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Sample records for vegetable oil properties

  1. FRICTION PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are renewable and environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based oils in lubrication and other important application areas. Vegetable oils comprise a mixture of compounds that fall into two broad chemical categories: triesters (or triglycerides) and monoesters. Most vegeta...

  2. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.; Heakin, A.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Schwab, A.W.

    1982-11-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions.

  3. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

  4. Lubricant Properties of Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent a small section of the market today, but recent legislation in both the United States and Europe could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character unlike petroleum oil based products. In order to understand th...

  5. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  6. Tribological Properties of Sulfide-Modified Vegetable Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous reports we described the synthesis of sulfide modified vegetable oil (SMVO) by radical addition of butanethiol to the double bonds of corn and canola oils. Corn and canola oils differ in the degree of the unsaturation. The modification resulted in eliminating the double bonds, introduc...

  7. [FREQUENTLY USED VEGETABLE OILS IN SOUTH AMERICA: FEATURES AND PROPERTIES].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo; Sanhueza Catalán, Julio

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the consumption of vegetable oils has increased in our society, being an important part of the diet worldwide. South America is a major producer of an important variety of vegetable oils. The composition of vegetable oils is not standard as it varies greatly in the amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and particularly in the amounts of omega-6 and omega-3, which are associated with the source either plant species, seed, plant or fruit, providing different nutritional benefits. The purpose of this article is to review and update the data and evidence about the consumption of oils produced and commercialized in South America, such as soybean oil, corn, palm, sunflower, canola and olive oils, and also to determine health effects from studies related with the topic. PMID:26262691

  8. NEW USES OF VEGETABLE OILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are used in various industrial applications such as emulsifiers, lubricants, plasticizers, surfactants, plastics, solvents and resins. Research and development approaches take advantage of the natural properties of these oils. Vegetable oils have superb environmental credentials, su...

  9. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  10. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  11. Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity. PMID:24144052

  12. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  13. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  14. Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluents to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are being sought. Twenty four vegetable oils were screened using glycerol tris (2-ethylhexanoate) [GTEH] as a diluent to improve the low temperature properties. Epoxidized soybean oil (E...

  15. Novel polymeric materials from vegetable oils and vinyl monomers: preparation, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    Veggie-based products: Vegetable-oil-based polymeric materials, prepared by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations, range from soft rubbers to ductile or rigid plastics, and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. They display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and may find promising applications as alternatives to petroleum-based polymers.Vegetable oils are considered to be among the most promising renewable raw materials for polymers, because of their ready availability, inherent biodegradability, and their many versatile applications. Research on and development of vegetable oil based polymeric materials, including thermosetting resins, biocomposites, and nanocomposites, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This Minireview focuses on the latest developments in the preparation, properties, and applications of vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations. The novel vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained range from soft rubbery materials to ductile or rigid plastics and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. These vegetable oil based polymeric materials display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and should find useful applications as alternatives to their petroleum-based counterparts. PMID:19180601

  16. Vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

  17. Mechanical properties of photo-polymerized sustainable epoxy materials from vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew; Yang, Zheqin; Crivello, James

    2014-03-01

    Our research program aimed at advancing our ability to tailor the photocationic polymerization and physical properties of sustainable epoxy materials derived from crosslinked epoxidized vegetable oils using onium salt photoinitiators. Specifically, we developed solventless, photopolymerizable epoxy monomer and oligomer systems derived from sustainable biorenewable sources as alternatives to existing highly polluting and energy-intensive thermal curing of epoxy resin chemistry. Two sustainable epoxy network polymer systems will be presented to investigate how the network formation can be controlled. The first system is a series of epoxidized vegetable oils that offer various degrees of crosslinking densities, and the second system represents the blends of epoxidized vegetable oils with epoxidized terpenes to tailor their photocuring and mechanical properties for the potential usage in ``green'' coating, adhesive, 3D printing, and composite applications. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  18. Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.

    PubMed

    Prevc, Tjaša; Cigić, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

    2013-11-27

    Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law. PMID:24191675

  19. Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( α) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both α and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.

  20. Properties and performance testing with blends of biomass alcohols, vegetable oils and diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Vinyard, S.; Hawkins, L.; Renoll, E.S.; Bunt, R.C.; Goodling, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of results from three related efforts to determine the technical feasibility of using alcohols and vegetable oils blended with Diesel oil as fuel for unmodified compression ignition engines. Several different vegetable oils were successfully tested in a single cylinder engine. Sunflower oil was blended from 50% to 80% by volume with Diesel fuel and used in a multicylinder engine. Thermophysical property data were gathered on pure and blended fuels and are reported. A spray parameter, epsilon, was found which would predict the necessary change in valve opening pressure to render the atomization of the new fuel similar to that for which the injection system was designed. Engine testing showed that fuel consumption was substantially reduced upon setting the injectors at the new VOP. 2 figures, 1 table.

  1. Tribological properties of vegetable oils modified by reaction with Butanethiol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, canola and castor-lauric estolide oils were chemically modified by direct reaction of butanethiol with the double bonds on the hydrocarbon chains. The effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index (VI), pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), oxidation stability (OS), rotating pres...

  2. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers. PMID:26761810

  3. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers. PMID:26761810

  4. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties.

    PubMed

    Dmytryshyn, S L; Dalai, A K; Chaudhari, S T; Mishra, H K; Reaney, M J

    2004-03-01

    Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud points, pour points and gross heat of combustion, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties, and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85% of the ester was from unsaturated acids. Substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared to their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in their mono or di glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended at 1 vol% treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola methyl ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the analyses performed, it was determined that the ester with the most potential for being an additive or a substitute for diesel fuel is the canola methyl ester, whose physical and chemical characteristics are similar to diesel fuel. PMID:14643986

  6. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  7. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  8. Vegetable oil based grease formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns have brought forward vegetable oils as alternatives to more expensive synthetic lubricant base oils and less environmental friendly petroleum base stocks, in moderate operating conditions. Vegetable oils are becoming an obvious choice for potential replacement of petroleum ba...

  9. VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BASE STOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Vegetable Oil-Based Base Stocks" is a study of a series of vegetable oils selected for potential use as base fluids for industrial and automotive applications. Their thermal-oxidative stabilities and low-temperature properties are evaluated. Effects of diluents and additives on selected vegetable...

  10. Heat Transfer Properties of a Series of Oxidized and Unoxidized Vegetable Oils in Comparison with Petroleum Oil-Based Quenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Ester Carvalho; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Sarmiento, G. Sánchez; Agaliotis, Eliana; Carrara, Juan C.; Schicchi, Diego S.; Totten, George E.

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable oils, especially soybean oil, exhibit substantially poorer thermal-oxidative stability than commercially available petroleum oil quenchant formulations. Therefore, to achieve any commercially interesting performance, vegetable oils must be stabilized by the addition of antioxidant inhibitors. This work describes the ability of two commercially available antioxidants, Irganox L 57 and Irganox L 109, to stabilize soybean oil against thermal-oxidative degradation. In addition, the effect of antioxidant stabilization on quenching performance was evaluated by determining the profile of heat transfer coefficient variation throughout the quenching process at different times after being subjected to an accelerated thermal-oxidation aging test. The results of this work are discussed here.

  11. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  12. Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

    The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

  13. Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluent to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are under development. Increased utilization of glycerol would help biodiesel producers to become more competitive and viable. Lubricants based on vegetable oils generally suffer from po...

  14. Film-forming properties of vegetable oil-synthetic oil blends in elastohydrodynamic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for more environmentally-friendly and renewable lubricants that can be met by formulating lubricating blends with bio-based components. One of the most important properties of lubricants is its ability to form films between moving parts, such as those encountered in gears and bearin...

  15. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  16. Elastohydrodynamic properties of heat-bodied oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-bodied oils are biobased oils obtained via thermal treatment of vegetable oils under inert (N2) atmospheric conditions. Most heat-bodied oils are based on soybean oil, but other vegetable oils and blends of vegetable oils can also be utilized to obtain specific properties. Depending on the temp...

  17. VEGETABLE OILS IN METALWORKING LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils provide a number of advantages for application in metalworking lubricants. These include ease of biodegradablity impact, and free of any adverse health effect on operators. In addition, the fact that vegetable oils are obtained from renewable agricultural sources, makes them preferr...

  18. Effect of Shear Rate and Temperature on Rheological Properties of Vegetable Based Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nik, W. B. Wan; Giap, S. G. Eng; Senin, H. B.; Bulat, K. H. Ku

    2007-05-01

    Petroleum oil has been the raw material for over 90% of hydraulic fluid. Limitations of this base material in the aspect of non-renewable, not environmental friendly and its sustainability in the future have prompted a search for more stable and environmentally friendly alternatives. This article presents rheological aspects of hydraulic fluid derived from bio-based material when used as hydraulic fluid. Palm oil with F10 additive is found to be most shearstable. Various empirical models such as modified Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley and Arrhenius-type-relationship are used to evaluate the rheological data. The influence of shear rate and temperature on the variation of viscosity is clearly observed but temperature has more significant influence. Interpretations of rheological models indicate that crop oils belong to pseudo-plastic category. The effect of oil degradation in the aspect of physical property on viscosity is also evaluated.

  19. USE OF VEGETABLE OILS IN FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils have a series of advantages which can be beneficial for a number of lubricant applications. They are readily biodegradable and essentially nontoxic, properties that are not exhibited by lubricants based on mineral oils. Volatility is very low due to high molecular weight triglycerid...

  20. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  1. Vegetable oil fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, D.

    1981-04-01

    In this article, the future role of renewable agricultural resources in providing fuel is discussed. it was only during this century that U.S. farmers began to use petroleum as a fuel for tractors as opposed to forage crop as fuel for work animals. Now farmers may again turn to crops as fuel for agricultural production - the possible use of sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil as substitutes for diesel fuel is discussed.

  2. Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

    2015-01-21

    In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated. PMID:25541678

  3. New Sulfide Derivatives of Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils containing sulfide group were synthesized using a UV initiated thiol-ene reaction. The reaction involved addition of butyl thiol to the double bonds of the vegetable oil without the presence of a solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, type of vegetable oil, thiol to veg...

  4. Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

  5. Systems study of vegetable oils and animal fats for use as substitute and emergency diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; McClure, T.A.; Kresovich, S.; Otis, J.L.; Wagner, C.K.; Trayser, D.A.; Applebaum, H.R.

    1981-10-01

    The principal findings are described as follows: leading issues, economic considerations, production potential for oilseed crops, oilseed processing, energy balance, diesel fuel and engine considerations, vegetable oil emissions, and research and development needs. The following appendices are included: profiles of selected vegetable oils and animal fats, economic information on vegetable oils and animal fats, the production potential for selected oilseed crops, the economics of vegetable oil recovery, and diesel fuel specifications and vegetable oil properties.

  6. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E.; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E.

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  7. Properties of margarine and spread from wax-vegetable oil organogel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food products such as margarine and spread need solid fats for a desired texture and typically these solid fats contain high contents of saturated fats and trans-fats. In this research organogels formed by plant wax and soybean oil were utilized to produce trans-fat free margarine and spread. Base...

  8. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environmental-friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low-temperature stability. This paper presents a series of structural modifications of veget...

  9. Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

  10. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel prepared from vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogel is a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. The unique properties of hydrogels make this kind of materials have many utilization potentials, such as drug delivery, gene therapy, wound care products, breast implant materials, cosmetic products, and tissue engineering. Hydroge...

  11. Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

    2014-04-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials. PMID:24012607

  12. Recent advances in vegetable oil-based polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Daniel P; Xia, Ying; Larock, Richard C

    2011-06-20

    Polyurethanes are among the most versatile polymers because of the wide range of monomers, particularly diols or polyols, that can be utilized in their synthesis. This Review focuses on the most recent advances made in the production of polyurethane materials from vegetable oils. Over the past several years, increasing attention has been given to the use of vegetable oils as feedstocks for polymeric materials, because they tend to be very inexpensive and available in large quantities. Using various procedures, a very broad range of polyols or diols and in some cases, poly- or diisocyanates, can be obtained from vegetable oils. The wide range of vegetable oil-based monomers leads to a wide variety of polyurethane materials, from flexible foams to ductile and rigid plastics. The thermal and mechanical properties of these vegetable oil-based polyurethanes are often comparable to or even better than those prepared from petroleum and are suitable for applications in various industries. PMID:21598405

  13. Novel silicon-containing polyurethanes from vegetable oils as renewable resources. Synthesis and properties.

    PubMed

    Lligadas, Gerard; Ronda, Juan C; Galià, Marina; Cádiz, Virginia

    2006-08-01

    Hydrosilylation of methyl 10-undecenoate (UDM) with phenyl tris(dimethylsiloxy)silane (PTDS) followed by a reduction of carboxylate groups was used to obtain a silicon-containing polyol with terminal primary hydroxyl groups (PSi194). Biobased silicon-containing polyurethanes, with a silicon content between 1.7% and 9.0%, were prepared from epoxidized methyl oleate-based polyether polyol (P184), PSi194, and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI). The thermal, mechanical, and flame-retardant properties of these materials were examined. The most notable change resulting from the incorporation of PSi194 is the appearance of melting endotherms of variable enthalpy and position and a downward shift in the T(g). The incorporation of silicon does not change the thermal stability but enhances the stability of the char under air atmosphere. Polyurethanes with higher silicon content no longer burn in ambient air without complementary oxygen, which suggests that these biobased materials are very interesting for applications that require fire resistance. PMID:16903691

  14. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  15. Vegetable oil-based new materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are renewable natural materials and can serve as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum-based products. For several years, we have explored the chemistry of vegetable oils and carried out derivatization reactions in order to generate new compounds and polymers. In this p...

  16. Modification of Vegetable Oils for Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current talk deals with a partial review of research for developing improved lubricants from vegetable oils through modifications of the chemical structure. The typical vegetable oil is a mixture of triesters of glycerin with linear fatty acids, most of them with one or more double bonds. The ...

  17. VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The uncertainty in petroleum supply along with pollution and environmental health concerns is making a way for vegetable oils to be used as fuel and lubricants. The vegetable oils have some advantages like naturally renewable resource, environmentally safe, good lubricity and viscosity-temperature ...

  18. Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ingley, H A

    1980-02-01

    It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils selected. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybean, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination. (MHR)

  19. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  20. Epoxy thermoset networks derived from vegetable oils and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVOs), such as epoxidized soybean oil and linseed oils were prepared by the partial oxidation of the unsaturated double bonds in vegetable oils and used as monomers for preparing epoxy thermoset materials based on the cationic polymerization. These EVOs have been used to prepare epoxy thermosets of different network densities by cationic polymerization using onium salt catalyst. The crosslinked epoxy thermosets provide an ideal platform to study the structure-property-relationships of networked polymers. In particular, rheological studies on the epoxidized vegetable oil thermosets have been performed to measure the molecular weights between crosslinks (Mx) in the epoxy thermosets and to ultimately elucidate the role of functionality of epoxy groups in EVO on the mechanical and thermophysical properties of the epoxy thermoset materials. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  1. Lubricant base stock potential of chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Sevim Z; Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu

    2008-10-01

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, or total loss applications. This threat to the environment can be avoided by either preventing undesirable losses, reclaiming and recycling mineral oil lubricants, or using environmentally friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environment friendly lubricants. Lubricants based on vegetable oils display excellent tribological properties, high viscosity indices, and flash points. To compete with mineral-oil-based lubricants, some of their inherent disadvantages, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature stability, must be corrected. One way to address these problems is chemical modification of vegetable oils at the sites of unsaturation. After a one-step chemical modification, the chemically modified soybean oil derivatives were studied for thermo-oxidative stability using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and a thin-film micro-oxidation test, low-temperature fluid properties using pour-point measurements, and friction-wear properties using four-ball and ball-on-disk configurations. The lubricants formulated with chemically modified soybean oil derivatives exhibit superior low-temperature flow properties, improved thermo-oxidative stability, and better friction and wear properties. The chemically modified soybean oil derivatives having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation have potential in the formulation of industrial lubricants. PMID:18783238

  2. Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

  3. Influence of Commercial Saturated Monoglyceride, Mono-/Diglycerides Mixtures, Vegetable Oil, Stirring Speed, and Temperature on the Physical Properties of Organogels

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Amador, Omar Gerardo; Huang, Qingrong; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria Elizabeth; Moreno-Jimenez, Martha Rocio; Gonzalez-Laredo, Ruben F.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelator, vegetable oil, stirring speed, and temperature on the physical properties of obtained organogels. They were prepared under varying independent conditions and applying a fractional experimental design. From there a rheological characterization was developed. The physical characterization also included polarized light microscopy and calorimetric analysis. Once these data were obtained, X-Ray diffraction was applied to selected samples and a microstructure lattice was confirmed. Commonly, the only conditions that affect crystallization have been analyzed (temperature, solvent, gelator, and cooling rate). We found that stirring speed is the most important parameter in the organogel preparation. PMID:26904637

  4. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  5. Development of mineral oil free offset printing ink using vegetable oil esters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananda Sankar; Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Mondal, Rabindranath; Ghosh, Santinath

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of this century, fats and oils are the major raw material source for paints, coating and lubricating applications. These markets are completely taken over by petroleum based stocks due to their abundance and versatility. However, recent public awareness to use environmentally acceptable products that minimize pollution, are compatible to human health and readily biodegradable created opportunities for vegetable oils for application in paints and printing inks. The formulation of vegetable oil methyl ester based 'green' offset printing ink that reduces the volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been discussed in the present study. Methyl esters of rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil have been prepared and their physical properties have been measured and compared with standard petroleum feed stock. Varnishes were prepared with these esters and their properties are also compared with that of the petroleum based products. Rheological properties of the inks are also evaluated and compared with standard printing ink using petroleum based solvent. In general performance of the ester-based printing inks are comparable with that of the mineral oil based product. On the basis of tack stability and gloss, ester based inks are much superior than the mineral oil based products. In conclusion, a new non-volatile diluent for printing ink has been developed. The diluent is made from common vegetable oils like rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil, a renewable source that is environmental friendly. Vegetable oil esters offer a cost effective solution for mineral oil based printing ink to meet VOCs regulations. PMID:17992002

  6. Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

  7. Thermal diffusivity measurements in vegetable oils with thermal lens technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Mansanares, A. M.; da Silva, E. C.; Moreira, S. G. C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a thermal lensing experimental setup the thermal properties of several vegetable oils were obtained. The samples were oils from Amazonian species and olive (the popular identifications are piqui, copaiba, buriti, and babaçu). The two lasers mismatched mode experimental configuration was used, with a He-Ne laser as the probe and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The time resolved spectra were measured using an automatic system, and fitting the aberrant theoretical model to the data, the characteristic relaxation time were obtained, and knowing this value, the thermal property of each oil was solved.

  8. Research on Biodiesel and Vegetable Oil Fuels - Then and Now

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vegetable oil was used as diesel fuel for the first time in 1900 and the first biodiesel dates from the 1930's. Significant insights into fuel properties were already gained in those times. This article briefly discusses such results and relates the author's own recent work on biodiesel fuel pro...

  9. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  10. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  11. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  12. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  13. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  14. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  15. VEGETABLE OIL BASED BIODEGRADABLE LUBRICANTS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, mineral oil had a significant cost advantage over vegetable oils and so petroleum has been the base oil of economic choice. A recent rise in oil prices along with the low vegetable oil prices has narrowed the price difference to close to $0.05/lb, and there is now more interest in v...

  16. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The mater...

  17. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  18. Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Alejandrina; Rustoy, Eduardo; Baldessari, Alicia; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    This work reports laboratory results obtained from the production of polyols with branched ether and ester compounds from epoxidized vegetable oils pertaining to annual, temperate climate crops (soybean, sunflower and high-oleic sunflower oils), focusing on their possible use as components of lubricant base stocks. To this end, two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring were studied. The first caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid (exclusively in a single organic phase) and the second using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol and ethanol, in acid media. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions: low synthesis temperature and short reaction times and with conversions above 99%. Spectroscopic (NMR), thermal (DSC) and rheological techniques were used to characterize the oils, their epoxides and polyols, to assess the impact of the nature of the vegetable oil and the chemical modifications introduced, including long-term storage conditions. Several correlations were employed to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oils with temperature, and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained. PMID:19716696

  19. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

  20. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance...

  1. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance...

  2. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  3. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance...

  4. Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Truex, Michael J.; Kananizadeh, Negin; Li, Yusong; Lea, Alan S.; Yan, Xiulan

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a xanthan gum solution, a shear-thinning fluid, as an alternative oil delivery mechanism. The stability, oil droplet size and distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and oil distribution in porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of the oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil and xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into porous medium. This study provided evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan are a potential substrate to support in situ anaerobic bioremediation with favorable injection properties.

  5. Thermal properties for vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

    2011-12-01

    Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

  6. Dielectric properties of marsh vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetkova, Tatiana D.; Suslyaev, Valentin I.; Shcheglova, Anna S.

    2015-10-01

    The present work is devoted to the measurement of the dielectric properties of mosses and lichens in the frequency range from 500 MHz to 18 GHz. Subjects of this research were three species of march vegetation - moss (Dicranum polysetum Michx), groundcedar (Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) Holub) and lichen (Cladonia stellaris). Samples of vegetation were collected in Tomsk region, Western Siberia, Russia. Complex dielectric permittivity was measured in coaxial section by Agilent Technologies vector network analyzer E8363B. Green samples was measured for some moisture contents from 100% to 3-5 % during a natural drying. The measurements were performed at room temperature, which remained within 21 ÷ 23 ° C. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant for the three species of marsh vegetation differ markedly. Different parts of the complex permittivity dependency on moisture were fitted by line for all frequency points. Two break point were observed corresponding to the transition of water in the vegetation in various phase states. The complex permittivity spectra of water in the vegetation allow determining the most likely corresponding dielectric model of water in the vegetation by the method of hypothesis testing. It is the Debye's model. Parameters of Debye's model were obtained by numerical methods for all of three states of water. This enables to calculate the dielectric constant of water at any frequency range from 500 MHz to 18 GHz and to find the parameters of the dielectric model of the vegetation.

  7. Catalytic applications in the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sivasamy, Arumugam; Cheah, Kien Yoo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Kemausuor, Francis; Zinoviev, Sergey; Miertus, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns have recently attracted significant attention to scientific and technological issues concerning the conversion of biomass into fuels. First-generation biodiesel, obtained from vegetable oils and animal fats by transesterification, relies on commercial technology and rich scientific background, though continuous progress in this field offers opportunities for improvement. This review focuses on new catalytic systems for the transesterification of oils to the corresponding ethyl/methyl esters of fatty acids. It also addresses some innovative/emerging technologies for the production of biodiesel, such as the catalytic hydrocracking of vegetable oils to hydrocarbons. The special role of the catalyst as a key to efficient technology is outlined, together with the other important factors that affect the yield and quality of the product, including feedstock-related properties and various system conditions. PMID:19360707

  8. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

  9. New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

  10. Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

  11. Base catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. Biofuel is becoming increasingly important as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. The use of non-edible vegetable oils for biofuel production is significant because of the increasing demand for edible oils as food. With the recent debate of food versus fuel, some non-edible oils like soapnut and Jatropha (Jatropha curcus. L) are being investigated as possible sources of biofuel. Recent research has focused on the application of heterogeneous catalysis. This review considers catalytic transesterification and the possibility of heterogeneous base catalysts. The process of transesterification, and the effect of parameters, mechanism and kinetics are reviewed. Although chromatography (GC and HPLC) are the analytical methods most often used for biofuel characterization, other techniques and some improvements to analytical methods are discussed. PMID:22574385

  12. Transesterification of vegetable oils for fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kusy, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A continuous procedure was developed and tested, in a stepwise manner, for the transesterification of soybean and sunflower oils using ethanol. Good yields of ethyl soyate and sunflowerate were achieved, and the products made agreed very closely with those made by a direct esterification of the acids of vegetable oils and ethanol. The viscosity of the esters was considerably less than that of the oils and more nearly like that of diesel fuel. Because the ethyl soyate and sunflowerate have many components which solidify at relatively high temperatures, cloud points of the fuels are about 8 to 12/sup 0/C, which indicates they would not be readily usable at or below that temperature without dilution with No. 1 or No. 2 diesel fuel and/or the addition of additives. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  13. Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

    2002-12-01

    The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps). PMID:12523544

  14. Surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process: N2 sorption and XPS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova, D.; Krsti?, J.; Spasov, L.; Simeonov, D.; Lon?arevi?, D.; Stefanov, Pl.; Jovanovi?, D.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the type of the silica gel pore structure on the surface properties of the Ni-silica gel catalyst precursors for the vegetable oil hydrogenation process has been examined applying N2 sorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The nickel catalyst precursors with identical composition (SiO2/Ni = 1.0) has been synthesized by precipitation of Ni(NO3)2 · 6H2O solution with Na2CO3 solution on the three types of silica gel with different pore structures. It is shown that the usage of the silica gel supports with different texture as source of SiO2 causes different location of Ni-species into the support pores and on the external surface area. The XPS data confirm the formation of surface species with different strength of interaction and different dispersion. These surface characteristics of the precursors will predetermine the formation of the active nickel metallic phase as well as the mass transfer of the reactants and products to and from the catalytic sites.

  15. Thioether-functionalized vegetable oils: Metal-absorbing biobased ligands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been synthesized and used to effectively remove a heavy metal ion from an aqueous solution. The use of thioether-functionalized corn oil (TF-corn oil) and thioether-functionalized canola oil (TF-canola oil) were both effective in the extraction of Ag+ ...

  16. One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum-base oils in lubricants applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of...

  17. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip H. Henna

    2008-08-18

    Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if there are two degrees of unsaturation, then at carbon 15 (C15), if there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the synthesis and characterization of biobased thermosets prepared by the free radical polymerization of conjugated linseed oil with commercially available monomers. The second chapter covers the synthesis and characterization of a chemically modified castor oil and its copolymerization with cyclooctene via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). The third chapter looks at the ROMP of a commercially available vegetable oil containing an unsaturated bicyclic moiety with dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and characterization of the resulting materials. The fourth chapter discusses the reinforcement of a ROMP resin using short glass fibers to make composite materials.

  18. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  19. Thiol-ene Reaction of Vegetable Oils with Butanethiol: Sulfide Derivatized Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils and their FA, renewable raw materials, are firmly established components in many industrial products, and their use continues to be of interest to many researchers. The development of new approaches to functionalize fatty ester compounds and to derive novel oleochemicals with unique ...

  20. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels.

  1. Green processing for commercial production of feruloylated vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Covalent incorporation of ferulic acid into vegetable oils produces a desirable product for cosmetic applications. Current practice involves the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil, followed by a molecular distillation step to remove unconsumed ethyl ferulate and the...

  2. Delivery of vegetable oil suspensions in a shear thinning fluid for enhanced bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Truex, M J; Kananizadeh, N; Li, Y; Lea, A S; Yan, X

    2015-01-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising type of substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and maintain good longevity. Because they are non-aqueous phase liquids, distribution of vegetable oils in the subsurface has typically been approached by creating emulsified oil solutions for injection into the aquifer. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a shear-thinning xanthan gum solution as an alternative approach for delivery of vegetable oil to the subsurface. The stability, oil droplet size distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and the oil distribution in a porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil with xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into a porous medium. This study provides evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan gum solutions have favorable injection properties and are a potential substrate for in situ anaerobic bioremediation. PMID:25720668

  3. Delivery of vegetable oil suspensions in a shear thinning fluid for enhanced bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Truex, M. J.; Kananizadeh, N.; Li, Y.; Lea, A. S.; Yan, X.

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising type of substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and maintain good longevity. Because they are non-aqueous phase liquids, distribution of vegetable oils in the subsurface has typically been approached by creating emulsified oil solutions for injection into the aquifer. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a shear-thinning xanthan gum solution as an alternative approach for delivery of vegetable oil to the subsurface. The stability, oil droplet size distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and the oil distribution in a porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil with xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into a porous medium. This study provides evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan gum solutions have favorable injection properties and are a potential substrate for in situ anaerobic bioremediation.

  4. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  5. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaofu; Napier, Johnathan A; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2011-04-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. PMID:21144729

  6. The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibition of human colon cancer growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salerno, J W; Smith, D E

    1991-01-01

    Sesame contains large quantities of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid, in the form triglycerides. The antineoplastic properties of many PUFAs such as linoleic acid and their metabolites are known. We tested the hypothesis that natural vegetable oils, such as sesame oil and its component linoleic acid, when added to human colon adenocarcinoma cells growing in tissue culture would inhibit their growth and that normal colon cells would not be similarly affected. Three human colon cancer cell lines and one normal human colon cell line were exposed to the following: (1) pure linoleic acid; (2) lipase-digested sesame oil; (3) undigested sesame oil; (4) five additional common vegetable oils; (5) mineral oil. Linoleic acid inhibited the in vitro growth of all three malignant human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. The normal colon cell line showed dramatically less inhibition of growth. Lipase-digested sesame oil (LDSO) and undigested sesame oil (UDSO) produced greater inhibition of growth of all three malignant colon cell lines than of the normal colon cells. Five other common vegetable oils containing various amounts of PUFAs such as corn, soybean, safflower, olive and coconut oils, all in their lipase-digested form, were found to dramatically inhibit the growth of the HT-29 malignant human colon cell line. Undigested olive and safflower oils also inhibited the HT-29 cells although not as markedly as the lipase-digested oils. Mineral oil did not inhibit the growth of HT-29 cells. Both lauric and palmitic acid, which are saturated fatty acids found in abundance in coconut oil inhibits the HT-29 cells more strongly than linoleic acid, while oleic acid did not inhibit. We conclude that many vegetable oils including sesame contain in vitro antineoplastic properties and that this finding warrants further investigation both in vitro and in vivo to assess their possible chemotherapeutic potential. PMID:2018355

  7. Friction and wear behavior of thioether hydroxy vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work describes the tribochemical evaluation of vegetable oil based antiwear additive obtained through chemical modification. The sulfur was incorporated using a chemical reaction of epoxidized vegetable oil and common thiols, resulting in formation of a hydroxy thioether derivative of vegetabl...

  8. CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANT BASESTOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of vegetable oil based lubricants will reduce petroleum imports and have a favorable environmental impact. The vegetable oils are derived from renewable sources, biodegradable, non-toxic, possess high flash points and have low volatility. Inadequate oxidative stability and poor low-temperature...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of novel derivatives from vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our interest in utilizing vegetable oils as cheap and bio-renewable raw materials, we have found derivatization reactions, particularly with nitrogen-containing reagents, to be good pathways to achieve a range of new vegetable oil-based products. In this presentation an overview is given...

  10. Crystallization of fully hydrogenated and interesterified fat and vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Muramoto, Hisako; Ueno, Satoru; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2011-01-01

    Owing to public concern regarding the adverse health effects of trans fatty acids, an alternative technology to trans fats has recently become an important issue. The interesterification of fully hydrogenated vegetable oil and liquid oil blends is one of the most versatile options. This paper reports a physical analysis of high-melting fat (HMF) prepared through the interesterification of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and regular soybean oil, and through fractionation. The thermal and structural properties of the HMF blended with salad oil at a mass ratio of 4:1 (called the HMF blend, hereafter), which was prepared as a model fat blend for margarine, were assessed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarized light microscopy (POM). To observe the polymorphic transformation, all samples were aged after crystallization, and the development of granular crystals during the aging process was observed. We found that the granular crystals are made of SOS/SSO, POS/PSO, and (SOS+POS)/(SSO+PSO) molecular compounds, all of which easily transform into ? form with a double-chain-length structure. PMID:21606616

  11. Biodegradable Photo-Crosslinked Thin Polymer Networks Based on Vegetable Oil Hydroxyfatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel crosslinked thin polymer networks based on vegetable oil hydroxyfatty acids (HFAs) were prepared by UV photopolymerization and their mechanical properties were evaluated. Two raw materials, castor oil and 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) were used as sources of mono- and di-HFAs, r...

  12. Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

    2012-12-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

  13. Performance of vegetable oils as a heat treat quenchant

    SciTech Connect

    Honary, L.A.T.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to establish as a reference the base line performance of several vegetable oils as a quench medium. Furthermore, the project was funded by the Iowa Soybean Promotion Board to investigate the potential use of soybean oil as a quench medium. Several commodity and genetically modified seed oils (high oleic) were first tested in a {open_quotes}quenchalizer{close_quotes}. Also, 300 pieces of SAE 1524 steel bars were heat treated and quenched in a chemically modified (partially hydrogenated) soybean oil and in a control (paraffin) oil. Results included changes in the oil in terms of viscosity and cooling rate and in the steel in terms of hardness. Vegetable oils can perform as quench media, but they would require treatment to improve oxidative stability among others. Advantages of vegetable-based quenchants include: renewability, environmental-friendliness and potential benefits in terms of human safety and higher flash point.

