylglycerols was opposed to a pro-oxidant effect observed up to 1%. PMID:25310182

Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppina; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

2014-11-01

100

Biodiesel Production by Ethanolysis of Various Vegetable oils Using Calcium Ethoxide as Solid Base Catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were produced from 4 different vegetable oils (sunflower, cotton seed, olive oil and used frying oil) using calcium ethoxide as a heterogeneous solid base catalyst. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil, the molar ratio of ethanol to

G. Anastopoulos; G. S. Dodos; S. Kalligeros; F. Zannikos

2012-01-01

101

Oxidative stability of olive oil and its polyphenolic compounds after boiling vegetable process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the stability and phenolic content of an extra-virgin olive oil and an olive oil following boiling operation in the presence of vegetables have been studied. After the boiling process, none of the olive oil samples was oxidized, independently of the olive oil quality used. However, in contrast with tocopherols, all polyphenolic components decreased in concentration with the

Lisete Silva; Barbara Garcia; Fátima Paiva-Martins

2010-01-01

102

ETC Spills Technology Databases: Oil Properties Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Technology Center of Environment Canada provides a database which contains various properties of crude oils and petroleum products. In addition to the listing of oils, the database reports properties "which will likely determine the environmental behavior and effects of spilled oil." The user may select an oil from a pull-down menu that lists 412 oils. The data are organized into tables in the following areas: Origin, API Gravity, Density, Pour Point, Dynamic Viscosity, Hydrocarbon Groups, and Distillation.

Fieldhouse, B.; Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Lambert, P.; Mullin, J.; Wang, Z.

103

Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: Self-assemblies and dynamic  

E-print Network

- 1 - Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: Self your paper to) Keywords: Amphiphilic copolymer; polyoxazoline; grape seed vegetable oil; self-013-1626-1 #12;- 2 - The behavior in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

2009-01-01

105

Changes in Lipid Profile by Vegetable Oil Blends Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Rats with Hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different blended vegetable oils having different levels and profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on hypercholesterolemia by analyzing the changes in lipid profile in high-cholesterol diet fed rats. Three vegetable oils (soy oil, sunflower oil, and the nonconventional flaxseed oil) were blended to obtain blends rich in PUFA. Thirty

M. F. Ramadan; M. M. Afify Amer; S. S. El-Saadany; R. Abd El-Fatah El-Masry; A. El-Said Awad

2009-01-01

106

Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements  

PubMed Central

Background There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed. PMID:21691461

Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

2011-01-01

107

Interaction Between Vegetation Length Scales and Atmospheric Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of vegetation length scale on atmospheric properties is investigated using a coupled large eddy simulation (LES)-soil vegetation atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model with remotely sensed land surface conditions. The issue of variation in vegetation scale and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height are examined to assess potential measures of horizontal variability that might be used to ammend Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Using artificial model surfaces for vegetation with various length scales, the modifications to the stability functions are proposed. The new stability functions are assessed with the Monsoon '90 dataset and remotely sensed estimation of the vegetation length scales. The interaction of horizontal heterogeneity and atmospheric properties is then extended to assess feedbacks between vegetation heterogeneity and the energy fluxes of latent and sensible heat.

Brunsell, N. A.; Albertson, J. D.

2002-12-01

108

Tribological studies of thermally and chemically modified vegetable oils for use as environmentally friendly lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boundary lubrication in a dynamic mechanical system is primarily governed by the formation of a stable tribochemical film. Polar functional groups in the triacylglycerol molecule of vegetable oil in conjunction with oil–additive–metal interaction during the metal rubbing process can significantly improve the wear resistance and extreme-pressure lubrication. Increasing the polar functionality of vegetable oil structure has a positive impact on

A Adhvaryu; S. Z Erhan; J. M Perez

2004-01-01

109

Enzymatic Interesterification of Tripalmitin with Vegetable Oil Blends for Formulation of Caprine Milk Infant Formula Analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blendswasenzymaticallymodified,andtheblendswere incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to hu- man milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, andlinoleicacids,resemblingthecompositionofhuman milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterifica- tion reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blendcontaininga2.5:1.1:0.8ratioofcoconut,safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme

C. O. Maduko; C. C. Akoh; Y. W. Park

2007-01-01

110

Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean\\u000a and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and\\u000a degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of\\u000a 60 C or higher, molar ratios of at

B. Freedman; E. H. Pryde; T. L. Mounts

1984-01-01

111

Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts and dispersing MNPs in the oil media, without the use of any external reducing or stabilizing agents. These well-dispersed MNP-in-oil dispersions can be used directly, akin to commercially available paints, on nearly all kinds of surface such as wood, glass, steel and different polymers. The surfaces coated with silver-nanoparticle paint showed excellent antimicrobial properties by killing both Gram-positive human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The process we have developed here is quite general and can be applied in the synthesis of a variety of MNP-in-oil systems.

Kumar, Ashavani; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; John, George

2008-03-01

112

Properties and postharvest behavior of the vegetable cactus Nopalea cochenillifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flattened stem segments (cladodes) of certain cactus species are eaten in Mexico as a vegetable, when still at the young tender stage (nopalitos). This study focuses on the properties and response under storage of vegetable cladodes of a spineless cactus species newly introduced to Israel, Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck. Cladodes of N. cochenillifera were found to be suitable for harvest

A. Nerd; M. Dumoutier; Y. Mizrahi

1997-01-01

113

CROSSFLOW ULTRAFILTRATION OF OILY WASTEWATER FROM VEGETABLE OIL INDUSTRY USING INORGANIC MEMBRANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetal oil industry produces large volumes of aqueous effluents in many of the operations involved in oil solvent extraction and crude oil refining processes. Therefore, these generated waste-waters should not be discharged without a suitable treatment in order to prevent negative impacts in the environment and allow the recovery of high added value products. At present, membrane separation processes

G. Z. Baralla; M. A. Matte

114

Performance and Emission Characteristics of Vegetable Oil as Diesel Fuel Extender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inedible vegetable oils that can be extracted from unexploited forest produce can provide solutions to energy requirements at the grass roots level, thus obviating dependence on fossil fuels. Short-term compression ignition engine tests were carried out using karanj (Pongamia pinnata) oil alone and also by blending it with diesel. The calorific value of karanj oil was 14.77% less than that

C. P. Sigar; S. L. Soni; J. Mathur; D. Sharma

2008-01-01

115

Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life

Sunil Ratnayake; Paul Lewandowski

2010-01-01

116

Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 ?l/cm² essential oil and 3.144 ?l/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC?? = 0.118 ?l/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC?? = 0.044 ?l/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD?? = 0.137 ?l/g) than the essential oil alone (LD?? = 0.193 ?l/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F? insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans. PMID:22410230

Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

2012-03-01

117

HOW VEGETABLE OILS AND ITS DERIVATIVES AFFECT SPRAY CHARACTERISTICSIN CI ENGINES - A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though there are so many articles related to the review on production\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009of biodiesels from edible and in-edible vegetable oils, performance\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009and exhaust emissions of compression ignition(CI) engines fuelled\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009with vege-table oil and its derivatives, the effect of vegetable\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009oils and its derivatives on spray characteristics was not con-sidered\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009in those reviews. High viscosity of vegetable oils and its

Soo-Young No

2011-01-01

118

Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al(HSO4)3 heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl3. This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method.

Kasirajan Ramachandran; Pandian Sivakumar; Tamilarasan Suganya; Sahadevan Renganathan

2011-01-01

119

Total fatty acid analysis of vegetable oil soapstocks by supercritical fluid extraction\\/reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soapstock from vegetable oil refining operations is a value-added by-product that finds further industrial use based on its\\u000a fatty acid content. Since the fatty acid content of soapstock can vary according to its vegetable oil source or method of\\u000a refining, determination of its total fatty acid (TFA) by an accurate analytical method is of key importance to purchasers\\u000a of this

Jerry W. King; Scott L. Taylor; Janet M. Snyder; Russell L. Holliday

1998-01-01

120

Electrical properties of rape-seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to verify possible application fields of rape-seed oil as insulating material, detailed investigations of dielectric properties - like dielectric dissipation factor tan ?, relative permittivity ?r, specific DC resistance ? - and breakdown strength under AC stress have been carried out. Relevant parameters, with respect to electrical and dielectric properties, are water content and oil temperature as well

M. Hemmer; R. Badent; A. J. Schwab

2002-01-01

121

The effect of consecutive steps of refining on squalene content of vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of refining steps on the squalene content of some vegetable oils. A comparison has been made between the crude oils and consecutive steps of refining process (neutralization, bleaching, deodorization, winterization) in the amounts of squalene of the oil samples. Among the oils, virgin and refined olive oils contained higher amounts of squalene. A mean of 491.0?±?15.55 mg/100 g squalene was found in virgin olive oil samples. While appreciable quantities of squalene has been reduced during refining, considerable level of squalene were still present in refined olive oils (290.0?±?9.89 mg/100 g). The squalene content of crude seed oils varied from 13.8?±?0.39 mg/100 g to 26.2?±?0.08 mg/100 g as average. It has been determined that refining process reduced the level of squalene in examined oils. The highest reduction in squalene content of the oils was detected during deodorization. The effect of refining steps on the amount of squalene in vegetable oils was found to be significant (p?oil has been considered an important source of squalene, even after it has been refined, compared to seed oils. PMID:23572763

Nergiz, Cevdet; Celikkale, Deniz

2011-06-01

122

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives  

E-print Network

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products ...

Sambandan, T. G.

123

Absorption by rats of tocopherols present in edible vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of tocopherols (?, ?, and ?) and fatty acids from rapeseed (RO), soybean (SOO), and sunflower (SUO) oil, both\\u000a from the natural oils and from the oils following moderate heating (180°C for 15 min), was measured in lymphcannulated rats.\\u000a Oils were administered as emulsions through a gastrostomy tube, and lymph samples were collected for 24 h. The composition

Trine Porsgaard; Carl-Erik Høy

2000-01-01

124

Oxidative Stability of Conventional and High-Oleic Vegetable Oils with Added Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative stability of conventional and high-oleic varieties of commercial vegetable oils, with and without added antioxidants,\\u000a was evaluated using the oil stability index (OSI). Oil varieties studied were soybean (SOY), partially-hydrogenated soybean\\u000a (PHSOY), corn (CORN), sunflower (SUN), canola (CAN), high-oleic canola (HOCAN), very high-oleic canola (VHOCAN), oleic safflower\\u000a (SAF) and high-oleic sunflower (HOSUN). One or more commercial antioxidants were

Lilon I. Merrill; Oscar A. Pike; Lynn V. Ogden; Michael L. Dunn

2008-01-01

125

Utilization of ethyl ester of waste vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan relies heavily on expensive and unreliable imported oil. Therefore, this study was initiated to investigate the potential of ethyl ester used as vegetable oil (VO; biodiesel) to substitute oil-based diesel fuel. The fuels tested were several ester\\/diesel blends including 100% ester in addition to diesel fuel, which served as the baseline fuel. Variable-speed tests were run on all fuels

Mohamad I Al-Widyan; Ghassan Tashtoush; Moh'd Abu-Qudais

2002-01-01

126

Algae, Canola, or Palm Oils—Diesel Microemulsion Fuels: Phase Behaviors, Viscosity, and Combustion Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are being considered as a renewable energy alternative for diesel. The high viscosity of vegetable oils causes injector fouling and durability problems in compression–ignition engines. Microemulsification can be used to reduce vegetable oil viscosity without complex chemical transformation processes. The goal of our work is to formulate reverse micellar microemulsions of vegetable oils and No. 2 diesel fuel

Linh D. Do; Vinay Singh; Lixia Chen; Tohren C. G. Kibbey; Sub. R. Gollahalli; David A. Sabatini

2011-01-01

127

Reaction pathways for the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and related model compounds.  

PubMed

Vegetable oil-based feeds are regarded as an alternative source for the production of fuels and chemicals. Paraffins and olefins can be produced from these feeds through catalytic deoxygenation. The fundamentals of this process are mostly studied by using model compounds such as fatty acids, fatty acid esters, and specific triglycerides because of their structural similarity to vegetable oils. In this Review we discuss the impact of feedstock, reaction conditions, and nature of the catalyst on the reaction pathways of the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and its derivatives. As such, we conclude on the suitability of model compounds for this reaction. It is shown that the type of catalyst has a significant effect on the deoxygenation pathway, that is, group?10 metal catalysts are active in decarbonylation/decarboxylation whereas metal sulfide catalysts are more selective to hydrodeoxygenation. Deoxygenation studies performed under H2 showed similar pathways for fatty acids, fatty acid esters, triglycerides, and vegetable oils, as mostly deoxygenation occurs indirectly via the formation of fatty acids. Deoxygenation in the absence of H2 results in significant differences in reaction pathways and selectivities depending on the feedstock. Additionally, using unsaturated feedstocks under inert gas results in a high selectivity to undesired reactions such as cracking and the formation of heavies. Therefore, addition of H2 is proposed to be essential for the catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil feeds. PMID:23913576

Gosselink, Robert W; Hollak, Stefan A W; Chang, Shu-Wei; van Haveren, Jacco; de Jong, Krijn P; Bitter, Johannes H; van Es, Daan S

2013-09-01

128

Studies on antioxidant treatments of crude vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments of crude safflowerseed, soybean, sunflowerseed and cottonseed oils with the antioxidant compounds butylated hydroxyanisole\\u000a (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) have been investigated. PG and TBHQ were effective in inhibiting\\u000a oxidative degradation of the crude oils subjected to long term storage as determined by measurement of peroxide formation\\u000a in the oils during storage and by determination of

E. R. Sherwin; B. M. Luckadoo

1970-01-01

129

Storage stability evaluation of some packed vegetable oil blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical characteristics and minor component contents of blended oils packed in pouches in relation to starting\\u000a oils used for blending were studied over a period of 6 mon at two storage temperatures and humidity conditions: 27°C\\/65% RH\\u000a and 40°C\\/30–40% RH. Color, PV, FFA value, ?-carotene content, tocopherol content, and oryzanol content of the oils were monitored\\u000a at regular intervals.

P. M. Shiela; Y. N. Sreerama; A. G. Gopala Krishna

2004-01-01

130

Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors.

Carde, T.

2001-09-12

131

VEGETATIVE STABILIZATION OF SPENT OIL SHALES: VEGETATION MOISTURE SALINITY AND RUNOFF, 1973-76  

EPA Science Inventory

Disposal of massive amounts of spent shale will be required if an oil shale industry using surface retorting is developed. Field studies were initiated in 1973 on two types of spent oil shale--coarse-textured (USBM), and fine-textured (TOSCO). The objectives of these studies were...

132

Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils  

E-print Network

be made from various renewable sources, including recycled oil, and can be utilized in lieu of petroleum-based diesel. To foster market competitiveness for biodiesel, it is necessary to develop cost-effective and technically sound processing schemes...

Myint, Lay L.

2009-05-15

133

Environmentally Friendly Vegetable Oil Microemulsions Using Extended Surfactants and Linkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microemulsion formation of triglyceride oils at ambient conditions (temperature and pressure) and without the addition of\\u000a co-oil and\\/or alcohols is challenging at best. Undesirable phases, such as macroemulsions, liquid crystals and sponge phases,\\u000a are often encountered when formulating triglyceride microemulsions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of\\u000a extended surfactants, lipophilic linkers, and hydrophilic linkers in enhancing

Linh D. Do; Anuradee Withayyapayanon; Jeffrey H. Harwell; David A. Sabatini

2009-01-01

134

Solubility of two vegetable oils in supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic method was applied to measure the solubility of oils from seed of Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant) and Vitis vinifera (grape-vine) in supercritical CO2 at pressures up to 29 MPa. The solubility of blackcurrant seed oil, which had been refined prior to the measurement and therefore it contained only triglycerides, was measured at 40–60°C. It was correlated with CO2 density and

Helena Sovová; Marie Zarevúcka; Miroslav Vacek; Karel Stránský

2001-01-01

135

A spectrophotometric method for the evaluation of vegetable oil colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A means for evaluating oil color on the basis of an optical density measurement at 500 millimicrons has been proposed. The\\u000a amount of chlorophyll would be taken into account by present methods or an adaptation of these methods.\\u000a \\u000a The advantages of the proposed means of evaluating oil color are that it expresses more exactly the amount of color in the

W. D. Pohle; S. E. Tierney

1957-01-01

136

Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

137

Vegetarian Chili 2 tbsp. olive or vegetable oil  

E-print Network

, chia, coconut, sugar, stevia, baking powder, baking soda, cranberries, sunflower seeds and carrots, seeded and chopped 1 green pepper, seeded and chopped 1 yellow pepper, seeded and chopped 1 large jalapeno pepper, seeded and chopped 4 cloves of garlic, crushed and chopped 3 cups reduced sodium vegetable

Watson, Craig A.

138

Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel  

SciTech Connect

The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

1982-01-01

139

THE IMPACT OF PETROLEUM PRICES ON VEGETABLE OILS PRICES: EVIDENCE FROM COINTEGRATION TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigate the long-term relationship between the petroleum and vegetable oils prices represented by palm, soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils prices. To that end, the bivariate cointegration approach using Engle-Granger two-stage estimation procedure is applied. The study utilises monthly data over the period of January 1983 through March 2008. The results provide a strong evidence of long-run equilibrium relation

Amna Awad Abdel Hameed; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad

2008-01-01

140

Flotation of coal with latex emulsions of hydrocarbon animal or vegetable based oil  

SciTech Connect

Employment of a latex emulsion prepared from a hydrocarbon, animal or vegetable based oil with a hydrophobic water-in-oil emulsifier and a hydrophilic surfactant in the froth flotation of coal improves coal recovery without increasing the ash content. The emulsifier employed should have an hlb value of 5.0 or less while the surfactant should have an hlb value of 9.0 or higher.

Scanlon, M.J.; Wang, S.S.

1982-07-20

141

The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressure-raising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats. PMID:22189740

Jaarin, Kamsiah; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Leong, Xin-Fang

2011-01-01

142

Lubricant properties of Moringa oil using thermal and tribological techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing application of biobased lubricants could significantly reduce environmental pollution and contribute to the\\u000a replacement of petroleum base oils. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates\\u000a for use as base fluids in formulation of environment friendly lubricants. Although many vegetable oils have excellent lubricity,\\u000a they often have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. Here

Brajendra K. Sharma; Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Sevim Z. Erhan

2009-01-01

143

Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.  

PubMed

Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

2005-05-01

144

Vegetable Oil Derived Solvent, and Catalyst Free "Click Chemistry" Thermoplastic Polytriazoles  

PubMed Central

Azide-alkyne Huisgen “click” chemistry provides new synthetic routes for making thermoplastic polytriazole polymers—without solvent or catalyst. This method was used to polymerize three diester dialkyne monomers with a lipid derived 18 carbon diazide to produce a series of polymers (labelled C18C18, C18C9, and C18C4 based on monomer chain lengths) free of residual solvent and catalyst. Three diester dialkyne monomers were synthesized with ester chain lengths of 4, 9, and 18 carbons from renewable sources. Significant differences in thermal and mechanical properties were observed between C18C9 and the two other polymers. C18C9 presented a lower melting temperature, higher elongation at break, and reduced Young's modulus compared to C18C4 and C18C18. This was due to the “odd-even” effect induced by the number of carbon atoms in the monomers which resulted in orientation of the ester linkages of C18C9 in the same direction, thereby reducing hydrogen bonding. The thermoplastic polytriazoles presented are novel polymers derived from vegetable oil with favourable mechanical and thermal properties suitable for a large range of applications where no residual solvent or catalyst can be tolerated. Their added potential biocompatibility and biodegradability make them ideal for applications in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25032224

Floros, Michael C.; Leao, Alcides Lopes; Narine, Suresh S.

2014-01-01

145

Ris Energy Report 2 Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils that have been  

E-print Network

was the first person to use vegetable oil as fuel for an internal combustion engine, in 1912-friendly fuel for diesel engines; · to reduce health and safety risks; and · to provide customers be used; this technology was commercialised in 1998­9 during a time of high oilseed cost and record

146

FURTHER STUDIESON THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BUTTER FAT,VEGETABLE OILS, AND OLEOMARGARINES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data showing the superiority of butter fat as compared with the vegetable oils for the growth of young rats have been published previously (Schantz, Elvehjem and Hart, '40). This experimental work was carried out with raw skimmed milk as the basal portion of the ration into which were homog enized the fats at a 4% level. Experiments have also been

K. K. BOUTWELL; K. P. GEYER; C. A. ELVEHJEM; E. B. HABT

147

Use of straight vegetable oil mixtures of rape and camelina as on farm fuels in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibilities for using straight vegetable oil (SVO) from Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (camelina or false flax) and its mixtures with Brassica napus (rape) SVO as fuel in adapted diesel engines are described with chemical parameters, measurements in a test engine and a field test in a tractor. Camelina as a crop is attracting attention in organic farming and is often

Hans Marten Paulsen; V. Wichmann; U. Schuemann; B. Richter

2011-01-01

148

Fractal analysis of creeping discharge propagating over pressboard immersed in mineral and vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is aimed at the fractal analysis of the real (i.e., observed experimentally) creeping discharge patterns propagating over pressboard immersed in mineral and vegetable rape-seed oils, under lightning impulse voltages, using a pointplane electrode arrangement. By using the box counting method, we show that the discharge patterns present a fractal dimension D which depends on the thickness of pressboard

A. Beroual; Viet-Hung Dang

2011-01-01

149

Comparative Quality Assessment of Branded and Unbranded Edible Vegetable Oils in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard methods of analyses were used to determine, comparatively, the qualities of some branded and unbranded edible vegetable oils (EVOs) in Nigeria. Physical (refractive index and relative density), chemical (iodine and peroxide values), and microbial (mould, E. coli, coliform; aerobic mesophillic bacteria counts) parameters were investigated. Results generally showed higher values of the parameters in the unbranded EVOs than in

S. A. Chabiri

150

Influence of Animal and Vegetable Oil in Layer Diets on Performance and Serum Lipid Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: This experimental was conducted to determine the effects of the dietary animal fat and vegetable oils on performance and lipid metabolism in serum of laying hens. Two hundred Isabrown hens at 67 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups containing 40 hens each therefore there were five dietary treatments groups, control group (CO) was fed basal

2006-01-01

151

The use of isotope ratios (13C/12C) for vegetable oils authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes are now increasingly used for the control of the geographical origin or authenticity of food products. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. In this study 22 vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, palm, maize) commercialized on Romanian market were investigated by mean of ?13C in bulk oil and the obtained results were compared with those reported in literature in order to check the labeling of these natural products. The obtained results were in the range of the mean values found in the literature for these types of oils, thus providing their accurate labeling.

Cristea, G.; Magdas, D. A.; Mirel, V.

2012-02-01

152

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

153

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater than 97% after 15--20 min. Some geometric isomerization of the linolenic acids was observed at reaction temperatures as low as 250 C. Reactions carried out at higher temperatures and pressures, up to the critical point of water, produced either/or degradation, pyrolysis, and polymerization, of the oils and resultant fatty acids.

Holliday, R.L.; King, J.W.; List, G.R. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)] [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

1997-03-01

154

Impacts of cell surface characteristics on population dynamics in a sequencing batch yeast reactor treating vegetable oil-containing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten yeast strains acquired from different sources and capable of utilizing vegetable oil or related compounds (fatty acid\\u000a or oleic acid) as sole carbon sources were inoculated into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of high-strength\\u000a vegetable oil-containing wastewater. The SBR system stably removed >89% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and >99% of oil when\\u000a fed with wastewater

Wenzhou Lv; Abd El-Latif Hesham; Yu Zhang; Xinchun Liu; Min Yang

2011-01-01

155

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g\\/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater

Russell L. Holliday; Jerry W. King; Gary R. List

1997-01-01

156

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

2013-12-01

157

Effect Of Iron On The Sensitivity Of Hydrogen, Acetate, And Butyrate Metabolism To Inhibition By Long-Chain Fatty Acids In Vegetable-Oil-Enriched Freshwater Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial c...

158

Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

1982-01-01

159

A quick discrimination of vegetable oil by solid-phase microextraction method.  

PubMed

A trace amount of vegetable oil was picked up with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber and identified using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Unsaponifiable constituents such as sterols could be detected by an injection of the SPME fiber, with the fiber touching the vegetable oil and then leading directly into the port of the GC-MS. After thermal desorption of unsaponifiable constituents, the remaining triacylglycerols or oil that was freshly added to the fiber were recovered with a little organic solvent, and the profiles of the fatty acids that had been constructing the acylglycerols were determined using a base-catalyzed trans-esterification method which produced fatty acid methyl esters. The simple and rapid techniques that make up this method make it possible to significantly reduce the preparation time and as well as the required sample volume. When urgent discrimination is required with high accuracy, this technique could serve as a useful and powerful tool for identification of vegetable oil. PMID:20144515

Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi

2010-05-20

160

Production of biodiesel by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oils: a kinetics study.  

PubMed

Kinetics of production of biodiesel by enzymatic methanolysis of vegetable oils using lipase has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of the methanolysis reaction starting from the vegetable oil as substrate, rather than the free fatty acids, has been developed. The kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the experimental data of the enzymatic reaction of sunflower oil by two types of lipases, namely, Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RM) immobilized on ion-exchange resins and Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (TL) immobilized on silica gel. There was a good agreement between the experimental results of the initial rate of reaction and those predicted by the proposed model equations, for both enzymes. From the proposed model equations, the regions where the effect of alcohol inhibition fades, at different substrate concentrations, were identified. The proposed model equation can be used to predict the rate of methanolysis of vegetable oils in a batch or a continuous reactor and to determine the optimal conditions for biodiesel production. PMID:16209548

Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman

2005-01-01

161

Moldicidal properties of seven essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wood and wood products are exposed to moisture during storage, construction or while in-service, mold growth can occur in 24 to 48 hours. Mold growth could be suppressed or prevented if wood was treated with an effective mold inhibitor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold inhibiting properties of natural plant extracts such as essential oils.

Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen

162

A comparison of the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) oils.  