  14. Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

  15. Elastohydrodynamic study of vegetable oil-polyalphaolefin blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two polyalphaolefins (PAOs), of higher and lower viscosity than vegetable oils, were used to make binary blends of varying compositions with soybean and canola oils. The pure oils and the blends were used in viscosity and film thickness investigations. The effect of composition and temperature on ...

  16. Synthesis and applications of vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents on cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Zheng, Junzhi; Sun, Gang

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents were prepared by chemical modifications of different vegetable oils - soybean and linseed oils through several reactions, including saponification, acidification, acylation of vegetable oil and trans-esterification with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol. The resulted fluorocarbon agents were then copolymerized with styrene. The structures of the vegetable oil based agents were characterized by FT-IR and NMR. By evaluating water contact angle and time of water disappearance on cotton fabrics, as well as whiteness and breaking strength of cotton fabrics that were treated by these agents, optimum fabric finishing conditions were explored. The cotton fabrics finished with the vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon agents showed excellent water repellency, while other properties of the cotton fabrics declined to certain level. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent displayed the highest water repellency among all modified oils. All the treated fabrics exhibited good durability of water repellency. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent demonstrated the best durability among all repellent agents. PMID:24750623

  17. Study of the co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil for hydrocarbon oil production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigang; Wang, Chao; Lu, Weipeng; Yang, Zhengyu

    2010-06-01

    Hydrocarbon oil was obtained by co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil in the work. Results showed the weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil exerted a great effect on the quality of obtained hydrocarbon oil. The optimum weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil was 4.4:1, when alkanes with the content of 50.43% were detected in obtained hydrocarbon oil, with lower oxygen content of 2.52%, which resulted in higher calorific value-up to 43.36 MJ kg(-1). At the same time, removal rate of carbonyl group of vegetable oil in the mixture reached at least 75.11%. The overall efficiency of the deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and the decarboxylation of vegetable oil were both enhanced by adding vegetable oil into biomass. Compared with the oils obtained from vegetable oil and biomass, respectively, distribution of hydrocarbon oil obtained from the mixture was much more similar to that of diesel oil. PMID:20153171

  18. Novel biobased photo-crosslinked polymer networks prepared from vegetable oil and 2,5-furan diacrylate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel biobased crosslinked polymer networks were prepared from vegetable oil with 2,5-furan diacrylate as a difunctional stiffener through UV photopolymerization, and the mechanical properties of the resulting films were evaluated. The vegetable oil raw materials used were acrylated epoxidized soybe...

  19. Microemulsions from vegetable oil and lower alcohol with octanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

    1984-08-08

    The energy crisis of recent years has stimulated research in the field of alternate and hybrid fuels. One area of particular interest relates to fuels for commercial and agricultural vehicles that are powered by diesel engines. The prospect of farmers becoming self-sufficient in regard to their energy needs has led to investigations of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes. Deterrents to this concept are the generally inferior fuel properties of crude vegetable oils as compared to those of diesel oil. Of particular concern is the inherently high viscosity which causes poor atomization in direct-injected diesel engines. This results in fouling of the injectors and cylinders as well as a buildup of noncombusted fuel in the crankcase causing a thickening of the lubricating oil. This invention relates to a blended vegetable oil fuel which circumvents many of these problems.

  20. Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farines, Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

  1. [Three-Iindex-Value Method for Rapid Screening Unqualified Vegetable Oil].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-xuan; Hong, Gui-shui; Fang, Run; Cai, Xian-chun; Huang, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, by measuring the A3 005 (representing unsaturation), A985 (representing conjugated fatty acids), A960 + A985 (representing trans-fatty acid ) of southern common vegetable oils (peanut oil, corn oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, tea seed oil and olive oil), "waste oil" and overdue vegetable oils, the pass-setting-range of these three index values for the vegetable oils was obtained. On this basis, a method for rapid screening unqualified vegetable oil (expired, adding low-cost oil, adding "waste oil") was established. The method effectively improved the monitoring efficiency of vegetable oil. With this method of screening a number of suspected substandard oils were proved unqualified by determination of fatty acid composition and 11, 12, 13, 17 fatty acid content. Through the combination of several detection methods, the causes for disqualification of vegetable oils can be further inferred. PMID:26197591

  2. Characteristics of low-fat meat emulsion systems with pork fat replaced by vegetable oils and rice bran fiber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2009-06-01

    The effects of vegetable oils prepared from olive, corn, soybean, canola, or grape seed, and rice bran fiber on the composition and rheological properties of meat batters were studied. Pork fat at 30% in the control was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils at 10% in addition to reducing the pork fat to 10%. The chemical composition, cooking characteristics, texture properties, and viscosity of low-fat meat batters were analyzed. The moisture, protein, ash content, uncooked and cooked pH values, b(∗)-value, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and viscosity of meat batters with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber were all higher than the control. In addition, batters supplemented with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber had lower cooking loss and better emulsion stability. Low-fat meat batters with reduced pork fat content (10%) and 10% vegetable oil plus rice bran fiber had improved characteristics relative to the regular fat control. PMID:20416740

  3. Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil-vegetable oil mixtures for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Bezergianni, Stella; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Vasalos, Iacovos A

    2009-06-01

    Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil (VGO)--vegetable oil mixtures is a prominent process for the production of biofuels. In this work both pre-hydrotreated and non-hydrotreated VGO are assessed whether they are suitable fossil components in a VGO-vegetable oil mixture as feed-stocks to a hydrocracking process. This assessment indicates the necessity of a VGO pre-hydrotreated step prior to hydrocracking the VGO-vegetable oil mixture. Moreover, the comparison of two different mixing ratios suggests that higher vegetable oil content favors hydrocracking product yields and qualities. Three commercial catalysts of different activity are utilized in order to identify a range of products that can be produced via a hydrocracking route. Finally, the effect of temperature on hydrocracking VGO-vegetable oil mixtures is studied in terms of conversion and selectivity to diesel, jet/kerosene and naphtha. PMID:19231171

  4. Potential of vegetable oils as a domestic heating fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Begin, E.; Palmer, C.E.

    1982-06-01

    The dependence on imported oil for domestic heating has led to the examination of other potential fuel substitutes. One potential fuel is some form of vegetable oil, which could be a yearly-renewable fuel. In Western Canada, canola has become a major oilseed crop; in Eastern Canada, sunflowers increasingly are becoming a source for a similar oil; for this reason, the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory (CCRL) has chosen these oils for experimentation. Trials have been conducted in a conventional warm air oil furnace, fitted with a flame retention head burner. Performance has been measured with pure vegetable oils as well as a series of blends with conventional No. 2 oil. The effects of increased fuel pressure and fuel preheating are established. Emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates are given for both steady state and cyclic operation. Canola oil cannot be fired in cyclic operation above 50:50 blends with No. 2 oil. At any level above a 10% blend, canola is difficult to burn, even with significant increased pressure and temperature. Sunflower oil is much easier to burn and can be fired as a pure fuel, but with high emissions of incomplete combustion products. An optimum blend of 50:50 sunflower in No. 2 oil yields emissions and performance similar to No. 2 oil. This blend offers potential as a means of reducing demand of imported crude oil for domestic heating systems.

  5. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  6. Emulsification of chemically modified vegetable oils for lubricant use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several previously uncharacterized emulsions were studied in this paper, including those made form epoxidized vegetable oils. A series of different surfactants were studied in order to obtain emulsions suitable for lubrication applications. The epoxidized oils were found to form stable emulsions i...

  7. TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT WATERS FROM VEGETABLE OIL REFINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed investigation was done to characterize the wastewater from a vegetable oil refinery. A calcium chloride chemical treatment was installed which resulted in a net decrease in waste load of 71 percent from .0135 lb BOD5 per pound oil processed to .0039 lb BOD5 per pound o...

  8. Free Radical Addition of Butanethiol to Vegetable Oil Double Bonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characteriz...

  9. REMOVING SELENATE FROM WATER WITH A VEGETABLE OIL BASED BIOBARRIER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil based permeable reactive biobarriers (PRBs) were evaluated as a method for remediating groundwater containing unacceptable amounts of selenate. PRBs formed by packing laboratory columns with sand coated with soybean oil were used. In an initial 24-week study a simulated groundwater c...

  10. A New Approach to Prepare Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, were prepared by cationic polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) was selected as catalyst. The resulting polymers have molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nu...

  11. RESEARCH ON BIODIESEL AND VEGETABLE OIL FUELS - THEN AND NOW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of vegetable oils as diesel fuel is nearly as old as the diesel engine itself. The first biodiesel, in form of ethyl esters of palm oil, was described in the late 1930s. Significant technical insights on these fuels were gained up to the late 1940s. Beginning in the late 1970s, these "alt...

  12. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR USE AS INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a lot of interest in using vegetable oils (particularly soybean oil) as renewable raw materials for new industrial products including lubricants. This emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing co...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of sulfide modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterize...

  14. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-02-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels. Performance and durability at low engine ratings are essentially the same as expected for operation on diesel fuel. However, at high engine ratings piston ring and cylinder linear wear are greater than expected for operation on diesel fuel. A laboratory program was successfully completed which resulted in a combustion system that would allow the higher rated prechamber engines to achieve normal life when burning 100% soybean oil. Fluid model tests utilizing high speed photography, single-cylinder engine tests utilizing fuel tracers, and a 200-hour multicylinder durability test were included. Extended endurance tests and experience with other vegetable oils are still required.

  15. Modelling consumer intakes of vegetable oils and fats

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, David; Gosling, John Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats make up a significant part of the energy intake in typical European diets. However, their use as ingredients in a diverse range of different foods means that their consumption is often hidden, especially when oils and fats are used for cooking. As a result, there are no reliable estimates of the consumption of different vegetable oils and fats in the diet of European consumers for use in, for example, nutritional assessments or chemical risk assessments. We have developed an innovative model to estimate the consumption of vegetable oils and fats by European Union consumers using the European Union consumption databases and elements of probabilistic modelling. A key feature of the approach is the assessment of uncertainty in the modelling assumptions that can be used to build user confidence and to guide future development. PMID:26160467

  16. Floral and vegetative cues in oil-secreting and non-oil-secreting Lysimachia species

    PubMed Central

    Schäffler, I.; Balao, F.; Dötterl, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Unrelated plants pollinated by the same group or guild of animals typically evolve similar floral cues due to pollinator-mediated selection. Related plant species, however, may possess similar cues either as a result of pollinator-mediated selection or as a result of sharing a common ancestor that possessed the same cues or traits. In this study, visual and olfactory floral cues in Lysimachia species exhibiting different pollination strategies were analysed and compared, and the importance of pollinators and phylogeny on the evolution of these floral cues was determined. For comparison, cues of vegetative material were examined where pollinator selection would not be expected. Methods Floral and vegetative scents and colours in floral oil- and non-floral oil-secreting Lysimachia species were studied by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses, respectively, compared between oil- and non-oil-secreting species, and analysed by phylogenetically controlled methods. Key Results Vegetative and floral scent was species specific, and variability in floral but not vegetative scent was lower in oil compared with non-oil species. Overall, oil species did not differ in their floral or vegetative scent from non-oil species. However, a correlation was found between oil secretion and six floral scent constituents specific to oil species, whereas the presence of four other floral compounds can be explained by phylogeny. Four of the five analysed oil species had bee-green flowers and the pattern of occurrence of this colour correlated with oil secretion. Non-oil species had different floral colours. The colour of leaves was similar among all species studied. Conclusions Evidence was found for correlated evolution between secretion of floral oils and floral but not vegetative visual and olfactory cues. The cues correlating with oil secretion were probably selected by Macropis bees, the specialized pollinators of oil-secreting Lysimachia species, and may have evolved in order to attract these bees. PMID:22634256

  17. Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

  18. Analysis of vegetable oil production in central Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Claar, P.W. II.; Colvin, T.S.; Marley, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as an emergency substitute for diesel fuel for farming applications. This paper is an economic and energy analysis for vegetable oil production on a 180-ha (450-acre) central Iowa farm. The following data are presented as the basis for the economic analysis: (1) the yields of four varieties of sunflowers at three planting dates; (2) the measured sunflower harvesting losses-preharvest, header, threshing, and separating and cleaning for each variety and date of planting; and (3) the quantities of sunflower oil yielded from the pressing operation. Based on the data presented, it was concluded that even though a farmer could satisfatorily produce sunflowers, the on-farm processed sunflower oil does not compete with current diesel fuel prices. On-farm processed soybean oil has more potential as a substitute fuel from an economic standpoint in central Iowa. 8 tables.

  19. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. PMID:26190602

  20. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

  1. Utilization of vegetable oils as frying oil and for trans-fat free food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of vegetable oils as frying oil is typically limited by the lack of oxidative stability. Lignans, natural antioxidants, were evaluated for soybean oil under frying conditions and many of them were found to be effective. Sesamol showed the most promising results in the frying test and s...

  2. Rapid screening of biologically modified vegetable oils for fuel performance

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, D.P.; Goodrum, J.W.; Campbell, C.C.

    1999-08-01

    A process for the rapid screening of alternative diesel fuel performance was applied to analogues of genetically modified vegetable oils and a mixture with no. 2 diesel fuel. The oils examined contained 60 to 70% of low molecular weight, short-chain, saturated triglycerides compared to the 1 to 2% found in traditional vegetable oils. These oils have relatively low viscosity that is predicted to enhance their performance as alternative diesel fuels. The screening process utilizes an engine torque test sequence that accelerates the tendency of diesel fuels to coke fuel injectors, a key indicator of fuel performance. The results of the tests were evaluated using a computer vision system for the rapid quantification of injector coking. The results of the screen were compared to those using no. 2 diesel fuel as a baseline. Coke deposition from the modified vegetable oil analogues was not found to be significantly different than deposition from diesel fuel. Suggestions are made to guide further modification of vegetable oil biosynthesis for the production of alternative diesel fuel.

  3. Cooling rate effects on the microstructure, solid content, and rheological properties of organogels of amides derived from stearic and (R)-12-hydroxystearic acid in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F; Morales-Rueda, Juan; Torres-Martínez, Adriana; Charó-Alonso, Miriam A; Mallia, V Ajay; Weiss, Richard G

    2013-06-25

    Using safflower oil as the liquid phase, we investigated the organogelation properties of stearic acid (SA), (R)-12-hydroxystearic acid (HSA), and different primary and secondary amides synthesized from SA and HSA. The objective was to establish the relationship between the gelator's molecular structure, solid content, and gels' microstructure that determines the rheological properties of organogels developed at two cooling rates, 1 and 20 °C/min. The results showed that the presence of a 12-OH group in the gelator molecule makes its crystallization kinetics cooling rate dependent and modifies its crystallization behavior. Thus, SA crystallizes as large platelets, while HSA crystallizes as fibers forming gels with higher solid content, particularly at 20 °C/min. The addition to HSA of a primary or a secondary amide bonded with an alkyl group resulted in gelator molecules that crystallized as fibrillar spherulites at both cooling rates. Independent of the cooling rate, gels of HSA and its amide derivatives showed thixotropic behavior. The rheological properties of the amide's organogels depend on a balance between hydrogen-bonding sites and the alkyl chain length bonded to the amide group. However, it might also be associated with the effect that the gelators' molecular weight has on crystal growth and its consequence on fiber interpenetration among vicinal spherulites. These results were compared with those obtained with candelilla wax (CW), a well-known edible gelling additive used by the food industry. CW organogels had higher elasticity than HSA gels but lower than the gels formed by amides. Additionally, CW gels showed similar or even higher thixotropic behavior than HSA and the amide's gels. These remarkable rheological properties resulted from the microstructural organization of CW organogels. We concluded that microstructure has a more important role determining the organogels' rheology than the solid content. The fitting models developed to describe the organogels rheological behavior support this argument. PMID:23697446

  4. Effects of Oil-Contaminated Sediments on Submerged Vegetation: An Experimental Assessment of Ruppia maritima.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charles W; Hollis, Lauris O; Turner, R Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Oil spills threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the degradation of coastal flora and the ecosystem services these plants provide. While lab and field investigations have quantified the response of numerous species of emergent vegetation to oil, the effects on submerged vegetation remain uncertain. Here, we discuss the implications of oil exposure for Ruppia maritima, one of the most common species of submerged vegetation found in the region affected by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We grew R. maritima in a range of manipulated sediment oil concentrations: 0, 0.26, 0.53, and 1.05 mL oil /L tank volume, and tracked changes in growth (wet weight and shoot density/length), reproductive activity (inflorescence and seed production), root characteristics (mass, length, diameter, and area), and uprooting force of plants. While no statistical differences were detected in growth, plants exhibited significant changes to reproductive output, root morphology, and uprooting force. We found significant reductions in inflorescences and fruiting bodies at higher oil concentrations. In addition, the roots growing in the high oil were shorter and wider. Plants in medium and high oil required less force to uproot. A second experiment was performed to separate the effects of root morphology and oiled sediment properties and indicated that there were also changes to sediment cohesion that contributed to a reduction in uprooting forces in medium and high oil. Given the importance of sexual reproduction for these plants, oil contamination may have substantial population-level effects. Moreover, areas containing buried oil may be more susceptible to high energy storm events due to the reduction in uprooting force of foundation species such as R. maritima. PMID:26430971

  5. Effects of Oil-Contaminated Sediments on Submerged Vegetation: An Experimental Assessment of Ruppia maritima

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Charles W.; Hollis, Lauris O.; Turner, R. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Oil spills threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the degradation of coastal flora and the ecosystem services these plants provide. While lab and field investigations have quantified the response of numerous species of emergent vegetation to oil, the effects on submerged vegetation remain uncertain. Here, we discuss the implications of oil exposure for Ruppia maritima, one of the most common species of submerged vegetation found in the region affected by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We grew R. maritima in a range of manipulated sediment oil concentrations: 0, 0.26, 0.53, and 1.05 mL oil /L tank volume, and tracked changes in growth (wet weight and shoot density/length), reproductive activity (inflorescence and seed production), root characteristics (mass, length, diameter, and area), and uprooting force of plants. While no statistical differences were detected in growth, plants exhibited significant changes to reproductive output, root morphology, and uprooting force. We found significant reductions in inflorescences and fruiting bodies at higher oil concentrations. In addition, the roots growing in the high oil were shorter and wider. Plants in medium and high oil required less force to uproot. A second experiment was performed to separate the effects of root morphology and oiled sediment properties and indicated that there were also changes to sediment cohesion that contributed to a reduction in uprooting forces in medium and high oil. Given the importance of sexual reproduction for these plants, oil contamination may have substantial population-level effects. Moreover, areas containing buried oil may be more susceptible to high energy storm events due to the reduction in uprooting force of foundation species such as R. maritima. PMID:26430971

  6. Vegetable oil as an agricultural fuel for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D.L.; Thomas, V.M.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.; Bettis, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Five million barrels of liquid fuel are needed annually for the continued production of agricultural commoditiese on the 12.7 million cultivated acres in the Pacific Northwest Region. Because most energy intensive operations in the agricultural industry are done by diesel engines, the technology to produce a substitute for diesel must be developed and vegetable oil appears to hold great promise as an alternative fuel. The vegetable oils potential as an alternative liquid fuel in the region is described. Rapidly rising fuel costs could make this new fuel not only economically feasible but necessary to ensure the region's continued agriculture production.

  7. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale. PMID:25838070

  8. Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

  9. Lipids for Health and Beauty: Enzymatic Modification of Vegetable Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulic acid has been extensively investigated for its potential as a cosmetic and pharmaceutical agent. We have prepared lipophilic derivatives of ferulic acid by a simple, enzyme-catalyzed transesterification reaction of ethyl ferulate with vegetable oils. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B...

  10. Margarine from organogel of healthy vegetable oils and plant wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogelator that can turn vegetable oil into a gel with a small quantity has drawn a lot of interests as a potential alternative for saturated fats and trans fat-containing solid fats in margarine and spread products. However, it is not practically used in those products yet. This research shows...

  11. Production and applications of ferulate-modified vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse health and ecological effects of the commonly used sunscreen active ingredients. A sunscreen active ingredient can be derived from two natural plant components, ferulic acid and vegetable oil triglycerides. Transesterification of ferulic acid e...

  12. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY...

  13. Cationic Polymerization of Vegetable Oils in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers derived from vegetable oils have been prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium by cationic polymerization. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H2)2 are used as initiator. Influences of polymerization temperature, initiator amount, and carbon dioxide pressure on the m...

  14. Mist generation from metalworking fluids formulated using vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Peter C; Kim, Seung Won; Bhattacharya, Mrinal

    2005-06-01

    Metalworking fluid emulsion formulations produced from vegetable oils may be less toxic and may reduce disposal costs when compared with fluids formulated with petroleum-based oils. Experiments were performed on experimental emulsions made with unmodified and modified soybean oils to measure rates of mist production by impaction, centrifugal force and evaporation/recondensation mechanisms. Results were compared with measurements made using a commercial metalworking fluid emulsion formulated using vegetable oil and another made from mineral oil. The results indicated that most of the experimental fluids produced about the same amount of mist as the commercial fluids by impaction and more mist than the petroleum-based fluid by centrifugal force. However, an air-oxidized modified soy oil produced less mist by impaction than the petroleum-based fluid and about the same by centrifugal force. The experimental fluids produced between 30 and 90% less mist than the commercial fluids by evaporation/recondensation. The air-oxidized soybean oil was the most promising candidate among the experimental fluids for further testing in more realistic machining conditions. PMID:15640308

  15. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  16. Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

  17. Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

  18. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AND ITS METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES IN OIL-ENRICHED FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of oil, but the presence of ferric hydroxide relieves the inhibition. The effect of ferric hydroxide is not due to physical or chemical interactions with long-chain fatt...

  19. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  20. Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil to hydrocarbon oil: Influence of temperature, residence time, and catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigang; Yang, Fan; Wu, Libin; Wang, Chao; Yang, Zhengyu

    2011-01-01

    Co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil was investigated under the conditions of different temperatures (350-500 °C) and residence time as well as catalyst using HZSM-5. Results suggested low temperature was favorable for the formation of diesel-like products, while high temperature caused more gasoline-like products. By the addition of HZSM-5, at 450 °C alkanes content of the obtained oil with low oxygen content of 2.28%, reached a maximum of 56.27%, resulting in the highest HHV of 43.8 MJ kg(-1). High temperature favored cracking activity of HZSM-5 which reduced the char formation and contributed to the removal of carbonyl. Compared to temperature, the effect of residence time on products was relatively less; experiments indicated the optimum residence time was 15 min at which obtained oil with the highest yield of 17.78%, had better properties. Preliminary analysis of mechanisms showed biomass provided hydrogen for vegetable oil, facilitating hydrogenation of CC bonds of vegetable oil. PMID:20843685

  1. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  2. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  3. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  4. Influence of vegetable oils fatty-acid composition on biodiesel optimization.

    PubMed

    Pinzi, S; Mata-Granados, J M; Lopez-Gimenez, F J; Luque de Castro, M D; Dorado, M P

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines produced through transesterification of oleaginous feedstocks. To analyze the influence of the fatty-acid composition on biodiesel optimization, transesterification of several vegetable oils has been studied. Reactions were carried out in flasks filled with vegetable oils, heated to the reaction temperature and stirred at 1100 rpm. The reactions started when the methanol and potassium hydroxide solutions were added to the flasks. Concentration of catalyst, amount of methanol, reaction temperature and time were optimized using a factorial design and a surface response design. Also, a kinetics study was carried out to optimize the reaction time. Results showed that reaction parameters optimal values depend on the oil chemical and physical properties. It can be concluded from this field trial that the effect of both catalyst concentration and reaction time over the transesterification yield is greatly influenced by the saturation degree and fatty-acid chain length. PMID:20826083

  5. Impact of vegetable oils on ear-feeding insect damage in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impact of applying vegetable oils onto sweet corn silks on corn earworm damage and sap beetle population at harvest was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six vegetable oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean oils. Two commercial plant-based oils (Sun-spray' and...

  6. Fundamental Studies on Development of Environment Friendly Vegetable Oil Filled Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinke, Masami; Miyazato, Kenji; Tada, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Nakagami, Yoshitake; Shimizu, Rumiko; Kosaka, Masaaki; Wada, Motoo

    In order to develop the environment-friendly transformer, the rapeseed ester oil which is vegetable oil was selected as the new insulating oil and various characteristics of rapeseed ester oil were investigated experimentally. These results showed that the basic characteristics of rapeseed ester oil surpasses as compared with mineral oil.

  7. Multigeneration studies on red palm oil, and on hydrogenated vegetable oil containing mahua oil.

    PubMed

    Manorama, R; Chinnasamy, N; Rukmini, C

    1993-05-01

    Edible grade red palm oil (RPO; Elaeis guineensis) is being considered for use an an edible oil in India since it is one of the richest natural sources of carotenoids. Earlier chemical and nutritional evaluations in rats indicated no adverse effects. Multigeneration breeding studies in rats have now been carried out. Mahua oil (MO; Madhuca latifolia) is used in hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) for human consumption. Earlier studies on MO indicated adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Hence, a study was undertaken to evaluate the safety of HVO containing 30% MO (MO-HVO) in terms of reproductive performance. A three-generation study was conducted with groups of 12 male and 12 female Wistar/NIN/inbred albino rats fed, at 10% in the diet (20% protein), groundnut oil (controls), RPO, refined, bleached and deodorized palmolein (RBDPO), or MO-HVO. Reproductive parameters including percentage conception, birth weight, litter size, weanling weight, sex ratio at birth and weaning, preweaning mortality and number of days from introduction to mating, were recorded. Behavioural and reflexological tests were conducted on preweaning animals. Adult animals were subjected to weekly observation. No significant differences were found between the RPO and MO-HVO groups in comparison with groups fed GNO or RBDPO in any of the above parameters. However, certain indications of reduced fertility were observed in the MO-HVO group in the first and third generations. The results indicate that RPO did not produce any adverse effect on reproductive performance or other toxicological parameters studied, and therefore it can be considered as safe for consumption. On the other hand, HVO containing 30% MO needs further testing with a larger number of animals. PMID:8505022

  8. Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Micah; Messman, Jamie M; Rawlins, James

    2011-01-01

    Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

  9. Oil, gas property appraisal complex

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Rule 468, California's state rule on oil and gas property tax assessment has been a source of controversy for some time. The controversy has involved the fairness of the rule and its constitutionality in relation to other state laws. The rule states that the right to remove petroleum and natural gas from the earth is a taxable real property interest, and increases in recoverable amounts of such minerals caused by changed physical or economic conditions constitute additions. Guidelines, sample problems, and general information on the rule are provided in order to explain how tax assessments are calculated. The examples concern 1979 oil property appraisal with a 1979 base year and no new reserves, and 1979 oil property appraisal with new reserves. Typical appraisal questions and answers are included.

  10. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  11. Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

    2013-02-01

    Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m?³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

  12. Cuphea oil as a potential biodiesel feedstock to improve fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the approaches to improving the fuel properties of biodiesel, a fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or other triacylglycerol-containing materials, is to use a feedstock with an inherently different fatty acid profile than most common feedstocks such as commodity vegetable oils. Cup...

  13. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  14. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. PMID:25151441

  15. Thermal Properties of oil sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

  16. Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Knothe, G.; Bagby, M.O.

    1996-10-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as {open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Several problems, however, remain, which include economics, combustion, some emissions, lube oil contamination, and low-temperature properties. An overview on all the mentioned aspects of biodiesel will be presented.

  17. Reduction of epoxidized vegetable oils: a novel method to prepare bio-based polyols for polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Ding, Rui; Kessler, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    A novel method, epoxidation/reduction of vegetable oils, is developed to prepare bio-based polyols for the manufacture of polyurethanes (PUs). These polyols are synthesized from castor oil (CO), epoxidized soybean oil, and epoxidized linseed oil and their molecular structures are characterized. They are used to prepare a variety of PUs, and their thermomechanical properties are compared to those of PU made with petroleum-based polyol (P-450). It is shown that PUs made with polyols from soybean and linseed oil exhibit higher glass transition temperatures, tensile strength, and Young's modulus and PU made with polyol from CO exhibits higher elongation at break and toughness than PU made with P-450. However, PU made with P-450 displays better thermal resistance because of tri-ester structure and terminal functional groups. The method provides a versatile way to prepare bio-polyols from vegetable oils, and it is expected to partially or completely replace petroleum-based polyols in PUs manufacture. PMID:24668919

  18. Physicochemical properties and crystallisation behaviour of bakery shortening produced from stearin fraction of palm-based diacyglycerol blended with various vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Latip, Razam Ab; Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-12-15

    The stearin fraction of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAGS) was produced from dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG). Bakery shortening blends were produced by mixing PDAGS with either palm mid fraction, PMF (PDAGS/PMF), palm olein, POL(PDAGS/POL) or sunflower oil, SFO (PDAGS/SFO) at PDAGS molar fraction of XPDAGS=0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%. The physicochemical results obtained indicated that C16:0 and C18:1 were the dominant fatty acids for PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/POL, while C18:1 and C18:2 were dominant in the PDAGS/SFO mixtures. SMP and SFC of the PDAGS were reduced with the addition of PMF, POL and SFO. Binary mixtures of PDAGS/PMF had better structural compatibility and full miscibility with each other. PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/SFO crystallised in ?'+? polymorphs in the presence of 0.4-0.5% PDAGS while PDAGS/POL resulted in ? polymorphs crystal. The results gave indication that PDAGS: PMF at 50%:50% and 60%:40% (w/w) were the most suitable fat blend to be used as bakery shortening. PMID:23993569

  19. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance. PMID:20596546

  20. Heavy metal absorbing Thioether-functionalized ligands derived from vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulfur-functionalized vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been shown to effectively remove Ag+ from aqueous solution. Interestingly, the absorption capacity differs depending upon the choice of which vegetable oil precursor is functionalized. In this study, we will provide data for oils ...

  1. Application of metal-organic frameworks for purification of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vlasova, E A; Yakimov, S A; Naidenko, E V; Kudrik, E V; Makarov, S V

    2016-01-01

    Reported here is the synthesis of aluminum-, zinc- and titanium-containing metal-organic frameworks based on terephthalic acid and an investigation on the possibility of using these compounds as adsorbents for the purification of unrefined vegetable oils. It is found that aluminum-, zinc- and titanium-containing metal-organic frameworks improve the physicochemical properties of unrefined vegetable oils (more pleasant taste and odor) due to the binding of free fatty acids and peroxide compounds. It is established that the synthesized materials are more effective in these respects as compared with traditional adsorbents. An adsorption mechanism of free fatty acids and peroxides is proposed. Last but not least, the used MOF can be easily recycled at least five times, via solvent washing. PMID:26212947

  2. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  3. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-01

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 ?g/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention. PMID:24016262

  4. Reactivity of vegetable oil macromonomers in thiol-ene, cationic, and emulsion polymerizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Micah Stephen

    Vegetable oils were, and continue, to be a mainstay in unsaturated polyester ("alkyd") technology. Our endeavor is to use vegetable oil-based polymers in environmentally-friendly coatings. The role of vegetable oil cis-unsaturation has not been fully explored in polymers. To that end, vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) in three different systems were investigated to determine the involvement of cis-unsaturation in chain transfer, auto-oxidation, and copolymerization reactions. VOMMs were incorporated into UV curable thiol-ene coatings, UV cationic coatings, and acrylic solution copolymers and fundamental studies were conducted to determine how and to what extent cis-unsaturation contributes to film performance properties. In thiol-ene UV curable coatings, cis-unsaturation was involved in the initial curing reaction and to lesser degrees, in postcure crosslinking. Its behavior was determined to be dependent on the ene component. Thiol-ene photopolymerization yielded homogeneous networks but formulations containing VOMMs exhibited greater heterogeneity due to non-uniformity in the VOMM chemical structures, and the concurrent reactions occurring during thiol-ene photopolymerization and "dark cure". Partially epoxidized soybean oil was synthesized to contain varying levels of residual cis-unsaturation. Cationic photopolymerization of partially epoxidized soybean oil yielded lightly crosslinked films, but the influence of free radical decomposition byproducts has not been fully investigated. The low involvement of the cis-unsaturation in photopolymerization was attributed to its low reactivity and/or radical combination with antioxidants and molecular oxygen dissolved in the films. When used in emulsion polymerization, VOMMs lower the minimum filming temperature during coalescence and increase the Tg after application via auto-oxidation. Free radical polymerization of VOMMs is accompanied by chain transfer reactions between polymer radicals and VOMMs that reduces molecular weight and the auto-oxidation potential of the film. Retardation in polymerization rate correlated directly with increase in amount of unsaturation and conjugated unsaturation. Vegetable oils containing significant amounts of fatty acids with bisallylic hydrogen atoms were found to be more reactive towards chain transfer than fatty acids containing monoallylic hydrogen atoms. Model polymers were produced by functionalizing methacrylic copolymers through a mild reaction pathway in the absence of radicals. Copolymers with large quantities of bisallylic hydrogen atoms showed increased auto-oxidation reactivity as evidenced by greater consumption of cis-unsaturation and higher gel fractions.

  5. SYNTHESIS OF HYDROXY THIO-ETHER DERIVATIVES OF VEGETABLE OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased additives are desirable commodities due to their eco-friendly nature. These additives can demonstrate physical and chemical properties comparable to those of conventional mineral oil based products. Sulfur incorporated triacylglycerol can function as an antiwear/antifriction additive for ...

  6. On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şerban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

    Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

  7. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil. PMID:26041212

  8. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward ensuring global food security for high-oleic vegetable oils. PMID:22790166

  9. Lubrication properties of new crop oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oils from new crops such as lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.), and cuphea PSR-23 (Cuphea viscosissima × Cuphea lanceolata) were investigated and compared with vegetable oils from commodity crops such as castor, corn, and soybea...

  10. Controlling the frying stability of vegetable oils with tocopherols and phytosterols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated vegetable oils are usually oxidatively stable for salad oils; however, in high stability applications such as frying, these oils are not resistant to the deteriorative processes of oxidation, hydrolysis and polymerization. To solve this problem in the past, oils were hydrogenated an...

  11. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  12. Manufacturing of vegetable oils-based epoxy and composites for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongpeng

    Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T g) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower Tg, versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs.

  13. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2005-07-01

    Shrimp waste is an important source of natural carotenoid. Studies were carried out to determine the extraction yield of shrimp waste carotenoids in different vegetable oils. Highest yield was obtained by extraction using refined sunflower oil compared to groundnut oil, gingelly oil, mustard oil, soy oil, coconut oil and rice bran oil. The extraction yield of carotenoids in sunflower oil was significantly influenced by level of oil to waste (p < 0.05), time (p < 0.01) and temperature (p < 0.001) of heating waste with oil before centrifugation to separate pigmented oil. A regression equation was derived for carotenoid yield as a function of time of heating, temperature of heating and oil level to waste. The optimized conditions for extraction of shrimp waste carotenoids in sunflower oil were determined to be oil level to waste of 2, temperature of 70 degrees C and heating time of 150 min. PMID:15683912

  14. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    PubMed

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200mgkg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31Lm(-2) (333galacre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2weeks of incubation. PMID:26780134

  15. [Application of fluorescence spectra and parallel factor analysis in the classification of edible vegetable oils].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi-jun; Pan, Zhao; Zhao, Yan-peng; Liu, Hai-long; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2014-08-01

    The fluorescence spectra of 22 samples of 8 kinds of edible vegetable oils (soybean oil, maize oil, olive oil, rice oil, peanut oil, walnut oil, sunflower oil and sesame oil) were measured with FS920 fluorescence spectrometer and the fluorescence matrixs (EEMs) were analyzed with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis model. To synthesize the capabilities of material characterization and component identification, fluorescence spectra combined with PARAFAC fulfill the classification of vegetable oils. The map feature (peak position, peak value and peak number) was obtained by analyzing three dimensional spectra and con tour maps in the range of emission wavelength from 260 to 750 nm, and excitation wavelengths from 250 to 550 nm. The fluorescent substances (unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and its derivatives, chlorophyll and carotenoid) corresponding to spectrum peaks were determined. The factor-number was selected and the components (vitamin E and its derivatives, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, fatty acid oxidation products, vegetable oil oxidation products) corresponding to each factor were ascertained. The four-factor excitation and emission profiles and projection score plots of PARAFAC model were plotted. Different vegetable oils can be characterized and distinguished with the map features of fluorescence spectra and sample projection plots of PARAFAC model. The results demonstrate the capability of the combination of fluorescence spectra technology and four-factor PARAFAC model for differentiating and characterizing vegetable oils. PMID:25474950

  16. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  17. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, H.J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

  18. Current Uses of Vegetable Oil in the Surfactant, Fuel, and Lubrication Industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New developments in the surfactant, bio-diesel, and lubricant industries are discussed in a review with 46 references on the recent use of vegetable oil for non-food applications. Highlighted in the surfactant section, is the development of a glycerol and vegetable oil based surfactant which disp...

  19. New Bio-Based Materials From Vegetable Oil: Amination and Click Reactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For some time we have been interested in utilizing vegetable oils as cheap and bio-renewable raw materials. We have found derivatization reactions with nitrogen-containing reagents to be good pathways to achieve a range of new vegetable oil-based products. One of our approaches is to derivatize ep...

  20. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Background There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed. PMID:21691461

  1. Lightning Impulse Breakdown Characteristics and Electrodynamic Process of Insulating Vegetable Oil-Based Nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhao-Tao; Zou, Ping; Du, Bin; Liao, Rui-Jin

    2012-06-01

    Insulating vegetable oils are considered environment-friendly and fire-resistant substitutes for insulating mineral oils. This paper presents the lightning impulse breakdown characteristic of insulating vegetable oil and insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids. It indicates that Fe3O4 nanoparticles can increase the negative lightning impulse breakdown voltages of insulating vegetable oil by 11.8% and positive lightning impulse breakdown voltages by 37.4%. The propagation velocity of streamer is reduced by the presence of nanoparticles. The propagation velocities of streamer to positive and negative lightning impulse breakdown in the insulating vegetable oil-based nanofluids are 21.2% and 14.4% lesser than those in insulating vegetable oils, respectively. The higher electrical breakdown strength and lower streamer velocity is explained by the charging dynamics of nanoparticles in insulating vegetable oil. Space charge build-up and space charge distorted filed in point-sphere gap is also described. The field strength is reduced at the streamer tip due to the low mobility of negative nanoparticles.

  2. Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Appelbaum, H.R.; McClure, T.A.; Otis, J.L.; Trayser, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the production, processing, and end use of the new fuels on a basis that is both technically attractive and economically rewarding to all of the elements of the system. The three subsystems, the farms that produce oilseed crops, the production of triglycerides and protein, and the manufacturers of the diesel engines and the owners of the present stock of auto-ignition engines, are discussed. It was concluded that vegetable oils and animal fats have substantial prospects as long-term substitutes for diesel fuels. If special auto-ignition engines were developed to handle vegetable oils, on-farm production and use might succeed. In the absence of such engine development, it is likely that large, centralized facilities to manufacture vegetable oils and their methylesters will be the successful processing route. Vegetable oils are likely to succeed first in geographical areas with benign climates. Vegetable oils and animal fats have limited prospects as diesel fuels for acute emergencies. The high viscosity of vegetable oils and the necessity to make substantial capital investments to obtain oils from oilseeds render the system relatively inflexible. 4 tables. (DP)

  3. Economic implications for the potential development of a vegetable oil fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Schneeberger, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes in this paper were to (1) summarize the domestic and international oilseed situation with emphasis on trends which will affect the long-run supply and demand for oilseeds; (2) describe the existing oilseeds processing sector so as to focus on the existing linkage between food and potential fuel markets for vegetable oils; and (3) present a basic framework for analyzing the supply, demand, and price effects of significant use of vegetable oil as a fuel. The major determinants of demand worldwide for vegetable oils are price, incomes, and population. Government programs of taxes, quotas, or subsidies could affect vegetable oil supply and/or demand. International trade practices could change; altering the flow of oils between markets. The likely impact of a developing vegetable oils fuel market would be to increase vegetable oil prices. The size of the increase will depend on how large the fuel market demand ultimately becomes, and thus on the price of diesel fuel. It will also depend on how well oilseed production can be adapted, technologically, and in acreage, to meet the needs of a large fuels market while maintaining its critical role in the foods sector. There are many uncertainties in assessing the economic picture for vegetable oil use as a diesel fuel substitute. 1 figure, 3 tables. (DP)

  4. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  5. Possible adverse effects of frying with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dobarganes, Carmen; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    The question of whether heated fats in the diet may be detrimental to health is nowadays of the upmost concern, but finding an answer is not easy and requires careful consideration of different aspects of lipid oxidation. This review is divided into two sections. The first part deals with the nature of the new compounds formed at high temperature in the frying process as well as their occurrence in the diet while the second part focuses on their possible nutritional and physiological effects. Oxidation products present in abused frying fats and oils are the compounds most suspected of impairing the nutritional properties of the oils or involving adverse physiological effects. The recent studies on their health implications include those related to their fate and those focused on their effects in metabolic pathways and the most prevalent diseases. PMID:26148922

  6. Characterization of vegetable oils by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting: classification, quality, adulteration, and aging.

    PubMed

    Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Haddad, Renato; Cabrini, Liliane Girotto; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2005-11-15

    An improved approach for the direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of vegetable oils is described. The more polar components of the oils, including the fatty acids, are simply extracted with methanol/water (1:1) solution and analyzed by direct infusion ESI-MS in both the negative and positive ion modes. This fingerprinting analysis was applied to genuine samples of olive, soybean, corn, canola, sunflower, and cottonseed oil, to admixtures of these oils, and samples of aged soybean oil. ESI-MS fingerprints in the positive ion mode of the extracts divide the oils into well-defined groups, as confirmed by principal component analysis, whereas ESI-MS fingerprints in the negative ion mode clearly differentiate olive oil from the five other refined oils. The method is also shown to detect aging and adulteration of vegetable oils. PMID:16285696

  7. Production of Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils by Flavobacterium sp. Strain DS5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium sp. strain DS5 (NRRL B-14859) was used to convert two vegetable oils, olive oil and soybean oil, directly to oxygenated fatty acids such as 10-ketostearic acid (10-KSA) and 10-hydroxystearic acid (10-HSA). Lipase addition to the culture was required because strain DS5 did not induce ...

  8. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  9. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  10. Biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil by various supercritical alcohols.

    PubMed

    Warabi, Yuichiro; Kusdiana, Dadan; Saka, Shiro

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel was prepared in various supercritical alcohol treatments with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, or 1-octanol to study transesterification of rapeseed oil and alkyl esterification of fatty acid at temperatures of 300 and 350 degrees C. The results showed that in transesterification, the reactivity was greatly correlated to the alcohol: the longer the alkyl chain of alcohol, the longer the reaction treatment. In alkyl esterification of fatty acids, the conversion did not depend on the alcohol type because they had a similar reactivity. Therefore, the selection of alcohol in biodiesel production should be based on consideration of its performance of properties and economics. PMID:15054233

  11. Rheological properties of heavy oils and heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, the author investigated the effects of a number of process variables such as shear rate, measurement temperature, pressure, the influence of pretreatment, and the role of various amounts of added water on the rheology of the resulting heavy oil or the emulsion. Rheological properties of heavy oils and the corresponding emulsions are important from transportation and processing standpoints.

  12. Silicone/vegetable oil Janus emulsion: topological stability versus interfacial tensions and relative oil volumes.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, G R; Perrechil, F A; Silveira, L P; Brunca, H O; Friberg, S E

    2015-07-01

    Several aspects were studied of the formation and destabilization in bulk of silicone/vegetable oil, SO/VO, Janus emulsions, stabilized by Tween 80. In the formation of the emulsions, it was unexpectedly found that the dispersions tended to contain both single and flocculated drops irrespective of the emulsification intensity. Microscopy of the emulsions with no cover glass revealed flocculated drops of a large (200-500 ?m) central SO drop with many small VO drops attached. Applying a cover glass did not significantly change the drop size; instead two-oil Janus drops of well-defined contact angle were found. The emulsions showed rapid creaming irrespective of the preparation method, but a few days storage did not significantly change the drop size in the creamed layer, nor was separation of the oils detected. The total interfacial free energy of the Janus drops at equilibrium was compared to the two relevant alternatives; engulfed and separate drops. The Janus drop free energies were found less for all volume ratios of the oils, when the surfactant concentrations in the aqueous phase was sufficient to prevent spreading of VO on SO. Changing the surfactant concentration to bring the interfacial tensions closer to the critical value for spreading gave declining interfacial free energy difference to that of engulfed drops. PMID:25443127

  13. Rheological Properties of a Biological Thermo-Hydrogel Produced from Soybean Oil Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at room temperature and viscous fluid b...

  14. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-VI is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-VI exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt. %) at room temperature and viscous fluid ...

  15. Comparative study of high-linoleic acid vegetable oils for the production of conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gammill, Whitney; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal

    2010-03-10

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found in small quantities in dairy and beef products. Obtaining optimum dietary CLA levels from these sources requires an increased intake of saturated fat. A 20% CLA soy oil was produced by UV photoisomerization of soy oil linoleic acid (LA), which is naturally low in saturated fat, but no other high-LA vegetable oils have been studied for their potential as CLA-rich oils. The objectives of this research were to (1) compare flax, sunflower, corn, soy, and high-LA safflower oils as sources of CLA-rich vegetable oils using laboratory-scale equipment, (2) compare CLA yields obtained by laboratory-scale and pilot-scale equipment, and (3) compare the oxidative stabilities of laboratory-scale processed oils. High-LA safflower oil produced the most CLA; soy oil produced slightly less, followed by corn, with flax producing very little and sunflower none at all. Minor oil components and turbidity reduced CLA yields, suggesting that oils should be highly refined before CLA production. The pilot-scale system was more effective than the laboratory-scale system due to greater light exposure and larger surface area to volume ratio of the oil samples. The oxidative stabilities of high-LA safflower oil and soy oil were similar before or after irradiation, indicating that these oils are the most suitable for high-CLA production. PMID:20136082

  16. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    PubMed

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy. PMID:25528233

  17. Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

  18. Rapid determination of saponification value and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng Ling; Ikeda, Ikuo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Endo, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the saponification value (SV) and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils using the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was developed. When the THz absorption spectra for vegetable and fish oils were measured in the range of 20 to 400 cm?¹, two peaks were seen at 77 and 328 cm?¹. The level of absorbance at 77 cm?¹ correlated well with the SV. When the THz absorption spectra of thermally treated high-oleic safflower oils were measured, the absorbance increased with heating time. The polymer content in thermally treated oil correlated with the absorbance at 77 cm?¹. These results demonstrate that the THz spectrometry is a suitable non-destructive technique for the rapid determination of the SV and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils. PMID:23018850

  19. First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, L.M.; Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

    1982-01-01

    In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

  20. Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

  1. Rapid detection of copper chlorophyll in vegetable oils based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lian, Wei-Nan; Shiue, Jessie; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Hong, Wei-Chen; Shih, Po-Han; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Huang, Ching-Yi; Hsing, Cheng-Rong; Wei, Ching-Ming; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The addition of copper chlorophyll and its derivatives (Cu-Chl) to vegetable oils to disguise them as more expensive oils, such as virgin olive oils, would not only create public confusion, but also disturb the olive oil market. Given that existing detection methods of Ch-Chl in oils, such as LC-MS are costly and time consuming, it is imperative to develop economical and fast analytical techniques to provide information quickly. This paper demonstrates a rapid analytical method based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect Cu-Chl in vegetable oils; the spectroscopic markers of Cu-Chl are presented and a detection limit of 5 mg kg(-1) is demonstrated. The analysis of a series of commercial vegetable oils is undertaken with this method and the results verified by a government agency. This study shows that a SERS-based assessment method holds high potential for quickly pinpointing the addition of minute amounts of Cu-Chl in vegetable oils. PMID:25822695

  2. Is it true that polymerization of vegetable oil occurs through Diels-Alder reaction?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diels-Alder reaction mechanism is known to be one of the major reaction mechanisms to produce dimers and polymers during heating process of vegetable oil. However, our NMR study showed no evidence for Diels-Alder products. Soybean oil oxidized at 180 °C for 24 hrs with 1.45 surface area-to-volume ...

  3. PAPER/POLYMERIZED VEGETABLE OIL COMPOSITES:BIODEGRADATION BEHAVIOR AND USE AS DEGRADABLE AGRICULTURAL MULCH FILM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kraft paper was coated with different types of vegetable oil-based polyesters in order to increase wet strength, decrease biodegradation rates and create an alternative to non-degradable polyethylene mulch films. Paper saturated with natural polyunsaturated oils and then oxidatively polymerized (Co...

  4. Vegetable Oil-based Diesel Fuels From 1900 to the Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diesel engine, invented and developed by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890's, was displayed at the Paris World Exposition in 1900. At that occasion, one of the displayed diesel engines ran on peanut oil. This event marks the beginning of the use of vegetable oils and, later, derivatives thereof as die...

  5. Lipid formation and ?-linolenic acid production by Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus sp., grown on vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Tauk-Tornisielo, Sâmia M.; Arasato, Luciana S.; de Almeida, Alex F.; Govone, José S.; Malagutti, Eleni N.

    2009-01-01

    The fungi strains were tested in Bioscreen automated system to select the best nutritional source. Following, shaking submserse cultures were studied in media containing sole carbon or nitrogen source. The growth of these strains improved in media containing vegetable oil, with high concentration of lipids. The high concentration of ?-linolenic acid was obtained with M. circinelloides in culture containing sesame oil. PMID:24031370

  6. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  7. Antioxidant effects of pH-regulating agents on the thermal deterioration of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasushi; Yamadera, Yuki; Tsukui, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    pH-Regulating agents, such as sodium tartrate, disodium succinate, and trisodium citrate, were investigated for their antioxidant activities during the thermal deterioration of vegetable oils. Refined rapeseed and rice bran oils, supplemented with pH-regulating agents and ?-tocopherol (0.1%) were heated at 180?. After heating, acid values (AVs), carbonyl values (CVs), polar material contents, and color (absorbance at 420 nm) of each sample were measured. All pH-regulating agents gave rise to reduced AVs, CVs, and polar material contents of vegetable oils during heating relative to samples not containing a pHregulating agent. Rapeseed and rice bran oils supplemented with sodium tartrate showed the lowest AVs, CVs, polar material contents and absorbances at 420 nm after heating. Sodium tartrate not only retarded the hydrolysis, thermal oxidation, polymerization, and coloration of both oils while heating at high temperatures, but it also showed antioxidant activity at the supplementation level of 0.01%. The antioxidant activity of sodium tartrate was higher than that of ?-tocopherol during the deterioration of vegetable oils. Sodium tartrate was particularly effective retarding hydrolysis while heating at high temperatures, resulting in increase of AVs of vegetable oils. Sodium tartrate is therefore expected to be an effective antioxidant for the thermal deterioration of fats and oils during deep-fat frying. PMID:25017865

  8. Preparation of margarines from organogels of sunflower wax and vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was previously reported that sunflower wax (SW) had high potential as an organogelator for soybean oil-based margarine and spread products. In this study twelve other vegetable oils were evaluated in a margarine formulation to test feasibility of utilization of SW as an alternative to solid fats ...

  9. Feruloylated vegetable oils: synthesis and applications of UV-absorbing/antioxidative lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to produce higher value uses for vegetable oils, we have developed an environmentally “green” process to transesterify soybean oil with the phenylpropanoid, ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is a natural plant component that absorbs light within the UVB and UVA regions (290 to 370 nm) and pos...

  10. Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 18 billion pounds of soybean oil is produced annually in the United States with a yearly carryover of more than 300 million pounds. How to utilize this surplus oil effectively becomes a large economic issue in the U.S. agricultural community. Soybean oil is a relatively cheap raw materia...

  11. Modified vegetable oils for environmentally friendly lubricant applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic lubricant base oils offer improved stability and performance characteristics over refined petroleum oils, but at a price. Most of the biodegradable synthetic oils are chemical esters that offer superior thermal and oxidative stability [8.9]. Prices for these niche products are higher tha...

  12. GLC analysis of poison ivy and poison oak urushiol components in vegetable oil preparations.

    PubMed

    Elsohly, M A; Turner, C E

    1980-05-01

    A procedure is described for the analysis of urushiol content of pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and poison oak (T. diversilobum) in vegetable oils. The procedure involves extraction of the urushiols from the oily solutions using 90% methanol in water followed by GLC analysis of the extracts. Recoveries of both poison ivy and poison oak urushiols from solutions in corn oil, olive oil, sesame seed oil, and cottonseed oil were calculated. Correlation coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.97 to 1.00, and the coefficients of variations ranged from 3.08 to 7.90%. PMID:7381750

  13. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non-regulated exhaust gas components, some deviations from this linear trend were detected.

  14. Low carbon flower buildup, low smoke, and efficient diesel operation with vegetable oils by conversion to mono-esters and blending with diesel oil or alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Nobukazu, T.; Itow, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated DI Diesel engine is evaluated. Means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion is found. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits are measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. Both of the vegetable oil fuels generate an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they cause carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation. Practical solutions to overcome the problems are: increasing the fuel temperature to over 200/sup 0/C, blending 25 vol % diesel fuel in the vegetable oil, blending 20 vol % ethanol in the fuel, or converting the vegetable oils into methylesters.

  15. Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1997-02-01

    Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

  16. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm(-1) (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases. PMID:26987802

  17. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm−1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases. PMID:26987802

  18. Assessment of sediment toxicity during anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil using Microtox and Hyalella azteca bioassays.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengkai; Lee, Kenneth; Cobanli, Susan E; King, Thomas; Wrenn, Brian A; Doe, Kenneth G; Jackman, Paula M; Venosa, Albert D

    2007-02-01

    The potential ecological impacts of anaerobic degradation of vegetable oil on freshwater sediments were investigated. Sediment toxicity was evaluated using two regulatory biotests: the Microtox Solid Phase Test and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca) bioassay. The results of the Microtox test showed that the toxicity of the vegetable-oil-contaminated sediments (about 17-33 g oil/kg dry sediments) increased after 2 weeks incubation and then decreased to near background levels after incubation for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions. The amphipod toxicity bioassay showed that the toxicity of fresh contaminated sediments decreased over time and returned to background levels within 8 weeks. These results suggest that the impact of vegetable oils on organisms within sediments may be limited. To account for the significance of environmental conditions, additional studies over a wide range of incubation conditions (e.g., temperature, nutrient concentration) and other test organisms at various trophic levels are recommended for both acute and chronic toxicity assessment. PMID:17295275

  19. Bidirectional reflectance, leaf optical and physiological properties of prairie vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, E. A.; Blad, B. L.; Starks, P. J; Hays, C. J.; Mesarch, M. A.; Middleton, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    A modular multiband radiometer is used to measure reflected radiation from the vegetative surface of a prairie. The data are compared to estimates of incoming radiation by measuring the reflection from a molded halon panel, and the bidirectional reflectance factors are measured at seven view-zenith angles and various incidence angles. The canopy-reflectance results are compared to leaf-optical and other vegetative physiological properties, and a direct relationship is reported.

  20. Separation of steroids using vegetable oils in microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sirén, Heli; Vesanen, Sari; Suomi, Johanna

    2014-01-15

    The steroids, hydrocortisone, androstenedione, 17-?-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, 17-?-methyltestosterone, and progesterone were separated with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) and detected with UV absorption. The microemulsion phases were prepared from both artificial and vegetable oils, from them the first was made of alkane and alcohol and the latter from colza, olive, linseed, and walnut oils. The electrolyte solutions were made to emulsions using sodium dodecyl sulfate and alkaline tetraborate. The solution mixtures made from ethyl acetate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, and sodium tetraborate were used as the reference solutions to evaluate the performance of the vegetable oil emulsions. Our study showed that the lipophilic organic phase in the microemulsion did provide resolution improvements but not selectivity changes. The results also correlate with real interactions of the steroids with the lipophilic organic microemulsion phase. The quality of the oils between the manufacturers did not have importance, which was noticed from the equal behavior of the steroids in the vegetable oil emulsions. Detection limits of the steroids in vegetable oil emulsions were at the level of 0.20-0.43?g/L. Thus, they were 2-10 times higher than the concentrations in the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC), which we have obtained earlier. The repeatability (RSD%) of the electrophoretic mobilities of the steroids was between 0.50 and 3.70. The RSD% values between the inter-day separations were below 1%, but when walnut and olive oils were used the values exceeded even 10%. PMID:24355214

  1. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

  2. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. PMID:24491744

  3. Short communication: rapid detection of milk fat adulteration with vegetable oil by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ntakatsane, M P; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

    2013-04-01

    This study assessed the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy in detecting adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil and characterizing the samples according to the source of the fat. Pure butterfat was adulterated with different vegetable oils at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40%). Nonfat and reduced-fat milk were also adulterated with vegetable oils to simulate full-fat milk (3.2%). The 2- and 3-dimensional front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to obtain the fluorescence spectra and fatty acid profile, respectively. Principal component analysis and 3-way partial least squares regression analysis were applied to analyze the data. The pure and adulterated samples were discriminated based on the total concentration of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, and also on the 3 major fluorophores: tryptophan, tocopherols, and riboflavin. Fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect up to 5% of adulteration of vegetable oil into the butterfat. The saturated fatty acids showed higher predictability than the unsaturated fatty acids (R(2) = 0.73-0.92 vs. 0.20-0.65, respectively). The study demonstrated the high potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly detect adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil, and discriminate commercial butter and milk according to the source of the fat. PMID:23415535

  4. Reaction pathways for the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and related model compounds.

    PubMed

    Gosselink, Robert W; Hollak, Stefan A W; Chang, Shu-Wei; van Haveren, Jacco; de Jong, Krijn P; Bitter, Johannes H; van Es, Daan S

    2013-09-01

    Vegetable oil-based feeds are regarded as an alternative source for the production of fuels and chemicals. Paraffins and olefins can be produced from these feeds through catalytic deoxygenation. The fundamentals of this process are mostly studied by using model compounds such as fatty acids, fatty acid esters, and specific triglycerides because of their structural similarity to vegetable oils. In this Review we discuss the impact of feedstock, reaction conditions, and nature of the catalyst on the reaction pathways of the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and its derivatives. As such, we conclude on the suitability of model compounds for this reaction. It is shown that the type of catalyst has a significant effect on the deoxygenation pathway, that is, group?10 metal catalysts are active in decarbonylation/decarboxylation whereas metal sulfide catalysts are more selective to hydrodeoxygenation. Deoxygenation studies performed under H2 showed similar pathways for fatty acids, fatty acid esters, triglycerides, and vegetable oils, as mostly deoxygenation occurs indirectly via the formation of fatty acids. Deoxygenation in the absence of H2 results in significant differences in reaction pathways and selectivities depending on the feedstock. Additionally, using unsaturated feedstocks under inert gas results in a high selectivity to undesired reactions such as cracking and the formation of heavies. Therefore, addition of H2 is proposed to be essential for the catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil feeds. PMID:23913576

  5. Classification and adulteration detection of vegetable oils based on fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Sun, Xiaoman; Wang, Xuefang; Xu, Baocheng; Wang, Xiupin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2014-08-27

    The detection of adulteration of high priced oils is a particular concern in food quality and safety. Therefore, it is necessary to develop authenticity detection method for protecting the health of customers. In this study, fatty acid profiles of five edible oils were established by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode. Using mass spectral characteristics of selected ions and equivalent chain length (ECL), 28 fatty acids were identified and employed to classify five kinds of edible oils by using unsupervised (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis), supervised (random forests) multivariate statistical methods. The results indicated that fatty acid profiles of these edible oils could classify five kinds of edible vegetable oils into five groups and are therefore employed to authenticity assessment. Moreover, adulterated oils were simulated by Monte Carlo method to establish simultaneous adulteration detection model for five kinds of edible oils by random forests. As a result, this model could identify five kinds of edible oils and sensitively detect adulteration of edible oil with other vegetable oils about the level of 10%. PMID:25078260

  6. Variables affecting the reactivity of acid-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shigeki; Uehara, Yoshihiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-05-01

    The dominant factors affecting the reactivity of acid-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol have been investigated. Effects of varying the acid catalyst species, surface active agent type and content were studied. Also, the effect of the type of oil was examined. Biodiesel fuel yields increased with the addition of sodium dodecylsulfonate as surface active agent because the mass transfer rates of protons and methanol to the oil phase through the oil-methanol interface were increased with increasing interfacial area. Evaluation of the reaction kinetics, based on changes in parent oils containing triglyceride or diglyceride showed that the activation energies were almost no change, but the frequency factors were 2210 and 9827mol(-1)min(-1), respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that a lower reactivity during acid-catalyzed transesterification with methanol was caused by a lower contact probability for oil, methanol and acid catalyst in the presence of an oil-methanol interface during the reaction. PMID:20089399

  7. [Quality of the various vegetable oils available on the Polish market].

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Jarosława; Zbikowska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was the examination of the quality of 17 different vegetable oils (13 refined and 4 extra virgin olive oils) available on the domestic market. The quality of oils was expressed by the following factors: conformity of fatty acid composition that as declared by manufacturer, content of oxidation products (PV, AnV, Totox), content of free fatty acids (LK) and oxidative stability. It was found that 40% of oils did not comply with the requirements concerning oxidative stability. The fatty acid composition of only 1 oil out of 17 investigated did not comply with the declaration by manufacturer. The oxidative stabilities of extra vergin olive oils: 6.44-8.24 hrs., were considerably higher that of other refined oils 2.34 to 8.24 hrs. PMID:18246656

  8. The use of saponified vegetable oil distillates/ethanol microcellular solution as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, L.D.; Birell, S.; Goering, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Vegetable oils are considered possible replacement fuels for diesel engines; however, past research has shown that long term engine durability is adversely affected by the use of these fuels. Most researchers have attempted to reduce the problems associated with vegetable oil fuels either by the formation of vegetable oil/diesel blends or the esterfication of the vegetable oils. In this investigation of an alternative approach, the performance of saponified soybean oil/aqueous ethanol microcellular solutions were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The products of the pyrolytic distillation of crude soybean oil were mixed with 150 proof ethanol in the ratio of 4:1 by volume and saponified with anhydrous ammonia gas. This ''parent fuel'' was then diluted with 150 proof ethanol to obtain two test fuels, one with 30 percent ethanol concentration and the other with 40 percent ethanol concentration. The fuels were used in the engine under various loads at two speeds, and the performance was compared to the performance using No. 2-D commercial diesel fuel.

  9. Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, T.

    2001-09-12

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors.

  10. Unusual effects of some vegetable oils on the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, M Z; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Nagatsu, A; Sakakibara, J; Okuyama, H

    1997-07-01

    Preliminary experiments have shown that a diet containing 10% rapeseed oil (low-erucic acid) markedly shortens the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats under 1% NaCl loading as compared with diets containing perilla oil or soybean oil. High-oleate safflower oil and high-oleate sunflower oil were found to have survival time-shortening activities comparable to that of rapeseed oil; olive oil had slightly less activity. A mixture was made of soybean oil, perilla oil, and triolein partially purified from high-oleate sunflower oil to adjust the fatty acid composition to that of rapeseed oil. The survival time of this triolein/mixed oil group was between those of the rapeseed oil and soybean oil groups. When 1% NaCl was replaced with tap water, the survival time was prolonged by approximately 80%. Under these conditions, the rapeseed oil and evening primrose oil shortened the survival time by approximately 40% as compared with n-3 fatty acid-rich perilla and fish oil; lard, soybean oil, and safflower oil with relatively high n-6/n-3 ratios shortened the survival time by roughly 10%. The observed unusual survival time-shortening activities of some vegetable oils (rapeseed, high-oleate safflower, high-oleate sunflower, olive, and evening primrose oil) may not be due to their unique fatty acid compositions, but these results suggest that these vegetable oils contain factor(s) which are detrimental to SHRSP rats. PMID:9252963

  11. VEGETATIVE STABILIZATION OF SPENT OIL SHALES: VEGETATION MOISTURE SALINITY AND RUNOFF, 1973-76

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of massive amounts of spent shale will be required if an oil shale industry using surface retorting is developed. Field studies were initiated in 1973 on two types of spent oil shale--coarse-textured (USBM), and fine-textured (TOSCO). The objectives of these studies were...

  12. Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

    The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

  13. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Du, Bin; Wang, Feipeng; Yao, Wei; Yao, Shuhan

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles can generate charge carrier trapping and reduce the velocity of streamer development in insulating oils ultimately leading to an enhancement of the breakdown voltage of insulating oils. Vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids with three sizes of monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared and their trapping depths were measured by thermally stimulated method (TSC). It is found that the nanoparticle surfactant polarization can significantly influence the trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. A nanoparticle polarization model considering surfactant polarization was proposed to calculate the trapping depth of the nanofluids at different nanoparticle sizes and surfactant thicknesses. The results show the calculated values of the model are in a fairly good agreement with the experimental values.