PubMed

The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

Ferreira, Bianca Silva; Faza, Lara Pereira; Le Hyaric, Mireille

2012-01-01

163

A Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Indai? (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) Oils  

PubMed Central

The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

Silva Ferreira, Bianca; Pereira Faza, Lara; Le Hyaric, Mireille

2012-01-01

164

Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects  

PubMed Central

Background In the existing literature, the evidence regarding the effects of certain oils on the amelioration of hyperglycemia contains ambiguities and contradictions; and with regard to other oils, the quantity of existing studies is scant. Objective To assess the influence of sesame, garden rocket, organic olive, thyme, fenugreek, hazelnut, and cod liver oil on serum glucose, liver function, and kidney functions. Methods Male albino rats were injected with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg BW). The duration of the experiment was 28 days. Maximum recovery of occurred wasting attributable to diabetes was found in the sesame and cod liver groups. Results With respect to ameliorating and/or preventing the side effects of diabetes on liver function, this experiment showed that thyme, organic olive, cod liver, and fenugreek oils were efficacious. Turning to serum lipid profile, organic olive oil not only ameliorated but also prevented the changes of TC, HDL, LDL, and AI. Vegetable and cod liver oil diets resulted in a marked amelioration of renal dysfunction, but they were unable to prevent this side effect. Similar, oil diets were unable to mask the increase in serum glucose due to diabetes mellitus. Conclusion On the basis of these findings, it could be recommended that when attempting oil diet treatment for the side effects of diabetes, a blend of the various specific treatments which showed best results should be employed in order to achieve improvement with respect to all parameters; and in part, this is because a synergism between the various treatments can be expected. PMID:23497544

2013-01-01

165

Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

2012-12-01

166

Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills.  

PubMed

Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85goil/g sorbent (in 24hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. PMID:15946707

Annunciado, T R; Sydenstricker, T H D; Amico, S C

2005-11-01

167

Systematic identification of antioxidants in lards, shortenings, and vegetable oils by thin layer chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple and reliable method is described for rapid identification of ascorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, ethoxyquin, gallates (lauryl, octyl, propyl), nordihydroguaiaretic acid, 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid, tocopherol, t-butylhydroquinone, and 2,4,5-trihydroxybutyrophenone in lards, shortenings, and vegetable oils. The antioxidants are extracted with 95% methanol, concentrated under vacuum at less than or equal to 45 degrees C, and analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Three elution solvents, 2 adsorbent types, 2 visualization sprays, and UV viewing at 254 and 36 nm are used. Sunflower and corn oil samples, fortified with 100 ppm antioxidant, were analyzed to establish to validity of the method. PMID:7309653

Van Peteghem, C H; Dekeyser, D A

1981-11-01

168

Environmentally adapted hydraulic oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison has been carried out between one mineral based hydraulic oil and three environmentally adapted hydraulic oils. Two of these are semi-synthetic oils, i.e. mixtures of vegetable base oil and synthetic esters, and the last is based on synthetic esters only. Technical properties such as viscosity, pour point etc., and chemical properties such as phosphorus and sulphur content etc.

Elisabet Kassfeldt; Göran Dave

1997-01-01

169

Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: Modeling of the system.  

PubMed

Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. PMID:25151071

Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

2014-10-01

170

Quantitative high resolution 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance of the olefinic and carbonyl carbons of edible vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acyl distribution and acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of triacylglycerols derived from edible vegetable\\u000a oils has been examined by13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acyl profile of three natural oils (corn, peanut, canola) and one specialty\\u000a oil (high oleic sunflower oil, Trisun 80) has been defined from the high resolution (medium field 75.4 MHz) spectrum of the

Kurt F. Wollenberg

1990-01-01

171

Enhancement of the oxidative stability of some vegetable oils by blending with Moringa oleifera oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% w\\/w) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) with sunflower oil (SFO) and soybean oil (SBO) were prepared to evaluate the changes in fatty acid (FA) composition, oxidative and thermal stability of SFO and SBO. The blending of MOO with SFO and SBO in proportions of 0–80% resulted in the reduction of linoleic acid (C18:2) content of

Farooq Anwar; Abdullah Ijaz Hussain; Shahid Iqbal; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger

2007-01-01

172

Determination of tertiary butylhydroquinone in edible vegetable oil by liquid chromatography\\/ion trap mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive and accurate analytical method for quantification of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in edible vegetable oil was established by liquid chromatography\\/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC\\/ITMS). After extraction, 5?l of the extracts was directly injected into LC\\/ITMS for TBHQ determination. Ethanol was selected as the extraction solvent. The optimized fragmentation amplitude was 1.70V and electrospray ionization (ESI) was more suitable

Peng-Peng Hao; Jin-Ren Ni; Wei-Ling Sun; Wen Huang

2007-01-01

173

Tubular microporous alumina structure for demulsifying vegetable oil\\/water emulsions and concentrating macromolecular suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microstructure composed of alumina–silica (mullite, 3Al2O3·2SiO2) was molded into tubes to be used in a microfiltration process for separating water\\/vegetable oil emulsions and to concentrate macromolecular suspensions. The microporous tubes were produced by the precipitation method using raw material supplied by Rhodia do Brasil Ltda, and sintered at a final temperature of 1450°C. The microporous medium was characterized by

Sérgio R. Fontes; Viviane M. Silva Queiroz; Elson Longo; Marcus V. Antunes

2005-01-01

174

Thin layer chromatography\\/flame ionization analysis of transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method was developed for analyzing mixtures containing fatty esters and tri- (TG), di- (DG) and monoglycerides\\u000a (MG) obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils. Analyses were performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC)\\/flame\\u000a ionization detection (FID) with an Iatroscan TH-10 instrument. Stearyl alcohol served as an internal standard. From plots\\u000a of area and weight ratios of methyl linoleate and

B. Freedman; E. H. Pryde; W. F. Kwolek

1984-01-01

175

A rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic\\u000a and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control\\u000a Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable\\u000a oil blends

Roger A. Korus; Jaiduk Jo; Charles L. Peterson

1985-01-01

176

Influence of deep frying on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils enriched with natural antioxidants.  

PubMed

The influence of deep frying, mimicked by 20 heating cycles at 180 °C (each cycle from ambient temperature to 180 °C maintained for 5 min), on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils represented by three characteristic families of compounds (namely, phytosterols, aliphatic alcohols, and triterpenic compounds) has been studied. The target oils were extra virgin olive oil (with intrinsic content of phenolic antioxidants), refined sunflower oil enriched with antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from olive pomace, refined sunflower oil enriched with an autoxidation inhibitor (dimethylpolysiloxane), and refined sunflower oil without enrichment. Monitoring of the target analytes as a function of both heating cycle and the presence of natural antioxidants was also evaluated by comparison of the profiles after each heating cycle. Identification and quantitation of the target compounds were performed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Analysis of the heated oils revealed that the addition of natural antioxidants could be an excellent strategy to decrease degradation of lipidic components of the unsaponifiable fraction with the consequent improvement of stability. PMID:21644588

Orozco, Mara I; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

2011-07-13

177

Highly efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid-based catalysts for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Biodiesel has been produced by transesterification of canola oil with methanol in the presence of highly Brønsted acidic ionic liquids based on 1-benzyl-1H-benzimidazole, and the effect of reaction temperature, type and amount of catalyst, molar ratio and reaction time investigated. The results show that the 4B ionic liquid has the highest catalytic activity and best recyclability under the optimised reaction conditions. Thus, this ionic liquid is able to catalyze the transesterification of canola oil to its methyl esters in 5 h with yields of more than 95%. Density functional calculations (B3LYP), using the 6-311G basis set, have been performed to have a better understanding on the reactivity of these catalysts. The catalytic activity of 4B for the transesterification of other vegetable oils and alcohols has also been studied. PMID:20970994

Ghiaci, M; Aghabarari, B; Habibollahi, S; Gil, A

2011-01-01

178

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional

N. M. Katamine

2000-01-01

179

Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.  

PubMed

Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751. PMID:21621409

Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

2011-08-01

180

Frying Performance of Canola Oil Triacylglycerides as Affected by Vegetable Oils Minor Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endogenous minor components from canola, rice bran, sesame and palm oils including selected phospholipids, and various\\u000a combinations of tocopherol isomers were tested during frying using canola oil triacylglycerols as the frying medium. Thermo-oxidative\\u000a degradation was assessed by measurement of the total polar components, the rate of volatile carbonyl compounds and 4-hydroxynonenal\\u000a formation. All the tested minor components protected to

Felix A. AladedunyeR; R. Przybylski

181

Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in

Michael J Leaver; Laure AN Villeneuve; Alex Obach; Linda Jensen; James E Bron; Douglas R Tocher; John B Taggart

2008-01-01

182

Growth, flesh adiposity and fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) families with contrasting flesh adiposity: Effects of replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with reduced fishmeal (FM) content and either 100% fish oil (FO) or 100% of a vegetable oil (VO) blend in post-smolts of three family groups of Atlantic salmon. Two groups were selected as being either “Lean” or “Fat” based on estimated breeding values (EBV) for flesh adiposity of their parents derived

J. G. Bell; J. Pratoomyot; F. Strachan; R. J. Henderson; R. Fontanillas; A. Hebard; D. R. Guy; D. Hunter; D. R. Tocher

2010-01-01

183

Combined application of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. to inhibit bacteria and autochthonous microflora associated with minimally processed vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) essential oils against bacteria associated to minimally processed vegetables using the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index, kill-time assay in vegetal broth and application in vegetable matrices. Moreover, it was determined chemical composition of the essential oils

Geíza Alves de Azeredo; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Pollyana Campos Nunes; Nelson Justino Gomes Neto; Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira; Evandro Leite de Souza

2011-01-01

184

Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic techniques, while part accuracy was measured on a coordinate measuring machine. A widely diffused commercial mineral oil was

W Belluco; L De Chiffre

2002-01-01

185

Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p?0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese. PMID:24434672

Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

2014-01-01

186

EFFECTS OF FERRIC HYDROXIDE ON THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION KINETICS AND TOXICITY OF VEGETABLE OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments exhibits self-inhibitory characteristics when it occurs under methanogenic conditions but not under iron-reducing conditions. The basis of the protective effect of iron was investigated by comparing its effects on oil biodeg...

187

Effects of vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristic of growing swamp buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen, one year old swamp buffalo males with average liveweight of 200.5±9.5kg were randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design to receive three dietary treatments of supplemental vegetable oils in concentrate contained 140, 750, and 16g of crude protein, total digestible nutrient, and ether extract, respectively (T1=unsupplemented, T2=supplemental coconut oil and sunflower oil in ratio 50:50 at 6% of

M. Wanapat; C. Mapato; R. Pilajun; W. Toburan

2011-01-01

188

Carotenoid bioavailability from raw vegetables and a moderate amount of oil in human subjects is greatest when the majority of daily vegetables are consumed at one meal.  

PubMed

While the impact of food composition and processing on carotenoid bioavailability has been the subject of several investigations, the effect of meal patterning remains unknown. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of select consumption patterns on the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables. On three randomized testing days, subjects consumed raw salad vegetables and 8 g canola oil over a two meal period in three meal patterns. Meal patterns included consumption of 100% of vegetables and oil in the first meal and 0% in the second, 75% in the first meal and 25% in the second, and 50% in the first meal and 50% in the second. Additional protein-rich "chef's salad" ingredients were distributed equally between meals. We hypothesized that carotenoid absorption would be highest when 50% of vegetables and oil were consumed at each meal and lowest when 100% were consumed at once. Blood was collected 0 to 12 hours postprandially and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fractions (TRL) were isolated by ultracentrifugation. TRL carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Considering all carotenoids, absorption expressed as area under the curve was greatest when ?75% of vegetables were consumed in a single meal (P < .05). Absorption of carotenes also followed this trend (P < .05 for ?- and ?-carotene). For xanthophylls, consuming all vegetables in one meal increased absorption compared to intake of 50% at each meal (P < .05). These data suggest that carotenoid absorption may be the greatest when daily recommended vegetables are consumed in one meal compared to smaller doses over multiple meals. PMID:23684437

Goltz, Shellen R; Sapper, Teryn N; Failla, Mark L; Campbell, Wayne W; Ferruzzi, Mario G

2013-05-01

189

Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

1985-11-01

190

Phase and chemical equilibria in the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with supercritical lower alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of thermodynamic data are performed for fatty acid triglycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters, participants of the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils that occurs in methanol. Using the obtained thermodynamic parameters, the phase diagrams for the reaction mixture are constructed, and the chemical equilibria of the esterification reaction of free fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of fatty acid triglycerides attained upon treatment with supercritical methanol are determined. Relying on our analysis of the obtained equilibria for the esterification reaction of fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of triglycerides attained upon treatment with lower alcohols, we select the optimum conditions for performing the reaction in practice.

Anikeev, V. I.; Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.

2011-08-01

191

Experience in production of piroplast-2 as a vegetable oil substitute  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the synthesis of the resin Piroplast-2 from a 130-190/sup 0/C cut obtained in the pyrolysis of a petroleum feedstock. The basic procedure in the production of Piroplast-2 is the polymerization of the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the feed, forming a copolymer, with subsequent distillation of the unreacted hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum, down to a resin residue with the required softening point. In addition to Piroplast-2, the yield of which is 44-48% by weight, the process yields 33-37% by weight of atmospheric distillate. The Piroplast-2 is used as a replacement for vegetable oils in the production of drying oils and paints, without any lowering of product quality.

Dunskii, Y.V.; Kostin, N.I.; Mel'nikova, P.A.; Tsakhilov, Z.S.

1984-04-01

192

Fatty acids methyl esters from vegetable oil by means of ultrasonic energy.  

PubMed

The transesterification of vegetable oil with short-chain alcohols, in the presence of base-catalyst, by means of low frequency ultrasound (28 and 40 kHz) in order to obtain biodiesel fuel was studied. By using ultrasounds the reaction time is much shorter (10-40 min) than for mechanical stirring. The quantity of required catalyst is 2 or 3 times lower. The molar ratio of alcohol/oil used is only 6:1. Normal chain alcohols react fast, while secondary and tertiary alcohols show some or no conversion after 60 min of reaction. Surprisingly, 40 kHz ultrasounds are much more effective in the reduction of the reaction time (10-20 min). Twenty eight kilohertz give slightly better yields (98-99%), but longer reaction time, while higher frequencies are not useful at all for the transesterification of fatty acids. PMID:15590311

Stavarache, Carmen; Vinatoru, M; Nishimura, R; Maeda, Y

2005-04-01

193

Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, III. Emission tests using methyl esters of used frying oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of methyl esters of used frying oil, available as waste from restaurants and households, is described. Fuel\\u000a specifications of this fuel are given, and values for gaseous (HC, CO, NOx) and particulate emissions, measured with a vehicle powered by a turbocharged, direct injection diesel engine, are shown.\\u000a The ester fuel shows slightly lower HC and CO emissions but

Martin Mittelbach; Peter Tritthartb

1988-01-01

194

Cartography of snowcover properties from topographical, vegetation and meteorological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Multi Layer Snow Accumulation Model (MLSAM) was developed to simulate snow cover properties. The simulations include snow depth, snow density and snow-cover. The model was tested near Schefferville (54°48'N, 66°49'W) for the years (1986-1987 and 1987-1988). The MLSAM combines three sub models: 1) An intermediate-complexity, quasi-physically based, meteorological model (MicroMet), 2) A Point Energy/Mass Balance (PEMB) model and 3) A Distributed Blowing Snow Model (DBSM). The MLSAM employs digital terrain models with grid increments of 20 m and run with temporal increments of 24 hours using standard Canadian digital elevation and vegetation models and climate data. The model outputs for snow-layer depth and density as well as snow cover remaining at different times during the melt season were compared with available data from the Schefferville climate station and from previous snow research at Schefferville. Landsat images were used for assessing simulations of snow cover during melt. In general, the model performed well until the onset of melt. Thereafter the model greatly over-predicted melt rates. There were also problems with melt water transfers in the snow cover which will need to be addressed in future versions of the model. Improvements will also need to be made to the routines handling vapour transfers in the snowpack and snow density calculations. However, with these modifications the model shows some promise to become a useful model for simulation of spatial and temporal variations in snow cover properties. Keywords: Snow depth, Snow density profile, Snow Melt, Snow Cover mapping, Landsat image, Mass and Energy Balance, Geographic Information System (GIS).

Harirforoush, Hilda

195

Development of a recycle procedure for the utilization of vegetation waters in the olive-oil extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cryptococcus albidus var. albidus, strain IMAT-4735, grown on suitably treated oil-mill vegetation waters produced pectic enzyme. Growth and enzyme production were favoured by addition of calathide residues from sunflower cultivation, a low-cost pectic material, to the vegetation waters. Ultrafiltration of the centrifuged fermentation broth made it possible to almost completely recover the enzyme activity produced. The enzyme concentrate from

M. Petruccioli; M. Servili; G. F. Montedoro; F. Federici

1988-01-01

196

Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC-TOFMS.  

PubMed

Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC-TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC-TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

Haines, Troy D; Adlaf, Kevin J; Pierceall, Robert M; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W

2011-01-01

197

Pumpkin ( Cucurbita maxima) seed oil extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide and physicochemical properties of the oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oil was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide and the physicochemical properties of the oil were determined. A central composite rotatable design was used to analyse the impact of extraction parameters (temperature, time and pressure) and a response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal extraction conditions for the maximum oil yield. All three variables studied were

Pranabendu Mitra; Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy; Kyu Seob Chang

2009-01-01

198

Reformulating partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to maximise health gains in India: is it feasible and will it meet consumer demand?  

PubMed Central

Background The consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans fat is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases. In response to high intakes of PHVOs, the Indian government has proposed regulation to set limits on the amount of trans fat permissible in PHVOs. Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in order to optimise health benefits; however, little is known about the practicalities of implementation in low-income settings. The aim of this study was to examine the technical and economic feasibility of reducing trans fat in PHVOs and reformulating it using healthier fats. Methods Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with manufacturers and technical experts of PHVOs in India. Data were open-coded and organised according to key themes. Results Interviewees indicated that reformulating PHVOs was both economically and technically feasible provided that trans fat regulation takes account of the food technology challenges associated with product reformulation. However, there will be challenges in maintaining the physical properties that consumers prefer while reducing the trans fat in PHVOs. The availability of input oils was not seen to be a problem because of the low cost and high availability of imported palm oil, which was the input oil of choice for industry. Most interviewees were not concerned about the potential increase in saturated fat associated with increased use of palm oil and were not planning to use PUFAs in product reformulation. Interviewees indicated that many smaller manufacturers would not have sufficient capacity to reformulate products to reduce trans fat. Conclusions Reformulating PHVOs to reduce trans fat in India is feasible; however, a collision course exists where the public health goal to replace PHVOs with PUFA are opposed to the goals of industry to produce a cheap alternative product that meets consumer preferences. Ensuring that product reformulation is done in a way that maximises health benefits will require shifts in knowledge and subsequent demand of products, decreased reliance on palm oil, investment in research and development and increased capacity for smaller manufacturers. PMID:24308642

2013-01-01

199

Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Reduced consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is desirable to lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In practice, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) that contain both TFAs and other fatty acids are the unit of replacement and could be replaced with diverse alternative fats and oils. We performed quantitative estimates of CHD effects if a person's PHVO consumption were to be

D Mozaffarian; R Clarke

2009-01-01

200

Muscle lipid storage pattern, composition, and adipocyte distribution in different parts of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) fed fish oil and vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary oil source on lipid storage were evaluated in harvest size Atlantic salmon fed fish (FO) or vegetable oil (VO) based diets from start-feeding. Final weight and fat content were not significantly different for salmon fed FO and VO diets over a 27 month period. Fish fed these diets were scanned by computerized X-ray tomography (CT) and the

Dominic A. Nanton; Anne Vegusdal; Anna Maria Bencze Rørå; Bente Ruyter; Grete Baeverfjord; Bente E. Torstensen

2007-01-01

201

Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

2008-01-01

202

Fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of trans unsaturated FA in hydrogenated vegetable oils and blended fats from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the FA composition and trans FA (TFA) contents of different hydrogenated vegetable oils and blended fats marketed in Pakistan. Thirty-four vanaspati (vegetable\\u000a ghee), 11 shortenings, and 11 margarines were analyzed. The contents of saturated FA, cis monounsaturated FA, and cis PUFA were in the following ranges: vanaspati 27.8–49.5, 22.2–27.5, 9.3–13.1%; vegetable shortenings 37.1–55.5, 15.8–36.0,\\u000a 2.7–7.0%; and margarines

Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger; Farooq Anwar

2004-01-01

203

Some correlation of diesel engine performance with injection characteristics using vegetable oil as fuel  

SciTech Connect

It is known that the performance of a DI diesel engine is greatly affected by the injection and spray characteristics. These are influenced by the injection system design and by the properties of the fuel used. The effect of some of the physical properties of diesel fuel and soybean oil on the injection and spray parameters were measured and compared in the study. The injection system used in this investigation was the same as the one used in the engine performance evaluation using the two fuels. The performance of the engine is correlated with some of the spray parameters but it seems that the chemical composition and properties of the oil play important role in the emissions area of the engine. 7 figures, 2 tables.

Varde, K.S.

1982-01-01

204

Evaporation and Flow Properties of Several Hydrocarbon Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two properties that delimit the useful temperature range of synthetic lubricating oils are the vapor pressure and viscosity. This study investigates the ability of fluid theory to model these two properties for diesters with different diacid chain length and alcohol branching, triesters consisting of triglycerides and a trimethylol propane ester, and nonpolar oils including aromatic hydrocarbons, a polyalphaolefin, and two

T. E. Karis; H. S. Nagaraj

2000-01-01

205

Determination of pyrethroid insecticide residues in vegetable oils by using combined solid-phases extraction and tandem mass spectrometry detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology has been developed for the determination of pyrethroid insecticide residues in vegetable oils, based in a solid-phase extraction (SPE) with combined solid supports phases. Several solid phases such as florisil, alumina, C18 and graphitized carbon black were tested in order to minimize fat residues, being a combination of treated alumina and C18 which provided the best results.Oil samples

Francesc A. Esteve-Turrillas; Agustín Pastor; Miguel de la Guardia

2005-01-01

206

The effect of elevated fuel inlet temperature on performance of diesel engine running on neat vegetable oil at constant speed conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept that engine design is all important in the use of vegetable oils as a diesel fuel has been pointed out by many researchers. One hundred percent of vegetable oil can be used safely in an indirect injection engine, but not in a direct injection engine due to the high degree of atomization required for this type. This problem

O. M. I Nwafor

2003-01-01

207

Studying the Relationship Between Vegetation and PhysicoChemical Properties of Soil, Case Study: Tabas Region, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the relationship between vegetation and physico-chemical properties of soil of the margins of Tabas Kavir (salty desert), vegetation and soil components were surveyed. Regarding to the soil and vegetation distribution and land use in this region, four distinct areas were selected and classified covering all factors. Then, based on different vegetation cover percentage, the minimum plots

2006-01-01

208

A Double Click Strategy Applied to the Reversible Polymerization of Furan/Vegetable Oil Monomers.  

PubMed

This investigation describes preliminary results related to the preparation of monomers based on vegetable oil derivatives bearing furan heterocycles appended through thiol-ene click chemistry, and their subsequent polymerization via the Diels-Alder (DA) polycondensation between furan and maleimide complementary moieties, i.e. a second type of click chemistry. Following the optimization of these interactions with model compounds, two basic approaches were considered for these DA polymerizations, namely (i) the use of monomers with two terminal furan rings in conjunction with bismaleimides (AA?+?BB systems) and (ii) the use of AB monomers incorporating both furan and maleimide end-groups. This ongoing study clearly showed that both approaches were successful, albeit with different outcomes, in terms of the nature of the products. The application of the retro-DA reaction confirmed their thermoreversible character, i.e. the clean-cut return to their respective starting monomers. PMID:21739508

Vilela, Carla; Cruciani, Letizia; Silvestre, Armando J D; Gandini, Alessandro

2011-07-01

209

Modified vegetation indices for Ganoderma disease detection in oil palm from field spectroradiometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution field spectroradiometers are important for spectral analysis and mobile inspection of vegetation disease. The biggest challenges in using this technology for automated vegetation disease detection are in spectral signatures pre-processing, band selection and generating reflectance indices to improve the ability of hyperspectral data for early detection of disease. In this paper, new indices for oil palm Ganoderma disease detection were generated using band ratio and different band combination techniques. Unsupervised clustering method was used to cluster the values of each class resultant from each index. The wellness of band combinations was assessed by using Optimum Index Factor (OIF) while cluster validation was executed using Average Silhouette Width (ASW). 11 modified reflectance indices were generated in this study and the indices were ranked according to the values of their ASW. These modified indices were also compared to several existing and new indices. The results showed that the combination of spectral values at 610.5nm and 738nm was the best for clustering the three classes of infection levels in the determination of the best spectral index for early detection of Ganoderma disease.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Anuar, M. Izzuddin; Saripan, M. Iqbal

2009-10-01

210

Association of elevated blood pressure and impaired vasorelaxation in experimental Sprague-Dawley rats fed with heated vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poor control of blood pressure leads to hypertension which is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to explore possible mechanisms of elevation in blood pressure following consumption of heated vegetable oil. METHODS: Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups: Group I (control) - normal rat chow, Group II -

Xin-Fang Leong; Mohd Rais Mustafa; Srijit Das; Kamsiah Jaarin

2010-01-01

211

Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale-waste lands  

E-print Network

Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 Abstract Both soil nematodes and microorganisms have been shown are poorly understood. We investigated the relationship among soil microbial community composition, nematode

Neher, Deborah A.

212

Simultaneous determination of glycerol, and mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of glycerol, mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters has been developed. Quantitative information about this group of organic contaminants is very important for the quality of these oleochemical products when used as automotive diesel fuel substitutes.Trimethylsilylation of glycerol, mono- and diglycerides, followed by GC using a 10-m capillary column

Christina Plank; Eberhard Lorbeer

1995-01-01

213

Combustion performance and emissions of ethyl ester of a waste vegetable oil in a water-cooled furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumption around the world produces large amounts of waste vegetable oils and fats that, in many world regions, are disposed of in harmful ways. Consequently, this study intended to investigate the feasibility of utilizing this renewable and low cost fuel raw material as a diesel fuel replacement in small-scale applications such as in residential heating boilers. Specifically, the study

Ghassan Tashtoush; Mohamad I Al-Widyan; Ali O Al-Shyoukh

2003-01-01

214

FIELD STUDIES ON USBM AND TOSCO II RETORTED OIL SHALES: VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980  

EPA Science Inventory

Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cov...