  14. Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

  15. Effects of Vegetable Oil Type and Lipophilic Emulsifiers on the Induction Period of Fat Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Yayoi; Ogawa, Takenobu; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-11-01

    The induction period of crystallization, which is defined as the time required for oil to start to crystallize, is useful indicator of the freeze-thaw stability of food emulsions such as mayonnaise. We investigated the induction period of vegetable oils with low melting points, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, which are commonly employed for mayonnaise production. The induction period was measured by monitoring the temperature of a specimen during storage at low temperature. The induction period depended on the type of oil and lipophilic emulsifier, emulsifier concentration, and storage temperature. The effect of the oil type on the induction period depended on the composition of the oil. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses of the lipophilic emulsifiers suggested that the melting trend of the emulsifier is strongly related to the induction period. PMID:26468233

  16. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  17. The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaarin, Kamsiah; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Leong, Xin-Fang

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressure-raising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats. PMID:22189740

  18. Flotation of coal with latex emulsions of hydrocarbon animal or vegetable based oil

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, M.J.; Wang, S.S.

    1982-07-20

    Employment of a latex emulsion prepared from a hydrocarbon, animal or vegetable based oil with a hydrophobic water-in-oil emulsifier and a hydrophilic surfactant in the froth flotation of coal improves coal recovery without increasing the ash content. The emulsifier employed should have an hlb value of 5.0 or less while the surfactant should have an hlb value of 9.0 or higher.

  19. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, ?-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, ?-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, ?-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO. PMID:26651578

  20. Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

  1. Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

  2. The use of isotope ratios (13C/12C) for vegetable oils authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, G.; Magdas, D. A.; Mirel, V.

    2012-02-01

    Stable isotopes are now increasingly used for the control of the geographical origin or authenticity of food products. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. In this study 22 vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, palm, maize) commercialized on Romanian market were investigated by mean of ?13C in bulk oil and the obtained results were compared with those reported in literature in order to check the labeling of these natural products. The obtained results were in the range of the mean values found in the literature for these types of oils, thus providing their accurate labeling.

  3. Evaluation of the thermal diffusivity of vegetable oils during frying by Thermal Lens Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, S. M.; Bannwart, E. S.; Oliveira, R. G.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Del Ré, P. V.; Jorge, N.; Pedrochi, F.; Constantini, R.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on the use of the Thermal Lens method to verify the evolution of the thermal diffusivity of sunflower and soybean vegetable oils utilized in preparation of twenty five snacks portions. Our results show that the thermal diffusivity for sunflower oil does not change between 1 and 25 portions of fried snacks. By another hand, the soybean thermal diffusivity exhibits a little decrease for higher portion of fried snacks, indicating that for this oil the triglyceride level is reduced as a degradation process.

  4. Novel approach to evaluate the oxidation state of vegetable oils using characteristic oxidation indicators.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Deng, Long; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Fan, Yawei; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Li, Jing; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2014-12-31

    Four vegetable oils with typical fatty acid compositions were chosen to determine their indicators of lipid oxidation under the conditions of accelerated oxidation. Good linear correlations were observed between the total nonpolar carbonyl amount and the total oxidation value (TOTOX, R(2) = 0.89-0.97) or peroxide value (POV, R(2) = 0.92-0.97) during 35 days of accelerated oxidation. Additionally, nonanal in camellia oil (oleic acid mainly) increased significantly, and correlated linearly with TOTOX (21.6 TOTOX - 595, R(2) = 0.92); propanal increased significantly in perilla oil (linolenic acid mainly) and correlated linearly with TOTOX (8.10 TOTOX + 75.0, R(2) = 0.90). Hexanal (9.56 TOTOX + 913, R(2) = 0.90, and 7.10 TOTOX + 342, R(2) = 0.78, respectively) and nonenal (10.5 TOTOX + 691, R(2) = 0.95, and 6.65 TOTOX + 276, R(2) = 0.84, respectively) in sunflower oil (linoleic acid mainly) and palm oil (palmitic and oleic acids mainly) also had good linear correlations with TOTOX. Considering the change patterns of these four aldehydes, it was found that the oxidation stability was in the order sunflower oil < camellia oil < perilla oil < palm oil, which was same as POV, TOTOX, and total nonpolar carbonyls. It was concluded that the four aldehydes nonanal, propanal, hexanal, and nonenal could be used as oxidation indicators for the four types of oils. PMID:25487776

  5. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun

    1994-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

  6. PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and Pesticides in Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils.

    PubMed

    Roszko, M; Szterk, A; Szymczyk, K; Waszkiewicz-Robak, B

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (marker and dioxin-like congeners), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA 15 + 1), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (14 predominant congeners) and pesticides (74 compounds) in various cold-pressed vegetable oils. Poppy seed oil, rapeseed oil, sesame seed oil, pumpkinseed oil, hempseed oil, linaire oil, borage oil and evening star oil were investigated. Results of this study revealed that concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and PAHs were low in majority of the investigated samples. However, high concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides were found. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the pesticide residues most commonly found in the studied oils. Concentration of 15 + 1 EPA PAHs was within the 17.85-37.16 ?g kg(-1) range, concentration of (marker) PCBs varied from 127 to 24,882 pg g(-1), dioxin-like TEQ values were below 0.1 pg TEQ g(-1). Concentration of PBDEs was below LOQ in most cases. PMID:22389518

  7. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed impetus to the agricultural sector and rural development.

  8. Vegetable Oil Derived Solvent, and Catalyst Free “Click Chemistry” Thermoplastic Polytriazoles

    PubMed Central

    Floros, Michael C.; Leão, Alcides Lopes; Narine, Suresh S.

    2014-01-01

    Azide-alkyne Huisgen “click” chemistry provides new synthetic routes for making thermoplastic polytriazole polymers—without solvent or catalyst. This method was used to polymerize three diester dialkyne monomers with a lipid derived 18 carbon diazide to produce a series of polymers (labelled C18C18, C18C9, and C18C4 based on monomer chain lengths) free of residual solvent and catalyst. Three diester dialkyne monomers were synthesized with ester chain lengths of 4, 9, and 18 carbons from renewable sources. Significant differences in thermal and mechanical properties were observed between C18C9 and the two other polymers. C18C9 presented a lower melting temperature, higher elongation at break, and reduced Young's modulus compared to C18C4 and C18C18. This was due to the “odd-even” effect induced by the number of carbon atoms in the monomers which resulted in orientation of the ester linkages of C18C9 in the same direction, thereby reducing hydrogen bonding. The thermoplastic polytriazoles presented are novel polymers derived from vegetable oil with favourable mechanical and thermal properties suitable for a large range of applications where no residual solvent or catalyst can be tolerated. Their added potential biocompatibility and biodegradability make them ideal for applications in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25032224

  9. Analysis of regiospecific triacylglycerols in vegetable oils and animal fats by electrospray mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) in vegetable oils and animal fats is reported here using the electrospray ionization MS3 of TAG lithiated adducts. The fragment ions of the MS3 from the loss of fatty acids at the sn-2 position as alpha, Beta-unsaturated fatty acids were u...

  10. APPLE SCAB MANAGEMENT ASSISTED BY TREE DEFOLIATION WITH VEGETABLE OIL EMULSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) was applied to 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apple trees after harvest to induce defoliation and reduce apple scab. Applied in the fall at 2%, 4% or 6%, VOE induced leaf abscission, with the highest concentration causing the most defoliation. At the same concentrations, VOE applie...

  11. Chromatography in authenticity and traceability tests of vegetable oils and dairy products: a review.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, Tibor; Forgács, Esther; Deyl, Zdenek; Miksik, Ivan

    2005-04-01

    The new applications of various chromatographic techniques such as gas-liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and electrophoretic methods employed for the analysis in macro- and micro-components in vegetable oils and dairy products are compiled and critically evaluated. The employment of these methods for authenticity tests and traceability is discussed. PMID:15803455

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME ORGANIC CARBONATES DERIVED FROM VEGETABLE OILS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils, their derivatives, and glycerin represent renewable raw materials that are firmly established components in many industrial products. Their use continues to be of interest to many researchers and the development of approaches to functionalize these compounds to derive oleochemicals ...

  13. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  14. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  15. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  16. Sensor and methodology for dielectric analysis of vegetal oils submitted to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Stevan, Sergio Luiz; Paiter, Leandro; Galvão, José Ricardo; Roque, Daniely Vieira; Chaves, Eduardo Sidinei

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils used in frying food represent a social problem as its destination. The residual oil can be recycled and returned to the production line, as biodiesel, as soap, or as putty. The state of the residual oil is determined according to their physicochemical characteristics whose values define its economically viable destination. However, the physicochemical analysis requires high costs, time and general cost of transporting. This study presents the use of a capacitive sensor and a quick and inexpensive method to correlate the physicochemical variables to the dielectric constant of the material undergoing oil samples to thermal cycling. The proposed method allows reducing costs in the characterization of residual oil and the reduction in analysis time. In addition, the method allows an assessment of the quality of the vegetable oil during use. The experimental results show the increasing of the dielectric constant with the temperature, which facilitates measurement and classification of the dielectric constant at considerably higher temperatures. The results also confirm a definitive degradation in used oil and a correlation between the dielectric constant of the sample with the results of the physicochemical analysis (iodine value, acid value, viscosity and refractive index). PMID:26501293

  17. Hydrogenated soy ethyl ester (HySEE) from ethanol and waste vegetable oil

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel is gaining recognition in the United States as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel without any modifications to the engine. Currently the cost of this fuel is the factor that limits its use. One way to reduce the cost of biodiesel is to use a less expensive form of vegetable oil such as waste oil from a processing plant. These operations use mainly hydrogenated soybean oil, some tallow and some Canola as their frying oils. It is estimated that there are several million pounds of waste vegetable oil from these operations. Additional waste frying oil is available from smaller processors, off-grade oil seeds and restaurants. This paper reports on developing a process to produce the first 945 liters (250 gallons) of HySEE using recipes developed at the University of Idaho; fuel characterization tests on the HySEE according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552; short term injector coking tests and performance tests in a turbocharged, DI, CI engine; and a 300 hour screening test in a single cylinder, IDI, CI engine.

  18. Sensor and Methodology for Dielectric Analysis of Vegetal Oils Submitted to Thermal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Stevan, Sergio Luiz; Paiter, Leandro; Ricardo Galvão, José; Vieira Roque, Daniely; Sidinei Chaves, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils used in frying food represent a social problem as its destination. The residual oil can be recycled and returned to the production line, as biodiesel, as soap, or as putty. The state of the residual oil is determined according to their physicochemical characteristics whose values define its economically viable destination. However, the physicochemical analysis requires high costs, time and general cost of transporting. This study presents the use of a capacitive sensor and a quick and inexpensive method to correlate the physicochemical variables to the dielectric constant of the material undergoing oil samples to thermal cycling. The proposed method allows reducing costs in the characterization of residual oil and the reduction in analysis time. In addition, the method allows an assessment of the quality of the vegetable oil during use. The experimental results show the increasing of the dielectric constant with the temperature, which facilitates measurement and classification of the dielectric constant at considerably higher temperatures. The results also confirm a definitive degradation in used oil and a correlation between the dielectric constant of the sample with the results of the physicochemical analysis (iodine value, acid value, viscosity and refractive index). PMID:26501293

  19. Effects of replacing pork back fat with vegetable oils and rice bran fiber on the quality of reduced-fat frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2010-03-01

    The effects of substituting olive, grape seed, corn, canola, or soybean oil and rice bran fiber on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, fatty acid composition, and sensory properties of low-fat frankfurters were investigated. Ten percent of the total fat content of frankfurters with a total fat content of 30% (control) was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils to reduce the pork fat content by 10%. The moisture and ash content of low-fat frankfurters with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber were all higher than the control (P<0.05). Low-fat frankfurters had reduced-fat content, energy values, cholesterol and trans-fat levels, and increased pH, cooking yield and TBA values compared to the controls (P<0.05). Low-fat frankfurters with reduced-fat content plus rice bran fiber had sensory properties similar to control frankfurters containing pork fat. PMID:20374824

  20. Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, R.L.; King, J.W.; List, G.R.

    1997-03-01

    Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater than 97% after 15--20 min. Some geometric isomerization of the linolenic acids was observed at reaction temperatures as low as 250 C. Reactions carried out at higher temperatures and pressures, up to the critical point of water, produced either/or degradation, pyrolysis, and polymerization, of the oils and resultant fatty acids.

  1. Characteristics of Palm Fatty Acid Ester (PFAE), a New Vegetable Based Insulating Oil for Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kanoh, Takaaki; Koide, Hidenobu; Hikosaka, Tomoyuki

    We have developed new vegetable based insulating oil for transformers called PFAE (Palm Fatty Acid Ester). PFAE has 0.6 times less viscosity and 1.3 times higher dielectric constant compared to mineral oil. The oxidative stability, biodegradability and acute toxicity to fish of PFAE has also been determined to be superior to mineral oil. In this paper, in order to optimize the characteristics of fatty acid esters originating from palm oil, several kinds of fatty acid alkyl esters were first synthesized in the laboratory by the molecular design technique and the transesterification from fatty acid methyl esters and alkyl alcohols. Next the electro-chemical characteristics of the fatty acid alkyl esters as insulating oil were analyzed.

  2. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

  3. Control of Aeromonas on minimally processed vegetables by decontamination with lactic acid, chlorinated water, or thyme essential oil solution.

    PubMed

    Uyttendaele, M; Neyts, K; Vanderswalmen, H; Notebaert, E; Debevere, J

    2004-02-01

    Aeromonas is an opportunistic pathogen, which, although in low numbers, may be present on minimally processed vegetables. Although the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of minimally processed prepacked vegetable mixes are not inhibitory to the growth of Aeromonas species, multiplication to high numbers during processing and storage of naturally contaminated grated carrots, mixed lettuce, and chopped bell peppers was not observed. Aeromonas was shown to be resistant towards chlorination of water, but was susceptible to 1% and 2% lactic acid and 0.5% and 1.0% thyme essential oil treatment, although the latter provoked adverse sensory properties when applied for decontamination of chopped bell peppers. Integration of a decontamination step with 2% lactic acid in the processing line of grated carrots was shown to have the potential to control the overall microbial quality of the grated carrots and was particularly effective towards Aeromonas. PMID:14751681

  4. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  5. The influence of vegetable oils on biosurfactant production by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Cristina; De Araújo, Alvaro A; Pastore, Glaucia M

    2002-01-01

    The production of biosurfactant, a surface-active compound, by two Serratia marcescensstrains was tested on minimal culture medium supplemented with vegetable oils, considering that it is well known that these compounds stimulate biosurfactant production. The vegetable oils tested included soybean, olive, castor, sunflower, and coconut fat. The results showed a decrease in surface tension of the culture medium without oil from 64.54 to 29.57, with a critical micelle dilution (CMD(-1)) and CMD(-2) of 41.77 and 68.92 mN/m, respectively. Sunflower oil gave the best results (29.75 mN/m) with a CMD(-1) and CMD-2 of 36.69 and 51.41 mN/m, respectively. Sunflower oil contains about 60% of linoleic acid. The addition of linoleic acid decreased the surface tension from 53.70 to 28.39, with a CMD(-1) of 29.72 and CMD(-2) of 37.97, suggesting that this fatty acid stimulates the biosurfactant production by the LB006 strain. In addition, the crude precipitate surfactant reduced the surface tension of water from 72.00 to 28.70 mN/m. These results suggest that the sunflower oil's linoleic acid was responsible for the increase in biosurfactant production by the LB006 strain. PMID:12018306

  6. Effect Of Iron On The Sensitivity Of Hydrogen, Acetate, And Butyrate Metabolism To Inhibition By Long-Chain Fatty Acids In Vegetable-Oil-Enriched Freshwater Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial c...

  7. Does cooking with vegetable oils increase the risk of chronic diseases?: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Carlos, Silvia; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Overweight/obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with nutritional habits. High consumption of fried foods might increase the risk of these disorders. However, it is not clear whether the use of vegetables oils for cooking increases the risk of chronic diseases. We systematically searched for published studies that assessed the association between vegetable oil consumption including fried food consumption and the risk of overweight/obesity or weight gain, T2DM or the metabolic syndrome, and CVD or hypertension in the following databases: PubMed; Web of Science; Google Scholar. Keywords such as 'fried food' or 'vegetable oil' or 'frying' or 'frying oils' or 'dietary fats' and 'weight gain' or 'overweight' or 'obesity' or 'CHD' or 'CVD' or 'type 2 diabetes' or 'metabolic syndrome' were used in the primary search. Additional published reports were obtained through other sources. A total of twenty-three publications were included based on specific selection criteria. Based on the results of the studies included in the present systematic review, we conclude that (1) the myth that frying foods is generally associated with a higher risk of CVD is not supported by the available evidence; (2) virgin olive oil significantly reduces the risk of CVD clinical events, based on the results of a large randomised trial that included as part of the intervention the recommendation to use high amounts of virgin olive oil, also for frying foods; and (3) high consumption of fried foods is probably related to a higher risk of weight gain, though the type of oil may perhaps modify this association. PMID:26148920

  8. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  9. Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types on Mountain Han.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Yuan, Xiu

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of broadleaf and conifer vegetation on soil microbial communities in a distinct vertical distribution belt in Northeast China. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths from four vegetation types at different altitudes, which were characterized by poplar (Populus davidiana) (1250-1300 m), poplar (P. davidiana) mixed with birch (Betula platyphylla) (1370-1550 m), birch (B. platyphylla) (1550-1720 m), and larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) (1840-1890 m). Microbial biomass and community structure were determined using the fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and soil fungal community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were characterized using Biolog FF Microplates. It was found that soil properties, especially soil organic carbon and water content, contributed significantly to the variations in soil microbes. With increasing soil depth, the soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal catabolic ability diminished; however, the ratio of fungi to bacteria increased. The fungal ratio was higher under larch forests compared to that under poplar, birch, and their mixed forests, although the soil microbial biomass was lower. The direct contribution of vegetation types to the soil microbial community variation was 12%. If the indirect contribution through soil organic carbon was included, variations in the vegetation type had substantial influences on soil microbial composition and diversity. PMID:23737003

  10. Determination of antioxidant capacities of vegetable oils by ferric-ion spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Dianoczki, Csilla; Recseg, Katalin; Karlovits, György; Szłyk, Edward

    2008-08-15

    Two ferric-ion-based total antioxidant capacity methods: 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used for determination of antioxidant capacities (AC) of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of vegetable oils. The obtained mean Phen and FRAP values for acetonic extracts of olive oils, rapeseed, rice and four sunflower oils (39.3-336.5 and 39.5-339.6 micromol Fe/100g) were higher than for methanolic extracts (22.8-307.3 and 23.5-300.1 micromol Fe/100g). However, antioxidant capacities of methanolic extracts of corn oil, blended oils and two sunflower oils with garden green flowers (56.5-312.9 and 53.9-306.5 micromol Fe/100g for Phen and FRAP methods, respectively) were higher than for acetonic extracts of these oils (54.2-249.2 and 52.9-244.7 micromol Fe/100g for Phen and FRAP methods, respectively). There is a linear and significant correlation between these two analytical methods (r=0.9989 and 0.9986 for acetonic and methanolic extracts). Also, total phenolic compounds (TPC) in the studied oils correlated with their antioxidant capacities determined by Phen and FRAP methods (r=0.9012, 0.7818 and 0.8947, 0.7830 for acetonic and methanolic extracts, respectively). The comparable precision (R.S.D.=0.8-4.6%, 0.9-4.9% and 0.7-4.0%, 0.6-4.0% for acetonic and methanolic extracts, respectively) and sensitivity (epsilon=1.27 x 10(4), 1.11 x 10(4) and 2.62 x 10(4)dm(3)mol(-1)cm(-1)) for the proposed Phen and the modified FRAP methods, demonstrate the benefit of the Phen method in the routine analysis of antioxidant capacities of vegetable oils. PMID:18656676

  11. Effect of four different vegetable oils (red palm olein, palm olein, corn oil, coconut oil) on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Dauqan, Eqbal; Sani, Halimah Abdullah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2011-03-15

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of four different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO), palm olein (PO), corn oil (CO), coconut oil (COC)] on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats which were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in the control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups, 15% of additional different vegetable oils were given. After 4 weeks of treatment the catalase (CAT) activity results showed that there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups while after 8 weeks of treatment showed that there was no significant different (p > or = 0.05) between control group and RPO group but the treated rat liver with PO, CO and COC groups were the lowest and it were significantly lower (> or = 0.05) than control group. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups of vegetable oils after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Thus the study indicated that there was no significant (p > or = 0.05) effect on antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) but there was significant effect (p > or = 0.05) on catalase in rat liver. PMID:21902064

  12. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (?-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ?70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ?3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P < 0.05; mean percentage of change: -8.0%, -10.9%, -7.9%, respectively), whereas most showed no changes in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL cholesterol), and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Replacing TFA-containing oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In most studies that replaced oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and overall CHD risk. PMID:26567193

  13. Tribiological properties of oil-soluble polyolefins

    SciTech Connect

    Ustrekhova, O.A.; Ezhikova-Babakhanova, T.G.; Basov, G.B.

    1994-07-01

    Polyolefins, in the form of either dispersions or homogeneous solutions, are used extensively as lube oil additives. However, the information available on their tribological properties is fragmentary and often contradictory. In order to select additives of this type and in order to understand the mechanism of their lubricating action, comparative evaluations of their tribological properties are required. We have investigated the tribological properties of high-pressure polyethylene PE (Grade 12003-200), polypropylene PP (Grade 21060-61), and polyisobutene PIB (Grade P-85). In order to determine the properties of the polymers that are pertinent to their use as an active component of a lubricating medium, we investigated two-component systems consisting of a mineral oil and a polymer. The compatibility of the polyolefins with the oil base was determined visually by a polythermal method. Blends were prepared in I-12A mineral oil [industrial oil] by dissolving up to 1% polymer at various temperatures: PE at 125-130{degrees}C for 5 h, PP at 140-150{degrees} for 4 h, and PIB at 110-120{degrees}C for 3 h. The 1% concentration is within the optimal range for lubricating-cooling process fluids used in metalworking processes. The tribological properties of the polyolefins were evaluated in two friction testers: a four-ball friction tester (GOST 9490-75), and a Falex tester. The wear scar diameter D{sub w}, which characterizes the antiwear properties of the medium, was determined as the arithmetical average of the wear scar diameters on the three lower balls in the four-ball tester after a 1-h run with an axial load of 0.15 kN and a sliding speed of 0.54 m/sec. The influence of the oil solutions of polyolefins on the process of metal failure or wear was rated on the basis of the energy criterion A{sub s} - the specific work of surface breakdown or wear of metal, defining the quantity of work of friction consumed in removing unit volume of metal from the contacting surfaces.

  14. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) diets: effects on hepatic Mx expression and some immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Grasso, V; Izquierdo, M S; Ganga, R; Real, F; Tort, L; Caballero, M J; Acosta, F

    2008-02-01

    The use of vegetable oils in fish nutrition has been extensively studied; and recent work has focused attention on replacing fish oil with alternative fatty acid sources and their effect on the immune system. However, little is known about the effect of these oils on immune parameters such as the fish interferon system. In this study we evaluate the effect of two vegetable oils (linseed and soybean) on gilthead sea bream Mx expression and other innate immune parameters. Experimental diets were formulated where fish oil was totally replaced by vegetable oils or for a mixture of them (50% linseed and 50% soybean). Another diet prepared with pure fish oil was used as a control. Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate growth, feed utilization, serum alternative complement pathway activity, serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity of head kidney leucocytes as well as Mx expression in the liver. In the first experiment fish were fed with experimental diets for 6 months and then, growth and feed utilization as well as immune parameters were analyzed. In the second experiment, fish from the previous feeding trial were injected with either a sub-lethal dose of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (94/99) or a synthetic dsRNA (Poly I:C) in order to stimulate an Mx response. The results show that total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils decreased the growth of gilthead sea bream juveniles. Furthermore, both phagocytic activity and serum alternative complement pathway activity were significantly reduced by the inclusion of either vegetable oil individually in the sea bream diets, but the diet with mixed vegetable oils had no significant effect. There was no effect on serum lysozyme levels but the basal constitutive levels of Mx transcript expression in the liver were elevated in the fish fed the vegetable oil diets. The time-course of the Mx response to injection of Poly I:C was shorter in the fish fed the fish oil diet and the fish fed the diet based on a mixture of both vegetable oils showed a faster Mx response to bacterial injection. Following stimulation with Poly I:C or PDP the fish fed the vegetable oil based diets still maintained higher basal levels of hepatic Mx expression than the fish fed the fish oil diet which returned to undetectable levels. PMID:18158252

  15. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  16. Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

  17. Simultaneous determination of five synthetic antioxidants in edible vegetable oil by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Xie, Ming-Yong; Yan, Ai-Ping; Wan, Yi-Qun; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2006-11-01

    A simple, quick and nontoxic analytical method for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic antioxidants [t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), 2,6-di-t-butyl-hydroxytoluene (BHT), t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), ethoxyquin (EQ) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxymethyl-phenol (Ionox 100)] in edible vegetable oil has been developed. The analytes were extracted by ethanol, then separated and detected by GC-MS. Extraction conditions such as volume of ethanol required, mixing time and number of extractions were investigated and optimized by an orthogonal array experimental design. The five compounds behaved linearly in the 0.100 approximately 20.0 mg/L concentration range, and the limits of detection (LOD) for BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EQ and Ionox-100 were 1.00, 0.92, 11.5, 0.83 and 1.39 microg/L, respectively. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.00, 20.0 and 100 mg/kg were 75.6 approximately 123%, with coefficients of variation<10.0%. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of the five antioxidants in soybean oil, tea oil, edible blended oil, rap oil, peanut oil, peanut blended oil and sesame oil samples purchased from local supermarkets. PMID:16972057

  18. Enzymatic interesterification of tripalmitin with vegetable oil blends for formulation of caprine milk infant formula analogs.

    PubMed

    Maduko, C O; Akoh, C C; Park, Y W

    2007-02-01

    The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blends was enzymatically modified, and the blends were incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to human milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, resembling the composition of human milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blend containing a 2.5:1.1:0.8 ratio of coconut, safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme RM IM, was used as the biocatalyst. The effects of substrate molar ratio and reaction time on the incorporation of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerols were investigated. The fatty acid composition and sn-2 position of the experimental formulas were analyzed using gas chromatography. Results showed that the highest incorporation of palmitic acid was obtained at 12 h of incubation at 55 degrees C with a substrate molar ratio of 1:0.4 of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. However, the modified milk interesterified for 12 h at a 1:1 molar ratio had a greater resemblance to human milk compared with the other formulas. The level of oleic acid incorporation at the sn-2 position increased with the molar ratio of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. It was concluded that, unlike the original goat milk and other formulas, the formulated caprine milk with a molar ratio of 1:1 and a 12-h incubation was similar to the fatty acid composition of human milk. PMID:17235135

  19. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills.

    PubMed

    Annunciado, T R; Sydenstricker, T H D; Amico, S C

    2005-11-01

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85goil/g sorbent (in 24hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. PMID:15946707

  20. Novel approaches to analysis of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol esters in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Moravcova, Eliska; Vaclavik, Lukas; Lacina, Ondrej; Hrbek, Vojtech; Riddellova, Katerina; Hajslova, Jana

    2012-03-01

    A sensitive and accurate method utilizing ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry based on orbitrap technology (orbitrapMS) for the analysis of nine 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) diesters in vegetable oils was developed. To remove the interfering triacylglycerols that induce strong matrix effects, a clean-up step on silica gel column was used. The quantitative analysis was performed with the use of deuterium-labeled internal standards. The lowest calibration levels estimated for the respective analytes ranged from 2 to 5 ?g kg(-1). Good recovery values (89-120%) and repeatability (RSD 5-9%) was obtained at spiking levels of 2 and 10 mg kg(-1). As an alternative, a novel ambient desorption ionization technique, direct analysis in real time (DART), hyphenated with orbitrapMS, was employed for no separation, high-throughput, semi-quantitative screening of 3-MCPD diesters in samples obtained by chromatographic fractionation. Additionally, the levels of 3-MCPD diesters measured in reallife vegetable oil samples (palm oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil) using both methods are reported. Relatively good agreement of the data generated by U-HPLC-orbitrapMS and DART-orbitrapMS were observed. With regard to a low ionization yield achieved for 3-MCPD monoesters, the methods presented in this paper were not yet applicable for the analysis of these contaminants at the naturally occurring levels. PMID:22287050

  1. Conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats into paraffinic cetane enhancers for diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Feng, Y.; Hogan, E.

    1995-11-01

    The two principal methods of producing biodiesel fuels are (a) transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with a monohydric alcohol, and (b) direct hydrotreating of tree oils, vegetable oils and animal fats. The patented hydrotreating technology is based on the catalytic processing of biomass oils and fats with hydrogen, under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The typical mix of hydrotreated products is as follows: 5-15% light distillate (naphta), 40-60% middle distillate (cetane), 5-15% heavy distillate and 5-10% burner gas. The naptha fraction may be used as a gasoline supplement. The middle distillate is designed for use as a cetane booster for diesel fuels. Both heavy distillate and light hydrocarbon gases are usable as power boiler fuels. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This new diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of the basic diesel fuel, for direct use in diesel engines without any modifications. The basic hydrotreatment technology has been evaluated further in the laboratory on degummed soya oil, yellow grease and animal tallow. The preliminary findings suggest that the technology can provide efficient conversion of these materials into cetane enhancers for diesel fuels.

  2. Direct Determination of Glycidyl Esters of Fatty Acids in Vegetable Oils by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Blumhorst, Michael R; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W

    2011-09-01

    An LC-MS method using a single quadrupole mass spectrometer was developed for direct analysis of glycidyl esters of fatty acids in vegetable oils. Without any sample clean-up, this method provided acceptable recovery of seven glycidyl esters, comparable results to a previously-published method utilizing two solid-phase extraction steps, and consistent detection parameters after greater than 200 injections without any cleaning operations performed. This method could readily be implemented as a screening assay for glycidyl esters in most oil laboratories. PMID:21909156

  3. Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E.

    1997-10-01

    For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

  4. Direct use of sunflower oil as a heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Kurt, G.

    1998-11-01

    Vegetable oils in particular have exceptional importance since they can be used as a fuel oil (heating oil type) alternative. In this research evaluation, the possibilities of sunflower oil as a heating oil candidate have been investigated. The fuel oil property tests of sunflower oil were performed according to standard methods. An overall evaluation of data indicates that sunflower oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for heating oil.

  5. Effect of brominated vegetable oils on heart lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Y B; Chicco, A; Basílico, M Z; Bernal, C; Gutman, R

    1985-07-01

    Normal rats fed for 105 days on an experimental diet made up of standard laboratory chow supplemented with 0.5% of a mixture of brominated sunflower-olive oil (BVO) developed a significant increase in the triacylglycerol content of the heart, liver and soleus muscle compared to controls. In addition, BVO-treated rats had a decrease in plasma levels of triacylglycerol and total and HDL cholesterol. Plasma fatty acid levels and plasma post-heparin lipolytic activities, such as H-TGL, LPL, T-TGL and MGH were similar to those of control animals fed the standard chow alone. Heart PDHa (active portion of pyruvate dehydrogenase) was dramatically decreased in the BVO-fed rats. A faster rate of spontaneous lipolysis was recorded in the isolated perfused preparation of hearts from the experimental animals. The addition of 10(-7) M of glucagon to the perfusate, however, revealed a lipolytic effect comparable to the one observed in the control rats. In summary, our findings of normal fatty acids and low triacylglycerol plasma levels associated with normal activities of the various PHLA (post-heparin lipolytic activity) enzymes suggest that accumulation of triacylglycerol in heart muscle may not be explained essentially in terms of an elevated uptake and/or increased delivery of plasma fatty acids or plasma triacylglycerol. A decreased in situ catabolism of tissue triacylglycerol also appears unlikely because the spontaneous as well as the glucagon induced lipolysis in the heart both were found to be unimpaired.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4033363

  6. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils. PMID:19544589

  7. Differential scanning calorimetry study--assessing the influence of composition of vegetable oils on oxidation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Baokun; Zhang, Qiaozhi; Sui, Xiaonan; Wang, Zhongjiang; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-01

    The thermal oxidation of eight different vegetable oils was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions at five different heating rates (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15°C/min), in a temperature range of 100-400°C. For all oils, the activation energy (Ea) values at Tp were smaller than that at Ts and Ton. Among all the oils, refined palm oil (RPO) exhibited the highest Ea values, 126.06kJ/mol at Ts, 134.7kJ/mol at Ton, and 91.88kJ/mol at Tp. The Ea and reaction rate constant (k) values at Ts, Ton, and Tp were further correlated with oil compositions (fatty acids and triacylglycerols) using Pearson correlation analysis. The rate constant (k) and Ea of all oils exhibited varying correlations with FAs and TAGs, indicating that the thermal oxidation behaviors were affected by oil compositions. PMID:26471598

  8. Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    1999-12-01

    Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

  9. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. PMID:25151071

  10. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. Technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.

    1995-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During the second quarter, working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S, 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different extraction solvents were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 100[degrees]C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents. During this third quarter the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different temperatures, and different reaction times were completely examined. The effects of alkali on sulfur removal were further investigated. Best organic sulfur removal reaches 34% using ammonia pretreatment, then oil and finally aqNA2CO3 extraction.

  11. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (P<0.05) of motile cells compared to rest while no differences were found between different oil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research. PMID:23561943

  12. Rapid determination of sterols in vegetable oils by CEC using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrero-Martínez, José M

    2008-11-01

    A method for the determination of sterols in vegetable oils by CEC with UV-Vis detection, using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns, has been developed. To prepare the columns, polymerization mixtures containing monomers of different hydrophobicities were tried. The influence of composition of polymerization mixture was optimized in terms of porogenic solvent, monomers/porogens and monomer/crosslinker ratios. The composition of the mobile phase was also studied. The optimum monolith was obtained with lauryl methacrylate monomer at 60:40% (wt:wt) lauryl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate ratio and 60 wt% porogens with 20 wt% of 1,4-butanediol (12 wt% 1,4-butanediol in the polymerization mixture). Excellent resolution between sterols was achieved in less than 7 min with an 85:10:5 v/v/v ACN-2-propanol-water buffer containing 5 mM Tris at pH 8.0. The limits of detection were lower than 0.04 mM, and inter-day and column-to-column reproducibilities at 0.75 mM were better than 6.2%. The method was applied to the determination of sterols in vegetable oils with different botanical origins and to detect olive oil adulteration with sunflower and soybean oils. PMID:19035396

  13. Constraining the retrieval of vegetation properties from remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lines, Emily; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Radiative transfer models of vegetation canopies describe the interaction between incoming radiation and the land surface, and therefore provide a direct physical link between Earth observation data and the state of vegetation. Radiative transfer models may be inverted against optical Earth observation data such as broadband albedo to retrieve canopy biophysical properties, but the limited information content of the observations, computational complexity and high number of parameters of these models has historically made this approach impractical. Assimilation approaches, where extra information is used to further constrain the inverse problem are a pragmatic way of improving this situation. However, the assimilation of remote sensing data through the use of physically-based radiative transfer models is attractive because it allows quantification of errors and the use of multiple data sources. In this study we assimilate broadband visible and near infra-red albedo products which contain information on the absorptance of the surface, driven primarily by vegetation. We assimilate the MODIS albedo product using the biophysically-based radiative transfer model PROSAIL to retrieve a time-series of leaf area index and a set of leaf traits such as leaf chlorophyll and leaf water content that influence optical reflectance. To address the impracticality of inverting the radiative transfer model, we use statistical emulators in its place, a method which significantly speeds up the inversion process and provides a highly flexible approach to assimilation. We further constrain the optimisation by coupling the emulator of the radiative transfer model to a phenology model, to smooth temporal leaf dynamics. We also present the impact of including ground-based measurements of key leaf properties as prior information on inversions, and suggest that the use of existing large scale leaf trait databases to inform inversion could improve the accuracy of data assimilation.

  14. Fatty esters from vegetable oils for use as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transesterification of sunflower and soybean oils to fatty esters has been carried out to study reaction variables such as: (1) molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, (2) alcohol type (methanol, ethanol, and 1-butanol), (3) catalyst type (alkaline and acidic), and (4) reaction temperature (60/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, and 32/sup 0/C). These studies showed that ester formation was 90 to 98% complete at the respective molar ratios of methanol/sunflower oil of 4:1 and 6:1. All three alcohols produced high yields of esters. Alkaline catalysts were much more effective than acid catalysts. At both 45/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/, 97% of methyl esters were produced in 1 hr. 5 figures.

  15. [Character of the changes in the thyroid gland of animals maintained on a vegetable oil diet].

    PubMed

    Eremin, Iu N; Kalinina, N I

    1977-01-01

    The effect produced by different quantities of sunflower seed oil on some iodine metabolic rates was studied in experiments on 44 albino male-rats. Rations containing 27 and 54 per cent (in terms of calorific value) of sunflower seed oil were found to have an adverse effect on the condition of the thyroid gland. Rations with the said quantities of vegetable oil inhibit the mechanisms governing the transformation of inorganic and hormonally inactive organic compounds of iodine in its hormonally active forms. With the iodine content in the diet in an amount of 40-80 microgram this circumstance, however, does not have any essential effect on the level of the iodine binding by the thyroid tissue proteins and blood serum. PMID:602104

  16. Effect of an olive phenolic extract on the quality of vegetable oils during frying.

    PubMed

    Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Di Maio, I; Urbani, S; Veneziani, G; Selvaggini, R; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential of a phenolic extract (PE) from olive vegetation water (OVW) to limit the negative effects of frying was tested after adding it at different concentrations to a refined olive oil (RO). Its efficacy was also compared to ROs containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with a high polyphenol content. Analyses of the oils collected after 30min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h of frying at 180°C, demonstrated that degradation of the polyphenols was proportional to the original content; at a concentration of at least 400mg/kg of polyphenols, PE was able to reduce oxidation of the tocopherols and the emission of low-molecular-weight aldehydes better than BHT and with similar results to the EVOO. In addition, secoiridoid oxidative compounds were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation. PMID:25624222

  17. Highly efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid-based catalysts for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Ghiaci, M; Aghabarari, B; Habibollahi, S; Gil, A

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel has been produced by transesterification of canola oil with methanol in the presence of highly Brønsted acidic ionic liquids based on 1-benzyl-1H-benzimidazole, and the effect of reaction temperature, type and amount of catalyst, molar ratio and reaction time investigated. The results show that the 4B ionic liquid has the highest catalytic activity and best recyclability under the optimised reaction conditions. Thus, this ionic liquid is able to catalyze the transesterification of canola oil to its methyl esters in 5 h with yields of more than 95%. Density functional calculations (B3LYP), using the 6-311G basis set, have been performed to have a better understanding on the reactivity of these catalysts. The catalytic activity of 4B for the transesterification of other vegetable oils and alcohols has also been studied. PMID:20970994

  18. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  19. Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks produced from vegetable oil based polyurethane and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2008-08-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared using polyurethane produced from a canola oil based polyol with primary terminal functional groups and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The properties of the material were studied and compared to the IPNs made from commercial castor oil using dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, as well as tensile measurements. The morphology of the IPNs was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical diversity of the starting materials allowed the evaluation of the effects of dangling chains and graftings on the properties of the IPNs. The polymerization process of canola oil based IPNs was accelerated because of the utilization of polyol with primary functional groups, which efficiently lessened the effect of dangling chains and yielded a higher degree of phase mixing. The mechanical properties of canola oil based IPNs containing more than 75 wt % PMMA were comparable to the corresponding castor oil based IPNs; both were superior to those of the constituent polymers due to the finely divided rubber and plastic combination structures in these IPNs. However, when PMMA content was less than 65 wt %, canola oil based IPNs exhibited a typical mechanical behavior of rigid plastics, whereas castor oil based IPNs showed a typical mechanical behavior of soft rubber. It is proposed that these new IPN materials with high performance prepared from alternative renewable resources can prove to be valuable substitutes for existing materials in various applications. PMID:18624453

  20. Synthesis of Polyformate Esters of Vegetable Oils: Milkweed, Pennycress, and Soy.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Tisserat, Brent; Evangelista, Roque

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C), where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length increased although not as precipitously compared to the viscosity drop. By inference, derivatives of vegetable oils with short chain length substituents on the triglyceride would be attractive in lubricant applications in view of their higher densities and possibly higher viscosity indices. Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal density, viscosity, and related physical characteristics in relation to their suitability as lubricant candidates. In the absence of ready availability of formic anhydride, we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ring-opening process was smooth but was apparently followed by a simultaneous condensation reaction of the putative α-hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and pennycress derivatives exhibited low coefficient of friction and a correspondingly much lower wear scar in the 4-ball antiwear test compared to the longer chain acyl analogues earlier studied. PMID:26955488

  1. Synthesis of Polyformate Esters of Vegetable Oils: Milkweed, Pennycress, and Soy

    PubMed Central

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E.; Biresaw, Girma; Tisserat, Brent; Evangelista, Roque

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C), where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length increased although not as precipitously compared to the viscosity drop. By inference, derivatives of vegetable oils with short chain length substituents on the triglyceride would be attractive in lubricant applications in view of their higher densities and possibly higher viscosity indices. Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal density, viscosity, and related physical characteristics in relation to their suitability as lubricant candidates. In the absence of ready availability of formic anhydride, we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ring-opening process was smooth but was apparently followed by a simultaneous condensation reaction of the putative α-hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and pennycress derivatives exhibited low coefficient of friction and a correspondingly much lower wear scar in the 4-ball antiwear test compared to the longer chain acyl analogues earlier studied. PMID:26955488

  2. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2011-08-01

    Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751. PMID:21621409

  3. [Effects of vegetation types and landscape features on soil properties at the plateau in the upper reaches of Minjiang River].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang; Fu, Bojie; Ma, Keming; Liu, Guohua

    2004-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity is one of the important properties of oil. In this paper, the classical statistics method and the principles of geostatistics were used to study the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties on the Tibet plateau in the upper reaches of Minjiang River, and the relationship between vegetation type, landscape position and soil factors. Semivariogram analyses showed that there existed high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in soil moisture and soil nutrients. The test quadrats were assorted into three groups according to the landscape position and vegetation types, and then statistical analyses were made. The taxon results showed that different vegetation types had great effects on soil nutrients, and elevation was also an important factor influencing soil properties. A comprehensive index of soil properties showed that shrubs had the highest soil quality. The same trend of soil nutrients was found in the category of landscape positions. The soil nutrient contents decreased in the order of lower slope > upper slope > middle slope for the lower altitude hill, and lower slope > middle slope > upper slope for the high altitude hill. The results elucidated that the spatial heterogeneity of soil property was the result of the interaction between landscape factors and vegetation types. PMID:15139181

  4. Presence of phytosterol oxides in crude vegetable oils and their fate during refining.

    PubMed

    Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Cordaro, Francesca; Pizzale, Lorena; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2003-04-01

    The content of phytosterol oxidation products was determined in samples of crude vegetable oils: peanut, sunflower, maize, palm nut, and lampante olive oils that were intended for refining and not for direct consumption. The 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxy derivatives of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol and the 7-keto-beta-sitosterol were the principal phytosterol oxides found in almost all of the oils analyzed. In some oils, the epoxy and dihydroxy derivatives of beta-sitosterol were also found at very low levels. The highest total concentrations of phytosterol oxides, ranging from 4.5 to 67.5 and from 4.1 to 60.1 ppm, were found in sunflower and maize oils, respectively. Lower concentrations were present in the peanut oils, 2.7-9.6 ppm, and in the palm nut oil, 5.5 ppm, whereas in the lampante olive oils, only three samples of the six analyzed contained a low concentration (1.5-2.5 ppm) of oxyphytosterols. No detectable levels of phytosterol oxides were found in the samples of palm and coconut oils. Bleaching experiments were carried out on a sample of sunflower oil at 80 degrees C for 1 h with 1 and 2% of both acidic and neutral earths. The bleaching caused a reduction of the hydroxyphytosterol with partial formation of steroidal hydrocarbons with three double bonds in the ring system at the 2-, 4-, and 6-positions (steratrienes). The same sunflower oil was deodorized at 180 degrees C under vacuum for 1 h, and no dehydration products were formed with a complete recovery of the hydroxyphytosterols. A bleaching test with acidic earths was carried out also with an extra virgin olive oil fortified with 7-keto-cholesterol, dihydroxycholesterol, and alpha-epoxy-cholesterol. There was no formation of steratrienes from these compounds, but dihydroxycholesterol underwent considerable decomposition and alpha-epoxycholesterol underwent ring opening with formation of the dihydroxy derivative, whereas 7-ketocholesterol was rather stable PMID:12670187

  5. Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor for the Oxidation Stability of Korean Vegetable Oils with or without Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-Mi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the fatty acid composition could make a significant contribution to the oxidation stability of vegetable oils marketed in Korea. Ten kinds, 97 items of vegetable oils that were produced in either an industrialized or a traditional way were collected and analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and lipid oxidation products, in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Peroxidability index (PI) calculations based on the fatty acid composition ranged from 7.10 to 111.87 with the lowest value found in olive oils and the highest in perilla oils. In the absence of induced oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), the secondary lipid oxidation product, was generated more in the oils with higher PI (r=0.890), while the tendency was not observed when the oils were subjected to an oxidation-accelerating system. In the presence of the oxidative stress, the perilla oils produced in an industrialized manner generated appreciably higher amounts of MDA than those produced in a traditional way, although both types of oils presented similar PIs. The results implicate that the fatty acid compositions could be a predictor for the oxidation stability of the vegetable oils at the early stage of oil oxidation, but not for those at a later stage of oxidation. PMID:24471078

  6. EFFECTS OF FERRIC HYDROXIDE ON THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION KINETICS AND TOXICITY OF VEGETABLE OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments exhibits self-inhibitory characteristics when it occurs under methanogenic conditions but not under iron-reducing conditions. The basis of the protective effect of iron was investigated by comparing its effects on oil biodeg...

  7. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p?0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese. PMID:24434672

  8. Thermal properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/vegetable fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, Maria B. C.; Reul, Lízzia T. A.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Canedo, Eduardo L.

    2015-05-01

    The present work studies the thermal properties of composites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) - a fully biodegradable semi-crystalline thermo-plastic obtained from renewable resources through low-impact biotechno-logical process, biocompatible and non-toxic - and vegetable fiber from the fruit (coconut) of babassu palm tree. PHB is a highly crystalline resin and this characteristic leads to suboptimal properties in some cases. Consequently, thermal properties, in particular those associated with the crystallization of the matrix, are important to judge the suitability of the compounds for specific applications. PHB/babassu composites with 0-50% load were prepared in an internal mixer. Two different types of babassu fibers with two different particle size ranges were compounded with PHB and test specimens molded by compression. Melting and crystallization behavior were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at heating/cooling rates between 2 and 30°C/min. Several parameters, including melting point, crystallization temperature, crystallinity, and rate of crystallization, were estimated as functions of load and heating/cooling rates. Results indicate that fibers do not affect the melting process, but facilitate crystallization from the melt. Crystallization temperatures are 30 to 40°C higher for the compounds compared with the neat resin. However, the amount of fiber added has little effect on crystallinity and the degree of crystallinity is hardly affected by the load. Fiber type and initial particle size do not have a significant effect on thermal properties.

  9. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  10. Effects of interesterified vegetable oils and sugarbeet fiber on the quality of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Vural, Halil; Javidipour, Issa; Ozbas, Ozen O

    2004-05-01

    The effects of interesterified vegetable oils (IVOs) prepared from palm, cottonseed and olive oil, respectively, and sugarbeet fiber (SBF) on quality of frankfurters have been studied. Beef fat (10%) was replaced by one of the IVOs for 60% and 100%. Incorporation of IVOs in frankfurters improved the nutritional content of product due to altering the fatty acid composition. The oleic acid content of frankfurters increased from 28.76% to 45.57% and 47.15% as the interesterified palm oil (IPO) and interesterified olive oil (IOO) contents increased from 0% to 10% and 6%, respectively. The linoleic acid contents of 6% and 10% interesterified cottonseed oil (ICO) added frankfurters were, respectively, 10- and 19.6-fold higher than treatments without ICO. Addition of SBF (<425 ?m size and 1% level) significantly increased (p<0.05) the total dietary fiber content and water-holding capacity (WHC) of frankfurters. Incorporation of IVOs and SBF did not lead to significant changes in appearance, colour, texture, flavour or sensory scores. It is concluded that IVOs and SBF may be successfully applied as beef fat substitute in frankfurters since this combination offset some of the changes brought about by beef fat replacement. PMID:22061117

  11. Layered double hydroxide catalyst for the conversion of crude vegetable oils to a sustainable biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollaeian, Keyvan

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. has developed the production of biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, using chiefly vegetable oils as feedstocks. However, there is much concern about the availability of high-quality vegetable oils for longterm biodiesel production. Problems have also risen due to the production of glycerol, an unwanted byproduct, as well as the need for process wash water. Therefore, this study was initiated to produce not only fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) but also fatty acid glycerol carbonates (FAGCs) by replacing methanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The process would have no unnecessary byproducts and would be a simplified process compared to traditional biodiesel. In addition, this altering of the methylating agent could convert triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids to a sustainable biofuel. In this project, Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) was optimized by calcination in different temperature varied from 250°C to 450°C. The gallery between layers was increased by intercalating sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). During catalyst preparation, the pH was controlled ~10. In our experiment, triazabicyclodecene (TBD) was attached with trimethoxysilane (3GPS) as a coupling agent, and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to remove SDS from the catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the heterogeneous catalyst on the conversion of canola oil, corn oil, and free fatty acids was investigated. To analyze the conversion of lipid oils to biofuel an in situ Raman spectroscopic method was developed. Catalyst synthesis methods and a proposed mechanism for converting triglycerides and free fatty acids to biofuel will be presented.

  12. Classification of vegetable oils based on their concentration of saturated fatty acids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Mbesse Kongbonga, Yvon G; Ghalila, Hassen; Onana, Marthe Boyomo; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

    2014-03-15

    Spectrochemical analyses of organic liquid media such as vegetable oils and sweetened water were performed with the use of LIBS. The aim of this work is to study, on the basis of spectral analyses by LIBS technique of "Swan band" of C2 emitted by different vegetable oils in liquid phase, the characteristics of each organic media. Furthermore this paper proposes, as a classification, a single parameter that could be used to determine the concentration of saturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. A Nd:YAG operating at λ=532 nm and an energies per pulse of 30 mJ was focused onto the surface of the liquid in ambient air. Following ablation of vegetable oils and sweetened water, we find that vibrational bonds of C2 were released from the molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds linear. In the case of vegetable oils, we find a clear relationship between C2 emission from the plasma and the concentration of saturated fatty acids in the oil. PMID:24206726

  13. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of herbicides in vegetable oil with metal-organic framework MIL-101.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Cao, Bocheng; Wang, Zhibing; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Sui, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    Dispersive microsolid-phase extraction based on metal-organic framework has been developed and applied to the extraction of triazine and phenylurea herbicides in vegetable oils in this work. The herbicides were directly extracted with MIL-101 from diluted vegetables oils without any further cleanup. The separation and determination of herbicides were carried out on high performance liquid chromatography. The effects of experimental parameters, including volume ratio of n-hexane to oil sample, mass of MIL-101, extraction time, centrifugation time, eluting solvent, and elution time were investigated. The Student's t test was applied to evaluate the selected experimental conditions. The limits of detection for the herbicides ranged from 0.585 to 1.04 ?g/L. The recoveries of the herbicides ranged from 87.3 to 107%. Our results showed that the present method is rapid, simple, and effective for extracting herbicides in vegetable oils. PMID:25665636

  14. Antioxidant properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is relatively rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds thought to co...

  15. Elastohydrodynamic properties of biobased heat-bodied oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-bodied oils were prepared by thermal treatment of soybean oil under inert atmosphere. Different viscosity grades of heat-bodied oils synthesized by varying the reaction time were investigated for various properties including viscosity, viscosity index, elastohydrodynamic film thickness, and pre...

  16. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; KÅ‚os, Marlena

    2015-01-01

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained. PMID:26633342

  17. Phase and chemical equilibria in the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with supercritical lower alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikeev, V. I.; Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.

    2011-08-01

    Calculations of thermodynamic data are performed for fatty acid triglycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters, participants of the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils that occurs in methanol. Using the obtained thermodynamic parameters, the phase diagrams for the reaction mixture are constructed, and the chemical equilibria of the esterification reaction of free fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of fatty acid triglycerides attained upon treatment with supercritical methanol are determined. Relying on our analysis of the obtained equilibria for the esterification reaction of fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of triglycerides attained upon treatment with lower alcohols, we select the optimum conditions for performing the reaction in practice.

  18. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  19. Different kinds of vegetable oils in relation to individual cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-03-01

    Detrimental effects of trans-fats on lipid profiles, blood pressure and plasma glucose levels have been documented by short-term clinical trials with high doses of trans-fats, but limited observational studies have considered habitual consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO) and these outcome variables, particularly hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the association of PHVO and non-hydrogenated vegetable oils (non-HVO) intake with individual cardiovascular risk factors. In a cross-sectional study of 486 Iranian adult women, usual dietary intakes were assessed, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profiles and blood pressure were measured. PHVO (commonly used for cooking in Iran) were considered as the PHVO category. Sunflower oil, maize oil, rapeseed oil, soyabean oil and olive oil were defined as the non-HVO category. Diabetes (FPG ? 1260 mg/l), dyslipidaemia (based on Adult Treatment Panel III) and hypertension (based on Joint National Committee VI) were defined. The presence of 'at least one risk factor' and 'at least two risk factors' of the three major risk factors for CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) was also evaluated. After controlling for age and other potential confounders, a high consumption of HVO was associated with a greater risk of having dyslipidaemia (OR for top v. bottom quintile 5·04; 95 % CI 2·70, 9·36), hypertension (OR for top v. bottom quintile 3·03; 95 % CI 1·55, 6·10), at least one (OR for top v. bottom quintile 8·52; 95 % CI 4·41, 16·41) and at least two risk factors (OR for top v. bottom quintile 3·60; 95 % CI 1·64, 7·74), while those in the top quintile of non-HVO consumption had lower odds for all these conditions. Further adjustment for dietary intakes had little impact on these associations. Even after additional adjustment for BMI, the positive association of HVO and the inverse association of non-HVO with the above-mentioned cardiovascular risk factors remained significant, except for the association between non-HVO and hypertension that became marginally significant. No overall significant associations were found between the consumption of HVO and non-HVO and diabetes. Higher intakes of PHVO were associated with a greater risk of individual cardiovascular risk factors, while those of non-HVO were associated with a reduced risk. PMID:21251338

  20. Fatty acids methyl esters from vegetable oil by means of ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Stavarache, Carmen; Vinatoru, M; Nishimura, R; Maeda, Y

    2005-04-01

    The transesterification of vegetable oil with short-chain alcohols, in the presence of base-catalyst, by means of low frequency ultrasound (28 and 40 kHz) in order to obtain biodiesel fuel was studied. By using ultrasounds the reaction time is much shorter (10-40 min) than for mechanical stirring. The quantity of required catalyst is 2 or 3 times lower. The molar ratio of alcohol/oil used is only 6:1. Normal chain alcohols react fast, while secondary and tertiary alcohols show some or no conversion after 60 min of reaction. Surprisingly, 40 kHz ultrasounds are much more effective in the reduction of the reaction time (10-20 min). Twenty eight kilohertz give slightly better yields (98-99%), but longer reaction time, while higher frequencies are not useful at all for the transesterification of fatty acids. PMID:15590311

  1. A vegetable oil-based organogel for use in pH-mediated drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khuphe, Mthulisi; Mukonoweshuro, Blessing; Kazlauciunas, Algy; Thornton, Paul D

    2015-12-21

    Organogels prepared with vegetable oils as the liquid organic phase present an excellent platform for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic guest molecules. We disclose a graft copolymer comprised of a poly(L-serine) backbone linked to alkane side-chains by hydrolytically susceptible ester bonds, that is capable of gelating edible safflower oil. The thermoresponsive organogel formed, which is non-cytotoxic, is capable of withholding guest molecules before undergoing targeted disassembly upon incubation in solutions of acidic pH, permitting the directed release of payload molecules. The presented material offers an extremely promising candidate for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic agents within acidic environments, such as cancer tumour sites. PMID:26414286

  2. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

    2011-11-23

    Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil. PMID:22007968

  3. Artemisinin, Related Sesquiterpenes, and Essential Oil in Artemisia annua During a Vegetation Period in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Woerdenbag, H J; Pras, N; Chan, N G; Bang, B T; Bos, R; van Uden, W; Van Y, P; Van Boi, N; Batterman, S; Lugt, C B

    1994-06-01

    The active principle of ARTEMISIA ANNUA L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes artemisinic acid, arteannuin B, and artemisitene in A. ANNUA plants, during a vegetation period in Vietnam, where this species is indigenous. In addition, the essential oil content and composition were studied. Samples of leaves, buds, flowers, or post-bloom flowers and fruits were taken at different stages: vegetative (5, 6, and 8 months old), at mass formation of buds (9 months), at full bloom (10 months), and post-bloom (10S months). The highest artemisinin content (0.86% dry wt) was present in the leaves of 5 months-old plants. At this stage also the highest leaf yield was found. Subsequently, the artemisinin content gradually dropped. At the age of 5 months the highest artemisinic acid and arteannuin B contents, 0.16 and 0.08% dry wt, respectively, were found as well. Artemisitene was present at all stages of development, ranging from 0.002 to 0.09% dry wt. With 1.9% v/w, the essential oil content was maximal just before flowering and was composed of 55% monoterpenes and 45% sesquiterpenes. At all other stages (0.4 - 1.0% v/w oil) this ratio was ca. 30%/70%. The main components of the oil were camphor and germacrene-D. PMID:17236047

  4. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil. PMID:26585286

  5. Effects of an oil spill on the regrowth of emergent vegetation in a northern Alberta Lake.

    PubMed

    Wernick, Barbara G; deBruyn, Adrian M H; Patterson, Luanne; Chapman, Peter M

    2009-11-01

    Following a train derailment in August 2005, Wabamun Lake (Alberta, Canada) was exposed to approximately 149,500 L of bunker "C" oil, much of which became entrained in the abundant Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus validus) beds in the eastern basin of the lake. We assessed the regrowth of emergent macrophytes during the subsequent two growing seasons. Postspill measures of productivity, including transect length, total cover, and biomass were within the variability of prespill data collected in 2001, with the exception of a few specific areas in which biomass appeared to be affected. We conclude that exposure to oil during the late growing season in August 2005 and through the winter senescent period and regrowth in the summers of 2006 and 2007 did not cause large-scale changes to S. tabernaemontani communities. Physical factors such as cleanup activities and vegetation management appeared to be responsible for the reduced regrowth observed at some locations. Few previous studies have been published on the effects of oil spilled into freshwater on macrophyte communities; thus, the results of this study are expected to provide useful information for the assessment of future freshwater oil spills. PMID:19333646

  6. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  7. Microbial side-chain cleavage of phytosterols by mycobacteria in vegetable oil/aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang-Guang; Guan, Yi-Xin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-09-01

    Microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols to 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) by Mycobacteria has received much attention in pharmaceutical industry, while low yield of the reaction owing to the strong hydrophobicity of sterols is a tough problem to be solved urgently. Eight kinds of vegetable oils, i.e., sunflower, peanut, corn, olive, linseed, walnut, grape seed, and rice oil, were used to construct oil/aqueous biphasic systems in the biotransformation of phytosterols by Mycobacterium sp. MB 3683 cells. The results indicated that vegetable oils are suitable for phytosterol biotransformation. Specially, the yield of AD carried out in sunflower biphasic system (phase ratio of 1:9, oil to aqueous) was greatly increased to 84.8 % with 10 g/L feeding concentration after 120-h transformation at 30 °C and 200 rpm. Distribution coefficients of AD in different oil/aqueous systems were also determined. Because vegetable oils are of low cost and because of their eco-friendly characters, there is a great potential for the application of oil/aqueous two-phase systems in bacteria whole cell biocatalysis. PMID:25082765

  8. [Replacement of peanut oil used for the fortification of sugar with vitamin A for other vegetable oils available in Central America].

    PubMed

    Mejía, L A; Pineda, O

    1986-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the technical feasibility of replacing the peanut oil used in the preparation of the premix to fortify sugar with vitamin A, for other vegetable oils available in Central America. For this purpose, cottonseed, soybean, corn and African Palm oils were tested. Premixes were prepared using each one of the oils and stored for evaluation during a six-month period. A premix prepared with peanut oil was used as a control. It was found that the stability of vitamin A was similar in all premixes; less than 10% of the original activity was lost through the duration of the study. The physical characteristics of the premixes were also acceptable, with the exception of the one containing soybean oil which became caked and rancid. The peroxide content of the oils contained in the premixes increased throughout the study period. The lowest level of oxidation occurred in the premix made with African Palm oil. Its peroxide content changed only from 1.4 to 8.8 mEq/kg of oil. In contrast, that containing soybean oil showed the greatest change in peroxide from 2.8 to 130.0 mEq/kg of oil. It was concluded that it is indeed technically feasible to substitute the peanut oil by another vegetable oil, which should be low in peroxides and of high stability. Furthermore, it should not alter significantly the stability of the vitamin A contained in the premix during storage. On this basis, the African Palm oil was the most suitable one. PMID:3632195

  9. Synthesis of sustainable polymers from vegetable oil: Applications in coatings and nanoparticle surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Harjyoti

    Polymeric materials are increasing being used in many household, industrial, and health and personal care products. These materials, being either non-degradable or slow degradable, remain in the environment for a long time and are posing increasingly significant threats to the ecosystem components including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and crustaceans. Renewable resource based materials are the best raw materials for the development of sustainable products. Vegetable oil and polyglycol based novel copolymers have been synthesized in this research. Poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers were synthesized from 2-(vinyloxyethyl) soyate (2-VEOS) and tri(ethylene glycol) ethyl vinyl ether (TEGEVE) via cationic polymerization. They were used in waterborne coating as self-dispersible polymers and as surfmers. Four different copolymers were synthesized having 2-VOES wt% as 10, 15, 25, 50 and rest being TEGEVE. In addition to that water insoluble poly(2-VOES) copolymers were synthesized from soybean oil. All copolymers were used as self-dispersible polymers and their coating property were analyzed by measuring glass transition temperature, drying time, gloss, transparency, contact angle, hysteresis, tensile strength, and hardness. Results showed that the coatings can be cured by autoxidation drying process within 6.1 to 8.2 h. Results also showed high transparency (coated in glass panel) with maximum 2% absorbance which is comparable to uncoated substrate (clean glass). Copolymer having 2-VOES wt% 15 and 50 were used as surfmers to disperse poly(2-VOES) and they were cured using autoxidation method. Results showed that the curing of film can be achieved within 2.6 to 8.0 h. High gloss and transparency confirmed that the surfmers get copolymerized with poly(2-VOES). Another set of poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers with 2-VOES wt% 15, 25, 50, 75 and 85 were synthesized and then functionalized with a carboxyl group. These carboxyl functionalized polymer were used to coat nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) to enhance their colloidal stability in aqueous media with an objective of using the coated particles for groundwater remediation. Structure property analysis of the coated NZVI showed that carboxyl functional copolymer with 15 wt% 2-VOES and 85 wt% TEGEVE had the best colloidal stability of the coated NZVI (CNZVI). Treatability study with CNZVI was carried out using trichloroethylene (TCE) and arsenic [As(V)] as model contaminants. Treatability data indicated that CNZVI can degrade 85 % of TCE (initial concentration 15 mgL-1 ) within 6 h and remove 99% of As(V) (initial concentration 15 mgL -1) within 0.5 h. Results also showed that CNZVI has higher contaminant (TCE and arsenic) removable rate compared to NZVI. The biodegradation behaviors of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES- r-TEGEVE) copolymers were analyzed by respirometric, microbial growth, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies. Respirometic test confirmed 90% degradations of carboxyl functionalized poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers within 28 d. Microbial growth and GPC studies also support the data obtained from respirometic tests.

  10. [Fast analysis of common fatty acids in edible vegetable oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin

    2015-04-01

    A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ? 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil. PMID:26292410

  11. Chromium in basic foods of the Spanish diet: seafood, cereals, vegetables, olive oils and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lendinez, E; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C

    2001-10-20

    In the present study, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was used to determine the content of total chromium in some basic foods of the Spanish diet. The seafood samples, vegetables and olive oils were mineralized previously with HNO3 and V2O5. A procedure of slurries with Triton X-100 was applied to dairy products. The temperature-time program was optimized for every type of sample. An assessment of the analytical characteristics of the method verifies their reliability. The content of Cr ranged between 0.004 and 0.079 microg/g in seafood (fresh wt.), from 0.007 to 0.456 microg/g in cereals and vegetables (fresh wt.), between not detectable and 0.625 microg/g in dairy products and between not detectable and 0.040 microg/g in olive oils. The high consumption of these products conditions the fact that they should be significant sources of Cr in the diet. PMID:11669266

  12. Cuphea oil as a potential source of biodiesel with improved properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from common vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), and palm as well as other feedstocks such as animal fats and used cooking oils. To enhance feedstock supply, other vegetable oils such as jatropha are of increasing interest. However, most of these feedsto...

  13. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions. PMID:26921562

  14. Formulation and characterisation of beads prepared from natural cyclodextrins and vegetable, mineral or synthetic oils.