215

Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

2011-01-01

216

Green Printing: Colorimetric and Densitometric Analysis of Solvent-Based and Vegetable Oil-Based Inks of Multicolor Offset Printing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the measurable print attributes (Print Contrast and Dot Gain) and color gamut of solvent-based (SB) inks vs. vegetable oil-based (VO) inks of multicolor offset printing. The literature review revealed a lack of published research on this subject. VO inks tend to perform (color…

Dharavath, H. Naik; Hahn, Kim

2009-01-01

217

Characterizing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Marshland Vegetation, Gulf Coast Louisiana, Using Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between April-July 2010 oil from the nation's largest oil spill contaminated the coastal marshlands of Louisiana. Data from the Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) are being used to (1) delineate the area of impact, (2) quantify the depth of oil penetration into the marsh and (3) characterize the physical and chemical impacts of the oil on the ecosystem. AVIRIS was flown on NASA ER-2 and Twin Otter aircraft, acquiring data at 7.5 and 4.4 meter pixel size, respectively. Concurrently, field surveys and sample collections were made in the imaged areas. Data were collected in early May, early July, late July and mid-August over the area ranging from Terrebonne Bay to the end of the Mississippi River delta. AVIRIS data were converted from radiance to reflectance. Oiled areas were detected by comparing AVIRIS spectra to field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of oiled and unaffected vegetation using the USGS Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA). Results indicate that the area in and around Barataria Bay was most extensively and heavily affected. In field surveys, stems of Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, the dominant species observed in the heavily oiled zones, were bent and broken by the weight of the oil, resulting in a damaged canopy that extended up to 30 meters into marsh. In less impacted zones, oil was observed on the plant stems but the canopy remained intact. In the bird's foot region of the delta, the area impacted was less extensive and the dominant affected species, Phragmites australis, suffered oiled stems but only minor fracturing of the canopy. Additional AVIRIS flights and field surveys are planned for the fall of 2010 and summer 2011. By comparing plant species composition, canopy biochemical content, and vegetation fractional cover within affected areas and to unaffected areas, we will continue to monitor degradation and recovery in the ecosystem, including on the longer-term chemical impacts of the oil in the marsh.

Kokaly, R. F.; Roberts, D. A.; Heckman, D.; Piazza, S.; Steyer, G.; Couvillion, B.; Holloway, J. M.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.

2010-12-01

218

A Dietary Pattern Characterized by High Intake of Vegetables, Fruits, and Vegetable Oils Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Preeclampsia in Nulliparous Pregnant Norwegian Women1–3  

PubMed Central

Several dietary substances have been hypothesized to influence the risk of preeclampsia. Our aim in this study was to estimate the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Women participating in MoBa answered questionnaires at gestational wk 15 (a general health questionnaire) and 17–22 (a FFQ). The pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Principal component factor analysis identified 4 primary dietary patterns that were labeled: vegetable, processed food, potato and fish, and cakes and sweets. Relative risks of preeclampsia were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils were at decreased risk [relative risk (OR) for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by processed meat, salty snacks, and sweet drinks were at increased risk [OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42]. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils decreases the risk of preeclampsia, whereas a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of processed meat, sweet drinks, and salty snacks increases the risk. PMID:19369368

Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Torjusen, Hanne; Trogstad, Lill; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2009-01-01

219

Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms. PMID:24031989

Tamada, Ivo S; Montagnolli, Renato N; Lopes, Paulo R M; Bidoia, Ederio D

2012-10-01

220

One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.  

PubMed

A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

2012-10-01

221

Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glucosides, major contaminants of vegetable oil-derived biodiesel.  

PubMed

Biodiesels are mostly produced from lipid transesterification of vegetable oils, including those from soybean, jatropha, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, and others. Unfortunately, transesterification of oil produces various unwanted side products, including steryl glucosides (SG), which precipitate and need to be removed to avoid clogging of filters and engine failures. So far, efficient and cost-effective methods to remove SGs from biodiesel are not available. Here we describe for the first time the identification, characterization and heterologous production of an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing SGs. A synthetic codon-optimized version of the lacS gene from Sulfolobus solfataricus was efficiently expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and used to treat soybean derived biodiesel containing 100 ppm of SGs. After optimizing different variables, we found that at pH 5.5 and 87 °C, and in the presence of 0.9 % of the emulsifier polyglycerol polyricinoleate, 81 % of the total amount of SGs present in biodiesel were hydrolyzed by the enzyme. This remarkable reduction in SGs suggests a path for the removal of these contaminants from biodiesel on industrial scale using an environmentally friendly enzymatic process. PMID:24265025

Aguirre, Andres; Peiru, Salvador; Eberhardt, Florencia; Vetcher, Leandro; Cabrera, Rodolfo; Menzella, Hugo G

2014-05-01

222

Increasing the energy density of vegetative tissues by diverting carbon from starch to oil biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Increasing the energy density of biomass by engineering the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetative tissues is synergistic with efforts to produce biofuels by conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Typically, TAG accumulates in developing seeds, and little is known about the regulatory mechanisms and control factors preventing oil biosynthesis in vegetative tissues in most plants. Here, we engineered Arabidopsis thaliana to ectopically overproduce the transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) involved in the regulation of seed oil biosynthesis. Furthermore, we reduced the expression of APS1 encoding a major catalytic isoform of the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in starch biosynthesis using an RNAi approach. The resulting AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines accumulated less starch and more hexoses. In addition, these lines produced 5.8-fold more oil in vegetative tissues than plants with WRI1 or AGPRNAi alone. Abundant oil droplets were visible in vegetative tissues. TAG molecular species contained long-chain fatty acids, similar to those found in seed oils. In AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines, the relative expression level of sucrose synthase 2 was considerably elevated and correlated with the level of sugars. The relative expression of the genes encoding plastidic proteins involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, biotin carboxyl carrier protein isoform 2 and acyl carrier protein 1, was also elevated. The relative contribution of TAG compared to starch to the overall energy density increased 9.5-fold in one AGPRNAi-WRI1 transgenic line consistent with altered carbon partitioning from starch to oil. PMID:22003502

Sanjaya; Durrett, Timothy P; Weise, Sean E; Benning, Christoph

2011-10-01

223

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

224

Accounting for spatial variation in vegetation properties improves simulations of Amazon forest biomass and productivity in a global vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic vegetation models forced with spatially homogeneous biophysical parameters are capable of producing average productivity and biomass values for the Amazon basin forest biome that are close to the observed estimates, but are unable to reproduce the observed spatial variability. Recent observational studies have shown substantial regional spatial variability of above-ground productivity and biomass across the Amazon basin, which is believed to be primarily driven by soil physical and chemical properties. In this study, spatial heterogeneity of vegetation properties is added to the IBIS land surface model, and the simulated productivity and biomass of the Amazon basin are compared to observations from undisturbed forest. The maximum Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and the woody biomass residence time (?w) were found to be the most important properties determining the modeled spatial variation of above-ground woody net primary productivity and biomass, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of these properties may lead to a spatial variability of 1.8 times in the simulated woody net primary productivity and 2.8 times in the woody above-ground biomass. The coefficient of correlation between the modeled and observed woody productivity improved from 0.10 with homogeneous parameters to 0.73 with spatially heterogeneous parameters, while the coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed woody above-ground biomass improved from 0.33 to 0.88. The results from our analyses with the IBIS dynamic vegetation model demonstrate that using single values for key ecological parameters in the tropical forest biome severely limits simulation accuracy. We emphasize that our approach must be viewed as an important first step and that a clearer understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that drive the spatial variability of carbon allocation, ?w and Vcmax are necessary.

de Almeida Castanho, A. D.; Coe, M. T.; Heil Costa, M.; Malhi, Y.; Galbraith, D.; Quesada, C. A.

2012-08-01

225

Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Background Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Results Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on ?-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Conclusions Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have higher responsiveness to low dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, up-regulating the biosynthetic pathway when fed dietary VO. As global aquaculture searches for alternative oils for feeds, this study alerts to the potential of VO introducing contaminants and demonstrates the detoxifying role of intestine. Finally, data indicate genotype-specific responses in the intestinal transcriptome and proteome to dietary VO, including possibly structural properties of the intestinal layer and defence against cellular stress, with Lean fish being more susceptible to diet-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22943471

2012-01-01

226

Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil  

SciTech Connect

The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction being more susceptible to biodegradation than the aromatic fraction in all the crude oil samples. The extent of biodegradation by acinetobacter and SM8 was found to be in the order of Arabian light > Dubai > Maya = Shengli; the crude oil samples with higher APl gravity being more susceptible to biodegradation. Saturated compounds of smaller molecular weight were preferentially degraded by both cultures. Acinetobacter could not degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples such as (alkyl)naphthalenes, (alky)phenanthrenes, (alkyl)fluorenes, and (alkyl)dibenzothiophenes. However, this strain was capable of degrading more than 10% of the molecules in the aromatic fraction of Arabian light crude oil. An NMR analysis demonstrated that the alkyl side chain of some aromatic molecules was degraded by this organism. In contrast, SM8 degraded the polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples, the extent of degradation being in the order of Maya > Shengli > Arabian light > Dubai. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Sugiura, Keiji; Ishihara, Masami; Shimauchi, Toshitsugu; Harayama, Shigeaki [Marine Biotechnology Inst., Kamaishi City (Japan)

1997-01-01

227

Novel bio-based thermoset resins based on epoxidized vegetable oils for structural adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional engineered wood composites are bonded for the most part through formaldehyde-based structural adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF). Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen; the occupational exposure and emission after manufacturing of these binders is raising more and more concern. With increasing emphasis on environmental issues, there is clear incentive to replace these hazardous conventional formaldehyde-based binders with cco-friendly resins having similar properties but derived from renewable sources, bearing in mind the economics of the structural wood composite industry. In this thesis, the curing reaction of bio-derived epoxy thermosets with inexpensive, low-toxicity precursors, including polyimines and amino acids was investigated. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were successfully crosslinked with both branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and triethylenetetramine (fETA). Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) was crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI), having different molecular weights. Curing conditions were optimized through solvent uptake and soluble fraction analysis. Finally, the mechanical properties of the optimized compositions of rigid bioepoxies were evaluated using dynamic mechanical rheological testing (DMRT). While not as stiff as conventional materials, optimized materials have sufficient room temperature moduli to show promise for coatings and as binders in engineered wood products.

Sivasubramanian, Shivshankar

228

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

SciTech Connect

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01

229

Microencapsulation of Kaffir Lime Oil and Its Functional Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the effects of spray drying temperature and wall materials on functional properties of kaffir lime oil microcapsules. The effects of spray drying were studied at inlet air temperatures at 160, 180, and 200°C. Two coating materials (konjac glucomannan and gum arabic) were employed in this study. The results indicate that kaffir lime oil had antibacterial activity against

J. Adamiec; C. Borompichaichartkul; G. Srzednicki; W. Panket; S. Piriyapunsakul; J. Zhao

2012-01-01

230

Antimicrobial properties of essential oil constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the microbiological inhibitory data on substances that are mainly found in essential oils, reveals that only a small number of substances are able to inhibit bacteria, moulds, dermatophytes and yeasts in a concentration up to 250 ppm. The essential oil components are: cinnamic aldehyde, 2-heptenal, 2-octenal, 2-nonenal, 2-decenal, nonanal, decanal, citral, geraniol, chavicol, thymol, carvacrol, ?- and

Alexander Pauli

2001-01-01

231

Biological Properties of Olive Oil Phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Joe Vinson, Chemistry Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510 Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar

Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli

2002-01-01

232

Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

2014-01-01

233

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2011-04-01

234

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2012-04-01

235

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

... 2014-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2014-04-01

236

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2010-04-01

237

30 CFR 1210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?  

...must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties? 1210.155 Section 1210... Special-Purpose Forms and Reports-Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources § 1210...must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties? (a) General....

2014-07-01

238

17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells,...

2013-04-01

239

Characteristic of soil hydro-physical properties and water dynamics under different vegetation restoration types  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining the observation of the soil profile at field and the chemical and physical analysis in laboratory, a study on\\u000a the hydro-physical properties of soil in six different vegetation types and the dynamics of water content after rain was conducted\\u000a in Wanchanggou, Guangyuan City to find out the vegetation types with effective water-conservation functions in order to serve\\u000a the

Ma Zelong; Gong Yuanbo; Hu Tingxing

2006-01-01

240

Modeling the backscattering and transmission properties of vegetation canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.

Allen, C. T.; Ulaby, F. T.

1984-01-01

241

Association of elevated blood pressure and impaired vasorelaxation in experimental Sprague-Dawley rats fed with heated vegetable oil  

PubMed Central

Background Poor control of blood pressure leads to hypertension which is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to explore possible mechanisms of elevation in blood pressure following consumption of heated vegetable oil. Methods Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups: Group I (control) - normal rat chow, Group II - fresh soy oil, Group III - soy oil heated once, Group IV - soy oil heated twice, Group V - soy oil heated five times, Group VI - soy oil heated ten times. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline level and at a monthly interval for six months. Plasma nitric oxide, heme oxygenase and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were measured prior to treatment, at month-three and month-six later. At the end of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and thoracic aortas were taken for measurement of vascular reactivity. Results Blood pressure increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the repeatedly heated oil groups compared to the control and fresh soy oil groups. Consumption of diet containing repeatedly heated oil resulted higher plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme level and lower nitric oxide content and heme oxygenase concentration. Reheated soy oil groups exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, and greater contraction to phenylephrine. Conclusion As a result of consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil, an elevation in blood pressure was observed which may be due to the quantitative changes in endothelium dependent and independent factors including enzymes directly involved in the regulation of blood pressure. PMID:20573259

2010-01-01

242

Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total microbial community. Bacterial richness rebounded after nine months, although community composition remained distinct from the pre-amendment conditions. Subsequent to the experiment we have isolated several of these organisms into pure culture including representatives of probable new species of Geobacter, Desulforegula and Desulfovibrio. A hypothesized model for the functioning of these limited communities will be verified in the laboratory using defined combinations of isolates from the field where possible. These results demonstrated EVO serves as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction, and subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction was likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

2011-12-01

243

Analysis of triacylglyceride hydroperoxides in vegetable oils by nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triacylglyceride hydroperoxides (HPO-TAG), the primary autoxidation products of triacylglycerides (TAG), have been analyzed\\u000a in polyunsaturated vegetable oils by means of nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with\\u000a ultraviolet detection. Using a retention time model based on equivalent carbon numbers, mono- and bishydroperoxy TAG and hydroxy\\u000a TAG could be identified. The correlation between the peroxide value (POV) determined by iodometric titration

Christina Bauer-Plank; Lisette Steenhorst-Slikkerveer

2000-01-01

244

Chemical evaluation and thermal analysis of the essential oil from the fruits of the vegetable species Pimenta dioica Lindl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetal species Pimenta dioica Lindl, popularly known as Jamaican pepper, is a 6–15 m tall tree, which belongs to the Mirtaceae family. Its fruits have\\u000a an essential oil of great economic value in the international market, due to its high level of eugenol (its major compound),\\u000a which is largely used in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the extraction

O. S. Monteiro; A. G. Souza; L. E. B. Soledade; N. Queiroz; A. L. Souza; V. E. Mouchrek Filho; A. F. F. Vasconcelos

245

Effects of Partially Hydrogenated, Semi-Saturated, and High Oleate Vegetable Oils on Inflammatory Markers and Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on subclinical inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk are mainly derived\\u000a from studies conducted in Western populations. Little information is available on South East Asian countries. This current\\u000a study investigated the chronic effects on serum inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins of three vegetable oils. Healthy,\\u000a normolipidemic subjects (n = 41; 33 females, 8 males) completed a

Kim-Tiu Teng; Phooi-Tee Voon; Hwee-Ming Cheng; Kalanithi Nesaretnam

2010-01-01

246

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves for use in edible vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Supercritical extraction was employed to produce rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts with different composition and antioxidant activity. CO? was utilized as supercritical solvent and diverse extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, amount of cosolvent and fractionation scheme) were applied. The extracts with higher antioxidant content were selected to study their capability as natural antioxidant of several commercial edible vegetable oils. Linseed oil (LO), grape seed oil (GO) and sesame oil (SO) were oxidized under Rancimat conditions in presence of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of selected extracts. Antioxidant activity index (AAI) was estimated as the ratio of induction time in presence of extracts to induction time in absence of extract. Induction time in absence of extracts was 3.3, 7.9 and 23.4 h for LO, GO and SO, respectively. Regardless of these different susceptibilities, the highest AAI for the three oils was obtained for the extract with the highest antioxidant-enrichment (33.25% carnosic acid plus carnosol) and added at the highest level (300 mg/kg). However, at such conditions, the AAI was significantly higher (p<0.001) for LO (3.5), followed by SO (2.2) and the poorest value was for GO (1.1). Therefore, the magnitude of the AAI depended on the antioxidant-enrichment of the extracts, the level of addition within the oils, but also on the own individual oils. PMID:23196869

Vicente, Gonzalo; Martín, Diana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-01-01

247

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

Mueller, Daniela; Ferrao, Marco Flores; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; de Cassia de Souza Schneider, Rosana

2013-01-01

248

Click chemistry approach to conventional vegetable tanning process: accelerated method with improved organoleptic properties.  

PubMed

Click chemistry approaches are tailored to generate molecular building blocks quickly and reliably by joining small units together selectively and covalently, stably and irreversibly. The vegetable tannins such as hydrolyzable and condensed tannins are capable to produce rather stable radicals or inhibit the progress of radicals and are prone to oxidations such as photo and auto-oxidation, and their anti-oxidant nature is well known. A lot remains to be done to understand the extent of the variation of leather stability, color variation (lightening and darkening reaction of leather), and poor resistance to water uptake for prolonged periods. In the present study, we have reported click chemistry approaches to accelerated vegetable tanning processes based on periodates catalyzed formation of oxidized hydrolysable and condensed tannins for high exhaustion with improved properties. The distribution of oxidized vegetable tannin, the thermal stability such as shrinkage temperature (T s) and denaturation temperature (T d), resistance to collagenolytic activities, and organoleptic properties of tanned leather as well as the evaluations of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates the cross section of tightness of the leather. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis shows that the T d of leather is more than that of vegetable tanned or equal to aldehyde tanned one. The leathers exhibited fullness, softness, good color, and general appearance when compared to non-oxidized vegetable tannin. The developed process benefits from significant reduction in total solids and better biodegradability in the effluent, compared to non-oxidized vegetable tannins. PMID:24888617

Krishnamoorthy, Ganesan; Ramamurthy, Govindaswamy; Sadulla, Sayeed; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara; Mandal, Asit Baran

2014-09-01

249

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

250

Terahertz spectroscopy properties of the selected engine oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine oil, most of which is extracted from petroleum, consist of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of molecular weights in the range of 250-1000. Variable amounts of different additives are put into them to inhibit oxidation, improve the viscosity index, decrease the fluidity point and avoid foaming or settling of solid particles among others. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy contains rich physical, chemical, and structural information of the materials. Most low-frequency vibrational and rotational spectra of many petrochemicals lie in this frequency range. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the THz spectroscopic studies of petroleum products. In this paper, the optical properties and spectroscopy of selected kinds of engine oil consisting of shell HELIX 10W-40, Mobilube GX 80W-90, GEELY ENGINE OIL SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 5W-30, SMA engine oil SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 75W-90 have been studied by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the spectral range of 0.6-2.5 THz. Engine oil with different viscosities in the terahertz spectrum has certain regularity. In the THz-TDS, with the increase of viscosity, time delay is greater and with the increase of viscosity, refractive indexes also grow and their rank is extremely regular. The specific kinds of engine oil can be identified according to their different spectral features in the THz range. The THz-TDS technology has potentially significant impact on the engine oil analysis.

Zhu, Shouming; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Tian; Zhao, Songqing; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

251

Dietary vegetable oil and wood derived plant stanol esters reduce atherosclerotic lesion size and severity in apoE*3Leiden transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects of vegetable oil- and wood-based dietary plant stanol esters were compared in female apoE*3-Leiden transgenic mice at relevant plasma cholesterol levels. The plant stanol esters derived from vegetable oil (sitostanol 65.7%, campestanol 30.1%) had different contents of sitostanol and campestanol than the plant stanol esters derived from wood (sitostanol 87.6%, campestanol 9.5%) or from a

O. L. Volger; R. P. Mensink; J. Plat; G. Hornstra; L. M. Havekes; H. M. G. Princen

2001-01-01

252

Simultaneous detection of tocopherols, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in vegetable oils by direct injection C 30 RP-HPLC with coulometric electrochemical array detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and quantification of tocopherols, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in vegetable oil have been used to aid their authentication.\\u000a Their importance in influencing the oxidative stability of vegetable oils and their possible health benefits have been shown\\u000a in numerous studies. Therefore, the need for a rapid and reliable analysis method has become increasingly important. This\\u000a study demonstrates the application of C30

Ni Luh Puspitasari-Nienaber; Mario G. Ferruzzi; Steven J. Schwartz

2002-01-01

253

Production of biodiesel fuel by transesterification of different vegetable oils with methanol using Al?O? modified MgZnO catalyst.  

PubMed

An active heterogeneous Al2O3 modified MgZnO (MgZnAlO) catalyst was prepared and the catalytic activity was investigated for the transesterification of different vegetable oils (refined palm oil, waste cooking palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) with methanol to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis to ascertain its versatility. Effects of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on oil conversion were examined. Within the range of studied variability, the suitable transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 16:1, catalyst loading 3.32 wt.%, reaction time 6h, temperature 182°C), the oil conversion of 98% could be achieved with reference to coconut oil in a single stage. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for five cycles without significant deactivation. PMID:23395762

Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

2013-03-01

254

Studies on the Experimental Production and Prevention of Bloat in Cattle. III. The Effect of Vegetable Oil and Animal Fat on Acute Legume Bloat1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The influence of animal and vegetable fats on ruminal motility, eructation, and bloat has been investigated in dairy cattle receiving freshly harvested alfalfa tops under laboratory and feed-lot conditions. Five eructation and rumen motility trials were conducted on a nonlactating cow having a transected trachea and a ruminal fistula. It was found that the administra- tion of vegetable oil

Harry W. Colvin Jr.; J. M. Boda; Thomas Wegner

1959-01-01

255

A new breed of racing car runs on vegetable oil and chocolate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling Masterpiece: British Racing Team Creates F3 Car That Runs on Chocolatehttp://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/News/articleId=147889The Chocolate-Powered Carhttp://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/may2009/bw2009057_934211.htm?chan=top+news_top+news+index+-+temp_lifestyleWorld First Racinghttp://www.worldfirstracing.co.uk/Fuel Economyhttp://www.fueleconomy.gov/Chocolate Recipeshttp://www.godiva.com/recipes/default.aspxRacing a car around a track isn't exactly the most environmentally friendly activity, but it may be getting a bit better with the arrival of this rather unusual car. Designed by a British team, this Formula 3 car is powered by vegetable oil and chocolate. The WorldFirstRacing car is constructed out of recycled carbon fiber, along with plastic bottles and other organic materials. The car is sponsored by Warwick University and the Warwick Innovative Manufacturing Research Center, and their work is inspired by the general movement to "green" the technology used in racing cars. Interestingly enough, the lubricants used are all derived from plant oil and the radiators use a catalyst that reduces ground-level ozone by converting ozone molecules to oxygen. The team is still tweaking some aspects of the car, and it is scheduled to make a few test runs at the Goodwood Festival of Speed in Britain in early July.The first link will take users to an informative piece from Wired magazine's "Autopia" weblog that talks a bit more about this rather innovative racing car. The second link leads to an article from Edmunds.com, which talks in greater detail about the Formula 3 car's particulars. Moving on, the third article is from BusinessWeek magazine, and it includes a video of the car in action. The fourth link will whisk users away to the homepage of the WorldFirstRacing car, complete with a photo gallery, flying carrots, and a list of events where the car will appear. The fifth link leads to the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Economy website. Here visitors can learn about the importance of fuel economy and read up on gas mileage tips and hybrid vehicles. Finally, those who wish to use chocolate for a more conventional use will appreciate the last link, as it leads to some rather fine chocolate recipes, offered courtesy of Godiva Chocolates.

Grinnell, Max

2009-05-15

256

The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 ?g/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 ?g/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

2014-01-01

257

Improved sample extraction and clean-up for the GC-MS determination of BADGE and BFDGE in vegetable oil.  

PubMed

A straightforward method was established for the determination of migration contaminants in olive oil with a special focus on the two can-coating migration compounds bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE). The preferred sample preparation was a single liquid-liquid extraction of compounds from the oil into 20% (v/v) methanol in acetonitrile, followed by clean-up with solid-phase extraction on aminopropyl bonded to silica. This purification procedure selectively removed all free fatty acids from the extracts without removing phenolic compounds of interest. The solid-phase extraction columns were used many times by implementing a procedure of washing out the strongly retained fatty acids with 2% acetic acid in methanol. Gas chromatography coupled with full scan (m/z 33-700) electron ionization mass spectrometry was used for the determination of several model compounds in olive oil samples. BADGE and BFDGE could be determined in the 0.05-2 mg kg(-1) range in oil samples with a relative SD of <6% (six replicates). The method was used in an enforcement campaign for the Norwegian Food Control Authority to analyse vegetable oil samples from canned fish-in-oil. PMID:12028648

Brede, C; Skjevrak, I; Herikstad, H; Anensen, E; Austvoll, R; Hemmingsen, T

2002-05-01

258

Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

2013-08-01

259

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (PO)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2007-01-01

260

Functional properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic fermented vegetables of the Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 94 strains of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from ethnic fermented vegetables and tender bamboo shoots of the Himalayas, were screened for functional properties such as acidification capacity, enzymatic activities, degradation of antinutritive factors and oligosaccharides, production of biogenic amines, hydrophobicity and adherence to mucus secreting HT29 MTX cells. Strong acidification and coagulation activities of LAB

Jyoti Prakash Tamang; Buddhiman Tamang; Ulrich Schillinger; Claudia Guigas; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel

2009-01-01

261

Properties of Spray-Dried Combinations of Milk and Fruits and Vegetables1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of products made by spray drying pur6es of 17 different fruits and Z6 different vegetables alone or combined with skimmilk were studied. Natural flavors and colors, although proportionately diluted by skimmilk addition, were retained in the freshly dxied products. Shelf life (air- pack, room temperature) varied from a few weeks to a year or more among the different

W. M. Breene; S. T. Coulter

1967-01-01

262

Properties of fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolases from spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus.  