    PubMed

    Trichard, L; Fattal, E; Le Bas, G; Duchêne, D; Grossiord, J-L; Bochot, A

    2008-04-16

    A continuous external shaking for 2.5 days of a mixture composed of alpha-cyclodextrin (6%), soybean oil (19.6%) and water (74.4%) resulted in a calibrated lipid carrier namely bead with a high fabrication yield. The purpose of this work was to explore the possibility to substitute alpha-cyclodextrin by other natural cyclodextrins, i.e. beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin and then soybean oil by mineral (Primol) 352 and Marcol 82) or synthetic (Silicon 200) fluid 10, 50 or 100cSt) oils. Beads can be successfully prepared using Marcol 82 with alpha-cyclodextrin and Silicon 50 or 100cSt with gamma-cyclodextrin. The area inside oil/cyclodextrin/water ternary diagram corresponding to bead occurrence was superior for the Marcol 82/alpha-cyclodextrin couple compared to that observed with soybean oil/alpha-cyclodextrin couple. Only a few ratios of Silicon 50 and 100cSt/gamma-cyclodextrin/water led to beads. The combinations which did not induce bead occurrence gave either emulsions, two non-miscible liquids or a solid mixture. Whatever the materials used, beads exhibited similarities: presence of a crystalline organisation and viscoelastic properties. Manufacturing process of paraffin- and silicon-based beads need further optimisation to increase fabrication yield and later on, to take advantages from the high stability of both oils for the formulation of drugs with beads. PMID:18063325

  15. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Soil and Vegetation and Their Estimation From Spaceborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. Craig; McDonald, Kyle C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is largely tutorial in nature and provides an overview of the microwave dielectric properties of certain natural terrestrial media (soils and vegetation) and recent results in estimating these properties remotely from airborne and orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  16. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Haines, Troy D; Adlaf, Kevin J; Pierceall, Robert M; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC-TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC-TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

  17. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC–TOFMS

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC–TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

  18. Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method will be investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. During this first quarter the selection of base for pretreatment and extraction (Task 1) has been completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. About 40% of sulfur is removed from IBC-108 coal using 5% NaOH for pretreatment followed by linseed oil oxidation in air and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction.

  19. Reformulating partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to maximise health gains in India: is it feasible and will it meet consumer demand?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans fat is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases. In response to high intakes of PHVOs, the Indian government has proposed regulation to set limits on the amount of trans fat permissible in PHVOs. Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in order to optimise health benefits; however, little is known about the practicalities of implementation in low-income settings. The aim of this study was to examine the technical and economic feasibility of reducing trans fat in PHVOs and reformulating it using healthier fats. Methods Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with manufacturers and technical experts of PHVOs in India. Data were open-coded and organised according to key themes. Results Interviewees indicated that reformulating PHVOs was both economically and technically feasible provided that trans fat regulation takes account of the food technology challenges associated with product reformulation. However, there will be challenges in maintaining the physical properties that consumers prefer while reducing the trans fat in PHVOs. The availability of input oils was not seen to be a problem because of the low cost and high availability of imported palm oil, which was the input oil of choice for industry. Most interviewees were not concerned about the potential increase in saturated fat associated with increased use of palm oil and were not planning to use PUFAs in product reformulation. Interviewees indicated that many smaller manufacturers would not have sufficient capacity to reformulate products to reduce trans fat. Conclusions Reformulating PHVOs to reduce trans fat in India is feasible; however, a collision course exists where the public health goal to replace PHVOs with PUFA are opposed to the goals of industry to produce a cheap alternative product that meets consumer preferences. Ensuring that product reformulation is done in a way that maximises health benefits will require shifts in knowledge and subsequent demand of products, decreased reliance on palm oil, investment in research and development and increased capacity for smaller manufacturers. PMID:24308642

  20. A comparison of the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) oils.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Bianca Silva; Faza, Lara Pereira; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

  1. A Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) Oils

    PubMed Central

    Silva Ferreira, Bianca; Pereira Faza, Lara; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

  2. Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-02-01

    Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics. PMID:19833504

  3. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, E. Eric; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  4. [Antiradical properties of oregano, thyme, and savory essential oils].

    PubMed

    Alinkina, E S; Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D

    2013-01-01

    In model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, the antiradical properties of essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgare), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and savory (Satureja hortensis) that are similar in the qualitative composition, but differ in the quantitative content of the main components, were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol. The reaction rates of components of essential oils with the radical were almost identical for all essential oils and were twice the reaction rate of ionol. The antiradical efficiency values were close to each other for all essential oils and by an order of magnitude smaller than for ionol. PMID:23662455

  5. Microwave measurement and modeling of the dielectric properties of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Bijay Lal

    Some of the important applications of microwaves in the industrial, scientific and medical sectors include processing and treatment of various materials, and determining their physical properties. The dielectric properties of the materials of interest are paramount irrespective of the applications, hence, a wide range of materials covering food products, building materials, ores and fuels, and biological materials have been investigated for their dielectric properties. However, very few studies have been conducted towards the measurement of dielectric properties of green vegetations, including commercially important plant crops such as alfalfa. Because of its high nutritional value, there is a huge demand for this plant and its processed products in national and international markets, and an investigation into the possibility of applying microwaves to improve both the net yield and quality of the crop can be beneficial. Therefore, a dielectric measurement system based upon the probe reflection technique has been set up to measure dielectric properties of green plants over a frequency range from 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture contents from 12%, wet basis to 79%, wet basis, and temperatures from -15°C to 30°C. Dielectric properties of chopped alfalfa were measured with this system over frequency range of 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture content from 11.5%, wet basis, to 73%, wet basis, and density over the range from 139 kg m-3 to 716 kg m-3 at 23°C. The system accuracy was found to be +/-6% and +/-10% in measuring the dielectric constant and loss factor respectively. Empirical, semi empirical and theoretical models that require only moisture content and operating frequency were determined to represent the dielectric properties of both leaves and stems of alfalfa at 22°C. The empirical models fitted the measured dielectric data extremely well. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (r2) for dielectric constant and loss factor of leaves were 0.89 and 0.99, and 0.52 and 0.99 respectively. The RMSE and r2 values for dielectric constant and loss factor of stems were 0.89 and 0.99, and 0.77 and 0.99 respectively. Among semi empirical or theoretical models, Power law model showed better performance (RMSE = 1.78, r2 = 0.96) in modeling dielectric constant of leaves, and Debye-ColeCole model was more appropriate (RMSE = 1.23, r2 = 0.95) for the loss factor. For stems, the Debye-ColeCole models (developed on an assumption that they do not shrink as they dry) were found to be the best models to calculate the dielectric constant with RMSE 0.53 and r2 = 0.99, and dielectric loss factor with RMSE = 065 and r2 = 0.95. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, Keiji; Ishihara, Masami; Shimauchi, Toshitsugu; Harayama, Shigeaki

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction being more susceptible to biodegradation than the aromatic fraction in all the crude oil samples. The extent of biodegradation by acinetobacter and SM8 was found to be in the order of Arabian light > Dubai > Maya = Shengli; the crude oil samples with higher APl gravity being more susceptible to biodegradation. Saturated compounds of smaller molecular weight were preferentially degraded by both cultures. Acinetobacter could not degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples such as (alkyl)naphthalenes, (alky)phenanthrenes, (alkyl)fluorenes, and (alkyl)dibenzothiophenes. However, this strain was capable of degrading more than 10% of the molecules in the aromatic fraction of Arabian light crude oil. An NMR analysis demonstrated that the alkyl side chain of some aromatic molecules was degraded by this organism. In contrast, SM8 degraded the polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples, the extent of degradation being in the order of Maya > Shengli > Arabian light > Dubai. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F.

    1995-05-01

    Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

  8. Vaporization and carbonization tendency of vegetable oils as a function of chemical composition: morphology of carbon deposits on steel surfaces at elevated temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the volatility of a series of vegetable oils and to relate the results to the vegetable oil fatty acid profile and deposit forming tendency. Since the amount of maximum deposit is related to what remains to carbonize, volatility is a contributing facto...

  9. Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Katamine, N.M.

    2000-04-01

    Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

  10. Geophysical monitoring of vegetable oil emulsion biostimulation using cross-hole radar methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, John William, Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Application of cross-hole radar tomographic methods for geophysical imaging and monitoring of field-scale vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) biostimulation in saturated unconsolidated sediments is investigated through a combination of petrophysical modeling, laboratory-scale experiments, synthetic forward and inverse modeling, and field demonstration at a VOE biostimulation site at Fridley, Minnesota. The complex refractive index model (CRIM) model and petrophysical relationships between electromagnetic (EM) wave attenuation, Archie's law, and pore-fluid specific conductance were used to (1) predict VOE dielectric permittivity as a function of emulsion vegetable-oil fraction; (2) predict bulk dielectric permittivity changes resulting from VOE injection into saturated sand; and (3) develop methods to predict VOE saturation and changes in ground water total-dissolved-solids (TDS) based on measurement of radar slowness- and attenuation-differences. The results illustrate pixel-based tomographic inversion limitations including (1) poor target resolution; (2) overestimation of target horizontal extent; (3) anomaly blurring and streaking; and (4) a general underestimation of anomaly magnitude. In contrast, using OBI, the vertical and horizontal extent and shape of the target anomalies were accurately reproduced and anomaly magnitude errors were small, consistent with the data error. In geologic environments where VOE injection is controlled by horizontally stratified sediments, OBI slowness-difference tomograms can be analyzed to estimate VOE saturation and interpreted with greater confidence than pixel-based tomograms. Results of cross-hole radar monitoring of VOE injection demonstrate for the first time that radar-imaging methods can be used as a field scale remote sensing method for imaging and monitoring VOE biostimulation. Further more, the field study results indicate application of an appropriate inversion approach such as OBI can produce tomograms that (1) delineate VOE injectate and (2) provide a means to assess the magnitude of VOE pore-fluid displacement though estimation of VOE saturation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. FIELD STUDIES ON USBM AND TOSCO II RETORTED OIL SHALES: VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were initiated in 1973 to investigate the vegetative stabilization of processed oil shales and to follow moisture and soluble salt movement within the soil/shale profile. Research plots with two types of retorted shales (TOSCO II and USBM) with leaching and soil cov...

  12. Green Printing: Colorimetric and Densitometric Analysis of Solvent-Based and Vegetable Oil-Based Inks of Multicolor Offset Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharavath, H. Naik; Hahn, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the measurable print attributes (Print Contrast and Dot Gain) and color gamut of solvent-based (SB) inks vs. vegetable oil-based (VO) inks of multicolor offset printing. The literature review revealed a lack of published research on this subject. VO inks tend to perform (color…

  13. HPLC and HPLC-MS as tools to monitor the quality of vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HPLC and HPLC-MS have become valuable tools to analyze the “functional lipids” in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, functional foods, and conventional foods. These functional lipids include phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. These analytical methods have provided a means to id...

  14. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  15. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  16. Hydrolysis of vegetable oils and triglycerides by thermotolerant and zoopathogenic species of Aspergillus from Nigerian palm produce.

    PubMed

    Ogundero, V W

    1982-01-15

    The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. and Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Wint obtained from Nigerian palm produce to degrade vegetable oils and triglycerides and the production and activity of their extracellular lipases were studied. Both species readily hydrolysed palm oil and palm kernel oil among others liberating free fatty acids in the process. Good growth with mycelia production of both fungi were also recorded on the triglycerides used as sources of carbon at 37 degrees C with the best results obtained on palmitic and oleic acids, the predominant fatty acids in palm oil. Extracellular lipases were detected in the culture filtrates of both fungi within 48 h of incubation on an oat-meal chaff medium at 37 degrees C. Peak enzyme production occurred within the 10-day incubation period. The lipases of both fungal species were most active at a pH of 5.6 and a temperature of 45 degrees C. The best glyceride for assaying the lipase activities of these fungi was trihexanoin while palm oil was a better vegetable oil than the conventional groundnut oil used for the same purpose. Because of the zoopathogenic nature of these fungi, attention is drawn to the potential health risks which their presence on the palm products where they were obtained pose to the consumers. PMID:7040975

  17. In-vial liquid-liquid microextraction-capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Nur Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2012-09-12

    An in-vial liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the selective extraction of the phenolic acids (caffeic, gallic, cinnamic, ferulic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, benzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric and p-coumaric) in vegetable oil samples. The optimised extraction conditions for 20 g sample were: volume of diluent (n-hexane), 2 mL; extractant, methanol: 5 mM sodium hydroxide (60:40; v/v); volume of extractant, 300 ?L (twice); vortex, 1 min; centrifugation, 5 min. Recoveries for the studied phenolic acids were 80.1-119.5%. The simultaneous determination of the phenolic acid extracts was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Separations were carried out on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 ?m i.d.× 40 cm length) involving 25 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.15) and 5% methanol as CE background electrolyte in the normal polarity mode, voltage of 30 kV, temperature of 25°C, injection time of 4s (50 mbar) and electropherograms were recorded at 200 nm. The phenolic acids were successfully separated in less than 10 min. The validated in-vial LLME-CE method was applied to the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oil samples (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, pure olive oil, walnut oil and grapeseed oil). The developed method shows significant advantages over the current methods as lengthy evaporation step is not required. PMID:22884208

  18. Corn oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn oil is a popular vegetable oil in the US and in many other countries. Because of its pleasant nutty flavor, its good stability, and its popularity for making margarines, corn oil has long been considered a premium vegetable oil. Among all of the vegetable oils, corn oil ranks tenth in terms of ...

  19. One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

    2012-10-01

    A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glucosides, major contaminants of vegetable oil-derived biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Andres; Peiru, Salvador; Eberhardt, Florencia; Vetcher, Leandro; Cabrera, Rodolfo; Menzella, Hugo G

    2014-05-01

    Biodiesels are mostly produced from lipid transesterification of vegetable oils, including those from soybean, jatropha, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, and others. Unfortunately, transesterification of oil produces various unwanted side products, including steryl glucosides (SG), which precipitate and need to be removed to avoid clogging of filters and engine failures. So far, efficient and cost-effective methods to remove SGs from biodiesel are not available. Here we describe for the first time the identification, characterization and heterologous production of an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing SGs. A synthetic codon-optimized version of the lacS gene from Sulfolobus solfataricus was efficiently expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and used to treat soybean derived biodiesel containing 100 ppm of SGs. After optimizing different variables, we found that at pH 5.5 and 87 °C, and in the presence of 0.9 % of the emulsifier polyglycerol polyricinoleate, 81 % of the total amount of SGs present in biodiesel were hydrolyzed by the enzyme. This remarkable reduction in SGs suggests a path for the removal of these contaminants from biodiesel on industrial scale using an environmentally friendly enzymatic process. PMID:24265025

  1. Application of a Combustion Model to a Diesel Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Rosca; Edward, Rakosi; Comsa, Iulian-Agape; Radu, Gaiginschi

    The paper presents the application of a three component model to the theoretical study of the combustion process of a Diesel engine fueled with sunflower oil and sunflower oil-Diesel fuel mixtures. The model assumes that the working fluid consists of three components: the fresh air, the flame and the burned gases. The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation: vc·Qc·dξα=dUα+dLα+dQwα, [1] where vc is the fuel cyclic dose, Qc is the fuel heating value, ξα=vcα/vc, vcα is the quantity of burned fuel up to the moment α, Uα is the internal energy of the working fluid, Qwα is the heat exchanged through the cylinder walls and Lα is the mechanical work. The heat release law was assumed to be a Vibe type one: ξα=Rc·[1-exp(-6.9·AmPp+1)]+(1-Rc)·[1-exp(-6.9·Amd+1)], [2] where: ·Ap=(α-αd)/(αP-αd) and A=(α-αd)/(αF-αd) ·αd-start of combustion angle ·αf-end of combustion angle ·αP-end of rapid combustion angle. Using Eqs. [1] and [2] we have obtained the cylinder pressure during combustion, for the vegetable fuels taken into account; the peak values were confirmed during the experiments.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Ivo S.; Montagnolli, Renato N.; Lopes, Paulo R. M.; Bidoia, Ederio D.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms. PMID:24031989

  3. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Safieva, Ravilya Z

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000cm(-1)) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E=6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification. PMID:21397073

  4. Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of esters of monochloropropanediol in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Empl, Anna Maria; Donaubauer, Alfred; Seefelder, Walburga

    2012-05-01

    The presence of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MEs) in food is a recent concern raised due to the carcinogenicity of their hydrolysable moieties 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD). Several indirect methods for the quantification of MEs have been developed and are commonly in use until today, however significant discrepancies among analytical results obtained are challenging their reliability. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the trueness of an indirect method by comparing it to a newly developed direct method using palm oil and palm olein as examples. The indirect method was based on ester cleavage under acidic conditions, derivatization of the liberated 2- and 3-MCPD with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole and GC-MS determination. The direct method was comprised of two extraction procedures targeting 2-and 3-MCPD mono esters (co-extracting as well glycidyl esters) by the use of double solid phase extraction (SPE), and 2- and 3-MCPD di-esters by the use of silica gel column, respectively. Detection was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). Accurate quantification of the intact compounds was assured by means of matrix matched standard addition on extracts. Analysis of 22 palm oil and 7 palm olein samples (2- plus 3-MCPD contamination ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 ?g/g) by both methods revealed no significant bias. Both methods were therefore considered as comparable in terms of results; however the indirect method was shown to require less analytical standards, being less tedious and furthermore applicable to all type of different vegetable oils and hence recommended for routine application. PMID:22444428

  5. Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

  6. Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

  7. Preparation of soybean oil-based greases: effect of composition and structure on physical properties.

    PubMed

    Adhvaryu, Atanu; Erhan, Sevim Z; Perez, Joseph M

    2004-10-20

    Vegetable oils have significant potential as a base fluid and a substitute for mineral oil in grease formulation. Preparation of soybean oil-based lithium greases using a variety of fatty acids in the soap structure is discussed in this paper. Soy greases with lithium-fatty acid soap having C12-C18 chain lengths and different metal to fatty acid ratios were synthesized. Grease hardness was determined using a standard test method, and their oxidative stabilities were measured using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicate that lithium soap composition, fatty acid types, and base oil content significantly affect grease hardness and oxidative stability. Lithium soaps prepared with short-chain fatty acids resulted in softer grease. Oxidative stability and other performance properties will deteriorate if oil is released from the grease matrix due to overloading of soap with base oil. Performance characteristics are largely dependent on the hardness and oxidative stability of grease used as industrial and automotive lubricant. Therefore, this paper discusses the preparation methods, optimization of soap components, and antioxidant additive for making soy-based grease. PMID:15479006

  8. Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Results Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on β-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Conclusions Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have higher responsiveness to low dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, up-regulating the biosynthetic pathway when fed dietary VO. As global aquaculture searches for alternative oils for feeds, this study alerts to the potential of VO introducing contaminants and demonstrates the detoxifying role of intestine. Finally, data indicate genotype-specific responses in the intestinal transcriptome and proteome to dietary VO, including possibly structural properties of the intestinal layer and defence against cellular stress, with Lean fish being more susceptible to diet-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22943471

  9. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly progress report], December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.; Ho, K.K.

    1995-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During this second quarter working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S. 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different extraction solvents, and different temperatures were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 1OO{degree}C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents.

  10. Novel bio-based thermoset resins based on epoxidized vegetable oils for structural adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Shivshankar

    Conventional engineered wood composites are bonded for the most part through formaldehyde-based structural adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF). Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen; the occupational exposure and emission after manufacturing of these binders is raising more and more concern. With increasing emphasis on environmental issues, there is clear incentive to replace these hazardous conventional formaldehyde-based binders with cco-friendly resins having similar properties but derived from renewable sources, bearing in mind the economics of the structural wood composite industry. In this thesis, the curing reaction of bio-derived epoxy thermosets with inexpensive, low-toxicity precursors, including polyimines and amino acids was investigated. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were successfully crosslinked with both branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and triethylenetetramine (fETA). Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) was crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI), having different molecular weights. Curing conditions were optimized through solvent uptake and soluble fraction analysis. Finally, the mechanical properties of the optimized compositions of rigid bioepoxies were evaluated using dynamic mechanical rheological testing (DMRT). While not as stiff as conventional materials, optimized materials have sufficient room temperature moduli to show promise for coatings and as binders in engineered wood products.

  11. Increasing the energy density of vegetative tissues by diverting carbon from starch to oil biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sanjaya; Durrett, Timothy P; Weise, Sean E; Benning, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Increasing the energy density of biomass by engineering the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetative tissues is synergistic with efforts to produce biofuels by conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Typically, TAG accumulates in developing seeds, and little is known about the regulatory mechanisms and control factors preventing oil biosynthesis in vegetative tissues in most plants. Here, we engineered Arabidopsis thaliana to ectopically overproduce the transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) involved in the regulation of seed oil biosynthesis. Furthermore, we reduced the expression of APS1 encoding a major catalytic isoform of the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in starch biosynthesis using an RNAi approach. The resulting AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines accumulated less starch and more hexoses. In addition, these lines produced 5.8-fold more oil in vegetative tissues than plants with WRI1 or AGPRNAi alone. Abundant oil droplets were visible in vegetative tissues. TAG molecular species contained long-chain fatty acids, similar to those found in seed oils. In AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines, the relative expression level of sucrose synthase 2 was considerably elevated and correlated with the level of sugars. The relative expression of the genes encoding plastidic proteins involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, biotin carboxyl carrier protein isoform 2 and acyl carrier protein 1, was also elevated. The relative contribution of TAG compared to starch to the overall energy density increased 9.5-fold in one AGPRNAi-WRI1 transgenic line consistent with altered carbon partitioning from starch to oil. PMID:22003502

  12. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  13. Borehole Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment Emplacement and Geochemical Changes During Vegetable Oil Biostimulation, Anoka County Riverfront Park, Fridley, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.; Kochiss, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of geophysical investigations to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient from the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The pilot project was undertaken by the U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division, for the purpose of evaluating biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil was introduced to the subsurface to serve as substrate for naturally occurring microbes, which ultimately break down chlorinated hydrocarbons into chloride, carbon dioxide, and water through oxidation-reduction reactions. In support of this effort, the USGS collected cross-borehole radar data and conventional borehole geophysical data in five site visits over 1.5 years to evaluate the effectiveness of geophysical methods for monitoring emplacement of the vegetable oil emulsion and for tracking changes in water chemistry. Radar zero-offset profile (ZOP) data, radar traveltime tomograms, electromagnetic (EM) induction logs, natural gamma logs, neutron porosity logs, and magnetic susceptibility logs were collected and analyzed. In order to facilitate data interpretation and to test the effectiveness of radar for monitoring oil-emulsion placement and movement, three injection mixtures with different radar signatures were used: (1) vegetable oil emulsion, (2) vegetable oil emulsion with a colloidal iron tracer, and (3) vegetable oil emulsion with a magnetite tracer. Based on petrophysical modeling, mixture (1) was expected to increase radar velocity and decrease radar attenuation relative to background?a water-saturated porous medium; mixtures (2) and (3) were expected to increase radar velocity and increase radar attenuation because of their greater electrical conductivity compared to background ground water. Radar ZOP data and tomograms show increased EM velocity in the vicinity of injection wells. Comparison of pre- and post-injection datasets shows that velocity anomalies are observed only in planes connected to injection wells, indicating that the emulsified vegetable oil does not migrate far after injection. In contrast to the localization of velocity anomalies, radar attenuation anomalies are observed in all zero-offset profiles, particularly those downgradient from the injection wells. Despite the expected signatures of different tracers, increases in attenuation are observed downgradient from all three injection wells; thus, we infer that the attenuation changes do not result from the iron tracers alone. Over the period of data collection, the slowness (reciprocal velocity) anomalies are relatively stable, whereas the attenuation anomalies generally increase in magnitude and extent. One explanation for the attenuation changes is that products of vegetable oil-enhanced biodegradation (for example, chloride) increase the specific conductance of ground water and thus bulk electrical conductivity and radar attenuation. This interpretation is supported by the results of EM-induction and magnetic susceptibility logs, which indicate increases in electrical conductivity in the absence of magnetic anomalies that might result from the iron and magnetite. Based on the geophysical data, conceptual models of the distributions of emulsified vegetable oil and ground water with altered chemistry were developed. The field data indicate that, in several cases, the plume of ground water with altered chemistry would not be detected by direct chemical sampling given the construction of monitoring wells; hence the geophysical data provide valuable site-specific insights for the interpretation of water samples and monitoring of biostimulation projects. Application of geophysical methods to data from the ACP demonstrated the utility of radar for monitoring biostimulation injections.

  14. Quantifying endogenous and exogenous drivers of local properties of patterned vegetation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Daniels, K.; Penny, G.

    2013-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems commonly exhibit periodic bands of vegetation, thought to form due to competition between individual plants for heterogeneously distributed water. In this paper, we develop a Fourier method for locally identifying the pattern wavenumber and orientation, and apply it to aerial images from a region of vegetation patterning near Fort Stockton, Texas. We find that the local pattern wavelength and orientation are typically coherent, but exhibit both rapid and gradual variation driven by changes in hillslope gradient and orientation, the potential for water accumulation, or soil type. Endogenous pattern dynamics, when simulated for spatially homogeneous topographic and vegetation conditions, predict pattern properties that are much less variable than the orientation and wavelength observed in natural systems. Our local pattern analysis, combined with ancillary datasets describing soil and topographic variation, highlights a largely unexplored correlation between soil depth, pattern coherence, vegetation cover and pattern wavelength. It also, surprisingly, suggests that downslope accumulation of water may play a role in changing vegetation pattern properties.

  15. Silicon-containing soybean-oil-based copolymers. Synthesis and properties.

    PubMed

    Sacristán, Marta; Ronda, Joan C; Galià, Marina; Cádiz, Virginia

    2009-09-14

    New silicon-containing soybean-oil-based copolymers were prepared from soybean oil, styrene, divinylbenzene, and p-trimethylsilylstyrene by cationic polymerization using boron trifluoride etherate as initiator. Soxhlet extraction and NMR spectroscopy indicate that the copolymers consist of a cross-linked network plasticized with varying amounts of oligomers and unreacted oil. This soluble fraction increases when the SiST content in the feed increases, according to a lower reactivity of this monomer. The thermal, dynamomechanical, and flame-retardant properties of these materials were examined. Thermosets with glass transition temperatures ranging from 50 to 62 degrees C, which are thermally stable below 350 degrees C, and with LOI values from 22.6 to 29.7 were obtained. Their properties suggest that these materials may prove to be useful alternatives for current non-renewable-based thermosets and that the flame-retardant properties of vegetable-oil-based thermosets can be improved by adding covalently bonded silicon to the polymer. PMID:19642667

  16. Terahertz spectroscopy properties of the selected engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shouming; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Tian; Zhao, Songqing; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Cunlin

    2010-11-01

    Engine oil, most of which is extracted from petroleum, consist of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of molecular weights in the range of 250-1000. Variable amounts of different additives are put into them to inhibit oxidation, improve the viscosity index, decrease the fluidity point and avoid foaming or settling of solid particles among others. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy contains rich physical, chemical, and structural information of the materials. Most low-frequency vibrational and rotational spectra of many petrochemicals lie in this frequency range. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the THz spectroscopic studies of petroleum products. In this paper, the optical properties and spectroscopy of selected kinds of engine oil consisting of shell HELIX 10W-40, Mobilube GX 80W-90, GEELY ENGINE OIL SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 5W-30, SMA engine oil SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 75W-90 have been studied by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the spectral range of 0.6-2.5 THz. Engine oil with different viscosities in the terahertz spectrum has certain regularity. In the THz-TDS, with the increase of viscosity, time delay is greater and with the increase of viscosity, refractive indexes also grow and their rank is extremely regular. The specific kinds of engine oil can be identified according to their different spectral features in the THz range. The THz-TDS technology has potentially significant impact on the engine oil analysis.

  17. Pilot scale production, characterization, and optimization of epoxidized vegetable oil-based resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monono, Ewumbua Menyoli

    Novel epoxidized sucrose soyate (ESS) resins perform much better than other vegetable oil-based resins; thus, they are of current interest for commercial scale production and for a wide range of applications in coatings and polymeric materials. However, no work has been published that successfully scaled-up the reaction above a 1 kg batch size. To achieve this goal, canola oil was first epoxidized at a 300 g scale to study the epoxidation rate and thermal profile at different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition rates, bath temperatures, and reaction times. At least 83% conversion of double bonds to oxirane was achieved by 2.5 h, and the reaction temperature was 8-15 °C higher than the water bath temperature within the first 30-40 min of epoxidation. A 38 L stainless steel kettle was modified as a reactor to produce 10 kg of ESS. Twenty 7-10 kg batches of ESS were produced with an overall 87.5% resin yield and > 98% conversion after batch three. The conversion and resin quality were consistent across the batches due to the modifications on the reaction that improved mixing and reaction temperature control within 55-65 oC. The total production time was reduced from 8 to 4 days due to the fabrication of a 40 L separatory funnel for both washing and filtration. A math model was developed to optimize the epoxidation process. This was done by using the Box-Behnken design to model the conversion at various acetic acid, H2O2, and Amberlite ratios and at various reaction temperatures and times. The model had an adjusted R2 of 97.6% and predicted R2 of 96.8%. The model showed that reagent amounts and time can be reduced by 18% without compromising the desired conversion value and quality.

  18. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1). PMID:14987805

  19. Association of elevated blood pressure and impaired vasorelaxation in experimental Sprague-Dawley rats fed with heated vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor control of blood pressure leads to hypertension which is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to explore possible mechanisms of elevation in blood pressure following consumption of heated vegetable oil. Methods Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups: Group I (control) - normal rat chow, Group II - fresh soy oil, Group III - soy oil heated once, Group IV - soy oil heated twice, Group V - soy oil heated five times, Group VI - soy oil heated ten times. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline level and at a monthly interval for six months. Plasma nitric oxide, heme oxygenase and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were measured prior to treatment, at month-three and month-six later. At the end of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and thoracic aortas were taken for measurement of vascular reactivity. Results Blood pressure increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the repeatedly heated oil groups compared to the control and fresh soy oil groups. Consumption of diet containing repeatedly heated oil resulted higher plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme level and lower nitric oxide content and heme oxygenase concentration. Reheated soy oil groups exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, and greater contraction to phenylephrine. Conclusion As a result of consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil, an elevation in blood pressure was observed which may be due to the quantitative changes in endothelium dependent and independent factors including enzymes directly involved in the regulation of blood pressure. PMID:20573259

  20. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF SOY-BASED POLYSOAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are obtained from abundantly available and renewable agricultural products. They are also biodegradable and safe to use. These properties make vegetable oils the preferred raw materials over petroleum-based oils for the manufacture of various consumer and industrial products. Veget...

  1. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from used vegetable cooking oil by solid reusable Mg 1-x Zn 1+x O2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2011-02-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester was produced from used vegetable cooking oil using Mg(1-)(x) Zn(1+)(x)O(2) solid catalyst and the performance monitored in terms of ester content obtained. Used vegetable cooking oil was employed to reduce operation cost of biodiesel. The significant operating parameters which affect the overall yield of the process were studied. The highest ester content, 80%, was achieved with the catalyst during 4h 15 min reaction at 188°C with methanol to oil ratio of 9:1 and catalyst loading of 2.55 wt% oil. Also, transesterification of virgin oil gave higher yield with the heterogeneous catalyst and showed high selectivity towards ester production. The used vegetable cooking oil did not require any rigorous pretreatment. Catalyst stability was examined and there was no leaching of the active components, and its performance was as good at the fourth as at the first cycle. PMID:21183335

  2. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III). Finally, chapter III covers an extraction method that is more than 95% efficient in removing the tocopherolquinone from the oil waste prior to the reduction process.

  3. Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total microbial community. Bacterial richness rebounded after nine months, although community composition remained distinct from the pre-amendment conditions. Subsequent to the experiment we have isolated several of these organisms into pure culture including representatives of probable new species of Geobacter, Desulforegula and Desulfovibrio. A hypothesized model for the functioning of these limited communities will be verified in the laboratory using defined combinations of isolates from the field where possible. These results demonstrated EVO serves as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction, and subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction was likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

  4. Fatty acid-derived diisocyanate and biobased polyurethane produced from vegetable oil: synthesis, polymerization, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Hojabri, Leila; Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2009-04-13

    A new linear saturated terminal diisocyanate was synthesized from oleic acid via Curtius rearrangement, and its chemical structure was identified by FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and MS. The feasibility of utilizing this new diisocyanate for the production of polyurethanes (PUs) was demonstrated by reacting it with commercial petroleum-derived polyols and canola oil-derived polyols, respectively. The physical properties of the PUs prepared from fatty acid-derived diisocyanate were compared to those prepared from the same polyols with a similar but petroleum-derived commercially available diisocyanate: 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. It was found that the fatty acid-derived diisocyanate was capable of producing PUs with comparable properties within acceptable tolerances. This work is the first that establishes the production of linear saturated terminal diisocyanate derived from fatty acids and corresponding PUs mostly from lipid feedstock. PMID:19281152

  5. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves for use in edible vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Gonzalo; Martín, Diana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical extraction was employed to produce rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts with different composition and antioxidant activity. CO? was utilized as supercritical solvent and diverse extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, amount of cosolvent and fractionation scheme) were applied. The extracts with higher antioxidant content were selected to study their capability as natural antioxidant of several commercial edible vegetable oils. Linseed oil (LO), grape seed oil (GO) and sesame oil (SO) were oxidized under Rancimat conditions in presence of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of selected extracts. Antioxidant activity index (AAI) was estimated as the ratio of induction time in presence of extracts to induction time in absence of extract. Induction time in absence of extracts was 3.3, 7.9 and 23.4 h for LO, GO and SO, respectively. Regardless of these different susceptibilities, the highest AAI for the three oils was obtained for the extract with the highest antioxidant-enrichment (33.25% carnosic acid plus carnosol) and added at the highest level (300 mg/kg). However, at such conditions, the AAI was significantly higher (p<0.001) for LO (3.5), followed by SO (2.2) and the poorest value was for GO (1.1). Therefore, the magnitude of the AAI depended on the antioxidant-enrichment of the extracts, the level of addition within the oils, but also on the own individual oils. PMID:23196869

  6. Modeling the backscattering and transmission properties of vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. T.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; de Cássia de Souza Schneider, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

  8. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and multivariate analysis for identification of different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; Schneider, Rosana de Cássia de Souza

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources--canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans--were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

  9. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques. PMID:26041214

  10. Tailoring of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) flesh lipid composition and sensory quality by replacing fish oil with a vegetable oil blend.

    PubMed

    Torstensen, Bente E; Bell, J Gordon; Rosenlund, Grethe; Henderson, R James; Graff, Ingvild E; Tocher, Douglas R; Lie, Øyvind; Sargent, John R

    2005-12-28

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles were fed either 100% fish oil (FO), 75% vegetable oil (VO), or 100% VO throughout their life cycle to harvest weight followed by a finishing diet period when all groups were fed 100% FO. The two experimental VO diets were tested at two different locations (Scotland and Norway) against the same control diet (100% FO). The VO blend was composed of rapeseed oil, palm oil, and linseed oil using capelin oil as a control for fatty acid class compositions. Flesh fatty acid profiles were measured regularly throughout the experiment, with the times of sampling determined by changes in pellet size/lipid content and fish life stage. Growth and mortality rates were not significantly affected by dietary fatty acid compositions throughout the life cycle, except during the seawater winter period in Norway when both growth and protein utilization were increased in salmon fed 100% VO compared to 100% FO. Flesh fatty acid composition was highly influenced by that of the diet, and after the finishing diet period the weekly intake recommendations of very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLCn-3 PUFA) for human health were 80 and 56% satisfied by a 200 g meal of 75% VO and 100% VO flesh, respectively. No effect on flesh astaxanthin levels was observed in relation to changing dietary oil sources. Sensory evaluation showed only minor differences between salmon flesh from the dietary groups, although prior to the finishing diet period, flesh from 100% VO had less rancid and marine characteristics and was preferred over flesh from the other dietary groups by a trained taste panel. After the finishing diet period, the levels of typical vegetable oil fatty acids in flesh were reduced, whereas those of VLCn-3 PUFA increased to levels comparable with a 100% FO fed salmon. No differences in any of the sensory characteristics were observed between dietary groups. By blending VOs to provide balanced levels of dietary fatty acids, up to 100% of the fish oil can be replaced by the VO blend without compromising growth or flesh quality. At the same time, 75% of the dietary fish oil can be replaced without compromising flesh VLCn-3 PUFA content, thereby providing a beneficial nutritional profile for human consumption. PMID:16366711

  11. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

  12. Performance and emissions characteristics of a naturally aspirated diesel engine with vegetable oil fuels - 2

    SciTech Connect

    Humke, A.L.; Barsic, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A naturally aspirated, direct injected diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a crude soybean oil, a 50 percent (by volume) mixture of crude soybean oil and no. 2 diesel fuel, and a degummed soybean oil. The data were compared with previous tests conducted on the same engine using diesel fuel, crude sunflower oil and a 50 percent mixture of crude sunflower oil and diesel fuel. 18 refs.

  13. Interrelationship between viscosity and electrical properties for edible oils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dilip; Singh, Amarjit; Tarsikka, Paramjit Singh

    2013-06-01

    Electrical properties of edible oil depend upon its total polar component, temperature and the frequency of the applied voltage. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and electrical conductivity were measured for cottonseed (Gossypium sp.), ground nut (Apios americana), mustard (Brasicca compestriss) and sun flower (Helianthus annuus) oils in the temperature range of 20 to 100°C so as to assess the potential of their applicability for assessing the quality of oils. Viscosity of the oils is an other important physical property associated with their processing and quality control. Viscosity of these oils was experimentally measured. The correlation of viscosity with dielectric loss tangent and viscosity with electrical conductivity were tested. The best correlating relations along with correlation constants, valid for the temperature range of 20-100°C are presented. The regression equation developed relating viscosity with loss tangent and electrical conductivity had high correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.96) for all the four oils within temperature range of 20-100°C. PMID:24425951

  14. Application of kaolin-based catalysts in biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol.

    PubMed

    Dang, Tan Hiep; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production from transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol was performed by using as-prepared catalyst from low-cost kaolin clay. This effective heterogeneous catalyst was successfully prepared from natural kaolin firstly by dehydroxylation at 800°C for 10h and, subsequently, by NaOH-activation hydrothermally at 90°C for 24h and calcined again at 500°C for 6h. The as-obtained catalytic material was characterized with instruments, including FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and porosimeter (BET/BJH analysis). The as-prepared catalyst was advantageous not only for its easy preparation, but also for its cost-efficiency and superior catalysis in transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Conversion efficiencies of soybean and palm oils to biodiesel over the as-prepared catalysts reached 97.0±3.0% and 95.4±3.7%, respectively, under optimal conditions. Activation energies of transesterification reactions of soybean and palm oils in excess methanol using these catalysts are 14.09 kJ/mol and 48.87 kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:23305893

  15. Syntheses of novel protein products (milkglyde, saliglyde, and soyglyde) from vegetable epoxy oils and gliadin.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Mohamed, Abdellatif; Gordon, Sherald H; Xu, James

    2012-02-22

    The aqueous alcohol-soluble fraction of wheat gluten is gliadin. This component has been implicated as the causative principle in celiac disease, which is a physiological condition experienced by some infants and adults. The outcome of the ingestion of whole wheat products by susceptible individuals is malabsorption of nutrients resulting from loss of intestinal vili, the nutrient absorption regions of the digestive system. This leads to incessant diarrhea and weight loss in these individuals. Only recently has this health condition been properly recognized and accurately diagnosed in this country. The culprit gliadin is characterized by preponderant glutamine side-chain residues on the protein surface. Gliadin is commercially available as a wheat gluten extract, and in our search for new biobased and environmentally friendly products from renewable agricultural substrates, we have exploited the availability of the glutamine residues of gliadin as synthons to produce novel elastomeric nonfood products dubbed "milkglyde", "saliglyde", and soyglyde from milkweed, salicornia and soybean oils. The reaction is an amidolysis of the oxirane groups of derivatized milkweed, salicornia, and soybean oils under neat reaction conditions with the primary amide functionalties of glutamine to give the corresponding amidohyroxy gliadinyl triglycerides, respectively. The differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analyses, and rheological data from a study of these products indicate properties similar to those of synthetic rubber. PMID:22250811

  16. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  17. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 ?g/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 ?g/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  18. Determination of trace elements in biodiesel and vegetable oil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry following alcohol dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Eduardo S.; de Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T. C.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2011-09-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S and Zn in biodiesels and vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) has been developed. The method - based on the use of an ICP-OES instrument outfitted with a spectrometer in Paschen-Runge mount, equipped with linear charge coupled device detectors monitoring the entire spectrum from 130 to 770 nm - offers a high sample throughput as sample preparation is limited to dilution with alcohol, while all elements of interest are determined simultaneously. Ethanol is only suitable in the context of biodiesel analysis, whereas dilution with 1-propanol also allows application of the method, without any additional modification, to analysis of vegetable oils. As a result, the dilution with 1-propanol is preferable. Sample introduction was carried out with pneumatic nebulization and spectral interferences from carbon-containing compounds were reduced by cooling the cyclonic spray chamber to - 5 °C. The remaining spectral interferences in the low-UV region were efficiently corrected for by the background correction system offered in the software of the ICP-OES instrument used. Calibration was carried out against inorganic standards diluted in ethanol or 1-propanol, while Y was used as an internal standard, correcting for non-spectral interference and sensitivity drift. The accuracy of the method was verified through the analysis of the NIST SRMs 2772 and 2773 biodiesel reference materials. Additionally, as for most of the target elements only indicative concentration values are available for these reference materials, recovery tests have been performed using inorganic and organic standards. The results obtained were in good agreement with the values found on the certificate for both ethanol and 1-propanol sample dilution, while the recoveries were between 87 and 116% for biodiesel and between 95 and 106% for vegetable oils. The measurement precision expressed as relative standard deviation (n = 3) was lower than 5% and limits of detection were at the low μg g -1 level. Subsequently, the method developed has been applied to the analysis of biodiesel and vegetable oil samples from different origins. Given the simple sample preparation, the limits of detection realized, the sufficient accuracy and precision obtained as well as the high sample throughput, this method is very well suited for routine analysis of biodiesel and vegetable oils.

  19. Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

  20. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were investigated. A 90% conversion of brown grease in a semi-batch mode was obtained in 7 hours. In contrast, in a batch reaction the conversion was roughly 40% in the same reaction time. However, by pre-treating the "as received" brown grease with H 2, the conversion in a batch reactor was increased 1.4--fold; and when the H2 to BG ratio was increased to 3/1 (mol/mol), the conversion was further improved. Therefore, such a two-step processing with selective hydrogenation prior to the decarboxylation of BG improves the product selectivity. The commercial 5% Pd/C catalyst was highly active for the decarboxylation of brown grease to green diesel at 300 °C and 1.5 MPa. Second, a class of Pd catalyst supported on a silica-activated carbon nanocomposite for free fatty acid decarboxylation was developed, and displayed excellent activity and operation stability selectively for the green diesel hydrocarbons formation in the absence of hydrogen under mild reaction conditions. The decarboxylation activities of different amount of silica containing catalysts were investigated in a batch reactor under inert gas. Among them, the formulation with the fewer oxygen surface groups (Pd/Si--C--4) was the most active catalyst for the decarboxylation of an unsaturated fatty acid. The high activity of the Pd/Si--C--4 catalyst is attributed to its accessible and well-distributed metallic Pd nanoparticles inside hybrid mesopores as well as to its low acidity, weak surface interactions and inertness. Thus, Pd supported on carbon modified with silica may be regarded as a prospective decarboxylation catalyst for the removal of oxygen from vegetable oil/animal fat without the need of additional hydrogen. Third, in order to design a suitable catalyst for conversion of brown grease to green diesel, a systematic study of the model compounds--oleic acid was conducted on various catalysts in super-critical water to understand the reaction pathways in the absence of hydrogen. A Si--C support was more effective than activated carbon itself for both decarboxylation of oleic acid and hydrogenation of alkenes. In an additional effort to reduce Pd amount in the catalyst, Pd2Co/C catalysts with various Pd content were prepared and the catalytic activity study showed that 0.5 wt% Pd2Co/C catalyst performs even better than a 5 wt% Pd/C catalyst. Pd and Co alloys were very well dispersed and formed fine clusters, which led to a higher active metal surface area and hence favored the decarboxylation of oleic acid. This study showed that an alloy of Pd on carbon with a significantly low Pd content is much more active and selective to diesel hydrocarbons production from an unsaturated fatty acid in super-critical water and may be regarded as a prospective feasible decarboxylation catalyst for the removal of oxygen from vegetable oil/animal fat without the need of additional hydrogen.

  1. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Bia?ek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Dietary intake of lipids and their fatty acids profile influence many aspects of health. Thermal processing changes the properties of edible oils and can also modify their metabolism, for example, eicosanoids formation. The aim of our study was to verify whether the activity of desaturases can be modified by lipids intake, especially by the fatty acids content. The experimental diets contained rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and olive oil, both unheated and heated (for 10 minutes at 200 °C each time before administration), and influenced the fatty acids composition in serum and the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid (AA) formation. The activity of desaturases was determined by measuring the amounts of AA formed in vitro derived from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Wistar rats. In addition, the indices of ?(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ?(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined. To realize this aim, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography has been used with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection. Diet supplementation with the oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the fatty acids profile in blood serum and the activity of D6D and ?(5)-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the above activities being dependent on the kind of oil applied. Diet supplementation with heated oils has been found to increase the amount of AA produced in hepatic microsomes; and in the case of rapeseed oil and sunflower oil, it has also increased D6D activity. PMID:26094213

  2. 26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... undeveloped claims, has demonstrated the principal value of oil or gas property, which prior to his efforts... in a corporation owning oil or gas property do not constitute an interest in such property. To... from the sale of such oil or gas property or interest therein, less the deductions...

  3. 26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... undeveloped claims, has demonstrated the principal value of oil or gas property, which prior to his efforts... in a corporation owning oil or gas property do not constitute an interest in such property. To... from the sale of such oil or gas property or interest therein, less the deductions...

  4. 26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... undeveloped claims, has demonstrated the principal value of oil or gas property, which prior to his efforts... in a corporation owning oil or gas property do not constitute an interest in such property. To... from the sale of such oil or gas property or interest therein, less the deductions...

  5. 26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... undeveloped claims, has demonstrated the principal value of oil or gas property, which prior to his efforts... in a corporation owning oil or gas property do not constitute an interest in such property. To... from the sale of such oil or gas property or interest therein, less the deductions...

  6. Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

    2011-12-01

    In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

  7. Low Temperature Properties and Thermal Stability of Oligomerized Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil polymers with lower molecular weight prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) by cationic polymerization were investigated for their applications as lubricants and hydraulic fluids. The low-temperature properties were studied by measuring their cloud and pour points; while therm...

  8. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  9. Detection of Salt Marsh Vegetation Stress and Recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico Using AVIRIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill. PMID:24223872

  10. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J; Ustin, Susan L; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F; Roberts, Dar A

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill. PMID:24223872

  11. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

  12. Optical characterization of pure vegetable oils and their biodiesels using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdous, S.; Anwar, S.; Waheed, A.; Maraj, M.

    2016-04-01

    Great concern regarding energy resources and environmental polution has increased interest in the study of alternative sources of energy. Biodiesels as an alternative fuel provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. The Raman spectra of pure biodiesels of soybean oil, olive oil, coconut oil, animal fats, and petroleum diesel are optically characterized for quality and biofuel as an alternative fuel. The most significant spectral differences are observed in the frequency range around 1457 cm‑1 for pure petroleum diesel, 1427 for fats biodiesel, 1670 cm‑1 for pure soybean oil, 1461 cm‑1 for soybean oil based biodiesel, 1670 cm‑1 for pure olive oil, 1666 cm‑1 for olive oil based biodiesel, 1461 cm‑1 for pure coconut oil, and 1460 cm‑1 for coconut oil based biodiesel, which is used for the analysis of the phase composition of oils. A diode pump solid-state laser with a 532 nm wavelength is used as an illuminating light. It is demonstrated that the peak positions and relative intensities of the vibrations of the oils can be used to identify the biodiesel quality for being used as biofuel.

  13. Influence of oil properties on bed coalescence efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolovic, R.M.S.; Sokolovic, S.M.; Sevic, S.N.; Mihajlovic, D.

    1996-09-01

    Bed coalescence efficiency of oil separation from formation water was studied on model systems involving 10 real samples of crude oil and its fractions of different characteristics. Oil components were varied and all other parameters were kept constant, and high mineralization water served as the continuous phase. All experiments were realized on a commercial WO/O4 two-stage bed coalescer. Temperature, oil content, and fluid velocity were kept constant for all samples. Model emulsion was dispersed by constant stirring during the experiment to obtain primarily droplets of 20 {mu}m diameter. Correlations for predicting the coalescence efficiency as a function of some physical and chemical oil properties are presented. The investigated oil components ensured a wide span of viscosity, density, and interfacial tension. The influences of mean molecular weight,neutralization number, as well as the contents of n-alkanes, NSO, and aromatics on coalescence efficiency were analyzed. On the basis of the empirical dependences of coalescence efficiency on individual parameters obtained by regression analysis of the data, a general mathematical model was established.

  14. Multivariate analysis relating oil shale geochemical properties to NMR relaxometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Washburn, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry has been used to provide insight into shale composition by separating relaxation responses from the various hydrogen-bearing phases present in shales in a noninvasive way. Previous low-field NMR work using solid-echo methods provided qualitative information on organic constituents associated with raw and pyrolyzed oil shale samples, but uncertainty in the interpretation of longitudinal-transverse (T1–T2) relaxometry correlation results indicated further study was required. Qualitative confirmation of peaks attributed to kerogen in oil shale was achieved by comparing T1–T2 correlation measurements made on oil shale samples to measurements made on kerogen isolated from those shales. Quantitative relationships between T1–T2 correlation data and organic geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales were determined using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Relaxometry results were also compared to infrared spectra, and the results not only provided further confidence in the organic matter peak interpretations but also confirmed attribution of T1–T2 peaks to clay hydroxyls. In addition, PLSR analysis was applied to correlate relaxometry data to trace element concentrations with good success. The results of this work show that NMR relaxometry measurements using the solid-echo approach produce T1–T2 peak distributions that correlate well with geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales.

  15. Spatial variability of the properties of marsh soils and their impact on vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, V. A.; Svyatova, E. N.; Tseits, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Spatial variability of the properties of soils and the character of vegetation was studied on seacoasts of the Velikii Island in the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. It was found that the chemical and physicochemical properties of marsh soils (Tidalic Fluvisols) are largely dictated by the distance from the sea and elevation of the sampling point above sea level. The spatial distribution of the soil properties is described by a quadratic trend surface. With an increase in the distance from the sea, the concentration of ions in the soil solution decreases, and the organic carbon content and soil acidity become higher. The spatial dependence of the degree of variability in the soil properties is moderate. Regular changes in the soil properties along the sea-land gradient are accompanied by the presence of specific spatial patterns related to the system of temporary water streams, huge boulders, and beached heaps of sea algae and wood debris. The cluster analysis made it possible to distinguish between five soil classes corresponding to the following plant communities: barren surface (no permanent vegetation), clayey-sandy littoral with sparse halophytes, marsh with large rhizomatous grasses, and grass-forb-bunchberry vegetation of forest margins. The subdivision into classes is especially distinct with respect to the concentration of chloride ions. The following groups of factors affect the distribution of vegetation: the composition of the soil solution, the height above sea level, the pH of water suspensions, and the humus content.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  17. ESTOLIDES OVERCOME TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE BASED LUBRICANT SHORTFALLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable based lubricants face many challenges in their development as potential lubricants. The three biggest hurdles are cost, oxidative stability and cold temperature properties (pour point, cloud point and cold temperature storage). Distinct advantages of vegetable oils are their excellent lu...

  18. Oil Reservoir Properties Estimation Using Neutal Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, N. B.; Barhen, J.; Glover, C. W.; Aminzadeh, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. Our approach relies on JPL's adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. We believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

  19. Profiling fatty acids in vegetable oils by reactive pyrolysis-gas chromatography with dimethyl carbonate and titanium silicate.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Daniele; Baravelli, Valentina; Chiavari, Giuseppe; Prati, Silvia

    2005-12-30

    A novel methodology in on-line pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) for the fast analysis of fatty acids in vegetable oils with minimal sample treatment and the use of non-toxic reagents is described. Pyrolysis at 500 degrees C for 10 s of sub-microgram quantity of vegetable oil dissolved in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and in the presence of nanopowder titanium silicon oxide resulted in the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as unique products. Pyrolysis performed by means of a resistively heated filament pyrolyser interfaced to a GC-MS apparatus enabled the direct analysis of evolved FAMEs. The DMC/Py-GC-MS analysis was tested on soybean, coconut, linseed, walnut and olive oil and the results compared to the classical BF(3)-methanol as reference methodology. The DMC method exhibited a lower precision and was biased towards lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in comparison to the BF(3)-methanol method, but was more advantageous in terms of reduced sample treatment, waste generation and risk factors of employed chemicals. PMID:16216255

  20. Effect of feeding blended and interesterified vegetable oils on antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Reena, Malongil B; Lokesh, Belur R

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding blended and interesterified oils prepared using coconut oil (CNO) with rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO), with a polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratio of 0.8-1.0, on oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant system. Feeding blended oils resulted in significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxide levels in rats given blended oil CNO+RBO or CNO+SESO by 1.3 and 1.6-fold, respectively compared to rats fed diet containing CNO. The lipid peroxide level in erythrocyte membrane also increased in rats fed blended oil compared to rats fed with CNO. Rats fed interesterified oils prepared from these blended oils also showed increased lipid peroxide level compared to rats given CNO diet, however it was not significantly different from rats fed with their respective blends. There was a significant increase in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase after feeding blended and interesterified oils. The activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase were increased in rats fed blended and interesterified oils. These results indicated that the P/S ratio of dietary fat is an important factor in determining the oxidative stress, activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and activity of membrane bound enzymes. PMID:20937347

  1. Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

    1982-07-01

    Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

  2. Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-01-01

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

  3. Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortification is an important criteria to achieve a health impact.

    PubMed

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-11-01

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2-3 months, while PO2's shelf life was a few weeks and PO3's only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

  4. Increased intake of vegetable oil rich in n-6 PUFA enhances allergic symptoms and prevents oral tolerance induction in whey-allergic mice.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; van Esch, Betty C A M; Dingjan, Gemma M; Hofman, Gerard A; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2015-08-28

    Increased intake of vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA, including soyabean oil, has been associated with an increase in allergic disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an increasing dose of dietary vegetable oil on allergic outcomes in mice. To study this, mice received a 7 v. 10 % soyabean oil diet before and during oral sensitisation with whey or whey hyperimmune serum transfer. Another group of mice received partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) while being fed the diets before oral sensitisation. The acute allergic skin response, serum Ig level, mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) concentration and/or splenic T-cell percentages were determined upon whey challenge. When the diets were provided before and during oral sensitisation, the acute allergic skin response was increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Whey IgE and IgG1 levels remained unaltered, whereas mMCP-1 levels increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet. Furthermore, allergic symptoms were increased in naive mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet and sensitised with whey hyperimmune serum. In addition to enhancing the mast cell response, the 10 % soyabean oil diet increased the percentage of activated Th1 and Th2 cells as well as increased the ratios of Th2:regulatory T cells and Th2:Th1 when compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Oral tolerance induction by pWH was abrogated in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with those fed the 7 % soyabean oil diet during pretreatment with pWH. In conclusion, increased intake of soyabean oil rich in n-6 PUFA suppresses tolerance induction by pWH and enhances the severity of the allergic effector response in whey-allergic mice. Dietary vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA may enhance the susceptibility to develop or sustain food allergy. PMID:26179875

  5. Effects of acid, salt and soaking time on the dielectric properties of acidified vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to design a continuous microwave process for pasteurization of acidified vegetables, equilibration phenomena in acid and salt solutions must be examined with regards to changes in dielectric properties. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of acid and salt concentration o...

  6. Vegetable fuel potential. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Solly, R.K.

    1983-08-01

    The possible contribution to Defence fuels from vegetable sources is considered. Only two categories, ethyl alcohol from fermentation of carbohydrate material and vegetable oils directly from oil crops, can currently be produced with present technology in sufficient amounts to contribute to energy requirements. Liquid hydrocarbons from tree and shrub crops or microorganisms have not been produced in sufficient quantity to carry out even short-term engine trails. Ethyl alcohol is an effective gasoline extender for spark-ignition engines, but these are a minor part of Defence power units. Vegetable oils may be directly substituted for middle-distillate fuels, but a number of technical difficulties are outlined. Chemical reaction of the vegetable oils with ethyl alcohol produces a liquid fuel that has similar physical properties to petroleum distillate. Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests these vegetable-oil esters have better combustion properties in compression-ignition power units than petroleum distillate. Significant amounts could be produced in a strategic situation within a short lead time.

  7. Exotic Vegetable Oils for Cosmetic O/W Nanoemulsions: In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Tatiana A; Guerreiro, Carolina M; Maruno, Monica; Ferrari, Marcio; Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Oil-in-water nanoemulsions are stable systems with droplet sizes in the 20-200 nm range. The physicochemical properties of these systems may be influenced by the addition of additives. Thus, the influence of ethoxylated (EL) and acetylated lanolin (AL) addition on the droplet size, pH values, electrical conductivity and stability of nanoemulsions was investigated. Then, effect of nano-emulsions additives with EL (NE-EL) or AL (NE-AL) in hydration, oiliness and pH of the skin were evaluated. Nanoemulsion safety was evaluated through the observation of no undesirable effects after skin formulation application. Both additives caused changes in droplet size and electrical conductivity, but not in pH values. Nanoemulsions containing up to 6.0% ethoxylated lanolin and 2.0% acetylated lanolin remained stable after centrifugation tests. Higher concentrations of the additives made the nanoemulsions unstable. Stability tests showed that ethoxylated lanolin produced more stable nanoemulsions then acetylated lanolin and that the major instability phenomenon occurring in these systems is coalescence at elevated temperatures. Nanoemulsion-based lanolin derivatives increased skin hydration and oiliness and did not change cutaneous pH values. These formulations are non-toxic since they did not cause any irritation on the skin surface after nanoemulsion application, showing potential as carriers for pharmaceuticals and cosmetic applications. PMID:26927034

  8. Biguanide-functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 silica as an efficient solid catalyst for interesterification of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenlei; Hu, Libing

    2016-04-15

    The biguanide-functionalized SBA-15 materials were fabricated by grafting of organic biguanide onto the SBA-15 silica through covalent attachments, and then this organic-inorganic hybrid material was employed as solid catalysts for the interesterification of triacylglycerols for the modification of vegetable oils. The prepared catalyst was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and elemental analysis. The biguanide base was successfully tethered onto the SBA-15 silica with no damage to the ordered mesoporous structure of the silica after the organo-functionalization. The solid catalyst had stronger base strength and could catalyze the interesterification of triacylglycerols. The fatty acid compositions and triacylglycerol profiles of the interesterified products were noticeably varied following the interesterification. The reaction parameters, namely substrate ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst loading and reaction time, were investigated for the interesterification of soybean oil with methyl decanoate. The catalyst could be reused for at least four cycles without significant loss of activity. PMID:26616928

  9. Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils marketed in Shandong of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dafeng; Xin, Chenglong; Li, Wei; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Chu, Zunhua; Xiao, Peirui; Shao, Lijun

    2015-09-01

    This work studies on the quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible vegetable oils in Shandong, China. The concentrations of 15 PAHs in 242 samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the mean concentration of 15 PAHs in oil samples was 54.37 ?g kg(-1). Low molecular weight PAH compounds were the predominant contamination. Especially, the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detected at a mean concentration of 1.28 ?g kg(-1), which was lower than the limit of European Union and China. A preliminary evaluation of human health risk assessment for PAHs was accomplished using BaP toxic equivalency factors and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR values for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all larger than 1 × 10(-6), indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk on the dietary exposed populations. PMID:26072099

  10. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  11. Kapok oil methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specificati...

  12. Dietary vegetable oils: effects on the expression of immune-related genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) intestine.

    PubMed

    Montero, Daniel; Benitez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María José; Ponce, Marian; Torrecillas, Silvia; Izquierdo, Marisol; Zamorano, María Jesús; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The decreased availability of fish oil, traditionally used as oil source in marine aquafeeds, has lead to the search for alternatives oils. Vegetable oils (VO) are being extensively used as lipid sources in marine fish diets, inducing an imbalance on certain dietary fatty acids. Alteration on the dietary ratio of w-6/w-3 has been described to have detrimental effects on fish immunity. Senegalese sole has high susceptibility to stress and diseases, and little is known on the effects of dietary VO on its immunity. In this study, Senegalese sole juveniles were fed diets (56% crude protein, 12% crude lipid) containing linseed (100LO), soybean (100SO) or fish (100FO) oils as unique oil source. Growth, cortisol and intestinal fatty acid composition were determined after 90 days. Moreover, at the final of the experiment a stress test (5 min of net chasing) was carried out. To evaluate the effect of diets and stress on intestine immunology, expression profiles of a set of 53 immune-related genes using RT-qPCR was also performed. The use of VO did not induced changes in fish growth, but affected fatty acid profile of intestine and expression of immune-related genes. The use of SO (rich in n-6 fatty acids) induced an over-expression of those genes related to complement pathway, recognizing pathogen associated to molecular patterns, defensive response against bacteria, defensive response against viruses, antigen differentiation, cytokines and their receptors. This general over-expression could indicate an activation of inflammatory processes in fish gut. When a stress was applied, a decrease of mRNA levels of different immune-related genes with respect to the unstressed control could be observed in fish fed 100FO. However, fish fed 100LO, with a higher ALA/LA ratio, seemed to ameliorate the effects of combined effects of FO substitution plus stressful situation whereas fish fed 100SO did not show this type of response. PMID:25655325

  13. Color and chemical properties of oil used for deep frying on a large scale.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Tateishi, Sayuri; Chiue, Hiroko; Mori, Terutosi

    2012-01-01

    Acid value (AV), polar compound content (PC), carbonyl value (CV) and Gardner color of oil used for deep-frying in kitchens at a supermarket, lunch chain store, restaurant, eating house, and hospital were analyzed. All AVs obtained but one (3.38) were within the limit set by the Food Sanitation Act of Japan (AV ? 3, peroxide value ? 30). However, some oil samples had a PC over 25%, which is beyond the limit legislated by some European countries. When the relation between the Gardner color and the AV, PC, or CV of the oil was investigated, well correlated logarithmic regression curves were obtained from the oil of all kitchens except the hospital kitchen. However, the use of lard-containing canola oil without oil replenishment in the eating house increased color values rapidly. All of the values obtained from pure vegetable oil used almost daily were plotted on a graph. It was found that kitchen-by-kitchen differences in fryer, vegetable oil, frying temperature, heating time, and amounts and kinds of foods fried did not influence the relation between Gardner color value versus AV, PC or CV. In conclusion, frying vegetable oil used in large-scale kitchens without official inspection can be better controlled with Gardner color determination by the operators and administrators. This would improve the quality of the oil ingested by facility patrons. PMID:22362142

  14. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

  15. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos θ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos θ values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

  16. Properties of a Soybean Oil-based Surfactant and Its Application in Microbubble Preparation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since microbubbles are thermodynamically unstable, surfactants are usually added to improve their stability. Demand for the use of vegetable oil-based surfactants has been increasing due to safety and environmental concerns. This work investigates a soybean oil-based surfactant and its application...

  17. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  18. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID EPOXIDES FROM VEGETABLE OILS AND FATS USING ENZYMES IN OAT SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat seeds contain lipase and peroxygenase enzymes that are potentially useful for the modification of fats and oils and their derivatives. We have investigated the use of ground oat seeds as an inexpensive carrier of these enzymes for the chemical modification of oils and fats. We found that, in t...

  19. Phytotoxicity of Clove Oil to Vegetable Crop Seedlings and Nematotoxicity to Root-knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clove oil derived from the plant Syzygium aromaticum is active against various soilborne plant pathogens, and therefore has potential for use as a biobased pesticide. A clove oil formulation previously found to be toxic to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in laboratory assays was invest...