PubMed

Fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase from cells of Bacillus cereus appears to be typical Class II aldolase as judged by its functional and physical properties. Spore and vegetative cell aldolase had similar enzymatic, immunochemical, and heat resistance properties in the absence of calcium, but they differed in their thermal stabilities in the presence of calcium, their Stokes' radii, their mobility in acrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their molecular weights. The pH optimum for both enzymes was 8.5, and their K(m) with respect to substrate was 2 x 10(-3)m. Highly purified spore and vegetative cell aldolases were both heat labile with half-lives of 4 min at 53 C and pH 6.4. In the presence of 3 x 10(-2)m solution of calcium ions, the stability of the spore protein increased 12-fold but the vegetative form became more heat labile. The enhanced stability of the spore aldolase was not diminished by dialysis or gel filtration but was lost after chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose at pH 7.4. Aldolase from vegetative cells exists in an equilibrium mixture of two molecular weights, 115,000 and 79,000 in the approximate ratio of 1:4, respectively. The molecular weight of spore aldolase is 44,000. Spore aldolase was more mobile during electrophoresis than its vegetative cell counterpart because of its smaller size. PMID:4977985

Sadoff, H L; Hitchins, A D; Celikkol, E

1969-06-01

263

Changes in Marsh Vegetation, Stability and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Barataria Bay Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal wetlands in Southern Louisiana were contaminated by the release of record volumes of oil between April and July 2010. Barataria Bay was extensively impacted, resulting in the oiling and dieback of marsh grasses along a discontinuous margin up to 30m into the marshes. Shoreline stability and biogeochemistry have been monitored over three site visits between between July 10 and August 25, 2010. Initial observations in early July were that grasses, dominantly shape Spartina alterniflora and shape Juncus roemerianus, were bent over under the weight of a thick oil coating. The bent-over grasses were broken off along some reaches, leaving a stubbled shoreline more susceptible to erosion. Repeated site visits in mid and late August found visible erosion along some of the effected shorelines. Water samples were collected from the shoreline marsh remnants and from visibly unaffected marshes to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). In spite of visible oil sheens in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on vegetation in the “control” sites with no visible oil on vegetation, DOC concentrations were similar in impacted and visibly unimpacted sites in Barataria Bay. Subsequent samples in mid- and late-August had increased DOC concentrations relative to previous sample events regardless of whether the site was visibly impacted. There was a general increase in specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an index of aromaticity, with increasing DOC concentrations, either due to seasonal effects or continued dissolution of petroleum compounds. Further chemical characterization using fluorescence and gas chromatography will be used to confirm the presence of petroleum compounds. The ratio of DOC to TDN also increased over time, which may have implications for vegetation regrowth and plant community structure, including the shift of grass species dominating effected marshes. These initial findings suggest that while some shorelines have overtly visible impacts from the oil slick that reached Barataria Bay, there are also less visible indications that there may be a more comprehensive biogeochemical effect from the oil incursion throughout Barataria Bay.

Holloway, J. M.; Aiken, G.; Kokaly, R. F.; Heckman, D.; Butler, K.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.; Piazza, S.

2010-12-01

264

Comparative hypocholesterolemic effects of six vegetable oils in cholesterol-fed rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypocholesterolemic efficacies of various polyunsaturated fatty acids were compared in rats given cholesterol-enriched\\u000a diets.Oenothera biennis Linn oil (OBLO, linoleic +?-linolenic), sunflower oil (linoleic), palm oil (PLO, oleic+linoleic), soybean oil (linoleic+?-linolenic),\\u000a high-oleic safflower oil (oleic+linoleic), or mixed oil (linoleic+?-linolenic) was added to the diet at 200 g\\/kg (20% groups).\\u000a OBLO was also added at 100 g\\/kg diet (10% group). The

Michihiro Fukushima; Shiori Akiba; Masuo Nakano

1996-01-01

265

Catalytic hydrocracking of vegetable oil for agrofuels production using Ni–Mo, Ni–W, Pt and TFA catalysts supported on SBA15  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forecasting studies based upon Hubbert's type multicyclic calculations indicate a progressive declining of most of the fossil oil sources worldwide after reaching a production maximum [1]. In the near future scenario the search of renewable alternate fuels sources will be of increasing importance, for example agrofuels, which are fuel grade derivates of vegetable oils; thus, this work deals with newer

J. A. Melo-Banda

2011-01-01

266

In situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 1. Vegetation recovery and soil temperature as a function of water depth, oil type, and marsh type.  

PubMed

In-situ burning of oiled wetlands potentially provides a cleanup technique that is generally consistent with present wetland management procedures. The effects of water depth (+10, +2, and -2 cm), oil type (crude and diesel), and oil penetration of sediment before the burn on the relationship between vegetation recovery and soil temperature for three coastal marsh types were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a key factor controlling marsh plant recovery. Both the 10- and 2-cm water depths were sufficient to protect marsh vegetation from burning impacts, with surface soil temperatures of <35 and 48 degrees C, respectively. Plant survival rate and growth responses at these water depth burns were not significantly different from the unburned control. In contrast, a water table 2 cm below the soil surface during the burn resulted in high soil temperatures, with 90-200 degrees C at 0-0.5 cm soil depth and 55-75 degrees C at 1-2 cm soil depth. The 2-cm soil exposure to fire significantly impeded the post-burn recovery of Spartina alterniflora and Sagittaria lancifolia but did not detrimentally affect the recovery of Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. Oil type (crude vs diesel) and oil applied to the marsh soil surface (0.5 L x m(-2)) before the burn did not significantly affect plant recovery. Thus, recovery is species-specific when no surface water exists. Even water at the soil surface will most likely protect wetland plants from burning impact. PMID:15819246

Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

2005-03-15

267

Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

2013-01-01

268

Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data.  

PubMed

The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill. PMID:24223872

Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J; Ustin, Susan L; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F; Roberts, Dar A

2013-01-01

269

Interrelationship between viscosity and electrical properties for edible oils.  

PubMed

Electrical properties of edible oil depend upon its total polar component, temperature and the frequency of the applied voltage. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and electrical conductivity were measured for cottonseed (Gossypium sp.), ground nut (Apios americana), mustard (Brasicca compestriss) and sun flower (Helianthus annuus) oils in the temperature range of 20 to 100°C so as to assess the potential of their applicability for assessing the quality of oils. Viscosity of the oils is an other important physical property associated with their processing and quality control. Viscosity of these oils was experimentally measured. The correlation of viscosity with dielectric loss tangent and viscosity with electrical conductivity were tested. The best correlating relations along with correlation constants, valid for the temperature range of 20-100°C are presented. The regression equation developed relating viscosity with loss tangent and electrical conductivity had high correlation coefficient (R(2)?>?0.96) for all the four oils within temperature range of 20-100°C. PMID:24425951

Kumar, Dilip; Singh, Amarjit; Tarsikka, Paramjit Singh

2013-06-01

270

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis with vegetable oils as co-solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean oil and olive oil were investigated as continuous co-solvents for supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Without co-solvents, only 25.40±0.79% efficiency was achieved with SC-CO2 extraction at 70°C and 40MPa at a continuous flow rate of 3mLmin?1 for 5h. In the presence of soybean oil or olive oil as a co-solvent, the extraction efficiency was

Sontaya Krichnavaruk; Artiwan Shotipruk; Motonobu Goto; Prasert Pavasant

2008-01-01

271

Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

1999-04-01

272

Rapid determination of phospholipid content of vegetable oils by FTIR spectroscopy combined with partial least-square regression.  

PubMed

A rapid mid-FTIR method was developed to quantitatively determine the total phospholipid (PL) content of vegetable oils. The method simply requires that the oil be diluted 4:1 (w/w) with hexane, its spectrum taken and ratioed against a hexane background. A calibration was devised using partial least squares by adding purified soybean PL at levels of 0.02-2.0% to phospholipid-free oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower) using the spectral region encompassing 1,357-1,000 cm(-1) and validated using the AOCS 12-55. Using calibration and leave-one-out cross-validation predictive errors, a 200-20,000 ppm calibration was accurate to within ± 362 and 488 ppm, respectively, while for sub-calibrations ranging from 200 to 2000; 2000 to 8000 and 8000 to 20,000 ppm, they were ± 72-172, ± 119-220, and ± 242-371 ppm, respectively. Although limited to 3 oil types in this study, the calibration is simple to devise and can be broadened to the universe of oil types of interest, the analytical protocol being straightforward and the analysis readily automatable. PMID:24206718

Meng, Xianghe; Pan, Qiuyue; Ding, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

2014-03-15

273

Phase-transfer catalysis and ultrasonic waves II: saponification of vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saponification of oils which is a commercially important heterogeneous reaction, can be speeded up by the application of ultrasound in the presence of phase-transfer catalyst (PTC). This paper focuses on the ability of ultrasound to cause efficient mixing of this liquid–liquid heterogeneous reaction. Castor oil was taken as a model oil and the kinetic of the reaction was followed by

M. H Entezari; A Keshavarzi

2001-01-01

274

A review of the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples: analytical scheme, interpretation of the results, and future needs.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the literature on the analysis of vegetable (and animal) oil residues from fire debris samples. The examination sequence starts with the solvent extraction of the residues from the substrate. The extract is then prepared for instrumental analysis by derivatizing fatty acids (FAs) into fatty acid methyl esters. The analysis is then carried out by gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The interpretation of the results is a difficult operation seriously limited by a lack of research on the subject. The present data analysis scheme utilizes FA ratios to determine the presence of vegetable oils and their propensity to self-heat and possibly, to spontaneously ignite. Preliminary work has demonstrated that it is possible to detect chemical compounds specific to an oil that underwent spontaneous ignition. Guidelines to conduct future research in the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples are also presented. PMID:17018078

Stauffer, Eric

2006-09-01

275

Fuel properties of tallow and soybean oil esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel properties of beef tallow, soybean oil, their esters, and blends with No. 2 diesel fuel and ethanol were determined.\\u000a Fuel properties tested were viscosity, specific gravity, API gravity, distillation ranges, calculated cetane index, energy\\u000a content, flash point, water content, sulfur content, carbon residue, particulate matter, acid value, copper-strip corrosion\\u000a test, ash content, melting point, cloud point, and pour point.

Yusuf Ali; Milford A. Hanna; Susan L. Cuppett

1995-01-01

276

Physical properties of triglyceride estolides from lesquerella and castor oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesquerella is a developing hydroxy oilseed crop suitable for rotation in the arid Southwestern United States. The hydroxy oil of lesquerella makes it suitable for esterification into triglyceride estolides. The estolide functionality imparts unique physical properties that make this class of materials suitable for functional fluid applications. Lesquerella and castor hydroxy triglycerides were converted to their corresponding estolides by reacting

Terry A. Isbell; Benjamin A. Lowery; Stephanie S. DeKeyser; Melissa L. Winchell; Steven C. Cermak

2006-01-01

277

Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact  

PubMed Central

Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

2014-01-01

278

Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortification is an important criteria to achieve a health impact.  

PubMed

Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2-3 months, while PO2's shelf life was a few weeks and PO3's only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

2014-01-01

279

Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic ?-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol levels but not HUFA levels. PMID:18577222

Leaver, Michael J; Villeneuve, Laure AN; Obach, Alex; Jensen, Linda; Bron, James E; Tocher, Douglas R; Taggart, John B

2008-01-01

280

The influence of vegetation on the distribution of soil properties in a semiarid floodplain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplains rely on specific inundation patterns to maintain soil fertility and vegetation stability. Concerns have been raised that a shift in these patterns has had a negative impact on the health of floodplain ecological communities; especially in semi-arid areas where water is limited. Soil analyses on the semi-arid Lowbidgee floodplain in south-western New South Wales, Australia, were conducted to determine relationships between flood inundation frequency and the soil properties of the floodplain and adjacent hillslope, and to investigate the applicability of the resource islands concept for this environment. Soils were sampled from zones representing four flood inundation frequency categories: high (return interval every year), intermediate (return interval every five years), low (return interval every ten years) and never flooded (hillslopes). Initially, differences between soil properties in the floodplain and the hillslope were evident when vegetated and non-vegetated soils were compared. Within floodplain soils, the electrical conductivity, pH, organic content and concentrations of eight soil geochemicals were higher for vegetated soils than non-vegetated soils, suggesting the resource island concept might apply in this environment. This is somewhat counterintuitive in that floodplains are ordinarily viewed as locations of nutrient enrichment where flood events replenish and redistribute nutrients across floodplain surfaces. Although increasing evidence has been presented to suggest that this replenishment is non-uniform along topographic gradients, this work provides some of the first evidence to suggest that vegetation may also play an important role in the distribution of nutrients and other elements in floodplains. It should be noted, however, that floodplain regions were always nutrient enriched relative to surrounding hillslope areas which suggests that the entire floodplain area (even those areas between existing vegetation patches where nutrient levels are comparatively low) has the potential to support vegetative growth when water becomes available. Comparative results for hillslope soils only identified electrical conductivity, organic content and the concentration of Na to statistically vary between vegetated and non-vegetated soils. Thus, resource islands appear to occur on the floodplain but are not evident on the adjacent flat hillslopes. This result may be a consequence of the relatively flat (slopes of approximately 0.2%) hillslopes that do not have sufficient gradient to generate erosive overland flows and, therefore, have their elements remaining immobile within the soil. Although hillslope regions were generally nutrient poor and chemically depleted relative to adjacent floodplains, the lack of any specific concentration of nutrients under vegetation implies that these hillslopes are open to colonization by vegetation when seeds are present in the soil and sufficient water is available to stimulate growth. This is a situation that is unlikely to occur on slopes where resource islands are present as the intershrub regions tend to be nutrient poor and hostile to vegetation growth.

Neave, Melissa; Rayburg, Scott; Thompson-Laing, Justin

2010-05-01

281

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

282

Phytotoxicity of Clove Oil to Vegetable Crop Seedlings and Nematotoxicity to Root-knot Nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. bio-based nematicide, essential oil, Meloidogyne incognita, nematode management SUMMARY. Clove oil derived from the clove plant (Syzygium aromaticum (=Eugenia caryophyllata)) isactiveagainstvarious soil-borneplantpathogens andtherefore has potential for use as a bio-based pesticide. A clove oil formulation previously found to be toxic to the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita )i n laboratory assays was investigated in greenhouse studies for

Susan L. F. Meyer; Dilip K. Lakshman; Inga A. Zasada; Bryan T. Vinyard; David J. Chitwood

2008-01-01

283

Oil reservoir properties estimation using neural networks  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. This approach relies on JPL`s adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. The authors believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

Toomarian, N.B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research; Aminzadeh, F. [UNOCAL Corp., Sugarland, TX (United States)

1997-02-01

284

Oil Reservoir Properties Estimation Using Neutal Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. Our approach relies on JPL's adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. We believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

Toomarian, N. B.; Barhen, J.; Glover, C. W.; Aminzadeh, F.

1997-01-01

285

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

2012-12-01

286

Impact of spruce forest and grass vegetation cover on soil micromorphology and hydraulic properties of organic matter horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two organic matter horizons developed under a spruce forest and grass vegetation were chosen to demonstrate the impact of\\u000a a different vegetation cover on the micromorphology, porous system and hydraulic properties of surface soils. Micromorphological\\u000a studies showed that the decomposed organic material in the organic matter horizon under the grass vegetation was more compact\\u000a compared to the decomposed organic material

Radka Kodešová; Lenka Pavl?; Vít Kodeš; Anna Žigová; Antonín Nikodem

2007-01-01

287

Biological soil crust and surface soil properties in different vegetation types of Horqin Sand Land, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and chemical properties (including coverage, thickness, hardness, moisture, particle size distribution, organic matter and nutrient contents etc.) of biological soil crust and 0–5.0cm surface soil under the crust in three types of vegetation (semi-shrub Artemisia frigida, shrub Salix gordejevii and tree Populus simonii) were surveyed in 2005 and 2006 in Horqin Sand Land to understand the effects of different

Ha-Lin Zhao; Yi-Rui Guo; Rui-Lian Zhou; Sam Drake

2010-01-01

288

Simulation of vegetable oil extraction in counter-current crossed flows using the artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mathematical model of processes in a “Rotocell” extractor was developed. The model considers: a two-dimensional approach of counter-current crossed flows (CCC) with oil diffusion for miscela; mass transfer between the bulk, pore and solid phases; the effect of the existing processes in the drainage and loading sections; oil losses; and variation in the miscela viscosity and density. The

G. C. Thomas; V. G. Krioukov; H. A. Vielmo

2005-01-01

289

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1  

E-print Network

milling process, water-soluble pheno- lics are discarded in the waste stream, amounting to 85 million tons, these initial studies suggest that OPP is safe and may have a protective role against free radical damage, LDL for harvesting water-soluble antioxidants from oil palm has become available(12,14­17) . During the palm oil

Sinskey, Anthony J.

290

Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2005, pp. 2533 Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Vegetation Properties among  

E-print Network

Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2005, pp. 25�33 Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Vegetation Properties among Four Tundra Plant Communities at Ivotuk, Alaska, U.S.A. Sebastian M index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), and phytomass were compared for four tundra vegetation types

Edwards, Erika J.

291

Essential oils: Toxicity and antimicrobial properties. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic properties of essential oils, and the use of essential oils in preventing development of microbes. These essential oils are derived from plants and other living organisms. Citations included cover the toxicological testing of essential oils, and the identification and testing of essential oils and their components for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. (Contains a minimum of 81 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

292

Modification of palm oil for anti-inflammatory nutraceutical properties.  

PubMed

Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:19449050

Zainal, Zaida; Longman, Andrea J; Hurst, Samantha; Duggan, Katrina; Hughes, Clare E; Caterson, Bruce; Harwood, John L

2009-07-01

293

Emergent properties of climate-vegetation feedbacks in the North American Monsoon Macrosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change and associated disturbances (e.g. wildfires, spread of invasive species) is greatly affected by the stability of feedback interactions between climate and vegetation. In order to study climate-vegetation interactions, such as CO2 and H2O exchange in the North American Monsoon System (NAMS), we plan to couple a community land surface model (NoahMP or CLM) used in regional climate models (WRF) with an individual based, spatially explicit vegetation model (ECOTONE). Individual based modeling makes it possible to link individual plant traits with properties of plant communities. Community properties, such as species composition and species distribution arise from dynamic interactions of individual plants with each other, and with their environment. Plants interact with each other through intra- and interspecific competition for resources (H2O, nitrogen), and the outcome of these interactions depends on the properties of the plant community and the environment itself. In turn, the environment is affected by the resulting change in community structure, which may have an impact on the drivers of climate change. First, we performed sensitivity tests of ECOTONE to assess its ability to reproduce vegetation distribution in the NAMS. We compared the land surface model and ECOTONE with regard to their capability to accurately simulate soil moisture, CO2 flux and above ground biomass. For evaluating the models we used the eddy-correlation sensible and latent heat fluxes, CO2 flux and observations of other climate and environmental variables (e.g. soil temperature and moisture) from the Santa Rita experimental range. The model intercomparison helped us understand the advantages and disadvantages of each model, providing us guidance for coupling the community land surface model (NoahMP or CLM) with ECOTONE.

Mathias, A.; Niu, G.; Zeng, X.

2012-12-01

294

Effects of partially hydrogenated, semi-saturated, and high oleate vegetable oils on inflammatory markers and lipids.  

PubMed

Knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on subclinical inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk are mainly derived from studies conducted in Western populations. Little information is available on South East Asian countries. This current study investigated the chronic effects on serum inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins of three vegetable oils. Healthy, normolipidemic subjects (n = 41; 33 females, 8 males) completed a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. The subjects consumed high oleic palm olein (HOPO diet: 15% of energy 18:1n-9, 9% of energy 16:0), partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO diet: 7% of energy 18:1n-9, 10% of energy 18:1 trans) and an unhydrogenated palm stearin (PST diet: 11% of energy 18:1n-9, 14% of energy 16:0). Each dietary period lasted 5 weeks with a 7 days washout period. The PHSO diet significantly increased serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein compared to HOPO and PST diets (by 26, 23%, respectively; P < 0.05 for both) and significantly decreased interleukin-8 (IL-8) compared to PST diet (by 12%; P < 0.05). In particular PHSO diet, and also PST diet, significantly increased total:HDL cholesterol ratio compared to HOPO diet (by 23, 13%, respectively; P < 0.05), with the PST diet having a lesser effect than the PHSO diet (by 8%; P < 0.05). The use of vegetable oils in their natural state might be preferred over one that undergoes the process of hydrogenation in modulating blood lipids and inflammation. PMID:20437207

Teng, Kim-Tiu; Voon, Phooi-Tee; Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

2010-05-01

295

Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation–soil relationships following vegetation restoration of mobile dunes in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative methods were used to examine soil properties and their spatial heterogeneity in a 0-year fenced mobile dune (MD0),\\u000a an 11-year fenced mobile dune (MD11) and a 20-year fenced mobile dune (MD20) in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. The objective\\u000a of the study was to assess the effect of vegetation restoration on heterogeneity of soil properties in sand dunes and

Xiaoan Zuo; Xueyong Zhao; Halin Zhao; Tonghui Zhang; Yirui Guo; Yuqiang Li; Yingxin Huang

2009-01-01

296

Near-infrared spectroscopic determination of degradation in vegetable oils used to fry various foods.  

PubMed

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic methods for measuring degradation products, including total polar materials (TPMs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), in soy-based frying oil used for frying various foods have been successfully developed. Calibration models were developed using forward stepwise multiple linear regression (FSMLR) and partial least-squares (PLS) regression techniques and then tested with an independent set of validation samples. The results show that the quality of oil used for frying different foods can be measured with a single model. First-derivative treatments improved results for TPM measurement. In addition, PLS models gave better prediction results than FSMLR models. For PLS models, the best correlations (r) between the NIR-predicted data and the chemical method data for TPMs and FFAs in oils were 0.995 and 0.981, respectively. For FSMLR models, the best r values for TPMs and FFAs in oils were 0.993 and 0.963, respectively. PMID:22017673

Ng, Choo Lum; Wehling, Randy L; Cuppett, Susan L

2011-12-14

297

Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils in a small scale circulation process.  

PubMed

Biodiesel production from canola oil with methanol was performed in the presence of a base-catalyst by a circulation process at room temperature. In this process, the transesterification was accelerated by ultrasonic irradiation of low frequency (20 kHz) with an input capacity of 1 kW. The influences of various parameters on the transesterification reaction, including the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol to oil and the reaction time, were investigated. The objective of this work was to produce biodiesel satisfying the biodiesel-fuel standards of low energy consumption and material savings. The optimal conditions were: methanol/oil molar ratio of 5:1 and 0.7 wt.% catalyst in oil. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters was greater than 99% within the reaction time of 50 min. Crude biodiesel was purified by washing with tap water and drying at 70 degrees C under reduced pressure. PMID:19736002

Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

298

Impacts and recovery of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on vegetation structure and function of coastal salt marshes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

We investigated the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill on two dominant coastal saltmarsh plants, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the processes controlling differential species-effects and recovery. Seven months after the Macondo MC 252 oil made landfall along the shoreline salt marshes of northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the surface 2 cm of heavily oiled marsh soils were as high as 510 mg g(-1). Heavy oiling caused almost complete mortality of both species. However, moderate oiling impacted Spartina less severely than Juncus and, relative to the reference marshes, had no significant effect on Spartina while significantly lowering live aboveground biomass and stem density of Juncus. A greenhouse mesocosm study supported field results and indicated that S. alterniflora was much more tolerant to shoot oil coverage than J. roemerianus. Spartina recovered from as much as 100% oil coverage of shoots in 7 months; however, Juncus recovered to a much lesser extent. Soil-oiling significantly affected both species. Severe impacts of the Macondo oil to coastal marsh vegetation most likely resulted from oil exposure of the shoots and oil contact on/in the marsh soil, as well as repeated oiling events. PMID:22369124

Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A

2012-04-01

299

Brominated fatty acid distribution in tissues and fluids of rats fed brominated vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats dosed orally for four days with 0.24 g\\/kg body weight per day of brominated olive oil (BOO) or brominated sesame oil\\u000a (BSO) were found to accumulate dibromostearic (DBS) acid (from BOO) and DBS and tetrabromosteric (TBS) acids (from BSO) in\\u000a the liver, heart and adipose tissue. The metabolites, dibromopalmitic, and dibromomyristic acids (from BOO and BSO), as well\\u000a as

James F. Lawrence; Rajinder K. Chadha; Frank Iverson; Peter McGuire; Henry B. S. Conacher

1984-01-01

300

A rapid method for analysis of refined vegetable oils for TBHQ by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid extraction technique using acetonitrile solvent has been used to extract TBHQ antioxidant from refined\\u000a soybean and cottonseed oils. The extracts have been analyzed by a gas Chromatographic technique, using silyl derivatization,\\u000a to quantitate the TBHQ content of the oil. The method has been calibrated using 14 data points for linear regression, showing\\u000a a coefficient of deter-mination

Richard E. Austin; David M. Wyatt

1980-01-01

301

Determination of trace elements in edible vegetable oils by atomic absorption spectrophotometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are described for the direct determination of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in\\u000a sunflower oil and olive oils. Metallic contamination after storage under different controlled conditions and in contact with\\u000a carbon steel, austenitic steel, ferritic steel and aluminum was examined. Additionally, chemical characteristics related to\\u000a quality (acid value, peroxide value, K270 and oxidative

M. Martín-Polvillo; T. Albi; A. Guinda

1994-01-01

302

Biochemical characteristics of a novel vegetative tissue geraniol acetyltransferase from a monoterpene oil grass (Palmarosa, Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia) leaf.  

PubMed

Plants synthesize volatile alcohol esters on environmental insult or as metabolic induction during flower/fruit development. However, essential oil plants constitutively produce them as the oil constituents. Their synthesis is catalyzed by BAHD family enzymes called alcohol acyltransferases (AATs). However, no AAT has been characterized from plant foliage synthesizing acyclic monoterpenoids containing essential oils. Therefore, we have purified and biochemically characterized a geraniol: acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (GAAT) from Palmarosa aroma grass (Cymbopogon martinii) leaf. MALDI-assisted proteomic study of the 43kDa monomeric enzyme revealed its sequence motif novelties e.g. relaxed conservation at Phe and Trp in DFGWG'. This suggests permissiveness of variations in the conserved motif without loss of catalytic ability. Also, some new conserved/semi-conserved motifs of AATs were recognized. The GAAT k(cat)/K(m) values (300-700M(-1)s(-1)) were low (a generic characteristic for secondary metabolism enzyme) but higher than those of some floral AATs. Wide substrate acceptability for catalyzing acetylation of diverse primary alcohols (chain of ?C(6)) implied its catalytic description as a 'primary aliphatic alcohol acetyltransferase'. It signifies metabolic ability to deliver diverse aroma esters, should the acceptor alcohols be available in planta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detailed kinetics of a vegetal monoterpenol acyltransferase. PMID:23415329

Sharma, Pankaj K; Sangwan, Neelam S; Bose, Subir K; Sangwan, Rajender S

2013-04-01

303

FIBER ROLLS AS A TOOL FOR RE-VEGETATION OF OIL-BRINE CONTAMINATED WATERSHEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

We found that fibrijute burlap cylinders filled with organic matter and inoculated with salt tolerant plants and mycorrhizal fungi promoted remediation of an historic brine scar devoid of vegetation since the 1960's. Soils in plots that received a surface treatment of hay, org...

304

Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the production and characterization of biodiesel (BD or B) as well as the experimental work carried out by many researchers in this field. BD fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel (PD) fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. BD fuel can be used in any mixture with PD fuel as it has

Ayhan Demirbas

2005-01-01

305

Analysis of full-waveform LiDAR pulse properties for vegetation discrimination and characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate information about vegetation/forest structure, health and growth is needed in many fields of forest management, environmental planning, resource management, fire risk assessment and soil moisture retrievals. Airborne laser scanning has proven over the last nearly two decades to be an invaluable tool in describing vegetation and providing 3D information about its structure. In particular, the new generation full-waveform laser scanners offer an excellent source of not only accurate XYZ information, but also allow the extraction of additional parameters in the process of light curve analysis and interpretation. This analysis was carried out on full-waveform airborne LiDAR data that was collected with a Riegl LMS-Q560 instrument in the Yanco area (NSW) in Australia. The initial analysis was performed on the data acquired in 2006 during the National Airborne Field Experiment. The way the waveform data was extracted made it impossible for the targets included in the footprint to be geo-coded accurately. Nevertheless it was still possible to analyse the waveforms' shapes. For the purpose of this experiment two test sites were chosen - one very small site covering only a single Eucalyptus tree, and the second over an orange orchard (218m by 110m). Analysis included peaks detection, pulse width calculation and waveforms classification according to the number of peaks present within them. Subsequently, an amplitude-width analysis was carried out, including two-tailed t-tests, histograms and scatter plots. Based on the assumption that the first and middle returns were from vegetation (due to specifics of the sites), it was concluded from the analysis that vegetation returns are wide and weak (wider than emitted pulse). The scatter plots of amplitude versus width according to the pulse type played a crucial role in the analysis - they clearly indicated different 'fingerprints' of vegetation and last return (assumed to be a mixture of vegetation and ground returns) distributions. By overlaying vegetation (first and middle) returns over last return scatter plots it was possible to separate ground echoes from vegetation echoes in last return data. Consequently, it was found that ground returns have narrow widths and high amplitudes. After ground pulses were separated using simple empirical thresholds on width and amplitude, the t-test between width and amplitude mean confirmed that vegetation and ground returns are significantly different from each other. Following the initial experiment, further analysis was carried out on data captured in September 2011 during the Soil Moisture Active Passive Experiment 3, also in the Yanco area in Australia. This waveform data was geo-coded more accurately, allowing elevation-based validation of the amplitude-width analysis against ground truth. The strong influence of vegetation properties on the structure of return pulses indicates great potential for improved measurement of vegetation characteristics such as foliage distribution using airborne laser altimetry.

Fieber, K.; Davenport, I.; Ferryman, J.; Gurney, R.; Walker, J.; Hacker, J.

2012-04-01

306

Fundamental property of electric field in rapeseed ester oil based on Kerr electro-optic measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future, environmentally friendly insulating oil such as rapeseed ester oil is expected to be utilized as a substitute for mineral oil for power transformers. In addition, electrical insulation design for transformers becomes more important regarding size reduction and enhancement of electric field stress. The fundamental property of the electric field distribution in the rapeseed ester oil and in

K. Nakamura; K. Kato; H. Koide; Y. Hatta; H. Okubo

2006-01-01

307

Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.  

PubMed

This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and ?-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant. PMID:24849850

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Ma?gorzata

2014-11-01

308

Preliminary Studies on Two Vegetable Oil Based Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) for the Delivery of Metronidazole, A Poorly Water Soluble Drug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary evaluation was carried out on metronidazole-loaded Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) using two vegetable oils-Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) and Palm Oil (PO). Purification of oils, drug solubility in the oils, pre/post formulation isotropicity tests, emulsification times and release studies of metronidazole from the SEDDS were carried out. Results indicated solubility values of 4.441 and 4.654%w/w, respectively for metronidazole in PKO and PO. Preformulation isotropicity test revealed that out of the 24 batches evaluated 10 of the SEDDS formulations containing different oil: surfactant ratios and PKO:PO admixtures were found to be isotropic after 5 h. However when the SEDDS were loaded with metronidazole there was a reduction in the number (to 7) of formulations that maintained isotropicity and stability after 72 h. All the batches had emulsification times of less than two minutes except batch 4D with oil:surfactant concentration of 50:50. The release profile showed that most of the formulations released 50% of drug in less than 8 min and 85% of drug in less than 30 min. We therefore conclude that SEDDS containing the two vegetable oils are potential alternatives when immediate release and delivery of metronidazole is the primary motivation.

Obitte, N. C.; Ezeiruaku, H.; Onyishi, V. I.

309

Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.  

PubMed

Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. PMID:22885021

Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

2012-12-01

310

Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

1988-01-01

311

Use of vegetation properties from EOS observations for land-climate modeling in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use/cover change has been recognized as a key component in global climate change. Information on land surface biophysical properties and climatic variables based on in situ data fail to resolve the fine-scale variability that exists in many parts of the world, including East Africa. In this study, we used the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) products to improve the representation of the land surface in a regional climate model as well as assess the model performance. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data of leaf area index (LAI) and vegetation fractional cover (VFC) were directly incorporated in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The model was validated in terms of the land surface temperature (LST), utilizing the MODIS LST data from both Terra and Aqua satellites. Compared with the built-in land surface, the ingested MODIS LAI and VFC greatly improved the spatial and temporal dynamics of vegetation in East Africa. Three experiments were carried out for the year of 2003 to test the impacts of land surface conditions. The results showed that the spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics of the RAMS simulated LST were improved because of MODIS LAI and VFC. Specifically, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)-related migration, bimodal temporal variation, and monthly averaged diurnal cycles of LST were more realistically reproduced. The need to realistically represent the spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation is thus highlighted, and the value of the EOS observations for the land-climate modeling is demonstrated.

Ge, Jianjun; Qi, Jiaguo; Lofgren, Brent

2008-08-01

312

Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013+/-0.001, 0.0018+/-0.0002, and 0.0012+/-0.0001 mol C/mol absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals.

Huemmrich, Karl F.; Gamon, John; Tweedie, Craig; Campbell, Petya K.; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

313

Ecosystem properties self-organize in response to a directional fog-vegetation interaction.  

PubMed

Feedbacks between vegetation and resource inputs can lead to the local, self-organization of ecosystem properties. In particular, feedbacks in response to directional resources (e.g., coastal fog, slope runoff) can create complex spatial patterns, such as vegetation banding. Although similar feedbacks are thought to be involved in the development of ecosystems, clear empirical examples are rare. We created a simple model of a fog-influenced, temperate rainforest in central Chile, which allows the comparison of natural banding patterns to simulations of various putative mechanisms. We show that only feedbacks between plants and fog were able to replicate the characteristic distributions of vegetation, soil water, and soil nutrients observed in field transects. Other processes, such as rainfall, were unable to match these diagnostic distributions. Furthermore, fog interception by windward trees leads to increased downwind mortality, leading to progressive extinction of the leeward edge. This pattern of ecosystem development and decay through self-organized processes illustrates, on a relatively small spatial and temporal scale, the patterns predicted for ecosystem evolution. PMID:25000752

Stanton, Daniel E; Armesto, Juan J; Hedin, Lars O

2014-05-01

314

Physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil have been studied. The phosphate ester was synthesized via ring-opening of epoxidized palm kernel oil with phosphoric acid. The amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was varied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%. Acid values of PKO and EPKO were 1.85 and 1.87 mg KOH/g respectively. However, the acid values increased with increasing amount of H3PO4 with values of 10.62 mg KOH/g, 31.34 mg KOH/g and 110.95 mg KOH/g respectively. The hydrolysis of the EPKO has successfully converted it to PEPKO with hydroxyl value of 16.16 mg KOH/g, 26.90 and 35.33 mg KOH/g at H3PO4 of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5wt%.

Adawiyah Norzali, Nor Rabbi'atul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Ahmad, Ishak

2013-12-01

315

Physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil have been studied. The phosphate ester was synthesized via ring-opening of epoxidized palm kernel oil with phosphoric acid. The amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was varied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%. Acid values of PKO and EPKO were 1.85 and 1.87 mg KOH/g respectively. However, the acid values increased with increasing amount of H3PO4 with values of 10.62 mg KOH/g, 31.34 mg KOH/g and 110.95 mg KOH/g respectively. The hydrolysis of the EPKO has successfully converted it to PEPKO with hydroxyl value of 16.16 mg KOH/g, 26.90 and 35.33 mg KOH/g at H3PO4 of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5wt%.

'Adawiyah Norzali, Nor Rabbi'atul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Ahmad, Ishak

2013-11-01

316

Synchronized Analysis of FTIR Spectra and GCMS Chromatograms for Evaluation of the Thermally Degraded Vegetable Oils  

PubMed Central

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) are two common instruments used for analysis of edible oils. The output signal is often analysed on the software attached to the workstations. The processing software is usually individualised for a specific source. The output of GCMS cannot be analysed on the FTIR hence analysts often need to juggle between instruments when multiple techniques are employed. This could become exhaustive when a large dataset is involved. This paper reports a synchronised approach for analysis of signal from FTIR and GCMS. The algorithm is demonstrated on a dataset of edible oils to investigate the thermal degradation of seven types of edible oils treated at 100°C and 150°C. The synchronised routines identify peaks present in FTIR and GCMS spectra/chromatograms where the information is subsequently extracted onto peak tables for further analysis. In this study, it is found that palm based products and corn oils were relatively more stable with higher content of antioxidants tocopherols and squalene. As a conclusion, this approach allows simultaneous analysis of signal from multiple sources and samples enhancing the efficiency of the signal processing process. PMID:24563804

Mohd Irwan Lu, Nurul Aida Lu; Samling, Benedict

2014-01-01

317

VEGETATIVE REHABILITATION OF ARID LAND DISTURBED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL SHALE AND COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Field experiments were established on sites disturbed by exploratory drilling in the oil shale region of northeastern Utah and on disturbed sites on a potential coal mine in south central Utah. Concurrently, greenhouse studies were carried out using soil samples from disturbed si...

318

Purification and Identification of Endogenous and Exogenous Minor Constituents from Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor constituents are ubiquitous in plant origin sources, particularly plant derived oils. According to the origins of the minor constituents, factors that are responsible for their occurrence can be categorized into endogenous and exogenous factors. To date, extensive researches have been carried out to separate, purify, identify and analyze them to further asses their value as well as advise their

Novy S. Kasim; Lien-Huong Huynh; Yi-Hsu Ju

2012-01-01

319

A Fully Biobased Epoxy Resin from Vegetable Oils: From the Synthesis of the Precursors by Thiol-ene Reaction to the Study of the Final Material  

E-print Network

resins coming from biomass with hardeners derived from petroleum is not satisfactory in term of conceptsA Fully Biobased Epoxy Resin from Vegetable Oils: From the Synthesis of the Precursors by Thiol agent for bio-based epoxy resin. The thermal crosslinking reaction between AGSO and epoxi- dized linseed

Boyer, Edmond

320

30 CFR 1210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01...submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties? 1210.155 Section 1210.155 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL...Special-Purpose Forms and Reports-Oil, Gas, and Geothermal...

2013-07-01

321

30 CFR 1210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01...submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties? 1210.155 Section 1210.155 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL...Special-Purpose Forms and Reports-Oil, Gas, and Geothermal...

2012-07-01

322

30 CFR 1210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01...submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties? 1210.155 Section 1210.155 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...Special-Purpose Forms and Reports-Oil, Gas, and Geothermal...

2011-07-01

323

30 CFR 210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal onshore stripper oil properties? 210.155 Section 210.155 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ...Special-Purpose Forms and Reports-Oil, Gas, and...

2010-07-01

324

Release properties on gelatin-gum arabic microcapsules containing camphor oil with added polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, gelatin blended with arabic gum microcapsules containing camphor oil with added polystyrene were fabricated by a compound coacervation method. The parameters of oil\\/wall volume ratio, emulsification stirring speed, concentration of cross-linking agent, treated time and oil release properties were investigated. In order to improve the constant release effect of camphor oil, oil-soluble polystyrene (PS) was used as

Chih-Pong Chang; Ting-Kai Leung; Shang-Ming Lin; Che-Chang Hsu

2006-01-01

325

Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diets: effects on fish performance, biochemical composition, and expression of some glucocorticoid receptor-related genes.  

PubMed

To study the substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in fish diets, juveniles Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were fed diets (56 % crude protein, 12 % crude lipid) containing either linseed (100LO) or soybean (100SO) oils in comparison with a 100 % fish oil-based diet (100FO) for 90 days. Samples of muscle, liver, and intestine were collected for biochemical analysis and for glucocorticoid receptor-related genes, including GR1 and GR2, and the associated heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90AA, and HSP90AB. Besides, basal levels of plasma cortisol were also determined. After the feeding period, a stress test, consisting on 5 min of net chasing, was applied to a selected population of each dietary group. Total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils did not induced changes in fish growth and performance, but affected fatty acid profile of muscle, liver, and intestine, reflecting those tissues the characteristic fatty acids of each type of dietary oil. A tendency to conserve the ARA/EPA ratio could be observed in the different tissues, despite of the level of these fatty acids in diet. Chasing stress induced an increase of muscle GR1 and a reduction in intestinal GR2 relative expressions at any of the experimental diets assayed. In liver, chasing stress induced an increase in both GR1 and GR2 gene expression in fish fed fish oil diets. Similarly, chasing stress induced an increase of muscle HSP70 and decrease of HSP90AB in liver at any of the experimental diet assayed. Besides, vegetable oils decreased the expression of HSP70 in intestine, being the relative expression of liver HSP90AA increased by the inclusion of linseed oil in the diet, at any of the experimental conditions assayed. PMID:22955962

Benítez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María J; Izquierdo, Marisol; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos; Zamorano, María J; Montero, Daniel

2013-04-01

326

Using near-infrared overtone regions to determine biodiesel content and adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends with vegetable oils.  

PubMed

This work evaluates the use of near-infrared (NIR) overtone regions to determine biodiesel content, as well potential adulteration with vegetable oil, in diesel/biodiesel blends. For this purpose, NIR spectra (12,000-6300 cm(-1)) were obtained using three different optical path lengths: 10 mm, 20 mm and 50 mm. Two strategies of regression with variable selection were evaluated: partial least squares (PLS) with significant regression coefficients selected by Jack-Knife algorithm (PLS/JK) and multiple linear regression (MLR) with wavenumber selection by successive projections algorithm (MLR/SPA). For comparison, the results obtained by using PLS full-spectrum models are also presented. In addition, the performance of models using NIR (1.0 mm optical path length, 9000-4000 cm(-1)) and MIR (UATR - universal attenuated total reflectance, 4000-650 cm(-1)) spectral regions was also investigated. The results demonstrated the potential of overtone regions with MLR/SPA regression strategy to determine biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends, considering the possible presence of raw oil as a contaminant. This strategy is simple, fast and uses a fewer number of spectral variables. Considering this, the overtone regions can be useful to develop low cost instruments for quality control of diesel/biodiesel blends, considering the lower cost of optical components for this spectral region. PMID:22284883

de Vasconcelos, Fernanda Vera Cruz; de Souza, Paulo Fernandes Barbosa; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pontes, Márcio José Coelho; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes

2012-02-24

327

Oxidative stability of vegetable oils as affected by sesame extracts during accelerated oxidative storage.  

PubMed

In vitro antioxidant activities and protective effects of sesame cake extract in stabilising sunflower and soybean oils were tested. Total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents in the extract of sesame cake were 1.94?±?0.02 (mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g(-1) dry weight (DW)), 0.88?±?0.02 (mg quercetin equivalent (QE) g(-1) DW), and 0.40?±?0.02 (mg QE g(-1) DW), respectively. Protective effects of sesame cake extract in stabilizing sunflower and soybean oils were tested, compared to synthetic antioxidants, by measuring their peroxide values (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), conjugated trienes (CT), and p-anisidine value during accelerated storage. Results indicated that sesame cake extract exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than BHT and BHA. However, its antioxidant activity was less than that of TBHQ. PMID:24425993

Abdelazim, Adel A; Mahmoud, Awad; Ramadan-Hassanien, Mohamed Fawzy

2013-10-01

328

Characterisation of quaternary mixtures by the apparent content curves method: identification of tocopherols in vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A procedure for identification of the compounds in quaternary mixtures has been developed. The proposed procedure is based on the apparent content curves method. From these curves and using the Q parameter, work conditions are selected and quaternary mixtures treated as "pseudoternary" mixtures.A simple strategy to test matrix effects at working wavelengths has been developed, identification limits established and following the identification table quaternary mixtures were easily characterised. The procedure has been applied to the identification of phenols in mixtures by UV-visible spectrophotometry and tocopherols in edible oils by fluorimetry. Results obtained for edible oils are in agreement with the composition obtained by use of the reference method. PMID:12638048

Maurí-Aucejo, A R; Llobat-Estellés, M; Marín-Saez, R

2003-03-01

329

Oxidative stability of vegetable oils as affected by sesame extracts during accelerated oxidative storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro antioxidant activities and protective effects of sesame cake extract in stabilising sunflower and soybean oils were\\u000a tested. Total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents in the extract of sesame cake were 1.94?±?0.02 (mg gallic acid equivalent\\u000a (GAE) g?1 dry weight (DW)), 0.88?±?0.02 (mg quercetin equivalent (QE) g?1 DW), and 0.40?±?0.02 (mg QE g?1 DW), respectively. Protective effects of sesame

Adel A. Abdelazim; Awad Mahmoud; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan-Hassanien

330

Pilot Scale Study of Vegetable Oil Extraction by Surfactant-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of aqueous extraction processes (AEP) have been studied as substitutes for hexane in oilseed extraction. In our previous batch-scale work, we have shown that the aqueous surfactant-based method could effectively extract up to 95% peanut and canola oils at 25°C. The goal of this work is to perform a semi-continuous pilot-scale study of the aqueous surfactant-based method for

Linh D. Do; David A. Sabatini

2011-01-01

331

Selecting Plants and Nitrogen Rates to Vegetate Crude-Oil–Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation can be effective for remediating contaminated soils in situ and generally requires the addition of nitrogen (N) to increase plant growth. Our research objectives were to evaluate seedling emergence and survival of plant species and to determine the effects of N additions on plant growth in crude-oil–contaminated soil. From a preliminary survival study, three warm-season grasses—pearlmillet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.

W. D. Kirkpatrick; P. M. White Jr; D. C. Wolf; G. J. Thoma; C. M. Reynolds

2006-01-01

332

Effects of urea treatment of straw and dietary level of vegetable oil on lactating dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four crossbreds (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows were used to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil (SFO) levels\\u000a and roughage source on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Four milking\\u000a cows with average liveweight of 410?±?25 kg and 18?±?11 days in milk were randomly assigned according to a 4?×?4 Latin square\\u000a design, in a 2?×?2 factorial

Chaowarit Mapato; Metha Wanapat; Anusorn Cherdthong

2010-01-01

333

Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400°C. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly

Kanellina Giannakopoulou; Michael Lukas; Aleksey Vasiliev; Christoph Brunner; Hans Schnitzer

2010-01-01

334

Highly efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid-based catalysts for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel has been produced by transesterification of canola oil with methanol in the presence of highly Brønsted acidic ionic liquids based on 1-benzyl-1H-benzimidazole, and the effect of reaction temperature, type and amount of catalyst, molar ratio and reaction time investigated. The results show that the 4B ionic liquid has the highest catalytic activity and best recyclability under the optimised reaction

M. Ghiaci; B. Aghabarari; S. Habibollahi; A. Gil

2011-01-01

335

Application of three-electrode electrolytic cell to evaluate thin films of vegetable and mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films (?5?m) of rapeseed and mineral oils with or without antioxidants were coated on steel disc electrodes. Initial stages of corrosion and oxidation were monitored by potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy in ammonium borate electrolyte at pH 9.0. Fresh films lead to spatial separation of electrochemical reactions without major changes in corrosion mechanism. However, heating in air (4h, 70°C) reduced

Svajus J. Asadauskas; Asta Grigucevi?ien?; Konstantinas Leinartas; Dalia Bražinskien?

2011-01-01

336

Progress report Idaho on-road test with vegetable oil as a diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel is among many biofuels being considered in the US for alternative fueled vehicles. The use of this fuel can reduce US dependence on imported oil and help improve air quality by reducing gaseous and particulate emissions. Researchers at the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University of Idaho have pioneered rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Although UI has conducted many laboratory and tractor tests using raw rapeseed oil and rape methyl ester (RME), these fuels have not been proven viable for on-road applications. A biodiesel demonstration project has been launched to show the use of biodiesel in on-road vehicles. Two diesel powered pickups are being tested on 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent diesel. One is a Dodge 3/4-ton pickup powered by a Cummins 5.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled engine. This engine is direct injected and is being run on 20 percent RME and 80 percent diesel. The other pickup is a Ford, powered by a Navistar 7.3 liter, naturally aspirated engine. This engine has a precombustion chamber and is being operated on 20 percent raw rapeseed oil and 80 percent diesel. The engines themselves are unmodified, but modifications have been made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. In order to give maximum vehicle range, fuel mixing is done on-board. Two tanks are provided, one for the diesel and one for the biodiesel. Electric fuel pumps supply fuel to a combining chamber for correct proportioning. The biodiesel fuel tanks are heated with a heat exchanger which utilizes engine coolant circulation.

Reece, D.; Peterson, C.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1993-12-31

337

Millimeter wave analysis of the dielectric properties of oil shales  

E-print Network

Natural sedimentation processes give rise to fine layers in shales. If these layers alternate between organic-rich and organic-poor sediments, then the contrast in dielectric properties gives rise to an effective birefringence as the presence of hydrocarbons suppresses the dielectric constant of the host rock. We have measured these effects with a quasioptical millimeter wave setup that is rapid and noncontacting. We find that the strength of this birefringence and the overall dielectric permittivity provide two useful diagnostic of the organic content of oil shales.

John A. Scales; Michael Batzle

2006-06-06

338

Combustion of hydrotreated vegetable oil and jatropha methyl ester in a heavy duty engine: emissions and bacterial mutagenicity.  

PubMed

Research on renewable fuels has to assess possible adverse health and ecological risks as well as conflicts with global food supply. This investigation compares the two newly developed biogenic diesel fuels hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) with fossil diesel fuel (DF) and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) for their emissions and bacterial mutagenic effects. Samples of exhaust constituents were compared after combustion in a Euro III heavy duty diesel engine. Regulated emissions were analyzed as well as particle size and number distributions, carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and bacterial mutagenicity of the exhausts. Combustion of RME and JME resulted in lower particulate matter (PM) compared to DF and HVO. Particle numbers were about 1 order of magnitude lower for RME and JME. However, nitrogen oxides (NOX) of RME and JME exceeded the Euro III limit value of 5.0 g/kWh, while HVO combustion produced the smallest amount of NOX. RME produced the lowest emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) followed by JME. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several other carbonyls were found in the emissions of all investigated fuels. PAH emissions and mutagenicity of the exhausts were generally low, with HVO revealing the smallest number of mutations and lowest PAH emissions. Each fuel showed certain advantages or disadvantages. As proven before, both biodiesel fuels produced increased NOX emissions compared to DF. HVO showed significant toxicological advantages over all other fuels. Since jatropha oil is nonedible and grows in arid regions, JME may help to avoid conflicts with the food supply worldwide. Hydrogenated jatropha oil should now be investigated if it combines the benefits of both new fuels. PMID:23647143

Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Rosenkranz, Nina; Schröder, Olaf; Schaak, Jens; Pabst, Christoph; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

2013-06-01

339

Preparation and properties of biodiesel from Cynara cardunculus L. oil  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the reaction of transesterification of Cynara cardunculus L. oil by means of methanol, using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and sodium methoxide as catalysts. The objective of the work was to characterize the methyl esters for use as biodiesels in internal combustion motors. The operation variables used were methanol concentration (5--21 wt %), catalyst concentration (0.1--1 wt %), and temperature (25--60 C). The evolution of the process was followed by gas chromatography, determining the concentration of the methyl esters at different reaction times. The biodiesel was characterized by determining its density, viscosity, high heating value, cetane index, cloud and pour points, Ramsbottom carbon residue, characteristics of distillation, and flash and combustion points according to ISO norms. The biodiesel with the best properties was obtained using 15% methanol, sodium methoxide as catalyst (1%), and 60 C temperature. This biodiesel has very similar properties to those of diesel No. 2.