  20. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  1. Utilizing biotechnology in producing fats and oils with various nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Flickinger, Brent D

    2007-01-01

    The role of dietary fat in health and wellness continues to evolve. In today's environment, trans fatty acids and obesity are issues that are impacted by dietary fat. In response to new information in these areas, changes in the amount and composition of edible fats and oils have occurred and are occurring. These compositional changes include variation in fatty acid composition and innovation in fat structure. Soybean, canola, and sunflower are examples of oilseeds with varied fatty acid composition, including mid-oleic, high-oleic, and low-linolenic traits. These trait-enhanced oils are aimed to displace partially hydrogenated vegetable oils primarily in frying applications. Examples of oils with innovation in fat structure include enzyme interesterified (EIE) fats and oils and diacylglycerol oil. EIE fats are a commercial edible fat innovation, where a lipase is used to modify the fat structure of a blend of hard fat and liquid oil. EIE fats are aimed to displace partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in baking and spread applications. Diacylglycerol and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based oils are commercial edible oil innovations. Diacylglycerol and MCT-based oils are aimed for individuals looking to store less of these fats as body fat when they are used in place of traditional cooking and salad oils. PMID:17955995

  2. Characterization of volatile components in four vegetable oils by headspace two-dimensional comprehensive chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Wang, Xiupin; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Baocheng; Sun, Xiaoman; Ma, Fei; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2014-11-01

    Edible oil adulteration is the biggest source of food fraud all over the world. Since characteristic aroma is an important quality criterion for edible oils, we analyzed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in four edible vegetable oils (soybean, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower seed oils) by headspace comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Headspace-GC×GC-TOFMS) in this study. After qualitative and quantitative analysis of VOCs, we used unsupervised (PCA) and supervised (Random forests) multivariate statistical methods to build a classification model for the four edible oils. The results indicated that the four edible oils had their own characteristic VOCs, which could be used as markers to completely classify these four edible oils into four groups. PMID:25127643

  3. Determination of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds (dechlorane 602, 603 and 604) in fish and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Von Eyken, Annie; Pijuan, Lluís; Martí, Ramon; Blanco, M José; Díaz-Ferrero, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a flame retardant used as a substitute of Mirex since 1970s, but it was not detected in the environment until 2006. Since then, this compound and its main relatives, Dechlorane 602, 603 and 604, have been mainly studied in environmental matrices for monitoring purposes, but the dietary exposure to them has been hardly investigated so far. In the present study, we determined this family of compounds in fish and vegetable oil samples from Catalonia (Spain), most of them used as health supplements. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), after a clean up in a multilayer silica column and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a pyrenyl(ethyl) column. Concentrations of Dechlorane compounds were between below the limit of detection and 384.2 pg g(-1). Although there are only few studies about the presence of these pollutants in food or feed, concentrations obtained indicated that these compounds are in the same order in fish and vegetable oil health supplements as the few other food and feed studies. PMID:26476047

  4. A comparison of soil properties under four vegetation units from six metalliferous hills in Katanga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Donato; Gregory, Mahy; Michel, Ngongo; Gilles, Colinet

    2013-04-01

    In Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo), numerous metalliferous hills are distributed along what is called the copperhill belt from Kolwezi to Lubumbashi. Very specific vegetation developed on these hills within the miombo forest in response to very specific soil conditions, among which the copper content. Previous studies have already shown the existence of gradients of copper from the mineralized rocks outcropping at the top of the hills to the foot slopes on colluviums. After a characterization of the vertical variability of soil properties in pits distributed along the main slopes, we investigated the soil-vegetation relationships in six hills located between the towns of Tenke and Fungurume. Observation 1-square meter plots were installed in four vegetation units and sixty of them were selected according to their relative importance on the six hills. The soil from the top 10cm was sampled and analyzed for pH, Total Organic Carbon, available P, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Co and Mn and soluble Cu and Co. Analysis of variance was performed in order to assess whether the effects of the "Hill" and of the "Vegetation Unit" were significant to explain soil chemical variability. Additionally, short transects were sampled at the boundaries from adjacent vegetation units in order to evaluate the gradual or rough nature of change in soil properties under these units. The results indicate that the six hills can not be considered as different for pH and available nutrients, excepted K, nor for the available Cu and Mn. Only TOC and Co contents were differing, mainly from one hill compared to the other five. The vegetation effect is significant for almost every studied soil characteristics, to the exception of Ca and Mn. Soluble Cu and Co significantly correlate to available Cu and Co, respectively. The pH variations however explain local departures from linear regression. The ANOVA models take into account 30 to 60% of the variations of soil properties. The study of the boundaries indicate that most changes of vegetation types may be related to abrupt changes in soil properties. These changes do not only occur along the slope as a result of malachite deposition by erosion but the surface processes seem to be predominant in the context of the hills.

  5. Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2005-11-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

  6. Irradiation Effect on Oxidative Condition and Tocopherol Content of Vegetable Oils

    PubMed Central

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Tsaknis, John; Sflomos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    The effect on induction period and tocopherol content after ?-irradiation on samples of olive oil and seed oils (sunflower and soybean) was determined. In seed oil samples 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of ?-tocopherol were added before irradiation with 1, 2 and 3kGy. The results of induction period showed that, after irradiation, all samples presented a significant decreased in resistance to oxidation. However, this decrease was minimized when ?-tocopherol was added. Irradiation significantly decreased the level of tocopherols. ?-Tocopherol appeared more sensitive in irradiation process than ?- and ?-tocopherol. The addition of ?-tocopherol significantly reduced, in most cases, the depletion of the other tocopherols.

  7. Influence of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery in formation microflora and properties of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, A. G.; Altunina, L. K.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Chuikina, D. I.

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analyzes of crude oil and produced water from wells in the areas of pilot testing of new flow deflection and oil-displacing Compounds developed in the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry SB RAS. It was found that changes in the properties and Compound of the oil and water mainly occur in the redistribution of filtration flows and integration in the development of the previously unwashed areas, as well as in washing off the residual heavy oil from the reservoir rock, and in some wells - due to formation biocenosis, contributing to desorption of oil from the rock.

  8. Bioaugmented composting of Jatropha de-oiled cake and vegetable waste under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Shivani; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Balraj; Nain, Lata; Joshi, Monica; Satya, Santosh

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of microbial inoculation in Jatropha cake composting with different vegetable waste. The microbial inoculums composed of fungal strains (Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and bacterial inoculums (Pseudomonas striata as phosphorus solublizer and Azotobacter chroococcum as nitrogen fixer) were added to the compost mixture after the thermophilic phase was over for bioaugmenting of Jatropha cake under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions. Addition of both fungal and bacterial inoculum with mixed substrate (Jatropha cake?+?vegetable waste) during composting (aerobic and partial anaerobic) showed, better results as compared to compost with only fungal inoculants. Increased enzymatic activity initially, during composting (like dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity and FDA) proved role of inoculated microbes in rapid decomposition. Analysis of compost (with both bacterial and fungal inoculum) showed presence of high humus (12.7%), humic acid (0.5%), fulvic acid (5.68%), soluble protein content and low C/N ratio. Decreased in concentration of extractable metals (Cu, Fe and Mn) were recorded at maturity in all the substrate composts. The C/N ratio was significantly correlated to parameters like humic acid, humus, fulvic acid, protein and also microbial activity parameters. We conclude that the composting of de-oiled Jatropha cake with different vegetables waste could be feasible and sustainable approach in recycling of agricultural and industrial residues in huge quantities. PMID:22736484

  9. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Ma?gorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and ?-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant. PMID:24849850

  10. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils in a small scale circulation process.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel production from canola oil with methanol was performed in the presence of a base-catalyst by a circulation process at room temperature. In this process, the transesterification was accelerated by ultrasonic irradiation of low frequency (20 kHz) with an input capacity of 1 kW. The influences of various parameters on the transesterification reaction, including the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol to oil and the reaction time, were investigated. The objective of this work was to produce biodiesel satisfying the biodiesel-fuel standards of low energy consumption and material savings. The optimal conditions were: methanol/oil molar ratio of 5:1 and 0.7 wt.% catalyst in oil. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters was greater than 99% within the reaction time of 50 min. Crude biodiesel was purified by washing with tap water and drying at 70 degrees C under reduced pressure. PMID:19736002

  11. Differentiation of vegetable oils by mass spectrometry combined with statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakab, A; Nagy, K; Héberger, K; Vékey, K; Forgács, E

    2002-01-01

    The main triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of different plant oils (almond, avocado, corn germ, grape seed, linseed, mustard seed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, sesame seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut and wheat germ) were analyzed using two different mass spectrometric techniques: HPLC/APCI-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry) and MALDI-TOFMS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry).Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a multivariate mathematical statistical method was successfully used to distinguish different plant oils based on their relative TAG composition. With LDA analysis of either APCI-MS or MALDI-MS data, the classification among the almond, avocado, grape seed, linseed, mustard seed, olive, sesame seed and soybean oil samples was 100% correct. In both cases only 6 different oil samples from a total of 73 were not classified correctly. PMID:12478574

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopic determination of degradation in vegetable oils used to fry various foods.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choo Lum; Wehling, Randy L; Cuppett, Susan L

    2011-12-14

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic methods for measuring degradation products, including total polar materials (TPMs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), in soy-based frying oil used for frying various foods have been successfully developed. Calibration models were developed using forward stepwise multiple linear regression (FSMLR) and partial least-squares (PLS) regression techniques and then tested with an independent set of validation samples. The results show that the quality of oil used for frying different foods can be measured with a single model. First-derivative treatments improved results for TPM measurement. In addition, PLS models gave better prediction results than FSMLR models. For PLS models, the best correlations (r) between the NIR-predicted data and the chemical method data for TPMs and FFAs in oils were 0.995 and 0.981, respectively. For FSMLR models, the best r values for TPMs and FFAs in oils were 0.993 and 0.963, respectively. PMID:22017673

  13. Determination of the oxidative stability by DSC of vegetable oils from the Amazonian area.

    PubMed

    Pardauil, Juliana J R; Souza, Luiz K C; Molfetta, Fábio A; Zamian, José R; Rocha Filho, Geraldo N; da Costa, C E F

    2011-05-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a Rancimat method apparatus were applied to evaluate the oxidative stability of buriti pulp oil (Mauritia flexuosa Mart), rubber seed oil (Hevea brasiliensis), and passion fruit oil (Passiflora edulis). The Rancimat measurements taken for the oxidative induction times were performed under isothermal conditions at 100°C and in an air atmosphere. The DSC technique involved the oxidation of oil samples in an oxygen-flow DSC cell. The DSC cell temperature was set at five different isothermal temperatures: 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140°C. During the oxidation reaction, an increase in heat was observed as a sharp exothermic curve. The value T(0) represents the oxidative induction time, which is determined from the downward extrapolated DSC oxidative curve verses the time axis. These curves indicate a good correlation between the DSC T(0) and oxidative stability index (OSI) values. The DSC method is useful because it consumes less time and less sample. PMID:21411317

  14. Effects of partially hydrogenated, semi-saturated, and high oleate vegetable oils on inflammatory markers and lipids.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Voon, Phooi-Tee; Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on subclinical inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk are mainly derived from studies conducted in Western populations. Little information is available on South East Asian countries. This current study investigated the chronic effects on serum inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins of three vegetable oils. Healthy, normolipidemic subjects (n = 41; 33 females, 8 males) completed a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. The subjects consumed high oleic palm olein (HOPO diet: 15% of energy 18:1n-9, 9% of energy 16:0), partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO diet: 7% of energy 18:1n-9, 10% of energy 18:1 trans) and an unhydrogenated palm stearin (PST diet: 11% of energy 18:1n-9, 14% of energy 16:0). Each dietary period lasted 5 weeks with a 7 days washout period. The PHSO diet significantly increased serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein compared to HOPO and PST diets (by 26, 23%, respectively; P < 0.05 for both) and significantly decreased interleukin-8 (IL-8) compared to PST diet (by 12%; P < 0.05). In particular PHSO diet, and also PST diet, significantly increased total:HDL cholesterol ratio compared to HOPO diet (by 23, 13%, respectively; P < 0.05), with the PST diet having a lesser effect than the PHSO diet (by 8%; P < 0.05). The use of vegetable oils in their natural state might be preferred over one that undergoes the process of hydrogenation in modulating blood lipids and inflammation. PMID:20437207

  15. Impacts and recovery of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on vegetation structure and function of coastal salt marshes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill on two dominant coastal saltmarsh plants, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the processes controlling differential species-effects and recovery. Seven months after the Macondo MC 252 oil made landfall along the shoreline salt marshes of northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the surface 2 cm of heavily oiled marsh soils were as high as 510 mg g(-1). Heavy oiling caused almost complete mortality of both species. However, moderate oiling impacted Spartina less severely than Juncus and, relative to the reference marshes, had no significant effect on Spartina while significantly lowering live aboveground biomass and stem density of Juncus. A greenhouse mesocosm study supported field results and indicated that S. alterniflora was much more tolerant to shoot oil coverage than J. roemerianus. Spartina recovered from as much as 100% oil coverage of shoots in 7 months; however, Juncus recovered to a much lesser extent. Soil-oiling significantly affected both species. Severe impacts of the Macondo oil to coastal marsh vegetation most likely resulted from oil exposure of the shoots and oil contact on/in the marsh soil, as well as repeated oiling events. PMID:22369124

  16. Automated analysis of vitamin E isomers in vegetable oils by continuous membrane extraction and liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, A; Delgado-Zamarreño, M M; Bustamante-Rangel, M; Hernández-Méndez, J

    2000-06-01

    A rapid and automated method for the analysis of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols in vegetable oils is reported. Continuous extraction of vitamin E isomers from oil samples dissolved in Triton X-114 in the presence of methanol-hexane is achieved and coupled on-line with the chromatographic system. Using an acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer in a methanol-water (97:3) solution as the mobile phase, a C18 stationary phase and electrochemical detection in the coulometric mode, alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol isomers can be successfully analyzed within 17 min. Thirteen commercially available oils of olive, sunflower, corn and seed mixtures were analyzed using 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol as internal standard. The results obtained using three methodologies, one of them including classical sample treatment for liposoluble vitamin analysis, were in good agreement. To validate the proposed method, analysis of the only BCR Reference Material available, with a certified content of alpha-tocopherol (margarine CRM 122), was carried out using the automated methodology, the results found being in agreement with the certified value. PMID:10905706

  17. Physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adawiyah Norzali, Nor Rabbi'atul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil have been studied. The phosphate ester was synthesized via ring-opening of epoxidized palm kernel oil with phosphoric acid. The amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was varied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%. Acid values of PKO and EPKO were 1.85 and 1.87 mg KOH/g respectively. However, the acid values increased with increasing amount of H3PO4 with values of 10.62 mg KOH/g, 31.34 mg KOH/g and 110.95 mg KOH/g respectively. The hydrolysis of the EPKO has successfully converted it to PEPKO with hydroxyl value of 16.16 mg KOH/g, 26.90 and 35.33 mg KOH/g at H3PO4 of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5wt%.

  18. Thiolated silicone oil: Synthesis, gelling and mucoadhesive properties

    PubMed Central

    Partenhauser, Alexandra; Laffleur, Flavia; Rohrer, Julia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of novel thiolated silicone oils and their evaluation with regard to gelling and mucoadhesive properties. A thiol coupling of 220 ± 14 and 127 ± 33 μmol/g polymer for 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)- and cysteine-coupled silicone oil was determined, respectively. The dynamic viscosity of MPA–silicone raised significantly (p < 0.000001) after oxidation with iodine to a maximum of 523-fold within 1 h. During tensile studies, MPA–silicone showed both the highest results for total work of adhesion (TWA) and maximum detachment force (MDF) with a 3.8- and 3.4-fold increase, respectively, compared to the control. As far as the residence time on small intestinal mucosa is concerned, both silicone conjugates were detectable in almost the same quantities for up to 8 h with 56.9 ± 3.3 and 47.8 ± 8.9% of the initially applied conjugated silicone oil. Thiolated silicone oils can be regarded superior in comparison to commonly used silicone oils due to a prolonged retention time in the small intestine as site of action. Gelling and mucoadhesive features are advantageous for antiflatulent as well as mucoprotective biomaterials. Thus, these novel thiomers seem promising for an upgrade of currently available products for the treatment of dyspepsia, reflux oesophagitis and even inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. PMID:25660565

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and oil recovery application of biosurfactant produced by indigenous pseudomonas aeruginosa WJ-1 using waste vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-Jie; Luo, Zhi-Bin; Dong, Han-Ping; Yu, Li; Cui, Qing-Feng; Bi, Yong-Qiang

    2012-03-01

    A bacterial strain was isolated and cultured from the oil excavation areas in tropical zone in northern China. The biochemical characteristics and partial sequenced 16S rRNA gene of isolate, WJ-1, was identical to those of cultured representatives of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracted biosurfactant was composed of high percentage lipid (?74%, w/w) and carbohydrate (?20%, w/w) in addition to a minor fraction of protein (?6%, w/w). The best production of 50.2 g/l was obtained when the cells were grown on minimal salt medium containing 6.0% (w/v) glucose and 0.75% (w/v) sodium nitrate supplemented with 0.1% (v/v) element solution at 37 °C and 180 rpm after 96 h. The optimum biosurfactant production pH value was found to be 6.0-8.0. The biosurfactant of WJ-1, with the critical micelle concentration of 0.014 g/L, could reduce surface tension to 24.5 mN/m and emulsified kerosene up to EI(24) ?95. The results obtained from time course study indicated that the surface tension reduction and emulsification potential was increased in the same way to cell growth. However, maximum biosurfactant production occurred and established in the stationary growth phase (after 90 h). Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and mass spectrum analysis indicate the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The core holder flooding experiments demonstrated that the oil recovery efficiency of strain and its biosurfactant was 23.02% residual oil. PMID:22198867

  20. Cuphea Oil as Source of Biodiesel with Improved Fuel Properties Caused by High Content of Methyl Decanoate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, is an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous common vegetable oils or fats as well as new or less common feedstocks. Major issues facing biodiesel include seve...

  1. FIBER ROLLS AS A TOOL FOR RE-VEGETATION OF OIL-BRINE CONTAMINATED WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We found that fibrijute burlap cylinders filled with organic matter and inoculated with salt tolerant plants and mycorrhizal fungi promoted remediation of an historic brine scar devoid of vegetation since the 1960's. Soils in plots that received a surface treatment of hay, org...

  2. Comprehension of direct extraction of hydrophilic antioxidants using vegetable oils by polar paradox theory and small angle X-ray scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Ruiz, Karine; Rossignol Castera, Anne; Bauduin, Pierre; Diat, Olivier; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    Since the polar paradox theory rationalised the fact that polar antioxidants are more effective in nonpolar media, extractions of phenolic compounds in vegetable oils were inspired and achieved in this study for obtaining oils enriched in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the influence of surfactants on the extractability of phenolic compounds was experimentally studied first, followed by the small angle X-ray scattering analysis for the oil structural observation before and after extraction so as to better understand the dissolving mechanism underpinning the extraction. The results showed a significant difference on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds among oils, which was mainly dependent on their composition instead of the unsaturation of fatty acids. Appropriate surfactant additions could significantly improve extraction yield for refined sunflower oils, which 1% w/w addition of glyceryl oleate was determined as the optimal. Besides, 5% w/w addition of lecithin performed the best in oil enrichments compared with mono- and di-glycerides. PMID:25466101

  3. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a fivefold variation in tundra LUE was observed. LUE calculated from the functional type cover fractions was also correlated to a spectral vegetation index developed to detect vegetation chlorophyll content. The concurrence of these alternate methods suggest that hyperspectral remote sensing can distinguish functionally distinct vegetation types and can be used to develop regional estimates of photosynthetic LUE in tundra landscapes.

  4. Feasibility of using LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    Research activities conducted from February 1, 1985 to July 31, 1985 and preliminary conclusions regarding research objectives are summarized. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using LANDSAT data to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils. The general approach is to apply the climatic-climax hypothesis (Ealgeson, 1982) to natural water-limited vegetation systems using canopy cover estimated from LANDSAT data. Natural water-limited systems typically consist of inhomogeneous vegetation canopies interspersed with bare soils. The ground resolution associated with one pixel from LANDSAT MSS (or TM) data is generally greater than the scale of the plant canopy or canopy clusters. Thus a method for resolving percent canopy cover at a subpixel level must be established before the Eagleson hypothesis can be tested. Two formulations are proposed which extend existing methods of analyzing mixed pixels to naturally vegetated landscapes. The first method involves use of the normalized vegetation index. The second approach is a physical model based on radiative transfer principles. Both methods are to be analyzed for their feasibility on selected sites.

  5. Preliminary Studies on Two Vegetable Oil Based Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) for the Delivery of Metronidazole, A Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obitte, N. C.; Ezeiruaku, H.; Onyishi, V. I.

    A preliminary evaluation was carried out on metronidazole-loaded Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) using two vegetable oils-Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) and Palm Oil (PO). Purification of oils, drug solubility in the oils, pre/post formulation isotropicity tests, emulsification times and release studies of metronidazole from the SEDDS were carried out. Results indicated solubility values of 4.441 and 4.654%w/w, respectively for metronidazole in PKO and PO. Preformulation isotropicity test revealed that out of the 24 batches evaluated 10 of the SEDDS formulations containing different oil: surfactant ratios and PKO:PO admixtures were found to be isotropic after 5 h. However when the SEDDS were loaded with metronidazole there was a reduction in the number (to 7) of formulations that maintained isotropicity and stability after 72 h. All the batches had emulsification times of less than two minutes except batch 4D with oil:surfactant concentration of 50:50. The release profile showed that most of the formulations released 50% of drug in less than 8 min and 85% of drug in less than 30 min. We therefore conclude that SEDDS containing the two vegetable oils are potential alternatives when immediate release and delivery of metronidazole is the primary motivation.

  6. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. PMID:25465558

  7. Enhancing safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables using the antimicrobial and aromatic power of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; del-Toro-Sánchez, L

    2009-09-01

    Microbial and aroma attributes are within the most decisive factors limiting safety and sensory appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Alternatively, several plant essential oils (EOs) are constituted of several volatile active compounds and most of them present antimicrobial potential and had different aroma profile. Considering these premises, this hypothesis article states that safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut produce could be improved with EO treatment. EOs could prevent fresh-cut fruit decay; however, their volatile constituents could be sorbed by the produce, and according to the aroma notes of the antimicrobial oil, sensorial appealing of odor, and flavor of the treated produce might be affected positively or negatively. Specifically, garlic oil is a natural antimicrobial constituted by sulfur compounds, which are responsible for its odor and antimicrobial properties. Besides, fresh-cut tomato is a highly perishable product that needs antimicrobial agents to preserve its quality and safety for a longer period of time. From the sensorial point of view, aroma combination of garlic and tomato is a common seasoning practice in Europe and America and well accepted by consumers. Once the right combination of flavors between the EOs and the fresh-cut produce has been selected, safety and quality of the treated fruit could be improved by adding antimicrobial protection and extra aroma. Therefore, other combinations between EOs and fresh-cut produce are discussed. This approximation could reinforce the trends of natural food preservation, accomplishing the demands of the increasing sector of consumers demanding tasty and convenient fresh-cut produce, containing only natural ingredients. PMID:19895494

  8. Emergent properties of climate-vegetation feedbacks in the North American Monsoon Macrosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, A.; Niu, G.; Zeng, X.

    2012-12-01

    The ability of ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change and associated disturbances (e.g. wildfires, spread of invasive species) is greatly affected by the stability of feedback interactions between climate and vegetation. In order to study climate-vegetation interactions, such as CO2 and H2O exchange in the North American Monsoon System (NAMS), we plan to couple a community land surface model (NoahMP or CLM) used in regional climate models (WRF) with an individual based, spatially explicit vegetation model (ECOTONE). Individual based modeling makes it possible to link individual plant traits with properties of plant communities. Community properties, such as species composition and species distribution arise from dynamic interactions of individual plants with each other, and with their environment. Plants interact with each other through intra- and interspecific competition for resources (H2O, nitrogen), and the outcome of these interactions depends on the properties of the plant community and the environment itself. In turn, the environment is affected by the resulting change in community structure, which may have an impact on the drivers of climate change. First, we performed sensitivity tests of ECOTONE to assess its ability to reproduce vegetation distribution in the NAMS. We compared the land surface model and ECOTONE with regard to their capability to accurately simulate soil moisture, CO2 flux and above ground biomass. For evaluating the models we used the eddy-correlation sensible and latent heat fluxes, CO2 flux and observations of other climate and environmental variables (e.g. soil temperature and moisture) from the Santa Rita experimental range. The model intercomparison helped us understand the advantages and disadvantages of each model, providing us guidance for coupling the community land surface model (NoahMP or CLM) with ECOTONE.

  9. The Use of Vegetation For Estimating Broken-Cloud Optical Properties From Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Davis, A. B.; Wiscombe, W.

    2000-01-01

    It is known that because of complex three-dimensional (3D) radiative effects of broken clouds, the retrieval of cloud optical properties from upward measurements based on a one-dimensional (1D) inversion technique almost surely fails. To remove radiative effects of 3D cloud structure, we have developed a new technique that retrieves cloud optical thickness for broken clouds above green vegetation from simultaneous surface measurements in the VIS and Near Infrared (NIR) spectral regions. The theoretical basis of the method is the very different spectral behavior of cloud liquid water drops and green vegetation. For example, cloud optical properties, and hence cloud reflectivities, change little between 650 and 860 nm, while the vegetated surface albedo changes from 0.05 to 0.5 between the same two wavelengths. This spectral contrast in surface albedo suggests using ground measurements at both wavelengths not independently, but as an algebraic combination (a spectral index). For a spectral band in the NIR region, the green vegetation acts as a powerful reflector that "illuminates" horizontally inhomogeneous clouds from below. This provides the extra information needed to largely remove the 3D radiative effects, especially in the case of broken clouds; this in turn allows the retrieval of cloud optical depth using traditional 1D radiative transfer theory. This approach is similar to the so-called Green's function problem for radiative transfer where a laser beam illuminates clouds and the resulting "spot-size" of the reflected light around the beam characterizes cloud properties. We generalize Green's function theory to surf ace-cloud interaction and develop new spectral indices from which broken-cloud optical depth can be retrieved.

  10. Properties of Canadian re-refined base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Strigner, P.L.

    1980-11-01

    The Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory of NRC (Canada) has been examining for over 10 years, as a service, the properties of base stocks made by Canadian re-refiners. Nineteen samples of acid/clay processed base stocks from six Canadian re-refiners were examined. When well re-refined, the base stocks have excellent properties including a good response to anti-oxidants and a high degree of cleanliness. Since traces of additives and/or polar compounds do remain, the quality of the base stocks is judged to be slightly inferior to that of comparable virgin refined base stocks. Some suggested specification limits for various properties and some indication of batch-to-batch consistency were obtained. Any usage of the limits should be done with caution, e.g., sulfur, bearing in mind the rapidly changing crude oil picture and engine and machine technology leading to oil products of differing compositions. Certainly modifications are in order; it may even be desirable to have grades of base stocks.

  11. Antioxidant effect of vegetable oils containing conjugated linolenic acid isomers against induced tissue lipid peroxidation and inflammation in rat model.

    PubMed

    Saha, Siddhartha S; Ghosh, Mahua

    2011-04-25

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the antioxidant activity of two typical oils obtained from two vegetables, bitter gourd seed and snake gourd seed, containing two different isomers of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) against oxidative stress induced by sodium arsenite in relation to tissue lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Male albino rats were taken as subject and divided into six groups: Group 1 was control and Group 2 was treated with sodium arsenite (Sa; 10mg/Kg BW); Groups 3-6 were orally treated with different doses of seed oils maintaining definite concentration of CLnA isomers (0.5% and 1.0% of total lipid for each CLnA isomer) along with sodium arsenite. There was significant increase in lipid peroxidation, pro-oxidant enzyme activity and decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity in brain due to Sa administration. Decrease in total protein content was also observed in plasma, liver and brain of Sa treated group. Significant decrease in phospholipid content and increase in total lipid content and cholesterol content were observed in arsenite treated group. There was significant increase in relative organ weight of liver due to Sa administration. Fatty acid profile of liver and brain lipid shows significant (P<0.05) reduction in most of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and increase in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) (75.23%) due to inflammation after arsenite treatment. Administration of experimental oils made almost complete restoration of those altered parameters. Overall, these two oils were effective in protecting tissue lipid profiles which were altered due to oxidative stress. PMID:21382362

  12. Nanofluid enhancement of mineral oil and thermal properties instrument design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Eli

    There are two purposes of this research, to design and build a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids and to determine if the increased heat transfer capabilities of nanofluids can be applied to cooling transformers by using the heat transfer cell to measure the enhancement. The design and construction of a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids was successful. A heat transfer cell was built and tested on several fluids to confirm the accuracy of the design and the experiments. Three fluids were successfully tested overall for their thermal conductivity values, and one fluid was tested for its convection coefficients in the heat transfer cells. Values for the thermal conductivity and the convection coefficients were obtained during this experiment that agreed with commonly accepted values for the testing fluids. The average value for the thermal conductivities for mineral oil of the first design in the ¼" diameter cell is 0.15W/ m2c', and agrees well with the commonly accepted values of mineral oils. The value commonly accepted value of thermal conductivity for mineral oil is 0.14W/m2c' at 25°C, the first heat transfer cell yielded a thermal conductivity value of approximately 0.16W/m2 c' at roughly 25C. The heat transfer cell was also used to calculated convection coefficients of mineral oil, and values were obtained within the limits for natural convection according to Incropera, contributing more to the validity of the results from this heat transfer cell. A second heat transfer cell was designed to determine the thermal conductivities of more thermally sensitive fluids, offering a wider range of materials that can be tested. The second design places the thermocouples directly at their assumed position of the wire and the wall temperatures for calculation purposes, yielding more accurate results and can therefore more accurately calculate the thermal conductivities of various fluids. The second design calculated a thermal conductivity of water to be 0.59W/m2 c', while the commonly accepted value is 0.58W/ m2c', which is well within a tolerable range of error to accept this value as accurate at the experimental conditions. This heat transfer cell also calculated the thermal conductivity value for AMSOIL synthetic motor oil to be 0.12W/m2 c and 0.10W/m2c for mineral oil, both of these values are within the expected ranges of thermal conductivity for oils. The second goal of applying the heat transfer enhancement properties of a nanofluid to a transformer cooling application proved to be futile for Copper Oxide(40nm) and Carbon coated Copper nanoparticles(25nm) in mineral oil. All of the attempted nanofluids fell out of suspension within a timeframe of a day, and in a transformer cell where natural convection is the only means of flow available that contributes to keeping the nanoparticles suspended, there is not enough flow to keep the nanoparticles from falling out of suspension. That is why unless the transformer industry moves towards another coolant besides mineral oil, heat transfer enhancement using Copper Oxide (40nm) or Carbon Coated nanoparticles (25nm) in a mineral oil nanofluid is not a viable option.

  13. Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, M. W.; Kang, I. J.; Kwon, J. H.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, T.

    1995-02-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans (0-10kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increase induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal content remarkably increased as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans.

  14. Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Il-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Hayashi, Yukako; Mori, Tomohiko

    1996-02-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans (0-10 kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal increased remarkably as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  16. Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films. PMID:19895483

  17. Phosphatidylcholine/vegetable oil pseudo-binary mixtures at the air-water interface: predictive formulation of oil blends with selected surface behavior.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Benjamín; Maestri, Damián M; Perillo, María A

    2010-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to define how to formulate oil blends with an expected surface behavior using easily accessible data such as chemical compositions. Hence, we determined average surface properties of triglycerides (TG) from olive (O), soybean (S), and walnut (W) oils self-organized in Langmuir films alone or in pseudo-binary mixtures with phosphatidylcholines (PC). Collapse pressure (pi(c)), compressibility modulus (K) and molecular area at the closest packing (A(min)) were determined from pi-mean molecular area (Mma) isotherms. The pi(c)-composition phase diagrams of TG-PC mixtures provided information about oils solubility limit with PCs in the monolayer phase. A thermodynamic equilibrium model was fitted to the line joining points of monolayer-TG(liquid phase) coexistence and allowed to obtain interaction parameters, omega, which consistently with those of excess surface energy (Delta G(ex)) and Mma deviations from ideality, contributed to describe interfacial intermolecular interactions. Oil molar fractions (x(TG)) for TGs-PCs self-assembling into vesicles were estimated from x(TG) values at pi(c) congruent with 30 mN/m (equilibrium pi of bilayers), which resulted higher in egg PC (0.15, 0.2, 0.15 for O, S and W, respectively) than in dipalmitoyl-PC (0.125, 0.075, 0.1). Principal component analysis performed on surface parameters, grouped S and W separated from O. This result was mainly influenced by variables estimating the effect of unsaturation degrees of fatty acids sterified at TGs, A(min) and pi(c). Peanut oils surface data interpolated in pi(c)-C16/C18 and A(min)-DBI correlation lines obtained with O-S mixtures (TG(mix)) and with TG(mix)-PC supported C16/C18 ratio and DBI as predictors to formulate oil blends with selected surface behavior. PMID:19735993

  18. Evidence contrary to the accepted Diels-Alder mechanism in the thermal modification of vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A transesterified oleochemical product has been made using two routes. Soybean oil was thermally polymerized anaerobically at 330 deg C. and the material was then transesterified using base catalyst and methanol. Alternatively, a similar product can be obtained by heating methyl linoleate to the sam...

  19. Synthesis of polyformate esters of vegetable oils: Milkweed, pennycress and soy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, atten...

  20. Synthesis of formyl esters of vegetable oils: Milkweed, Pennycress and Soy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus, from the polyhydroxyl starting material, att...