Encinar, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Sabio, E.; Ramiro, M.J. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica] [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica

1999-08-01

340

24 Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Did you read chapter 24  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY Atomic-Level Structure of Complex Materials Determines Properties Animals & Vegetables Fats: Margarine and Olive oil Fats and oils at room temperature ­ What observations can we make? Butter Easy Chicken Fat & Marbling in Meat Solid Fat Shortening (Crisco) Solid Fat Butter Solid Fat Margarine Liquid

Hart, Gus

341

Production of cocoa butter-like fat from interesterification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter-like fat was prepared from completely hydrogenated cottonseed and olive oils by enzymatic interesterification.\\u000a The optimum reaction time to produce the major-component of cocoa butter, 1(3)-palmitoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-2-monoolein (POS),\\u000a was 4 hr. The cocoa butter-like fat was isolated from the reaction mixture by two filtration steps. The yield of cocoa butter-like\\u000a fat was 19%, based on the weight of the original

M.-K. Chang; G. Abraham; V. T. John

1990-01-01

342

Low-temperature, selective catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil in supercritical fluid media.  

PubMed

The effects of supercritical fluids on the production of renewable diesel-range hydrocarbons from natural triglycerides were investigated. Various supercritical fluids, which included CO2 (scCO2 ), propane (scC3 H8 ) and n-hexane (scC6 H14 ), were introduced with H2 and soybean oil into a fixed-bed reactor that contained pre-activated CoMo/?-Al2 O3 . Among these supercritical fluids, scC3 H8 and scC6 H14 efficiently allowed the reduction of the reaction temperature by as much as 50 °C as a result of facilitated heat and mass transfer and afforded similar yields to reactions in the absence of supercritical fluids. The compositional analyses of the gas and liquid products indicated that the addition of scC3 H8 during the hydrotreatment of soybean oil promoted specific deoxygenation pathways, decarbonylation and decarboxylation, which consumed less H2 than the hydrodeoxygenation pathway. As a result, the quantity of H2 required to obtain a high yield of diesel-range hydrocarbons could be reduced to 57 % if scC3 H8 was used. As decarboxylation and decarbonylation are mildly endothermic reactions, the reduced heat transfer resistance in scC3 H8 may drive the deoxygenation reaction to thermodynamically favourable pathways. PMID:24339322

Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Hong-Shik; Hong, Moon Hyun; Lim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jaehoon

2014-02-01

343

Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. PMID:20060714

Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

2010-05-01

344

Detection of Salt Marsh Vegetation Stress after the Deepwater Horizon BP Oil Spill Along the Shoreline of Gulf of Mexico Using Aviris Hyperspectral Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal wetlands and aquatic environments are highly productive ecosystems that are rich in biodiversity. They also provide critically important habitat for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, many of which have significant economic and recreational importance. The United States Gulf of Mexico coastline is riddled with oil wells (~50,000 wells of which ~30,000 are decommissioned or abandoned), that are subject to frequent oil spills. Oil spills have both short-term and long-term detrimental effects on the coastal environment. Brackish and salt marshes are among the most vulnerable of coastal ecosystems to oil spill impacts because oil tends to have a much longer residence time in marches compared to other environments. Remote sensing has been used extensively to directly map the oil and indirectly to detect wetland plant stress in oil spill impact zones. Using AVIRIS hyperspectral data flown over the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill in July and September of 2010, we tested if oil had any impact on the health of the wetland plant community. Two difference indices, NDVI and NDI, two angle indices, ANIR and ARed, and two continuum removals over water absorption bands, all showed that oiled shoreline index values were significantly lower than that from unoiled shoreline in September. The impact was significant at least 10-12m inland from the shoreline. In the July dataset, the effect of oil stress was not as pronounced. A comparison of the green vegetation fraction between July and September showed no significant difference indicating that there was no significant loss of wetland area between July and September. This study illustrates the use of hyperspectral remote sensing in detecting ecosystem stress and monitoring recovery after a catastrophic event such as an oil spill.

Khanna, S.; Ustin, S.; Hestir, E. L.

2011-12-01

345

Diet × genotype interactions in hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oil.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the effects of genotype on responses to alternative feeds in Atlantic salmon. Microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome of two family groups, lean or fat, fed a diet containing either a fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) blend indicated that pathways of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism might be differentially affected by the diet depending on the genetic background of the fish, and this was further investigated by real-time quantitative PCR, plasma and lipoprotein biochemical analysis. Results indicate a reduction in VLDL and LDL levels, with no changes in HDL, when FO is replaced by VO in the lean family group, whereas in fat fish fed FO, levels of apoB-containing lipoproteins were low and comparable with those fed VO in both family groups. Significantly lower levels of plasma TAG and LDL-TAG were measured in the fat group that was independent of diet, whereas plasma cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed the FO diet in both groups. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, ?-oxidation and lipoprotein metabolism showed relatively subtle changes. A significantly lower expression of genes considered anti-atherogenic in mammals (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, apoAI, scavenger receptor class B type 1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)b (TC67836) and LPLc (TC84899)) was found in lean fish, compared with fat fish, when fed VO. Furthermore, the lean family group appeared to show a greater response to diet composition in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, mediated by sterol-responsive element-binding protein 2. Finally, the presence of three different transcripts for LPL, with differential patterns of nutritional regulation, was demonstrated. PMID:21736795

Morais, Sofia; Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Torstensen, Bente E; Taggart, John B; Guy, Derrick R; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R

2011-11-01

346

Determination of nonprotein amino acids and betaines in vegetable oils by flow injection triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: a screening method for the detection of adulterations of olive oils.  

PubMed

A novel screening method using an automated flow injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system is proposed for the simultaneous determination of five nonprotein amino acids (?-alanine, alloisoleucine, ornithine, citrulline, pyroglutamic acid) and three betaines (glycine betaine, trigonelline, proline betaine) after derivatization with butanolic HCl. MS/MS experiments were carried out in a triple-quadrupole instrument using multiple reaction monitoring mode in <2 min. The proposed method provided high fingerprinting power to identify the presence of five of the studied compounds in different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, corn, olive) with LODs at parts per billion levels. The method was validated, and different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, achieving the typification for the detection of adulterations in extra virgin olive oils up to 2% w/w. The nonprotein amino acid ornithine was confirmed as a marker for adulteration in the olive oils analyzed. PMID:22229859

Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Nozal, Leonor; Marina, Maria Luisa; Crego, Antonio L

2012-02-01

347

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from Algeria  

E-print Network

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from-Industrielles'', 17042 La Rochelle, France Abstract: Essential oils of thyme (Thymus numidicus (Poiret)) from Algeria.5 minutes of extraction were tested using the filter paper method. Analysis of the essential oil made

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

Antifungal properties of essential oils from Thai medical plants against rice pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in vitro study was aimed to evaluate the mycelium growth and spore germination inhibition properties of essential oils. Two Thai medicinal plants; Frankincense oil (Boswellia carteri Bird.) and Cassia oil (Acacia farnesiana Linn) were applied against 7 species of economically important rice pathogenic fungi; Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium proliferatum, Pyricularia arisea and Rhizoctonia solani.

Apinya Piyo; Pitipong Thobunluepop

349

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper for detecting soil properties under grassland vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of Thematic Mapper data acquired November 15, 1982, over a vegetated site located in the East Texas Timberlands and Claypan area of Texas has indicated that montmorillonitic clay textured soils can be separated from soils with different textures. The difference of TM band 4 (0.76-0.90 micron) and band 7 (2.08-2.35 microns) had an agreement of 55.8 percent with the USDA soil survey for upland clay soils. This compared to 55.9-percent agreement when all six bands (excluding the thermal) were used. The disagreement occurred at the boundary lines as defined by the USDA soil survey and the spectral data. This result is considered to be fairly good, considering the difficulty in placement of soil boundaries by the soil scientist in the field. While the exact influence on the vegetation, and thus the spectral response observed by TM, is not understood at this time, it appears that TM band 7 is responding to the type of mineralogy of the soil and that soil properties important to the plant can be detected using TM.

Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

1984-01-01

350

Main fatty acid classes in vegetable oils by SB-ATR-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The prospect of using single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a rapid quantitative tool to determine the main fatty acid groups present in different edible oils was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS) calibrations were developed using SB-ATR-FTIR spectra which were associated with fatty acid groups (saturated, trans, mono- and polyunsaturated) using quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography (GC). Good calibrations were obtained for all main four fat groups (saturated, mono, trans and polyunsaturated) with excellent precision. The coefficient of determination (R(2)), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias for validation set were obtained as 0.999, 2.43 and 0.998 for saturated; 0.999, 1.850 and 0.003 for mono; 0.999, 0.625 and -0.001 for trans while for poly the values were 0.999, 1.170 and 0.003, respectively. The results of 13 validation samples for total saturated, mono, trans and polyunsaturated fats by FI-IR were found in the range of 8.16-55.16, 37.62-74.75, 0.20-18.16 and 1.36-62.35%, respectively. The present study shows that it may well be possible to expand the utility of SB-ATR-FTIR spectroscopy not only to provide isolated trans data, but also serve as a simple, rapid and quantitative means of categorizing the main groups present in the edible oils. The information obtained would be useful for meeting the new lipid nutritional labeling requirements. PMID:19836526

Sherazi, S T H; Talpur, M Younis; Mahesar, S A; Kandhro, Aftab A; Arain, Sarfraz

2009-12-15

351

Vegetation and substrate properties of aeolian dune fields in the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes vegetation and substrate properties of aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Arizona, in Grand Canyon National Park. Characterizing these parameters provides a basis from which to assess future changes in this ecosystem, including the spread of nonnative plant species. Differences are apparent between aeolian dune fields that are downwind of where modern controlled flooding deposits new sandbars (modern-fluvial-sourced dune fields) and those that have received little or no new windblown sand since river regulation began in the 1960s (relict-fluvial-sourced dune fields). The most substantial difference between modern- and relict-fluvial-sourced aeolian dune fields is the greater abundance of biologic soil crust in relict dune fields. These findings can be used with similar investigations in other geomorphic settings in Grand Canyon and elsewhere in the Colorado River corridor to evaluate the health of the Colorado River ecosystem over time.

Draut, Amy E.

2011-01-01

352

Biopolymers from vegetable oils via catalyst- and solvent-free "click" chemistry: effects of cross-linking density.  

PubMed

New monomers were prepared by introducing the azide groups in castor, canola, corn, soybean, and linseed oils. Polymerization of the azidated oils with alkynated soybean oil under thermal "click" chemistry conditions (without using a solvent or a catalyst) yielded fully cross-linked elastomers (1-5) of almost the same density (1.05 × 10(-3) kg/m(3)). The degree of cross-linking gradually increased from the castor-derived polymer (220 mol/m(3)) to the linseed-derived polymer (683 mol/m(3)). A systematic correlation between the degree of cross-linking and the thermal and mechanical properties was observed in these biopolymers. Tensile strength (0.62-3.39 MPa) and glass transition temperature (-5 to 16 °C) increased and the linear thermal expansion coefficient decreased in the series from the canola-derived polymer (2) to the linseed-derived polymer (5). The castor-derived polymer (1) that possesses an additional hydroxyl group per fatty acid chain behaved differently. PMID:22148512

Hong, Jian; Luo, Qiang; Wan, Xianmei; Petrovi?, Zoran S; Shah, Bipin K

2012-01-01

353

Effect of interesterification on the structure and physical properties of high-stearic acid soybean oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride structures of genetically modified soybean oils high in stearic acid were determined by high-pressure liquid\\u000a chromatography, and their physical properties were assessed by dilatometry and dropping point. In their natural state, these\\u000a oils lack sufficient solids at 10–33°C to qualify as margarine oils. However, after random interesterification, soybean oil\\u000a containing 17% stearic acid shows a solid fat index (SFI)

G. R. List; T. L. Mounts; F. Orthoefer; W. E. Neff

1997-01-01

354

Preparation and properties of copper-oil-based nanofluids  

PubMed Central

In this study, the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by surface modification method to improve their dispersion stability in hydrophobic organic media. The oil-based nanofluids were prepared with the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles. The transport properties, viscosity, and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids have been measured. The viscosities and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids with the surface-modified nanoparticles have higher values than the base fluids do. The composition has more significant effects on the thermal conductivity than on the viscosity. It is valuable to prepare an appropriate oil-based nanofluid for enhancing the heat-transfer capacity of a hydrophobic system. The effects of adding Cu nanoparticles on the thermal oxidation stability of the fluids were investigated by measuring the hydroperoxide concentration in the Cu/kerosene nanofluids. The hydroperoxide concentrations are observed to be clearly lower in the Cu nanofluids than in their base fluids. Appropriate amounts of metal nanoparticles added in a hydrocarbon fuel can enhance the thermal oxidation stability. PMID:21711900

2011-01-01

355

Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.  

PubMed

The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks. PMID:21178313

Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

2011-01-01

356

Effects of a fish-oil and vegetable-oil formula on aggregation and ethanolamine-containing lysophospholipid generation in activated human platelets and on leukotriene production in stimulated neutrophils.  

PubMed

The effects of consuming a liquid formula containing either fish oil enriched in omega-3 fatty acids or vegetable oil enriched in oleic acid was evaluated in 20 male subjects randomly allocated into two groups over a 42-d period. A decrease in collagen-induced aggregation by using washed platelet suspensions was found in both groups after nutritional supplementation. A considerable rise in omega-3 and a decrease in omega-6 fatty acids occurred in the platelet phospholipid with fish-oil consumption. The degree of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) enrichment (fish-oil group) was dramatically greater in the ether-containing plasmenylethanolamine (13.5 mol% of fatty acids; mol% of fatty acids = moles per 100 moles of total fatty acids) than in phosphatidylethanolamine (2.8 mol%) or phosphatidylcholine (2.9 mol%). Neither treatment significantly influenced the agonist-induced accumulation of lysoplasmenylethanolamine as derived via phospholipase A2 hydrolysis of plasmenylethanolamine. HPLC measurements of eicosanoid production in A23187-stimulated neutrophils revealed a considerable decrease in the formation of arachidonic acid-derived leukotriene B4 (LTB4), by 41%, and 5-HETE (5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), by 30%, in the fish-oil group along with the appearance of the corresponding EPA-derived products [LTB5 and 5-HEPE (5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid)]. No such alterations in the formation of lipoxygenase products were found with the vegetable oil treatment. PMID:7942578

Turini, M E; Powell, W S; Behr, S R; Holub, B J

1994-11-01

357

U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-Model application to a field test  

SciTech Connect

A one-time 2-hour emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection in a fast flowing aquifer decreased U discharge to a stream for over a year. Using a comprehensive biogeochemical model developed in the companion article based on microcosm tests, we approximately matched the observed acetate, nitrate, Fe, U, and sulfate concentrations, and described the major evolution trends of multiple microbial functional groups in the field test. While the lab-determined parameters were generally applicable in the field-scale simulation, the EVO hydrolysis rate constant was estimated to be an order of magnitude greater in the field than in the microcosms. The model predicted substantial biomass (sulfate reducers) and U(IV) accumulation near the injection wells and along the side boundaries of the treatment zone where electron donors (long-chain fatty acids) from the injection wells met electron acceptors (sulfate) from the surrounding environment. While EVO retention and hydrolysis characteristics were expected to control treatment longevity, modeling results indicated that electron acceptors such as sulfate may not only compete for electrons but also play a conducive role in degrading complex substrates and enhancing U(VI) reduction and immobilization. As a result, the spacing of the injection wells could be optimized for effective sustainable bioremediation.

Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

2013-01-01

358

Esterification of used vegetable oils using the heterogeneous WO3/ZrO2 catalyst for production of biodiesel.  

PubMed

Tungsten oxide zirconia, sulfated zirconia and Amberlyst-15 were examined as a catalyst for a conversion of used vegetable oils (VOs) to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Among them, tungsten oxide zirconia was a promising heterogeneous catalyst for the production of biodiesel fuels from used VOs because of high activity in the conversion over 93% and no leaching WO(3) in the esterification reaction. The reaction conditions were optimized. A study for optimizing the reaction parameters such as the reaction temperature, stirring speed, WO(3) loading over ZrO(2) and reaction time, was carried out. The catalyst was characterized by BET, XRD, FT-IR, and NH(3)-TPD. With increasing WO(3) loading over ZrO(2), the triclinic phase of WO(3) increased and the tetragonal phase of zirconia was clearly generated. The highest acid strength of 20 wt% tungsten oxide zirconia catalyst was confirmed by NH(3)-TPD analysis and the result was correlated to the highest catalytic activity of the esterification reaction. PMID:19433351

Park, Young-Moo; Lee, Joon Yeob; Chung, Sang-Ho; Park, In Seon; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Kim, Deog-Keun; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Kwan-Young

2010-01-01

359

U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-- Microcosm tests and model development  

SciTech Connect

Microcosm tests were conducted to study U(VI) bioreduction in contaminated sediments with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor. In the microcosms, EVO was degraded by indigenous microorganisms and stimulated Fe, U, and sulfate bioreduction, and methanogenesis. Removal of aqueous U occurred concurrently with sulfate reduction, with more reduction of total U in the case of higher initial sulfate concentrations. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis confirmed U(VI) reduction to U(IV). As the acetate concentration peaked in 10~20 days in oleate microcosms, the maximum was reached in 100~120 days in the EVO microcosms, indicating that EVO hydrolysis was rate-limiting. The acetate accumulation was sustained over 50 days longer in the oleate and EVO than in the ethanol microcosms, suggesting that acetate-utilizing methanogenesis was slower in the cases of oleate and EVO. Both slow hydrolysis and methanogenesis could contribute to potential sustained bioreduction in field application. Biogeochemical models were developed to couple degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, glycerol, acetate, and hydrogen, reduction of Fe(III), U(VI) and sulfate, and methanogenesis with growth and decay of microbial functional groups. The models were used to simulate the coupled processes in a field test in a companion article.

Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Shi, Xiaoqing [ORNL

2013-01-01

360

Evaluation of vegetable oils for deep frying of batter-breaded meat nuggets  

E-print Network

. , 1985; Fritsch 1981; Stevenson et aL, 1984). As the chemical decomposition progresses, the functional, sensory and nutritional properties of the fat change. The rate of formation of the decomposed products varies depending on the food prepared..., the type of fat used, and the fryer design (Chang et al. , 1978; Landers and Rathmann, 1981). Eventually a point is reached where the quality of the food produced is compromised (Fritsch, 1981). A survey by Thompson et al. (1978) of frying fats used...

Housson, Shirley Elizabeth

2012-06-07

361

Preservative properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil with and without EDTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study was focused on the preserving properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil, a plant known for its diaphoretic, expectorant and aromatic properties. Methods and Results: The commercial aerial parts of C. officinalis Moench were hydrodistilled and the essential oil analysed by Gas chromatography\\/Electron impact mass spectrometry (GC ? EIMS). The inhibition efficacy of this essence, alone (0Æ5 and

A. Nostro; M. A. Cannatelli; I. Morelli; P. L. Cioni; A. Bader; A. Marino; V. Alonzo

2002-01-01

362

Effects of water deficit on the vegetative response, yield and oil quality of olive trees ( Olea europaea L., cv Coratina) grown under intensive cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out in a young high-density olive grove (556plantsha?1—Olea europaea L., cv Coratina) located in Southern Italy to evaluate the effect of different soil water availability on the vegetative and productive performances of olive trees also looking into the quality of the resulting oils. Trials were carried out over a 3-year period on trees subjected to irrigation

Assunta Maria Palese; Vitale Nuzzo; Fabio Favati; Angiolina Pietrafesa; Giuseppe Celano; Cristos Xiloyannis

2010-01-01

363

Development and application of multi-zone model for combustion and pollutants formation in direct injection diesel engine running with vegetable oil or its bio-diesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-zone model for calculation of the closed cycle of a direct injection (DI) Diesel engine is presented and applied for the interesting case of its operation with vegetable oil (cottonseed) or its derived bio-diesel (methyl ester) as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives (bio-fuels) to petroleum distillates. Although there are many experimental studies, there is an apparent

C. D. Rakopoulos; K. A. Antonopoulos; D. C. Rakopoulos

2007-01-01

364

Aerobic biodegradation of sludge from the effluent of a vegetable oil processing plant mixed with household waste: Physical–chemical, microbiological, and spectroscopic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge from a sewage treatment plant dealing with the effluent produced during the processing of crude vegetable oil (Lesieur-Cristal, Morocco) was composted in two mixtures (M1 and M2) with household waste obtained from landfill. The different physico-chemical characteristics of the final composts after 5 months of composting were, for M1 and M2, respectively: pH: 8.5 and 7.08; C\\/N: 10 and

Rajae Abouelwafa; Ghita Ait Baddi; Salah Souabi; Peter Winterton; Juan Cegarra; Mohamed Hafidi

2008-01-01

365

Combined effect of soil erosion and climate change induces abrupt changes in soil and vegetation properties in semiarid Mediterranean shrublands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems are experiencing major alterations as a result of the complex interactions between climatic fluctuations and disturbances caused by human activities. Future scenarios of global change forecast a rapid degradation of these ecosystems, with a reduction of their functionality, as a result of changes in relevant vegetation and soil properties. Some theoretical models indicate that these ecosystems respond non-linearly to regular variations in the external conditions, with an abrupt shift when conditions approach a certain critical level or threshold. Considering these predictions, there is an urgent need to know the effects that these alterations might have on semi-arid ecosystems and their components. In this study, we aim at analyzing the consequences of climate change and increasing soil erosion on soil and vegetation properties and the functional dynamics of semiarid Mediterranean shrublands. We predict that the combined effect of both drivers will be additive or synergistic, increasing the negative effects of each one. We compared vegetation and soil properties of flat areas (low erosion) and steep hillslopes (high erosion) in two climatic areas (484 mm and 10.3°C, and 368mm and 11.9°C, respectively) that reproduce the predicted climate change in temperature and precipitation for the next 40 years. Species richness, vegetal cover, plant life-form composition were determined in 20 m2 plots and soil was sampled in the same plots to determine bulk density, aggregate stability, fertility and water holding capacity. All soil and vegetation properties were negatively affected by soil erosion and climate change. However, contrary to our hypothesis, the joined effect of both drivers on all soil and vegetation properties was antagonistic, except for the vegetal cover that showed an additive response to their interaction. Our results evidence that soil erosion affects more negatively the soil and vegetation properties in the cooler and wetter climatic area than in the warmer and drier one, and support moreover the idea that a functional threshold has been crossed between the two climatic areas.

Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

2013-04-01

366

Measurement Properties of Psychosocial and Environmental Measures Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Middle School Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the measurement properties of several scales modified or created to assess factors related to fruit and vegetable intake within a young adolescent population. Design: Cross-sectional with data collected via self-report. Setting: Data were collected in regularly scheduled classes in the school setting. Participants: African…

Granner, Michelle L.; Evans, Alexandra E.

2012-01-01

367

Effects of Wastewater Irrigation on Physicochemical Properties of Soil and Availability of Heavy Metals in Soil and Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the impact of irrigation with wastewater on nutritional property and heavy?metal concentrations in the soil and consequent accumulation in vegetables at sites having long?term uses of wastewater for irrigation. Samples of irrigation water, soil, and root and shoot parts of palak plants were analyzed to determine the concentration of heavy metals. Wastewater irrigation led to increases

Anita Singh; Rajesh K. Sharma; Madhoolika Agrawal; F. Marshall

2009-01-01

368

On-farm production of soybean oil and its properties as a fuel  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the design of a system for on-farm production of soybean oil for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. The soybean oil production system consists of a heat exchanger to heat the beans with the exhaust gas of an engine, a screw press and a system for water degumming and drying the expressed crude oil. Optimum parameters of the oil production system were found. The rheological properties of soybean oil, ester of soybean oil and blends of the above with diesel fuel and diesel fuel additives are given. Data on soybean temperature, outlet gas temperature and thermal efficiency were obtained from a developed mathematical model of the heat exchanger. Chemical analyses show that crude oil from the press is similar to that of commercially degummed oil. The degumming process is not needed for the crude oil to be used as a fuel in compression ignition engines. Rheological properties of the soybean oil and soybean oil diesel fuel mixture show that the fluids have viscosities of time independent characteristics and are Newtonian fluids. Diesel fuel additives having low viscosities can be used to lower the viscosity of soybean oil and blends with diesel fuel but the effect is insignificant.

Suh, S.R.

1983-01-01

369

Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Expansion of aquaculture is seriously limited by reductions in fish oil (FO) supply for aquafeeds. Terrestrial alternatives such as vegetable oils (VO) have been investigated and recently a strategy combining genetic selection with changes in diet formulations has been proposed to meet growing demands for aquaculture products. This study investigates the influence of genotype on transcriptomic responses to sustainable feeds in Atlantic salmon. Results A microarray analysis was performed to investigate the liver transcriptome of two family groups selected according to their estimated breeding values (EBVs) for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat', fed diets containing either FO or a VO blend. Diet principally affected metabolism genes, mainly of lipid and carbohydrate, followed by immune response genes. Genotype had a much lower impact on metabolism-related genes and affected mostly signalling pathways. Replacement of dietary FO by VO caused an up-regulation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, but there was a clear genotype effect as fatty acyl elongase (elovl2) was only up-regulated and desaturases (?5 fad and ?6 fad) showed a higher magnitude of response in Lean fish, which was reflected in liver fatty acid composition. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) was also up-regulated by VO and the effect was independent of genotype. Genetic background of the fish clearly affected regulation of lipid metabolism, as PPAR? and PPAR? were down-regulated by the VO diet only in Lean fish, while in Fat salmon SREBP-1 expression was up-regulated by VO. In addition, all three genes had a lower expression in the Lean family group than in the Fat, when fed VO. Differences in muscle adiposity between family groups may have been caused by higher levels of hepatic fatty acid and glycerophospholipid synthesis in the Fat fish, as indicated by the expression of FAS, 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase 2. Conclusions This study has identified metabolic pathways and key regulators that may respond differently to alternative plant-based feeds depending on genotype. Further studies are required but data suggest that it will be possible to identify families better adapted to alternative diet formulations that might be appropriate for future genetic selection programmes. PMID:21599965

2011-01-01

370

Simultaneous determination of 17 phthalate esters in edible vegetable oils by GC-MS with silica/PSA-mixed solid-phase extraction.  

PubMed

A quantified method for the determination of 17 phthalate esters (PAEs) in edible vegetable oil by GC-MS with the pretreatment of acetonitrile extraction and silica/N-(n-Propyl)ethylenediamine-mixed SPE column was established. By the quantification of internal standard of D(4)-di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a good linearity range of related 17 PAEs was observed. The correlation coefficient was ranged at 0.994~1.000, and the standard lowest quantified level was 0.05~0.15 mg/L. The spiking recoveries of 17 PAEs were 78.3~108.9% with the relative standard deviations of 4.3~12.1% (n = 6). The method detection limits were 0.1~0.2 mg/kg. Meanwhile, PAEs were determined in 30 plastic buckets of edible vegetable oil from supermarkets in Hangzhou city of China. The survey of 30 oil samples showed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) had the 100% (30/30) detection rate. The levels of diisobutyl phthalate with 86.7% (26:30), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) with 70% (21:30) and diethyl phthalate with 10% (3:30) were detected. It was worth note that DBP with 16.7% (5:30) samples and DEHP with 10% (3:30) samples were beyond the regular migrating limit, which indicated that more attention should be paid to the PAEs in oil with plastic package. PMID:23065997

Wu, PingGu; Yang, DaJin; Zhang, Liqun; Shen, XiangHong; Pan, XiaoDong; Wang, LiYuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Feng, Liang; Ying, Ying

2012-11-01

371

Response surface methodology as an approach to determine optimal activities of lipase entrapped in sol-gel matrix using different vegetable oils.  

PubMed

The conditions for maximization of the enzymatic activity of lipase entrapped in sol-gel matrix were determined for different vegetable oils using an experimental design. The effects of pH, temperature, and biocatalyst loading on lipase activity were verified using a central composite experimental design leading to a set of 13 assays and the surface response analysis. For canola oil and entrapped lipase, statistical analyses showed significant effects for pH and temperature and also the interactions between pH and temperature and temperature and biocatalyst loading. For the olive oil and entrapped lipase, it was verified that the pH was the only variable statistically significant. This study demonstrated that response surface analysis is a methodology appropriate for the maximization of the percentage of hydrolysis, as a function of pH, temperature, and lipase loading. PMID:18373071

Pinheiro, Rubiane C; Soares, Cleide M F; de Castro, Heizir F; Moraes, Flavio F; Zanin, Gisella M

2008-03-01

372

Use of triacylglycerol profiles established by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection to predict the botanical origin of vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetable oils from different botanical origins by HPLC with UV-vis detection has been developed. Using a core-shell particle packed column (C18, 2.6 ?m), TAG separation was optimized in terms of mobile phase composition and column temperature. Using isocratic elution with acetonitrile/n-pentanol at 10 °C, excellent efficiency with good resolution between most of the TAG peak pairs, within a total analysis time of 15 min, was achieved. Using mass spectrometry detection, a total of 15 peaks, which were common to oils of six different botanical origins (corn, extra virgin olive, grapeseed, hazelnut, peanut and soybean) were identified. These peaks were used to construct linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models for botanical origin prediction. Ratios of the peak areas selected by pairs were used as predictors. All the oils were correctly classified with assignment probabilities higher than 95%. PMID:21855883

Lerma-García, M J; Lusardi, R; Chiavaro, E; Cerretani, L; Bendini, A; Ramis-Ramos, G; Simó-Alfonso, E F

2011-10-21

373

Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.  

PubMed

The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers. PMID:24300845

Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

2014-01-01

374

Development of solvent-free offset ink using vegetable oil esters and high molecular-weight resin.  

PubMed

In the development of solvent-free offset ink, the roles of resin molecular weight and used solvent on the ink performance were evaluated by examining the relationship between the various properties of resin and solvent and print quality. To find the best performing resin, the soy-oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was applied to the five modified-phenolic resins having different molecular weights. It is found from the experimental results that the ink made of higher molecular weight and better solubility resin gives better printability and print quality. It is because larger molecular weight resin with better solubility gives higher rate of ink transfer. From the ink application of different esters to high molecular weight resin, the best printing performance was yielded from the soy-oil fatty acid butyl ester (FABE). It is due to its high kinematic viscosity resulting in the smallest change of ink transfer weight upon multiple number of printing, which improves the stability of ink quality. PMID:23728325

Park, Jung Min; Kim, Young Han; Kim, Sung Bin

2013-01-01

375

Effects of addition of different vegetable oils to lactating dairy ewes' diet on meat quality characteristics of suckling lambs reared on the ewes' milk.  

PubMed

The effect of different vegetable oils used in the diet of lactating ewes on the meat quality of their suckling lambs has been evaluated. Lambs (males and females) were slaughtered at 11 kg. Fortyeight lactating Churra ewes (prolificacy 1.5) and their suckling lambs were assigned to four treatments according to the oil added (3% on weight basis) to the ewes' daily ration: palm oil as control (CON); olive oil (OLI); soybean oil (SOY); and linseed oil (LIN). Analyses of pH, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), tocopherol levels, volatile compounds and a sensory evaluation were carried out on suckling lambs' meat. Results showed no substantial effect on pH, colour, TBARS and tocopherol levels. Volatiles typically derived from lipid oxidation were higher in SOY group. However, panellists were only able to correctly identify samples from LIN group. Furthermore, the meat from LIN group showed lower scores towards odour and flavour quality and overall liking than that from the rest of treatments. PMID:22381704

Vieira, Ceferina; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Mateo, Javier; Bodas, Raul; Soto, Sergio; Manso, Teresa

2012-07-01

376

Effects of soil properties on vegetation restoration in coal-gangue pile in Yima area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste coal-gangue piles not only occupied and destroyed large fields, but also brought about a series of problems of environment. So it is significant to do the research on restoring vegetation of coal-gangue pile in for local environment. The naturally restored vegetation status and restored vegetation status under artificial interference of coal- gangue pile were investigated by traditional plot-survey, and

Longchang Liu; Juan Jia; Guorui Xu

2011-01-01

377

A data mining approach to finding relationships between reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a primary oil extraction process for heavy crude oil and reservoir properties are key factors that contribute to the effectiveness of CHOPS. However, identification of the key reservoir properties and quantification of the relationships between the reservoir properties and the oil production are still challenging tasks. In this paper, we propose the use of a data mining approach for finding quantitative relationships between various reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS. The approach includes four steps: firstly, a set of reservoir properties are identified to describe reservoir characteristics through a petrophysical analysis. In addition to common parameters, such as porosity and permeability, two new parameters - a fluid mobility factor and the maximum inscribed rectangular of net pay (MIRNP) - are proposed. Secondly, three new parameters to describe the production performance of wells are proposed: the peak value, effective life cycle and effective yield. Next, the fuzzy ranking method is used to rank the importance of the identified reservoir properties in terms of oil production. Finally, association rule mining is used to obtain quantitative relationships between reservoir property variables and the production performance of wells. The proposed methods have been applied for 118 wells in the Sparky Formation of the Lloydminster heavy oil field in Alberta. The result shows that the production performance of wells in the area could be described and predicted by using the found quantitative relations.

Cai, Yongxiang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Kezhen; Dong, Mingzhe

2014-12-01

378

Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, ?-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. PMID:24767050

Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

2014-09-15

379

Essential oils from neotropical Myrtaceae: chemical diversity and biological properties.  

PubMed

Myrtaceae family (121 genera, 3800-5800 spp.) is one of the most important families in tropical forests. They are aromatic trees or shrubs, which frequently produce edible fruits. In the neotropics, ca. 1000 species were found. Several members of this family are used in folk medicine, mainly as an antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cleanser, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent and to decrease the blood cholesterol. In addition, some fruits are eaten fresh or used to make juices, liqueurs, and sweets very much appreciated by people. The flavor composition of some fruits belonging to the Myrtaceae family has been extensively studied due to their pleasant and intense aromas. Most of the essential oils of neotropical Myrtaceae analyzed so far are characterized by predominance of sesquiterpenes, some with important biological properties. In the present work, chemical and pharmacological studies carried out on neotropical Myrtaceae species are reviewed, based on original articles published since 1980. The uses in folk medicine and chemotaxonomic importance of secondary metabolites are also briefly discussed. PMID:21259421

Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Salvador, Marcos J

2011-01-01

380

Tribological properties of lubricating oil-based nanofluids with metal/carbon nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Oil-based nanofluids were prepared by dispersing several metal and/or carbon nanoparticles in lubricating oil, and their tribological properties were investigated using a four-ball tribotester and an FZG machine. Each nanofluid can possess excellent wear resistance or extreme pressure capacity, but not both. Therefore, a new concept of mixed nanofluids was developed to satisfy both properties at the same time. The mixed nanofluids containing graphite and Ag nanoparticles not only showed enhanced load-carrying and anti-wear properties in the FZG gear rig test but also reduced the electric-power consumption by more than 3% compared to the base oil. PMID:21446457

Choi, Cheol; Jung, Mihee; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Jaekeun; Oh, Jemyung

2011-01-01

381

Comparative properties of Amazonian oils obtained by different extraction methods.  

PubMed

Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), babaçu (Orbignya phalerata Mart.), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) oils were studied to determine their antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, as well as their total phenol and carotenoid contents. The fatty acid contents were determined by GC-MS. The three types of passion fruit oils studied were refined, cold pressed or extracted from seeds in a Soxhlet apparatus. The oils thus obtained showed differences in antioxidant activity and carotenoid content, but were similar in regard to total phenols. Buriti and pequi had the highest carotenoid contents, while refined and cold pressed passion fruit oil displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Pequi oil was the only oil to display antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. PMID:21750480

Ferreira, Bianca Silva; de Almeida, Camila Guimarães; Faza, Lara Pereira; de Almeida, Angelina; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo; da Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Grazul, Richard Michael; Le Hyaric, Mireille

2011-01-01

382

Physical Properties of Polyurethanes Produced from Polyols from Seed Oils: II. Foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared using three North American seed oil starting materials. Polyol with terminal primary\\u000a hydroxyl groups synthesized from canola oil by ozonolysis and hydrogenation based technology, commercially available soybean\\u000a based polyol and crude castor oil were reacted with aromatic diphenylmethane diisocyanate to prepare the foams. Their physical\\u000a and thermal properties were studied and compared using dynamic

Suresh S. Narine; Xiaohua Kong; Laziz Bouzidi; Peter Sporns

2007-01-01

383

Relationship between properties of oil\\/water emulsion and agglomeration of carbonate minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a modification of oil agglomeration processes of dolomite and magnesite particles has been proposed. In this method the emulsion of kerosene with dodecylammonium hydrochloride (DDAHCl) was added to the minerals suspension. The experimental results have demonstrated that the agglomeration was governed by the properties of oil\\/water interface such as zeta potential and interfacial tension (?o\\/w). Addition of

Anna Bastrzyk; Izabela Polowczyk; Zygmunt Sadowski; Andrzej Sikora

2011-01-01

384

Effect of Constant Magnetic Field on the Rheological Properties of High-Paraffinicity Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of constant magnetic field on the rheological properties and freezing point of a number of high-paraffinicity oils is studied. It is established that the rheological behavior of oils in a magnetic field depends on the content of paraffin hydrocarbons, resins, and asphaltenes. An increase in the main rheological parameters upon the action of magnetic field is observed for

Yu. V. Loskutova; N. V. Yudina

2003-01-01

385

Land disposal of treated saline oil production water: impacts on soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison study between the treated produced water and fresh water was performed to test their effect on soil physical and chemical properties. Large quantities of water are produced during oil extraction in Oman. This water is utilized for reservoir pressure maintenance by injection into shallow and deep sub-surface formations at oil fields. Because of the salinity in water, treated

Mansour Al-Haddabi; Mushtaque Ahmed

2007-01-01

386

Impact of Treated Wastewater from Oil Extraction Process on Soil Physical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of water are usually produced in conjunction with oil production in Oman. Because this water is saline and heavily contaminated with oil, it is not suitable for domestic or agricultural uses. A short-duration comparative study on the effects of using treated oily-water and fresh water on soil physical properties has been performed. It was found from this study

Mansour Al-Haddabi; Mushtaque Ahmed; Anvar Kacimov; Shafiur Rahman; Salim Al-Rawahy

2004-01-01

387

Wetting properties and stability of silane-treated glass exposed to water, air, and oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wettability and stability of glass surfaces modified with five organosilanes were characterized by monitoring temporal changes in water-air contact angles on treated glass slides stored in air, water, and oil. Silane treatment altered the wetting properties of sodalime glass slides, with all contact angles exhibiting hysteresis. The induced hydrophobicity remained stable for slides stored in air and oil, but deteriorated

M. Wei; R. S. Bowman; J. L. Wilson; N. R. Morrow

1993-01-01

388

Effect of side chains on the dielectric properties of alkyl esters derived from palm kernel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkyl ester derivatives were synthesized from laboratory purified palm kernel oil. The steps in the synthesis involved transesterification of palm kernel oil to produce a methyl ester, followed by epoxidation and then the grafting of side chains by esterification with propionic and butyric anhydride. The dielectric and thermal properties of the ester derivatives were analyzed and compared with the methyl

A. A. Abdelmalik; J. C. Fothergill; S. J. Dodd; A. P. Abbott; R. C. Harris

2011-01-01

389

Chronic effects of oil spill on soil properties and microflora of a rainforest ecosystem in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and microbiological properties of a tropical rain forest soil were evaluated 17 years after oil spillage to access the chronic effects of, and interrelationship between population of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing and nitrifying microorganisms. The spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons (oil), the nutrient status and the abundance of heterotrophic microbes along soil transect lines in the contaminated zones served as

Amadi Amadi; Samuel D. Abbey; Anthony Nma

1996-01-01

390

Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of  

E-print Network

anisum against PVX, TMV and TRSV. Materials and Methods The cultures of different viruses, i.e. PVX, TMV of the essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Pimpinella anisum L. has been tested against PVX (potato Chenopodium ama!a!!icolo!. Both the essential oils totally inhibit the formation of local lesions at a concen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Correlation of black oil properties at pressures below the bubble-point  

E-print Network

recourse in such cases is the use of empirically derived correlations This study considers the correlation of black oil Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) properties for pressures at or below the bubble-point pressure. Specifically, we address the following...

Velarde, Jorge Javier

2012-06-07

392

Investigation of some compositional properties of Capparis spinosa seed oil growing wild in Iran from commercial utilization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

seed oil from C. spinosa are available [2–6]. This study was made to analyze the chemical properties of seeds and oil extracted from Capparis spinosa collected from different regions of Dashte-Moghan in order to determine the possibility of commercial utilization and to assess the potential use of the extracted oil in the edible oil industry. Table 1 gives the fatty

Mohammad Hadi Givianrad; Sara Saffarpour; Kambiz Larijani; Peyman Beheshti

2011-01-01

393

Vegetation Distribution Characteristics and Shell Sand Physicochemical Properties in Shell Ridge on the Southwestern Coast of Bohai Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information was available about the ecosystem of shell ridge along coastline. The vegetation distribution characteristics and physicochemical properties of shell sands were thus conducted in the shell ridge located in Binzhou national nature reserve of shell ridge and wetland, Shandong province, China (38°10'~38°19'N and 117°51'~118°02'E). Results showed that the dominating plant species occurred in this area was divided into

Wenjun Xie; Qing Liu; Yanyun Zhao; Jiangbao Xia; Jingkuan Sun; Jiayi Tian

2011-01-01

394

Effects of Heating Oil on the Count of Microorganisms and PhysicoChemical Properties of Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our experiment was to determine the effect of heating oil application on the count of mi- croorganisms and some physico-chemical properties of limed and lime-free soil and soil sown with yellow lupine of the Markiz variety and unsown soil. The results obtained indicate that heating oil deteriorated the physico-chemical properties of the ex- perimental soil (acidification, decrease

J. Kucharski; E. Jastrz?bska

2005-01-01

395

Mathematical models of interconnections between composition and properties of oils in the Apsheron oil-and gas-bearing region of Azerbaijan  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the example of oils in the Apsheron oil- and gas-bearing region and Apsheron archipelago located in the western part of the Southern Caspian depression, of which the authors have developed mathematical models of a group hydrocarbon composition; interconnection between oil density and content of asphalt-resin materials, benzine, and ligroin; interconnections between oil density and viscosity and temperature; and interconnections between content of asphalt-resin properties and low-temperature fractions. The models obtained enable us to extrapolate factual data on composition and properties of oils beyond the limits of fixed depths of burial of oil-saturated reservoirs both to a zone of great depths and increased temperatures where hydrocarbons were in a gaseous or oil and gaseous state, and to a zone of near-surface conditions where oils acquire the consistency of asphalts.

Buryakovsky, L.A.; Dzhevanshir, R.D. (Inst. of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, 33 Narimanov Prospect, Baku 370143, Azerbaijan (SU))

1992-01-01

396

Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Climate change in tundra regions may alter vegetation species composition and ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring these changes as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional patterns. Gas exchange measurements of pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow AK, show three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013+/-0.001, 0.0018+/-0.0002, and 0.0012 0.0001 mol C/mol absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Further, discriminant analysis of patch reflectance identifies five spectral bands that can separate each vegetation functional type as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. Patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. These functions, developed from the tram data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine regional variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types and from those distributions, the variability of LUE. Across the landscape, there was a fivefold variation in tundra LUE that was correlated to a spectral vegetation index developed to detect vegetation chlorophyll content.

Huemmrich, Karl F.; Gamon, John; Tweedie, Craig; Campbell, Petya P. K.; Landis, David; Middleton, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

397

Characterization and authentication of a novel vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids, sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil.  

PubMed

Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (?-3's), whether from fish oils, flax or supplements, can protect against cardiovascular disease. Finding plant-based sources of the essential ?-3's could provide a sustainable, renewable and inexpensive source of ?-3's, compared to fish oils. Our objective was to develop a rapid test to characterize and detect adulteration in sacha inchi oils, a Peruvian seed containing higher levels of ?-3's in comparison to other oleaginous seeds. A temperature-controlled ZnSe ATR mid-infrared benchtop and diamond ATR mid-infrared portable handheld spectrometers were used to characterize sacha inchi oil and evaluate its oxidative stability compared to commercial oils. A soft independent model of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) analyzed the spectral data. Fatty acid profiles showed that sacha inchi oil (44% linolenic acid) had levels of PUFA similar to those of flax oils. PLSR showed good correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.9) between reference tests and spectra from infrared devices, allowing for rapid determination of fatty acid composition and prediction of oxidative stability. Oils formed distinct clusters, allowing the evaluation of commercial sacha inchi oils from Peruvian markets and showed some prevalence of adulteration. Determining oil adulteration and quality parameters, by using the ATR-MIR portable handheld spectrometer, allowed for portability and ease-of-use, making it a great alternative to traditional testing methods. PMID:23107745

Maurer, Natalie E; Hatta-Sakoda, Beatriz; Pascual-Chagman, Gloria; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

2012-09-15

398

Properties of cassava starch-based edible coating containing essential oils.  

PubMed

Edible coatings were produced using cassava starch (2% and 3% w/v) containing cinnamon bark (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) or fennel (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) essential oils. Edible cassava starch coating at 2% and 3% (w/v) containing or not containing 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oils conferred increased in water vapor resistance and decreased in the respiration rates of coated apple slices when compared with uncoated fruit. Cassava starch coatings (2% w/v) added 0.10% or 0.30% (v/v) fennel or cinnamon bark essential oils showed antioxidant capacity, and the addition of 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oil demonstrated antimicrobial properties. The coating containing cinnamon bark essential oil showed a significant antioxidant capacity, comparing to fennel essential oil. Antimicrobial tests showed that the addition of 0.30% (v/v) cinnamon bark essential oil to the edible coating inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella choleraesuis, and 0.30% fennel essential oil inhibited just S. aureus. Treatment with 2% (w/v) of cassava starch containing 0.30% (v/v) of the cinnamon bark essential oil showed barrier properties, an antioxidant capacity and microbial inhibition. PMID:24410449

Oriani, Vivian Boesso; Molina, Gustavo; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pastore, Gláucia Maria; Hubinger, Miriam Dupas

2014-02-01

399

Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea-sured and modeled data  

E-print Network

Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea) properties of heavy-oil sands over a range of frequencies (2 - 2000Hz) covering the seismic bandwidth and at ultrasonic frequencies (0.8MHz). The measurements were carried on heavy-oil sand sample from Asphalt Ridge

400

Effect of two experimental diets (protein and lipid vegetable oil blends) on the volatile profile of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) muscle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine differences among volatile compounds composition of Senegalese sole muscle fed with extruded diets containing different plant protein (PP) and vegetable oil (VO) sources. Two set of experiments were performed on growing sole. One growth trial used a control diet containing fish meal (FM) as the main protein source and different PP-based diets. Another growth trial compared a control diet containing fish oil (FO) as the main lipid source and different VO-based diets; after a period, all sole were fed with the FO diet. Results showed that the incorporation of PP sources up to 75% allowed the production of a similar content of major volatile compounds to the control diet. In VO-based diets, some significant differences were found in the levels of some volatile compounds in sole muscle; however, no significant differences were obtained through sensory evaluation. PMID:24491737

Moreira, N; Soares, S; Valente, L M P; Castro-Cunha, M; Cunha, L M; Guedes de Pinho, P

2014-06-15

401

Effects of sugars on the formation of nanometer-sized droplets of vegetable oil by an isothermal low-energy emulsification method.  

PubMed

Effects of sugars on the formation of nanometer-sized oil droplets induced by the addition of vegetable oil to aqueous dispersions of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (MOPS, Tween 80) at 25 °C without the application of intensive mechanical energy were investigated. Phase diagrams were constructed using polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to elucidate the relationship between the type of phases involved in the process of emulsification and the droplet size in the resulting emulsions. Nanometer-sized oil droplets as small as 220 nm in diameter were obtained when the sponge phase (L3 ) was formed at first, followed by the phase transition to coexisting multiple phases including the micellar cubic phase (I1 ) with increasing vegetable oil content. Sugars expanded the area of the sponge phase toward lower MOPS contents, enabling the formation of nano-emulsions from a wider range of the initial composition. The area of the sponge phase increased in the order of d-fructose ? d-glucose < sucrose < d-maltose, consistent with the order of the literature value of the mean number of equatorial hydroxyl groups per sugar molecule and that of the hydration number of sugar that represents the average number of water molecules forming a complex with a single molecule of sugar in aqueous solution. The present results confirm that sugars facilitate the formation of nano-emulsions using the isothermal low-energy emulsification method, presumably due to their abilities to shift the effective hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of the surfactant toward the hydrophobic side. PMID:23701718

Ikeda, Shinya; Miyanoshita, Michitaka; Gohtani, Shoichi

2013-07-01

402

Composition and antimicrobial properties of Sardinian Juniperus essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.  

PubMed

In this work, the chemical compositions and antimicrobial properties of Juniperus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Five berry essential oils obtained from different species of Juniperus growing wild in Sardinia were analyzed. The components of the essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the oils and their components against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were determined by a broth microdilution method. The GC-MS analysis showed a certain variability in the concentrations of the main constituents of the oils. Alpha-pinene was largely predominant in the oils of the species J. phoenicea subsp. turbinata and J. oxycedrus. Alpha-pinene and myrcene constituted the bulk (67.56%) of the essential oil of J. communis. Significant quantitative differences were observed for myrcene, delta-3-carene, and D-germacrene. The results of the antimicrobial assay show that the oils of J. communis and J. oxycedrus failed to inhibit any of the microorganisms at the highest concentrations tested (MLC > or = 900 microg/ml), while the oils extracted from J. turbinata specimens were active against fungi, particularly against a strain of Aspergillus flavus (an aflatoxin B1 producer). Of the single compounds tested, delta-3-carene was found to possess the broadest spectrum of activity and appeared to contribute significantly to the antifungal activity observed for J. turbinata oils. This activity may be helpful in the prevention of aflatoxin contamination for many foods. PMID:12870766

Cosentino, Sofia; Barra, Andrea; Pisano, Barbara; Cabizza, Maddalena; Pirisi, Filippo Maria; Palmas, Francesca

2003-07-01

403

Relationship of dough thermomechanical properties with oil uptake, cooking and textural properties of instant fried noodles.  

PubMed

Instant noodles were prepared from fifteen diverse wheat cultivars varying widely in their flour quality and dough rheology. Dough thermomechanical parameters obtained by Mixolab and flour analytical properties were correlated with the quality of instant noodles including oil uptake, cooking quality and textural attributes. The Mixolab parameters dough development time and dough stability showed significant positive correlation with cooking time, cooked weight, overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles, while negatively correlated with oil uptake and cooking loss, therefore, exhibiting a marked positive effect on quality of instant noodles. Lower protein breakdown represented by C2 torque was also positively related with overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles. Stickiness/adhesiveness of noodles was revealed to be mainly conferred by falling number values (R (2?)=?0.671) and damaged starch (R (2?)=?0.523) content of wheat flour samples. Flour samples with lesser values of protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation volume, thermal stability of proteins, dough stability and dough development time were found to be linked with poor noodle quality. Medium strong flours performed better in noodle making, while weaker flours demonstrated poor noodle quality. Dough rheology of good noodle making flours was characterized with higher dough development time, dough stability, C2, C3, C4 as well as C5 values. Noodles with higher overall acceptability showed a more continuous and uniform protein starch matrix in comparison to the poor counterparts. PMID:23744117

Gulia, Neelam; Khatkar, B S

2014-04-01

404

Effect of vegetable oils on the methane concentration and population density of the rumen ciliate, Eremoplastron dilobum, grown in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of rapeseed (RSO) and linseed (LSO) oils on the methane concentration and number of rumen ciliates (Eremoplastron dilobum) incubated in vitro was investigated. A 5% dose of rapeseed oil reduced the methane concentration by about 14% (P<0.05) but had no effect on the ciliate number. Conversely, the same dose of LSO significantly increased the protozoa count, while methane

A. Cie?lak; R. Miltko; G. Be??ecki; M. Szumacher-Strabel; A. Potka?ski; E. Kwiatkowska

405

Changes in Marsh Vegetation, Stability and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Barataria Bay Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal wetlands in Southern Louisiana were contaminated by the release of record volumes of oil between April and July 2010. Barataria Bay was extensively impacted, resulting in the oiling and dieback of marsh grasses along a discontinuous margin up to 30m into the marshes. Shoreline stability and biogeochemistry have been monitored over three site visits between between July 10 and

J. M. Holloway; G. Aiken; R. F. Kokaly; D. Heckman; K. Butler; C. T. Mills; T. M. Hoefen; S. Piazza

2010-01-01

406

Temporal and spatial patterns in vegetation and atmospheric properties from AVIRIS  

SciTech Connect

Little research has focused on the use of imaging spectrometry for change detection. In this paper, the authors apply Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data to the monitoring of seasonal changes in atmospheric water vapor, liquid water, and surface cover in the vicinity of the Jasper Ridge, CA, for three dates in 1992. Apparent surface reflectance was retrieved and water vapor and liquid water mapped by using a radiative-transfer-based inversion that accounts for spatially variable atmospheres. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) was used to model reflectance data as mixtures of green vegetation (GV), nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil, and shade. Temporal and spatial patterns in endmember fractions and liquid water were compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The reflectance retrieval algorithm was tested by using a temporally invariant target.

Roberts, D.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geography; Green, R.O. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geography; [Jet Propulsion Labs., Pasadena, CA (United States); Adams, J.B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1997-12-01

407

Patterns of changes in oil properties in complex constructions for carbonate reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objects of this research are carbonate reservoirs with non-uniform lithology and filtration-volumetric parameters. The oil under study is heavy ( 0.924 g/cm3). Our research methods include the following: studying of filtration-volumetric parameters in rock samples, performing the thermal and geochemical studies of fluids . Thermal and geochemical studies performed on core samples and on fluids extracted from sediments of Bashkirian sub-panel of a 1985 well in Akansky field showed that oil properties (namely its group composition) are not constant and uniform throughout the deposit but depend on the structure of the pore space, on the porosity, and the size of pore channels. In particular, we found out that oil that saturates large pores and cavities contains less oil fractions and more resins and asphaltenes. The fine pores of the rock matrix are saturated with lighter petroleum hydrocarbons, which predominantly have oils while the percentage of asphaltenes decreases. These patterns can be explained by the process of chromatography (separation) of oil during its migration and filtration through some porous environments while filling up the collector and forming deposits. Assuming that petroleum is a colloidal solution where light hydrocarbons serve as solvents, and resin- asphaltene colloidal particles are the dissolved part, the process of filling the pores can be represented as follows. Under the influence of external forces and as a result of spreading in a porous environment, oil, when entering the collector, is subjected chromatography - the lightest and easily movable hydrocarbons (solvents) penetrate into finer pore channels (including the thinnest pores and micro cracks of the rock matrix), while the resinous asphaltene part dissolved in oil remains in the large pores and cavities. Thus, the distribution of oil in carbonate reservoir of Bashkirian sub-panel is as follows: rock matrix and its low porosity layers are filled with lighter oil, while heavier and viscous oil is accumulated in large pores and cavities. A similar pattern in the distribution of oil properties in a reservoir is due to the character of the wettability (wet affinity) of the pore surface of the reservoir. We must clearly understand the process of oil upheaval by water in non-uniform reservoirs with different porosity and size of filtration channels in order to develop recommendations for increasing efficiency of oil upheaval of water in carbonate reservoirs. Given the fact that the carbonate reservoir is mostly hydrophobic, its fine pores will be filled with light oil, which can be displaced only with the help of countercurrent and concurrent-countercurrent impregnation. This influences on the selection of EOR processes and oil from the formation and on petroleum engineering. This should be considered when selecting the technology of water injection.

Morozov, Vladimir P.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Nosova, Julia G.

2014-05-01

408

The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species-climate-vegetation relationships, which could be further advanced with improved canopy structure information across spatial scales.

Goetz, Scott J.; Sun, Mindy; Zolkos, Scott; Hansen, Andy; Dubayah, Ralph

2014-03-01

409

Anti-biofilm properties of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil against periodontal pathogens.  

PubMed

Essential oils of several plants are widely used in ethnomedicine for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very limited data exist on their use in connection to periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacterial growth inhibiting and anti-biofilm effects of Satureja hortensis L. (summer savory), Salvia fruticosa M. (sage), Lavandula stoechas L. (lavender), Myrtus communis L., and Juniperus communis L. (juniper) essential oils. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, minimum inhibitor concentrations (MICs) with the agar dilution method, and anti-biofilm effects by the microplate biofilm assay. The toxicity of each essential oil was tested on cultured keratinocytes. Of the 5 essential oils, S. hortensis L. essential oil had the strongest growth inhibition effect. Subinhibitory dose of S. hortensis L. essential oil had anti-biofilm effects only against Prevotella nigrescens. Essential oils did not inhibit keratinocyte viability at the concentrations of 1 and 5 microl/ml, however at the concentration of 5 microl/ml epithelial cells detached from the culture well bottom. The present findings suggest that S. hortensis L. essential oil inhibits the growth of periodontal bacteria in the concentration that is safe on keratinocytes, however, in the subinhibitory concentration its anti-biofilm effect is limited. PMID:19285147

Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman; Gursoy, Mervi; Gursoy, Orhan Vedat; Cakmakci, Lutfu; Könönen, Eija; Uitto, Veli-Jukka

2009-08-01

410

Analysis of the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the fundamental energy sources and important chemical raw materials, crude oil is crucially important to every country. Especially, the price shock of crude oil will bring about hidden dangers in energy security and economic security. Therefore, investigating the dynamics of frequent price shocks of crude oil markets seems to be crucial and necessary. In order to make the conclusions more reliable and valid, we use two different representations of the price shocks (inter-event times and series of counts) to study the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets, such as coefficient of variation, Allan Factor, Fano Factors, Rescaled Range analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We find evidence that the time dynamics of the price shock sequences can be considered as a fractal process with a high degree of time-clusterization of the events. It could give us some useful information to better understand the nature and dynamics of crude oil markets.

Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying; Huang, Wei-qiang

2014-01-01

411

Investigation of the dielectric properties of oil shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described and the results of measuring the loss tangent tan?, relative permittivity ?, and conductivity ? of oil shale samples over the frequency range from 20 Hz to 1 MHz at temperatures from 20 to 600°C are presented which can be used to estimate the energy release in an underground stratum on electromagnetic heating.

Lopatin, V. V.; Martemyanov, S. M.

2012-10-01

412

Fuel properties of bituminous coal and pyrolytic oil mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation on the thermal decomposition kinetics of coal-biooil slurry (CBS) fuel prepared at different ratios (100:0,70:30,60:40,0:100) was conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The materials consisted of Clermont bituminous coal (Australia) and bio-oil (also known as pyrolytic oil) from the source of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) that was thermally converted by means of pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of CBS fuel was performed in an inert atmosphere (50mL/min nitrogen) under non-isothermal conditions from room temperature to 1000°C at heating rate of 10°C/min. The apparent activation energy (Ea.) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model which first-order decomposition reaction was assumed. All kinetic parameters were tabulated based on the TG data obtained from the experiment. It was found that, the CBS fuel has higher reactivity than Clermont coal fuel during pyrolysis process, as the addition of pyrolytic oil will reduce the Ea values of the fuel. The thermal profiles of the mixtures showed potential trends that followed the characteristics of an ideal slurry fuel where high degradation rate is desirable. Among the mixture, the optimum fuel was found at the ratio of 60:40 of pyrolytic oil/coal mixtures with highest degradation rate. These findings may contribute to the development of a slurry fuel to be used in the vast existing conventional power plants.

Hamdan, Hazlin; Sharuddin, Munawar Zaman; Daud, Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A.

2014-10-01

413

Properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of oil-fuel ashes  

SciTech Connect

The residue of oil-fuel burned at the electrical power plant of Grao de Castellon (Spain) has been incorporated in Portland cement mortar and concrete. The used oil-fuel ash (OFA) had a high percentage of magnesium compounds because of magnesium oxide addition for removing slag and ashes from boilers and pipes. Several studies had been carried out on stabilization of toxic metals also occurring in oil-fuel ashes (particularly vanadium and nickel), by mixing with coal fly ashes and cement. In this case, the presence of magnesium compounds in the composition of the studied oil-fuel ashes could alter the mechanical and chemical properties of the cement matrix in fresh and hardened mortar and concrete. The authors present here the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of oil-fuel ashes and the behavior of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of these oil-fuel ashes. The study includes workability, water demand, setting time, expansion and compressive strength developments. Preliminary results demonstrate a high absorption of water by oil-fuel ash particles, which promotes an increase in the water/cement ratio for a given workability. Acceleration of Portland cement/oil-fuel ash particles, which promotes an increase in the water/cement ratio for a given workability. Acceleration of Portland cement/oil-fuel ash pastes setting times was observed, due to the presence of carbonates. On the other hand, no significant expansion in specimens due to the presence of magnesium compounds was detected and, consequently, mechanical properties of hardened mortars containing oil-fuel ashes did not decrease with curing time. Compressive strengths for mortars containing OFA were much lower, however, than control mortar samples.

Paya, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Monzo, J.; Bonilla, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)] [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

1999-06-01

414

Dietary vegetable oils do not alter the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), but modulate the transcriptomic response to infection with Enteromyxum leei  

PubMed Central

Background Studies conducted with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) have determined the maximum dietary replacement of fish meal and oil without compromising growth or product quality. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of the nutritional background on fish health and fish fed plant protein-based diets with fish oil (FO diet) or a blend of vegetable oils (66VO diet) were exposed for 102 days to the intestinal myxosporean parasite Enteromyxum leei, and the intestine transcriptome was analyzed with a customized oligo-microarray of 7,500 annotated genes. Results Infection prevalence was high and similar in the two diet groups, but the outcome of the disease was more pronounced in fish fed the 66VO diet. No differences were found in the transcriptome of both diet control groups, whereas the number of differentially expressed genes in infected groups was considerable. K-means clustering of these differentially expressed genes identified four expression patterns that reflected the progression of the disease with the magnitude of the fold-change being higher in infected 66VO fish. A positive correlation was found between the time of infection and the magnitude of the transcriptional change within the 66VO group, being higher in early infected animals. Within this diet group, a strong up-regulation of many components of the immune specific response was evidenced, whereas other genes related to complement response and xenobiotic metabolism were down-regulated. Conclusions The high replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in practical fish feeds did not modify the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream, but important changes were apparent when fish were exposed to the myxosporean E. leei. The detected changes were mostly a consequence rather than a cause of the different disease progression in the two diet groups. Hence, the developed microarray constitutes an excellent diagnostic tool to address changes associated with the action of intestinal pathogens, but lacks a prognostic value to predict in advance the different susceptibility of growing fish to the current pathogen. PMID:22967181

2012-01-01

415

Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop an inexpensive method to remove organic sulfur from pyrite-free and mineral-free coal using base, air, and readily available farm products. This is accomplished by treating coals with impregnating coals with polyunsaturated offs, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they produce no noxious products and improve burning qualities of the solid products. IBC-108 coal, (contains only 0.4% pyrite and 2.7% organic sulfur) was first treated with Na{sub 4}OH at two different concentrations and four different times, and with NH{sub 4}OH at two different concentrations and two different temperatures. Pretreating IBC-108 coal with bases removes 13% to 23% of the sulfur, and NaOH is a better treatment than NH{sub 4}OH in most of the experiments. Higher temperatures, higher base concentrations, and longer treatment times remove more sulfur. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is more effective than NaOH for oil extraction after the oil treatment. To test for effectiveness of sulfur removal, eight coal samples were treated with NaOH (two concentrations at four different times) were further treated with linseed oil at three temperatures, four different times, and two oil to coal ratios. The combination of NaOH pretreatment, then oil treatment, followed by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction, removes 23% to 50% of the sulfur. The best result is achieved by pretreating with 5% NaOH for 20 hr (23% sulfur removal) followed by oil treatment at 100{degrees}C for 5 hr with a 1:1 oil to coal ratio (50% sulfur removal in total). More sulfur is removed with a 1:1 oil to coal ratio than a 1:10 ratio under most conditions.

Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi [and others

1997-05-01

416

Comparative Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Jatropha Seed Oil from Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jatropha oil was extracted from the jatropha seeds collected from different origins viz., Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand.\\u000a The physicochemical properties such as density, viscosity, percentage free fatty acid (FFA), iodine value, saponification\\u000a value and peroxide value of the extracted jatropha seed oil were evaluated. The evaluation of fatty acid composition using\\u000a gas chromatography (GC) revealed that, oleic (42.4–48.8%) and

A. Emil; Zahira Yaakob; M. N. Satheesh Kumar; J. M. Jahim; J. Salimon

2010-01-01

417

Interfacial properties of oil-in-water emulsions designed to be used as metalworking fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creaming stability and wetting behaviour of oil-in-water (O\\/W) emulsions, designed to be used as metalworking fluids, were evaluated. The influence of the emulsifier type and its concentration on emulsion properties (droplet size distribution, zeta potential, creaming stability, and contact angle or work of adhesion) was studied. O\\/W emulsions were prepared with 3% (w\\/w) base oil content and three different

Ángel Cambiella; José M. Benito; Carmen Pazos; José Coca

2007-01-01

418

Properties of Bio-oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Rice Husk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical properties of bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of rice husk were studied in the present work. Molecular distillation was used to separate the crude bio-oil into three fractions viz. light fraction, middle fraction and heavy fraction. Their chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The thermal behavior, including evaporation and decomposition, was investigated using thermogravimetric

Xiujuan GUO; Shurong WANG; Qi WANG; Zuogang GUO; Zhongyang LUO

2011-01-01

419

Insecticidal properties of Thymus persicus essential oil against Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) are considered to be the major insect pests in storage. Essential oils from aromatic plants are recognized as proper\\u000a alternatives to fumigants. Thymus persicus (Ronniger ex Rech. f.) is one of these plants that have medicinal properties and is indigenous to Iran. The essential oil\\u000a was obtained from

Akram Taghizadeh Saroukolai; Saeid Moharramipour; Mohammad Hadi Meshkatalsadat

2010-01-01

420

Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections. PMID:22888805

2012-01-01

421

Analysis of antioxidant activities in vegetable oils and fat soluble vitamins and biofactors by the PAO-SO method.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidences indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathophysiology of aging process. Antioxidants are believed to play an important role in the defense system to counteract ROS in the body. While excess hydrophilic antioxidants can be excreted easily in urine, lipophilic antioxidants can penetrate into blood lipoproteins and cell membranes, and may maintain long and high bioavailability. These lipophilic antioxidants are thus expected to contribute greatly to the prevention of age-related diseases. Oils extracted from plant seeds are known to contain various lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and carotenoids. They are known to not only decrease serum low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) level, but also prevent oxidation of LDL. In addition to vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and carotenoids, other lipophilic antioxidants such as gamma-oryzanol and sesaminol (from sesamolin) are in rice bran and sesame, respectively. They are sometimes called "vitamin-like food factors" or "biofactors." Although there are several methods for measuring the total antioxidant activities for various plant extracts, most of these methods are designed for hydrophilic antioxidants, and not for lipophilic antioxidants present in various plant seed oils. In this report, we present an assay method for the total potency of antioxidants that are soluble in oil (PAO-SO) utilizing bathocuproine (BC) as a chromogen. BC-based antioxidant activity assay shows good linearity (r(2) = 0.9986), good reproducibility (CV < 10%), and good recovery (86-91%) when dl-alpha-tocopherol, for example, is added to sesame oil. Total antioxidant activity of rape-seed oil, olive oil, and sesame oil could also be successfully measured. PMID:20072921

Sakai, Kazuo; Kino, Satoko; Takeuchi, Masao; Ochi, Tairin; Da Cruz, Giuseppe; Tomita, Isao

2010-01-01

422

Fish oil thermosetting polymers: synthesis, structure, properties and their relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cationic copolymerization of native or conjugated fish oil (FO or CFO) with divinylbenzene (DVB), norbornadiene (NBD) or dicyclopentadiene (DCP) comonomers initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3·OEt2) was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers with rationally designed structures from natural renewable resources. Polymers ranging from rubbers to hard plastics have been obtained. 1H NMR, 13C NMR,

F Li; D. W Marks; R. C Larock; J. U Otaigbe

2000-01-01

423

Composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare  

Microsoft Academic Search

GC-MS analysis of essential oil obtained from the seed of Foeniculum vulgare showed the presence of 31 components containing 95.2% of the total amount and the major component was trans-anethole (70.1%). The analysis of ethanolic and methanolic seed extracts showed the presence of nine components including linoleic acid (56%), palmitic acid (5.6%) and oleic acid (5.2%). The antimicrobial activity of

Muhammad Gulfraz; Sajid Mehmood; Nasir Minhas; Nyla Jabeen; Rehana Kausar; Kokab Jabeen; Gulshan Arshad

424

On the measurement of microwave vegetation properties: some guidelines for a protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of algorithm development for the multiangle interferometric synthetic L-band radiometer on the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity sensor (SMOS) and for possible synergistic approaches with higher frequency microwave radiometers such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (C-band), an inventory has been made of polarization, angular, and frequency dependencies of vegetation optical depth and single-scattering albedo. Both parameters form

Adriaan A. Van de Griend; Jean-Pierre Wigneron

2004-01-01

425

Evaluation of vegetative cover on reclaimed land by color infrared videography relative to soil properties  

E-print Network

as to style and content by: (Chairman) L, k. ~ J gp, Q~~ L. R. Hossner (Member) R. C. Maggio (Member) E. C. A. Rung (Head of Department) August 1988 ABSTRACT Evaluation of Vegetative Cover on Reclaimed Land by Color Infrared Videography Relative... formation which is Eocene in age. These sandy, silty clay and clayey sediments were derived from an ancient coastal river system representing both fresh and marine water environments (Hall Southwest Water Consultants, Inc. , 1982). A soil survey...

Pfordresher, Anne Augusta

2012-06-07

426

Evolution of the optical properties of seawater influenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence excitation–emission matrix (EEM) technique coupled with parallel factor (PARAFAC) modeling and measurements of bulk organic carbon and other optical properties were used to characterize the oil components released from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and to examine the chemical evolution and transformation of oil in the water column. Seawater samples were collected from

Zhengzhen Zhou; Laodong Guo

2012-01-01

427

75 FR 61624 - Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty Rates for Stripper Well and Heavy Oil Properties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...economically marginal oil wells in production...greatest ultimate recovery of oil, gas, and other minerals...successfully operated under the terms provided therein (30...for two categories of oil-producing properties...national product with 1991 as the base year,...

2010-10-06

428

Correlation of selected rock and fluid properties with residual oil saturation obtained by laboratory waterfloods  

E-print Network

CORRELATION OF SELECTED ROCK AND FLUID PROPERTIES NITH RESIDUAL OIL SATURATION OBTAINED BY LABORATORY HATERFLOODS A Thesis By JASON NONROE EDGLNGTON Subxi t ted to the Graduate College of the Texas AKi University in partial fulfi' leant... of the recuire~aents for the deSree of iEASTER OF SCIENCE January 1)68 NaJor Su'bract. Petroleum?' EnpineerinS CORRELATION OF SELECTED ROCK AND FLUID PROPERTIES WITH RESIDUAL OIL SATURATION OBTAINED BY LABORATORY ?ATERFLOODS A Thesis JASON MONROE...

Edgington, Jason Monroe

2012-06-07

429

Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale-waste lands.  

PubMed

Both soil nematodes and microorganisms have been shown to be sensitive bioindicators of soil recovery in metal-contaminated habitats; however, the underlying processes are poorly understood. We investigated the relationship among soil microbial community composition, nematode community structure and soil aluminum (Al) content in different vegetated aluminum-rich ecosystems. Our results demonstrated that there were greater soil bacterial, fungal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal biomass in Syzygium cumini plantation, greater abundance of soil nematodes in Acacia auriculiformis plantation, and greater abundance of soil predatory and herbivorous nematodes in Schima wallichii plantation. The concentration of water-soluble Al was normally greater in vegetated than non-vegetated soil. The residual Al and total Al concentrations showed a significant decrease after planting S. cumini plantation onto the shale dump. Acid extractable, reducible and oxidisable Al concentrations were greater in S. wallichii plantation. Stepwise linear regression analysis suggests the concentrations of water-soluble Al and total Al content explain the most variance associated with nematode assembly; whereas, the abundance of early-successional nematode taxa was explained mostly by soil moisture, soil organic C and total N rather than the concentrations of different forms of Al. In contrast, no significant main effects of either Al or soil physico-chemical characteristics on soil microbial biomass were observed. Our study suggests that vegetation was the primary driver on soil nematodes and microorganisms and it also could regulate the sensitivity of bio-indicator role mainly through the alteration of soil Al and physico-chemical characteristics, and S. cumini is effective for amending the Al contaminated soils. PMID:22732942

Shao, Yuanhu; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Sun, Yuxin; Chen, Dima; Wu, Jianping; Zhou, Lixia; Xia, Hanping; Neher, Deborah A; Fu, Shenglei

2012-11-01

430

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were

Philip Mercurio; Kathryn A. Burns; Andrew Negri

2004-01-01

431

Physical properties of tung seed: An industrial oil yielding crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on physical properties of seeds have significant importance for machinery and process equipments design. This study was conducted to investigate some physical properties of tung seed (Aleutites Fordii) namely, dimensions, 100 unit mass, arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, aspect ratio, surface area, bulk density, true density, porosity, terminal velocity and coefficient of friction. The applications of these

V. Sharma; L. Das; R. C. Pradhan; S. N. Naik; N. Bhatnagar; R. S. Kureel

2011-01-01

432

Prediction of Biodiesel Properties from Fatty Acid Composition using Linear Regression and ANN Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is currently the most widely accepted alternative fuel for diesel engines due to its various advantages. The fatty acid composition of vegetable oils affects the fuel properties of biodiesel, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, cloud point, pour point, iodine value and saponification value. In the present work, biodiesel was prepared from different vegetable oils and its physical

Madhu Agarwal; Kailash Singh; S. P. Chaurasia

2010-01-01

433

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

434

Determination of physicochemical properties of diacylglycerol oil at high pressure by means of ultrasonic methods.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper is to address, using ultrasonic methods, the impact of temperature and pressure on the physicochemical properties of liquids on the example of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil. The paper presents measurements of sound velocity, density and volume of DAG oil sample in the pressure range from atmospheric pressure up to 0.6GPa and at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50°C. Sound speed measurements were performed in an ultrasonic setup with a DAG oil sample located in the high-pressure chamber. An ultrasonic method that uses cross-correlation method to determine the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic pulses through the liquid was employed to measure the sound velocity in DAG oil. This method is fast and reliable tool for measuring sound velocity. The DAG oil density at high pressure was determined from the monitoring of sample volume change. The adiabatic compressibility and isothermal compressibility have been calculated on the basis of experimental data. Discontinuities in isotherms of the sound speed versus pressure point to the existence of phase transitions in DAG oil. The ultrasonic method presented in this study can be applied to investigate the physicochemical parameters of other liquids not only edible oils. PMID:25017363

Kie?czy?ski, Piotr; Szalewski, Marek; Balcerzak, Andrzej; Wieja, Krzysztof; Malanowski, Aleksander; Ko?ciesza, Rafa?; Tarakowski, Rafa?; Rostocki, Aleksander J; Siegoczy?ski, Ryszard M

2014-12-01

435

The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.  

PubMed

The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, ?-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties. PMID:24262547

Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

2014-04-01

436

Mixed Alkyl Esters from Cottonseed Oil: Improved Biodiesel Properties and Blends with Diesel Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification of refined cottonseed oil (CSO) was carried out with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, and various mixtures\\u000a of these alcohols to produce biodiesel. In the mixed alcohol transesterifications, formation of methyl esters was favored\\u000a over ethyl and butyl esters. The influence of ester head group on fuel properties was determined. Specifically, cold flow\\u000a properties, lubricity, and energy content improved in the

Hem Joshi; Bryan R. Moser; Terry Walker

437

Wound-healing properties of nut oil from Pouteria lucuma  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Cell migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and extracellular matrix remodeling are key events in wound healing. Natural products, including fatty acids (FAs), can accelerate wound healing by modulating the aforementioned events. Aims This study aims to evaluate the effect of lucuma (Pouteria lucuma O Kezte) nut oil (LNO) on fibroblasts migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and fungal growth, and wound healing. Methods GC–MS analysis of FAs methyl esters (FAMES) was used for chemical characterization of LNO. In vitro studies were carried out with LNO investigating the induction of cell migration, cytoskeleton remodeling of human fibroblasts, inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide production in macrophages, and antibacterial and antifungal effects. Two in vivo studies were carried out to study LNO’s effect on angiogenesis and wound healing: (i) tail fin regeneration in transgenic zebrafish larvae expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in vascular endothelial cells was used to study vessel sprouting and wound healing and (ii) the closure of wounds was evaluated in CD-1 mice after topical applications of LNO-containing formulations. Results Lucuma nut oil is a mixture of FAs, 99.7% of which were characterized. Major components of LNO (w/w) are linoleic acid (38.9%), oleic acid (27.9%), palmitic acid (18.6%), stearic acid (8.9%), and ? linolenic acid (2.9%). In vitro studies showed that LNO significantly promoted migration and vinculin expression in human fibroblasts. LNO decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide production and did not display significant antibacterial or antifungal effects. LNO induced tail fin regeneration in transgenic zebrafish larvae 48 h after tail fin amputation and significantly accelerated cutaneous wound closure in CD-1 mice. Conclusions Natural FAs from P. lucuma nut promote skin regeneration and, thus, may have applications in medicine and skin care. PMID:20883291

Rojo, Leonel E; Villano, Caren M; Joseph, Gili; Schmidt, Barbara; Shulaev, Vladimir; Shuman, Joel L; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

2014-01-01

438

Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibrium diagrams, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

Gabitto, Jorge; Barufet, Maria

2002-11-20

439

Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibria, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

2001-12-18

440

LEACHING AND HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF RETORTED OIL SHALE INCLUDING EFFECTS FROM CODISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of methods and data on the leaching and hydraulic properties of solid residues from oil shale processing. A column test, the Equilibrated Soluble Mass (ESM) test, was developed as an aid to characterizing the chemical quality of the first leac...

441

Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.  

PubMed

Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite. PMID:23528998

Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle