Sample records for vehicle accidents mvas

  1. A field evaluation of real-life motor vehicle accidents: Presence of unrestrained objects and their association with distribution and severity of patient injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Eken; Trond Boye Hansen; Petter Andreas Steen; Signe Sřvik

    Moving objects may pose an added threat to car occupants in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). However, to our knowledge, there have only been two case studies published on the subject. For the present study, accident reports and photo documentation from MVAs were collected on-scene by dedicated paramedics. Emergency medical service personnel on-scene were interviewed as necessary. Potentially harmful unrestrained objects

  2. Brief, Early Treatment for ASD/PTSD Following Motor Vehicle Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling, Edward J.; Blanchard, Edward B.; Kuhn, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Early, brief interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) secondary to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) have historically been, with few exceptions, unsuccessful with single session or even very brief (3 to 6 sessions) interventions. In contrast, very intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) applied over the first 6 to 8 weeks…

  3. Motor vehicle accidents: how should cirrhotic patients be managed?

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Sata, Michio

    2012-06-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are serious social issues worldwide and driver illness is an important cause of MVAs. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a complex cognitive dysfunction with attention deficit, which frequently occurs in cirrhotic patients independent of severity of liver disease. Although MHE is known as a risk factor for MVAs, the impact of diagnosis and treatment of MHE on MVA-related societal costs is largely unknown. Recently, Bajaj et al demonstrated valuable findings that the diagnosis of MHE by rapid screening using the inhibitory control test (ICT), and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce the societal costs by preventing MVAs. Besides the ICT and lactulose, there are various diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for MHE. In this commentary, we discussed a current issue of diagnostic tools for MHE, including neuropsychological tests. We also discussed the advantages of the other therapeutic strategies for MHE, such as intake of a regular breakfast and coffee, and supplementation with zinc and branched chain amino acids, on the MVA-related societal costs. PMID:22690067

  4. Psychological morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, E B; Hickling, E J; Taylor, A E; Loos, W R; Gerardi, R J

    1994-03-01

    Fifty victims of recent motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), who had sought medical attention after their accidents, were assessed for possible psychological morbidity as a result of the accident. Forty age, gender-matched controls were also assessed with the same instruments. Forty-six percent of the MVA victims met the criteria for current post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) as a result of the accident while 20% showed a sub-syndromal version (the reexperiencing symptom cluster plus either the avoidance/numbing cluster or the over-arousal cluster) of PTSD. Although all MVA victims showed some form of driving reluctance, only 1 S met the criteria for driving phobia. Those MVA victims who met the criteria for PTSD or sub-syndromal PTSD were significantly more likely to have experienced previous trauma, other than a serious MVA, and were more likely (P = 0.008) to have previously met the criteria for PTSD as a result of that trauma. Forty-eight percent of MVA victims who met the criteria for current PTSD also met the criteria for current major depression. Significantly more current MVA-PTSDs had suffered previous major depressive episodes. PMID:8192626

  5. Reducing commercial vehicle accidents through accident databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Will Murray; Tony Whiteing

    1995-01-01

    Commercial vehicle accidents impose very significant costs on industry and society but for a variety of reasons the full costs are often poorly understood. Advocates that vehicle operators should undertake a full and systematic analysis of accident levels, causes and costs. Introduces the CCSM model of vehicle accident reduction. By undertaking analysis based on this approach, most vehicle operators should

  6. Psychotropic drugs and risk of motor vehicle accidents: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Wu, Erin Chia-Hsuan; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Chau, Yeuk-Lun; Wu, Chi-Shin; Lin, Keh-Ming; Tsai, Hui-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine comprehensively the relationship between exposure to four classes of psychotropic drugs including antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines (BZDs) and Z-drugs, and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Method The authors conducted a matched case-control study of 5183 subjects with MVAs and 31 093 matched controls, identified from the claims records of outpatient service visits during the period from 2000 to 2009. Inclusion criteria were defined as subjects aged equal to or more than 18 years and involved in MVAs. Conditional logistic regressions with covariates adjustment (including urbanity, psychiatric and non-psychiatric outpatient visits and Charlson comorbidity score) were applied to examine the effect of four classes of psychotropic drugs on MVAs. Results Significant increased risk of MVAs was found in subjects taking antidepressants within 1 month (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 2.22), 1 week (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.29, 2.26), and 1 day (AOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.26, 2.29) before MVAs occurred. Similar results were observed in subjects taking benzodiazepines (BZDs) (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.38, 1.75 for 1 month; AOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43, 1.88 for 1 week, and AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.39, 1.88 for 1 day) and Z-drugs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.14, 1.76 for 1 month, AOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06, 1.75 for 1 week, AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03, 1.75 for 1 day), but not antipsychotics. Moreover, significant dose effects of antidepressants (equal to or more than 0.6–1.0 DDD), BZDs (equal to or more than 0.1–0.5 DDD) and Z-drugs (more than 1 DDD) were observed, respectively, on the risk of experiencing an MVA. Conclusion Taken together, subjects taking antidepressants, BZDs and Z-drugs, separately, should be particularly cautioned for their increasing risk of MVAs. PMID:22971090

  7. 36 CFR 4.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Report of motor vehicle accident. 4.4 Section 4.4...THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property...

  8. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Report of motor vehicle accident. 1004.4 Section 1004...PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property...

  9. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Report of motor vehicle accident. 1004.4 Section 1004...PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property...

  10. 36 CFR 4.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Report of motor vehicle accident. 4.4 Section 4.4...THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property...

  11. Alcohol- or drug-use disorders and motor vehicle accident mortality: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Russell C; Gatley, Jodi M; Veldhuizen, Scott; Lev-Ran, Shaul; Mann, Robert; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-04-01

    A large body of research has linked alcohol consumption and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), but far fewer studies have estimated the risk of MVA fatality among drug users. Our study addresses this gap. We identified cohorts of individuals hospitalized in California from 1990 to 2005 with ICD-9 diagnoses of methamphetamine- (n=74,170), alcohol- (n=592,406), opioids- (n=68,066), cannabis- (n=47,048), cocaine- (n=48,949), or polydrug-related disorders (n=411,175), and these groups were followed for up to 16 years. Age-, sex-, and race-adjusted standardized mortality rates (SMRs) for deaths due to MVAs were generated in relation to the California general population. Standardized MVA mortality ratios were elevated across all drug cohorts: alcohol (4.5, 95% CI, 4.1-4.9), cocaine (3.8, 95% CI, 2.3-5.3), opioids (2.8, 95% CI, 2.1-3.5), methamphetamine (2.6, 95% CI, 2-3.1), cannabis (2.3, 95% CI, 1.5-3.2) and polydrug (2.6, 95% CI, 2.4-2.9). Males and females had similar MVA SMRs. Our large, population-based study found elevated risk of MVA mortality across all cohorts of individuals with alcohol- or drug-use disorders. Given that illicit drug users are often unaware of or misperceive the impacts of drug use on safe driving, it may be important for health-service or public-health interventions to address such biases and improve road safety. PMID:23434842

  12. Accident externality and vehicle size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Jonsson; Gunnar Lindberg

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle mass is a crucial factor for the distribution of injuries between occupants in involved vehicles in a two-vehicle crash. A larger vehicle mass protects the occupants in the vehicle while on the same time inflicts a higher injury risk on the occupants in the collision partner. This mass externality can be internalized to reach a situation where the drivers

  13. Sleep related vehicle accidents on italian highways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Garbarino; L. Nobili; M. Beelke; F. De Carli; V. Balestra; F. Ferrillo

    2001-01-01

    Sleepiness has been identified as a significant risk factor for vehicle accidents, and specific surveys are needed for Italy. The aim of this study was to assess incidence and characteristics of sleep-related vehicle-crashes on Italian highways. The database of the Italian National Institute of Statistics (1993-1997) was the source for the survey (50859 accidents with 1632 (3,2 %) ascribed to

  14. Multiple-vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelvin K. W. Yau; H. P. Lo; Sherrice H. H. Fung

    2006-01-01

    ‘Multiple-vehicle traffic accident’ refers to a crash between two or more moving objects. Unlike single-vehicle accidents, not all drivers involving in a multiple-vehicle accident are responsible for the occurrence of the event. Accordingly, variables such as road type, speed limit and number of vehicles involved in the accident are expected to play a much more important role in association with

  15. Cervical spine injuries from motor vehicle accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yoganandan; D. J. Maiman; F. A. Pintar

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the study was to delineate the critical regions of the human cervical spine and determine the mechanisms of injury in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). The clinical data were gathered from patient records. Results indicated that while neck injuries in MVA are complex and can occur at any level of the cervical spine, the craniocervical junction (among fatalities)

  16. Autonomous vehicle development: No accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Wax

    2008-01-01

    The Insight Racing team in Cary, North Carolina, began turning a bright-blue Lotus Elise into a driverless vehicle that could compete in a robotic car race. The mission of DARPApsilas ldquoGrand Challengerdquo, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, part of the U.S. Department of Defense, is to develop technology with military applications. When, in 2001, Congress mandated that at least

  17. Multiple-vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yau, Kelvin K W; Lo, H P; Fung, Sherrice H H

    2006-11-01

    'Multiple-vehicle traffic accident' refers to a crash between two or more moving objects. Unlike single-vehicle accidents, not all drivers involving in a multiple-vehicle accident are responsible for the occurrence of the event. Accordingly, variables such as road type, speed limit and number of vehicles involved in the accident are expected to play a much more important role in association with injury severity in multiple-vehicle accidents. To study the factors influencing injury severity of multiple-vehicle traffic accidents, a population-based study was conducted. The traffic accident data was obtained from the Traffic Accident Data System (TRADS), which was developed by the Transport Department, Police Force and Information Technology Services Department, Hong Kong. Multiple-vehicle traffic accidents (N = 10,630) occurring during the 2-year period 1999/2000 were considered. Potential risk factors such as district, human, vehicle, safety, environmental and site factors were examined. Categorizing injury severity into "fatal/serious" and "slight", a stepwise logistic regression model was applied to the population data set. The district board, time of the accident, driver's gender, vehicle type, road type, speed limit and the number of vehicles involved are significant factors influencing the injury severity. Identification of risk factors for severe traffic accidents provides valuable information to help with new and improved road safety control measures. PMID:16780781

  18. On Motor Vehicle Accidents and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wilcock, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents, a modern epidemic, cause sudden unexpected loss and personal disasters. They challenge the physician in many ways but the ultimate challenge is how to prevent them. A rational approach requires good data and analysis together with realistic practical measures aimed at minimizing high risk situations. Physicians can contribute in many ways towards better public awareness of the problem and how to solve it. PMID:21289690

  19. Who develops PTSD from motor vehicle accidents?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Ann E. Taylor; Warren R. Loos; Catherine A. Forneris; James Jaccard

    1996-01-01

    Within 1 to 4 months of their motor vehicle accident (MVA), we assessed 158 MVA victims who sought medical attention as a result of the MVA. Using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS: Blake, Weathers, Nagy, Kaloupek, Klauminzer, Charney & Keane, 1990. National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Boston, MA)., we found that 62 (39%) met DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987.

  20. Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. L. Movig; M. P. M. Mathijssen; P. H. A. Nagel; T. van Egmond; J. J. de Gier; H. G. M. Leufkens; A. C. G. Egberts

    2004-01-01

    The driving performance is easily impaired as a consequence of the use of alcohol and\\/or licit and illicit drugs. However, the role of drugs other than alcohol in motor vehicle accidents has not been well established. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between psychoactive drug use and motor vehicle accidents requiring hospitalisation.A prospective observational case-control study

  1. Initial posttraumatic stress responses following motor vehicle accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Bryant; Allison G. Harvey

    1996-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress was assessed in 114 motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims within 2 weeks of hospital admission. Approximately one third of patients reported high levels of posttraumatic stress and anxiety. Intrusion symptoms were best predicted by fear of the MVA and absence of head injury. Avoidance symptoms were best predicted by fear of the accident and recent stressful events. Findings

  2. Drivers’ psychological and physical reactions after motor vehicle accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Lucas

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if drivers that reported being in at least one motor vehicle accident (MVA) within the past five years would report greater psychological and physical reactions than drivers not being in an accident. Of particular interest were psychological conditions such as greater fears for personal safety, worries about driving, driver stress, exhaustion, and

  3. Tort Law in road accidents. The involvement of police vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Félix Francisco Serrano Gallardo

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  Some members of Law Enforcement must use motor vehicles to fulfill its constitutional mission. To face up to traffic accidents,\\u000a the Spanish Criminal Policy has been implemented criminal, procedural, administrative and civil lines of acting that affect\\u000a the policemen as citizens and officials.That Policy includes the latest changes in Tort Law for traffics accidents that have\\u000a increased the amount of

  4. Benchmarking and accident characteristics of flat-fronted commercial vehicles with respect to pedestrian safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G K Chinnaswamy; E C Chirwa; S K Nammi; S Nowpada; T Chen; M Mao

    2007-01-01

    The information about pedestrian accidents and kinematics involving commercial vehicles is not properly understood. In general the total accident scenarios with heavy vehicles are unique in the sense that one has a very strong structure impacting a very soft pedestrian. This makes the problem complex and the solution requires the development of a new description of accident kinematics. This study

  5. Self-Evaluative Appraisals of Coping Capability and Posttraumatic Distress Following Motor Vehicle Accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles C. Benight; Roman Cieslak; Ivan R. Molton; Lesley E. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the importance of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions and change in perceptions of CSE for recovery from motor vehicle accident (MVA) trauma. Data were collected 7 days following the accident (Time 1; n = 163), 1 month after the accident (Time 2; n = 91), and 3 months after the accident (Time 3; n = 70). Early changes

  6. Sleep apnea symptoms and accident risk factors in Persian commercial vehicle drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babak Amra; Reza Dorali; Salehe Mortazavi; Mohammad Golshan; Ziba Farajzadegan; Ingo Fietze; Thomas Penzel

    Background  Motor vehicle accidents are the second highest cause of mortality in Iran. Sleep apnea symptoms have been associated with\\u000a increased risk of motor vehicle accidents in other countries. However, we have limited data in Iran. We conducted a study\\u000a to evaluate sleep apnea symptoms and sleepiness in professional drivers and to assess the predictors of motor vehicle accidents\\u000a in Iran.

  7. The Impact of In-Vehicle CellPhone Use on Accidents or Near-Accidents Among College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Chul Seo; Mohammad R. Torabi

    2004-01-01

    With in-vehicle use of cell phones rapidly increasing, the safety of young drivers, who represent 14% of licensed drivers but 26% of drivers involved in fatal crashes, may be disproportionately threatened. The authors used a questionnaire to examine the association between in-vehicle cell-phone use and accidents or near-accidents among 1,291 conveniently recruited college students in 4 states. Of the 1,185

  8. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    PubMed Central

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the victims of off-road vehicle accidents were under 16 years of age. The poor adherence to government legislation and manufacturer recommendations was evident in the number of people who did not wear helmets or use headlights. PMID:3651929

  9. Biochemical and structural basis for inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase, mvaS, by hymeglusin.

    PubMed

    Skaff, D Andrew; Ramyar, Kasra X; McWhorter, William J; Barta, Michael L; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Miziorko, Henry M

    2012-06-12

    Hymeglusin (1233A, F244, L-659-699) is established as a specific ?-lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS). Inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. In contrast, the effects of hymeglusin on bacterial HMG-CoA synthase, mvaS, have been minimally characterized. Hymeglusin blocks growth of Enterococcus faecalis. After removal of the inhibitor from culture media, a growth curve inflection point at 3.1 h is observed (vs 0.7 h for the uninhibited control). Upon hymeglusin inactivation of purified E. faecalis mvaS, the thioester adduct is more stable than that measured for human HMGCS. Hydroxylamine cleaves the thioester adduct; substantial enzyme activity is restored at a rate that is 8-fold faster for human HMGCS than for mvaS. Structural results explain these differences in enzyme-inhibitor thioester adduct stability and solvent accessibility. The E. faecalis mvaS-hymeglusin cocrystal structure (1.95 Ĺ) reveals virtually complete occlusion of the bound inhibitor in a narrow tunnel that is largely sequestered from bulk solvent. In contrast, eukaryotic (Brassica juncea) HMGCS binds hymeglusin in a more solvent-exposed cavity. PMID:22510038

  10. Fetal intracranial injuries following motor vehicle accidents with airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Harada, Atsuko; Sato, Takashi; Kurabayashi, Takumi

    2014-02-01

    The effects of airbag deployment in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) on the fetus are poorly understood. A 22-year-old woman at 24 weeks of gestation collided with a telephone pole while driving. She was restrained and an airbag deployed. Although she had no major injuries, she experienced decreased fetal movements. Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring revealed loss of variability without any evidence of abruptio placentae, and 4 days later, the variability spontaneously recovered. Two weeks after the MVA, ultrasonography showed unilateral ventricular dilatation suggestive of fetal brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed subdural hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic lesions, interpreted as indirect (hypoxic-ischemic) and direct (hemorrhagic) intracranial injuries. After MVA with airbag deployment, FHR monitoring can show a transient loss of variability, which may precede the appearance of fetal brain injury. PMID:24118367

  11. Digital close range photogrammetry in motor vehicle accident reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona Coyle

    2008-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are consistently in the top ten causes of death world-wide. In order to reduce the number of fatalities caused by traffic collision, better knowledge and understanding of the sequence of events prior to and during a traffic accident, i.e. Accident Reconstruction, is required, so it is important to obtain detailed quantitative information about the damage sustained by

  12. Traffic accident prediction using 3-D model-based vehicle tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiming Hu; Xuejuan Xiao; Dan Xie; Tieniu Tan; Steve Maybank

    2004-01-01

    Intelligent visual surveillance for road vehicles is the key to developing autonomous intelligent traffic systems. Recently, traffic incident detection employing computer vision and image processing has attracted much attention. In this paper, a probabilistic model for predicting traffic accidents using three-dimensional (3-D) model-based vehicle tracking is proposed. Sample data including motion trajectories are first obtained by 3-D model-based vehicle tracking.

  13. Biomechanical analysis of occupant kinematics in rollover motor vehicle accidents: dynamic spit test.

    PubMed

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Clarke, Richard; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of occupant kinematics in rollover accidents helps to advance biomechanical knowledge and to enhance the safety features of motor vehicles. While many rollover accident simulation studies have adopted the static approach to delineate the occupant kinematics in rollover accidents, very few studies have attempted the dynamic approach. The present work was designed to study the biomechanics of restrained occupants during rollover accidents using the steady-state dynamic spit test and to address the importance of keeping the lap belt fastened. Experimental tests were conducted using an anthropometric 50% Hybrid III dummy in a vehicle. The vehicle was rotated at 180 degrees/second and the dummy was restrained using a standard three-point restraint system. The lap belt of the dummy was fastened either by using the cinching latch plate or by locking the retractor. Three configurations of shoulder belt harness were simulated: shoulder belt loose on chest with cinch plate, shoulder belt under the left arm and shoulder belt behind the chest. In all tests, the dummy stayed within the confinement of the vehicle indicating that the securely fastened lap belt holds the dummy with dynamic movement of 3 1/2" to 4". The results show that occupant movement in rollover accidents is least affected by various shoulder harness positions with a securely fastened lap belt. The present study forms a first step in delineating the biomechanics of occupants in rollover accidents. PMID:15850090

  14. Date of Accident: _____/_____/________ Day of Week: __________________ Hour: _____:______ AM / PM TIME VEHICLE ACCIDENT REPORT

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Page 1/2 Date of Accident: _____/_____/________ Day of Week: __________________ Hour" and THIS REPORT IS NOT a substitute for Worker's Compensation Court's required "First Report of Alleged Accident: Address: Date of this Report Prepared by (Print Name) Signature INJURED 1. Name: Nature of Injury

  15. Train accidents involving pedestrians, motor vehicles, and motorcycles.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, B A; Mootha, R K; Lindsey, R W

    1998-04-01

    In the United States, train-related accidents account for more than 18,000 injuries and 1,200 fatalities annually, yet there is a paucity of literature pertaining to this unique injury. We reviewed the medical records of 98 of 135 cases of train-related trauma treated at Ben Taub General Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, from 1990 to 1995. There were 50 train-pedestrian accidents, 47 train-automobile accidents, and 1 train-motorcycle accident, with a mean patient age of 30.1 years (range, 2 to 66 years). Eighteen patients (18%) were pronounced dead on arrival or died shortly after admission. Of the other 80 patients, 27 (34%) were discharged from the emergency department after minor medical treatment, while 53 (66%) were hospitalized, of whom 10 (13%) later expired. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 11.9 (discharged, 1.8; hospitalized, 14.3; expired, 29.2). Forty-five patients (56%) sustained 57 extremity fractures, and 30 patients (38%) required 40 amputations. Mean Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) for all injured extremities was 5.2 (amputation, 7.7; no amputation, 2.8). On average, the hospitalization cost per patient was greater than $18,698, while the reimbursement from the patients was $2,261, leaving the hospital with a net deficit of approximately 2 million dollars. Surprisingly, train accidents do not always result in serious injury. However, when serious injury is sustained, it is often of high morbidity (amputation) and mortality, which appears to correlate well with the initial MESS and ISS. Extrapolating our cost data to include all train-related accident injuries and deaths indicates that the direct costs to society may exceed 300 million dollars annually. Greater public awareness and preventive measures may reduce the tremendous human and financial costs of train-related accidents. PMID:9586732

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Rollover Accidents Involving Vehicles Equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E.; Scheibe, Robert R.; Eyges, Vitaly E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present. PMID:19026219

  17. Predicting the severity of motor vehicle accident injuries using models of ordered multiple choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. O'Donnell; D. H. Connor

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents statistical evidence showing how variations in the attributes of road users can lead to variations in the probabilities of sustaining different levels of injury in motor vehicle accidents. Data from New South Wales, Australia, is used to estimate two models of multiple choice which are reasonably commonplace in the econometrics literature: the ordered logit model and the

  18. The prevalence of drugs in motor vehicle accidents and traffic violations in Shanghai and neighboring cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianyi Zhuo; Yong Cang; Hui Yan; Jun Bu; Baohua Shen

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive drug use among motor vehicle drivers in Shanghai and its neighboring cities. We selected 10,002 drivers involved in a traffic accident or violation between 2007 and 2008 in Shanghai, Suzhou and Wuxi. We checked for the presence of psychoactive drugs from blood samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass

  19. Vehicle road runoff — active steering control for shoulder induced accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Black; J. Wagner; K. Alexander; P. Pidgeon

    2008-01-01

    The safe operation of a passenger\\/commercial ground vehicle requires continual judgment, mission planning, and driving skills by the operator. The departure of the tires from the prescribed road surface, labeled road runoff, represents a hazardous situation that must be properly handled to prevent unintended consequences. In this instance, the recommended actions are for the driver to recognize the situation, reduce

  20. Estimating vehicle roadside encroachment frequency using accident prediction models

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, S.-P.

    1996-07-01

    The existing data to support the development of roadside encroachment- based accident models are extremely limited and largely outdated. Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration and Transportation Research Board, several roadside safety projects have attempted to address this issue by providing rather comprehensive data collection plans and conducting pilot data collection efforts. It is clear from the results of these studies that the required field data collection efforts will be expensive. Furthermore, the validity of any field collected encroachment data may be questionable because of the technical difficulty to distinguish intentional from unintentional encroachments. This paper proposes an alternative method for estimating the basic roadside encroachment data without actually field collecting them. The method is developed by exploring the probabilistic relationships between a roadside encroachment event and a run-off-the-road event With some mild assumptions, the method is capable of providing a wide range of basic encroachment data from conventional accident prediction models. To illustrate the concept and use of such a method, some basic encroachment data are estimated for rural two-lane undivided roads. In addition, the estimated encroachment data are compared with the existing collected data. The illustration shows that the method described in this paper can be a viable approach to estimating basic encroachment data without actually collecting them which can be very costly.

  1. The spectrum of facial fractures in motor vehicle accidents: an MDCT study of 374 patients.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Elina M; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health problem worldwide resulting frequently in maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and spectrum of facial fractures in patients involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Using picture archiving and communication system, all requests for suspected facial trauma were retrieved during a 62-month period; 374 met the inclusion criteria. Two researchers interpreted the multidetector computed tomography images by consensus. The motor vehicles involved were divided into two groups: those involving a passenger car or a larger vehicle and those involving a motorized two-wheeler. Furthermore, the motor vehicle accidents were divided into collisions and run-off-road accidents. Of the 374 patients (aged 15-80, mean 34), 271 (72 %) were male and 103 (28 %) female. Of all patients, 262 (70 %) had a facial or skull base fracture; of these, multiple separate fractures were present in 56 %. Nasal fractures were the most common fractures followed by orbital, skull base, and maxillary fractures. Frontal bone, LeFort, and zygomatic arch fractures were always accompanied by other fractures. Fractures were more frequent in the group of collisions compared with run-off-road accidents. In the two-wheeled group, only 15 % did not have facial or skull base fractures. Fractures often occur in multitudes as 39 % of all patients have multiple facial or skull bone fractures, and thus, emergency radiologists should be familiar with the complexity of the injuries. Negative clear sinus sign and low-energy sentinel injuries should be trusted as indications of undetected injuries in MVA victims. PMID:24221020

  2. Accident or Suicide? Single-Vehicle Car Accidents and the Intent Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Dennis L.; Warner, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Brief case studies of single-vehicle car crashes are used to explore the relationship between this method of death and the intent to commit suicide. The author attempts to determine what criteria can be used to determine whether suicide was the intent, and how death by automobile crash can be determined a suicide. (JPS)

  3. CORRELATION OF CERVICAL LORDOSIS MEASUREMENT WITH INCIDENCE OF MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Dorothy L.; Tuchin, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 500 patient radiographs was conducted to measure the clinical correlation of cervical lordosis measurements and incidence of motor vehicle accident (MVA). Five hundred lateral cervical radiographs were selected at random from the practice of one of the authors (DLM). The C1-7 angle of the cervical curve was then measured by two blinded examiners. Inter-examiner reliability had a confidence interval of 95%. Eighty-two percent of patients who have had a MVA had an abnormal lordosis. The mean lordosis of patients who had been involved in a MVA was 26.1 degrees (SD 11.4), compared with 36.4 (SD 8.4) for those who had not been involved in a MVA. The results suggest a correlation of reduced cervical lordosis measurements following motor vehicle accident (MVA). PMID:17987143

  4. UPPER EXTREMITY FRACTURES IN PEDESTRIAN VERSUS MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS: AN UNDERAPPRECIATED CONCERN

    PubMed Central

    Landy, David C.; Norton, Robert A.; Barkin, Jodie A.; Henriques, Stephen; Owens, Patrick; Miki, Roberto A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Though pedestrian versus motor vehicle (PVMV) accidents are a common cause of trauma admission and subsequent orthopaedic consult, the prevalence of upper extremity fracture (UEF) in such events and its association with lower extremity injury (LEI) is unknown. We sought to describe UEF in PVMV accident patients at the time of orthopaedic consult. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all pedestrian hit by motor vehicle cases for which an orthopaedic consult was performed at Jackson Memorial Hospital between July 2006 and January 2008. Fractures were recorded by location along with relevant clinical information. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (O.R.) and 95% confidence intervals (C.I.) for variables associated with UEF. Results 336 cases were identified and reviewed. LEI was the most frequent injury type (67% of cases). UEF was also common, found in 25% of cases (humerus 11%, ulna 7%, radius 6%, hand 4%, and wrist 2%). Tibia or fibula fracture, femur fracture, and spine fracture were negatively associated with UEF in univariate analyses and after controlling for other associated factors. Conclusions In PVMV accident populations, UEF is a frequent injury often seen in the absence of any LEI. These findings emphasize the importance of carefully screening all PVMV accident patients for UEF and may call into question the usefulness of currently discussed injury pattern. PMID:21045980

  5. Limitations of risk analysis in the determination of medical factors in road vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Michael B; Carter, Tim; Nicholson, Anthony N

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of risk analysis in the determination of medical factors in road vehicle accidents is to evaluate the risks that are associated with different strategies for accident reduction, so that the subsequent decision making process can be based on a best assessment of the likely benefits. However, it is vital to appreciate the limitations of such an approach, especially where the conclusions depend heavily on the accuracy of the assumptions made. In this paper the assumptions used in some recent analyses concerned with incapacitation, epilepsy, hypoglycaemia and psycho-active medication are explored, and the additional information required to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of risk indicated. The conclusions from this analysis do not invalidate the use of risk assessment, but draw attention to its limitations and show how a sensitivity analysis can help to identify those areas where more precise information is needed before such an approach can be used confidently in a policy setting. PMID:14998267

  6. The impact of severity of physical injury and perception of life threat in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Neil Mitnick; Ann E. Taylor; Warren R. Loos; Todd C. Buckley

    1995-01-01

    For 98 victims of recent (1 to 4 months post-accident) motor vehicle accidents who sought medical attention as a result of the accident, we obtained data on the extent of physical injury using blind ratings with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), as well as victims reports of their perceptions of how much danger they perceived at the time of the

  7. Evaluation of Initial Posttrauma Cardiovascular Levels in Association with Acute PTSD Symptoms Following a Serious Motor Vehicle Accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Buckley; Nicole Nugent; Eve Sledjeski; A. Jay Raimonde; Eileen Spoonster; Laura M. Bogart; Douglas L. Delahanty

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) levels assessed at multiple time points posttrauma and subsequent acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms present at a 1-month follow-up. HR and BP levels were measured in 65 motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors during Emergency Medical Service transport, upon admission to the trauma unit, for the

  8. Extensive Brain Injury in a Premature Infant Following a Relatively Minor Maternal Motor Vehicle Accident with Airbag Deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prameela Karimi; Ronald Ramus; Jill Urban; Jeffrey M Perlman

    2004-01-01

    Traumatic injury following a motor vehicle accident during pregnancy has an enormous potential for fetal injury and demise. With the advent of seat belts, shoulder restraints and airbags, and improved maternal survival, the most common cause of fetal loss is placental injury. However, the safety of airbag deployment during pregnancy and in particular during the latter stages, and the potential

  9. Coping Strategies in Daily Life as Protective and Risk Factors for Post Traumatic Stress in Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Dörfel; Sirko Rabe; Anke Karl

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the role of a general coping style in the development and maintainance of PTSD-like symptoms, we investigated 44 survivors of severe motor vehicle accidents. Coping was assessed using a German instrument. We also included personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion, peritraumatic and cognitive factors that are linked to both PTSD and coping in daily life. Stepwise regressions

  10. PTSD symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in recent motor vehicle accident victims: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Bryce; Irish, Leah A; Pacella, Maria L; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on 249 recent motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims to examine subgroups that differed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, current major depressive disorder and alcohol/other drug use disorders (MDD/AoDs), gender, and interpersonal trauma history 6-weeks post-MVA. A 4-class model best fit the data with a resilient class displaying asymptomatic PTSD symptom levels/low levels of comorbid disorders; a mild psychopathology class displaying mild PTSD symptom severity and current MDD; a moderate psychopathology class displaying severe PTSD symptom severity and current MDD/AoDs; and a severe psychopathology class displaying extreme PTSD symptom severity and current MDD. Classes also differed with respect to gender composition and history of interpersonal trauma experience. These findings may aid in the development of targeted interventions for recent MVA victims through the identification of subgroups distinguished by different patterns of psychiatric problems experienced 6-weeks post-MVA. PMID:25124501

  11. An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

  12. Orthopedic Considerations in the Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Accident Polytrauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Samona, Jason; Colen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian versus motor vehicle accidents (PVMVAs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Past models of PVMVAs assume lower-extremity vehicle contact as the initiating event, with a subsequent predicted injury sequence consisting of a lower extremity injury followed by injury to the body, head, and upper extremities. The term “fatal triad” was first coined by Farley, which described concomitant injuries to the skull, pelvis, and extremity fractures. Over the years, this once well-accepted model of injury has been under scrutiny by numerous orthopedic researchers, and it has lost credibility. This case presentation glaring reveals that the patient incurred which is referred to as the “fatal triad”, in contrast to the commonly circulated thoughts of biodynamic mechanisms of PVMVA fractures. More research in this arena is warranted. This lack of information contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with such devastating injuries. The overlying theme displayed in the data analyzed in this paper demonstrates the vital importance of the orthopedic surgeon in the management of the PVMVA patient. No matter the particular mechanism of injury, occurrence, or agreed-upon treatment protocol, the role of the orthopedic physician is instrumental to the wellbeing of the PVMVA trauma patient. PMID:23259110

  13. Vertebral fractures in motor vehicle accidents - a medical and technical analysis of 33,015 injured front-seat occupants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian W; Otte, Dietmar; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Panzica, Martin; Krettek, Christian; Brand, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Spinal injuries pose a considerable risk to life and quality of life. In spite of improvements in active and passive safety of motor vehicles, car accidents are regarded as a major cause for vertebral fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current incidence of vertebral fractures among front-seat occupants in motor vehicle accidents, and to identify specific risk factors for sustaining vertebral fractures in motor vehicle accidents. Data from an accident research unit were accessed to collect collision details, preclinical data, and clinical data. We included all data on front-seat occupants. Hospital records were retrieved, and radiological images were evaluated. We analysed 33,015 front-seat occupants involved in motor vehicle accidents over a 24-year period. We identified 126 subjects (0.38%) with cervical spine fractures, 78 (0.24%) with thoracic fractures, and 99 (0.30%) with lumbar fractures. The mean relative collision speeds were 48, 39, and 40 kph in subjects with cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine fractures, respectively, while it was 17.3 kph in the whole cohort. Contrary to the overall cohort, these patients typically sustained multiple hits rather than simple front collisions. Occupants with vertebral fractures frequently showed numerous concomitant injuries; for example, additional vertebral fractures. The incidence of vertebral fractures corresponded with collision speed. Safety belts were highly effective in the prevention of vertebral fractures. Apart from high speed, complex injury mechanisms as multiple collisions or rollovers were associated with vertebral fractures. Additional preventive measures should focus on these collision mechanisms. PMID:24486770

  14. The private practice psychologist and manual-based treatments: Post-traumatic stress disorder secondary to motor vehicle accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Hickling; Edward B. Blanchard

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues of providing an empirically validated, manual-based-treatment when viewed from the perspective of a practicing clinical psychologist. The trend for empirically proven treatment is reviewed briefly, and initial data are provided illustrating a manual-based-treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a motor vehicle accident. The relatively brief (9–12 session) psychological treatment was effective in reducing PTSD

  15. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Guariglia, Cecilia; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization. PMID:25954183

  16. Virtual reality treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder due to motor vehicle accident.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2010-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex, multifaceted disorder encompassing behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and physiological factors. Although PTSD was only codified in 1980, there has been an increasing interest in this area of research. Unfortunately, relatively little attention has been given to the psychological treatment of motor vehicle accident survivors, which is remarkable because vehicular collisions are deemed the number one cause of PTSD. As the emotional consequences of vehicular collisions prevail, so does the need for more effective treatments. Randomized controlled clinical trials have identified exposure-based therapies as being the most efficacious for extinguishing fears. One type of exposure-based treatment, called virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), provides a safe, controlled, and effective therapeutic alternative that is not dependent on real-life props, situations, or even a person's imagination capabilities. This modality, while relatively new, has been implemented successfully in the treatment of a variety of anxiety disorders and may offer a particularly beneficial and intermediary step for the treatment of collision-related PTSD. In particular, VRET combined with physiological monitoring and feedback provides a unique opportunity for individuals to objectively recognize both anxiety and relaxation; learn how to manage their anxiety during difficult, albeit simulated, driving conditions; and then transfer these skills onto real-life roadways. PMID:20528289

  17. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Guariglia, Cecilia; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization. PMID:25954183

  18. Dresden PTSD treatment study: randomized controlled trial of motor vehicle accident survivors

    PubMed Central

    Maercker, Andreas; Zöllner, Tanja; Menning, Hans; Rabe, Sirko; Karl, Anke

    2006-01-01

    Background We translated, modified, and extended a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) protocol by Blanchard and Hickling (2003) for the purpose of treating survivors of MVA with full or subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) whose native language is German. The treatment manual included some additional elements, e. g. cognitive procedures, imaginal reliving, and facilitating of posttraumatic growth. The current study was conducted in order to test the efficacy of the modified manual by administering randomized controlled trial in which a CBT was compared to a wait-list control condition. Methods Forty-two motor vehicle accident survivors with chronic or severe subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) completed the treatment trial with two or three detailed assessments (pre, post, and 3-month follow-up). Results CAPS-scores showed significantly greater improvement in the CBT condition as compared to the wait list condition (group × time interaction effect size d = 1.61). Intent-to-treat analysis supported the outcome (d = 1.34). Categorical diagnostic data indicated clinical recovery of 67% (post-treatment) and 76% (3 months FU) in the treatment group. Additionally, patients of the CBT condition showed significantly greater reductions in co-morbid major depression than the control condition. At follow-up the improvements were stable in the active treatment condition. Conclusion The degree of improvement in our treatment group was comparable to that in previously reported treatment trials of PTSD with cognitive behavioral therapy. Trial registration ISRCTN66456536 PMID:16824221

  19. Who Uses Physiotherapy Services for Motor Vehicle-Induced Whiplash-Associated Disorders? Interrogating Motor Accident Insurance Data for 2006-2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Grimmer-Somers; Steve Milanese; Carolyn Brennan; Ivan Mifsud

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about who uses physiotherapy services for whiplash injuries sustained in motor-vehicle accidents. Compensable agencies around Australia are grappling with ways to identify early claimants who are likely to consume different types of health services. The objectives were to identify key characteristics of a typical user of physiotherapy services for motor-vehicle accident-induced whiplash-associated disorders. Method: A dataset

  20. Do Cognitive Models Help in Predicting the Severity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Phobia, and Depression After Motor Vehicle Accidents? A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Ehring; Anke Ehlers; Edward Glucksman

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Diagnoses were established with

  1. An engineering study of rural motor vehicle accidents in Brazos County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Schleider, Robert Herman

    1957-01-01

    Silva, Harry R? We Have Automobile Accidents John Wiley and Sons, Inc. , New York& 1942. 3 ~ Halsey~ Maxwell~ Traffic Accidents and Con ection John Wiley snd Sons~ Inc, ~ New York, 1541, 4. Allgaier~ Earl~ "Some Road-User Characteristics in the Traffic..., Hvanston9 Illinois, Accident Invest ation Nanual 1948. 14 ~ Schults, Haskell B ~, A Desi n for Safe Drivin 'lhe Christopher Publishing House, Boston, Nassachusetts, 1945. 15. Smeed9 R, J. H "Road Ussr Behaviour in Relation to Road Condition", Traffic H...

  2. The relationship among highway geometrics, traffic-related elements and motor-vehicle accident frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Milton; Fred Mannering

    1998-01-01

    This research provides a demonstration of a statistical model of accident frequency that can eventually be used as part of a proactive program to allocate safety-related highway improvement funds. Negative binomial regressions of annual accident frequency on sections of principal arterials in Washington State were estimated using data from two years (1992 and 1993). In all, 31306 observations were used

  3. An exploratory multinomial logit analysis of single-vehicle motorcycle accident severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkataraman Shankar; Fred Mannering

    1996-01-01

    Most previous research on motorcycle accident severity has focused on univariate relationships between severity and an explanatory variable of interest (e.g., helmet use). The potential ambiguity and bias that univariate analyses create in identifying the causality of severity has generated the need for multivariate analyses in which the effects of all factors that influence accident severity are considered. This paper

  4. Effects of varying scoring rules of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Ann E. Taylor; Catherine A. Forneris; Warren Loos; James Jaccard

    1995-01-01

    We examined the effects of varying the scoring rules for the CAPS (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) on the diagnosis of PTSD in a sample of 100 victims of recent motor vehicle accidents. This was done by assessing, for each scoring rule, the rate of categorical diagnosis and the effect on group mean scores on measures of subjective distress and role

  5. Prospective audit of the pattern, severity and circumstances of injury sustained by vehicle occupants as a result of road traffic accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bradbury; C Robertson

    1993-01-01

    The pattern and severity of injuries sustained by 174 vehicle occupants consecutively admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary were prospectively documented. Drivers (DR) accounted for 66% of the patients, 20% were front seat passengers (FSP) and 14% were rear seat passengers (RSP). Injured patients were more likely to be male, young, intoxicated and not

  6. 49 CFR 382.303 - Post-accident testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the vehicle, if the accident involved the loss of...local law for a moving traffic violation arising from the accident, if the accident involved...local law for a moving traffic violation arising from the accident, if the accident...

  7. Functional health status in subjects after a motor vehicle accident, with emphasis on whiplash associated disorders: design of a descriptive, prospective inception cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten A Schmitt; Nico LU van Meeteren; Anton de Wijer; Paul JM Helders; Yolanda Van der Graaf

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical consequences of whiplash injuries resulting from a motor vehicle accident (MVA) are poorly understood. Thereby, there is general lack of research on the development of disability in patients with acute and chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The objective is to describe the design of an inception cohort study with a 1-year follow-up to determine risk factors for

  8. Effects of attribution of responsibility for motor vehicle accidents on severity of PTSD symptoms, ways of coping, and recovery over six months.

    PubMed

    Hickling, E J; Blanchard, E B; Buckley, T C; Taylor, A E

    1999-04-01

    In light of Delahanty et al.'s (1997) identification of attribution of responsibility for a motor vehicle accident (MVA) as a powerful determinant of initial level of distress from the trauma and of early remission of PTSD, we reexamined data from Blanchard and Hickling's (1997) prospective follow-up of 158 MVA survivors. Despite differences between the two samples (Delahanty sample recruited from hospitals 2-3 weeks post-MVA and predominantly male; our sample recruited from outpatient care 1-4 months post-MVA and predominantly female) we replicated Delahanty's findings: those with PTSD who blame themselves for the MVA are less symptomatic initially and recover more rapidly in the first 6 months than those with PTSD who blame another party for the accident. PMID:10378171

  9. Temporal patterns of deer-vehicle collisions consistent with deer activity pattern and density increase but not general accident risk.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Müller, Jörg; Held, Leonhard; Möst, Lisa; Mysterud, Atle

    2015-08-01

    The increasing number of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) across Europe during recent decades poses a serious threat to human health and animal welfare and increasing costs for society. DVCs are triggered by both a human-related and a deer-related component. Mitigation requires an understanding of the processes driving temporal and spatial collision patterns. Separating human-related from deer-related processes is important for identifying potentially effective countermeasures, but this has rarely been done. We analysed two time series of 341,655 DVCs involving roe deer and 854,659 non-deer-related accidents (non-DVCs) documented between 2002 and 2011. Nonparametric smoothing and temporal parametric modelling were used to estimate annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal patterns in DVCs, non-DVCs and adjusted DVCs. As we had access to data on both DVCs and non-DVCs, we were able to disentangle the relative role of human-related and deer-related processes contributing to the overall temporal DVC pattern. We found clear evidence that variation in DVCs was mostly driven by deer-related and not human-related activity on annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal scales. A very clear crepuscular activity pattern with high activity after sunset and around sunrise throughout the year was identified. Early spring and the mating season between mid-July and mid-August are typically periods of high roe deer activity, and as expected we found a high number of DVC during these periods, although these patterns differed tremendously during different phases of a day. The role of human activity was mainly reflected in fewer DVCs on weekends than on weekdays. Over the ten-year study period, we estimated that DVCs increased by 25%, whereas the number of non-DVCs decreased by 10%. Increasing deer densities are the most likely driver behind this rise in DVCs. Precise estimates of DVC patterns and their relationship to deer and human activity patterns allow implementation of specific mitigation measures, such as tailored driver warning systems or temporary speed limits. To prevent a further increase in DVCs, state-wide measures to decrease roe deer density are required. PMID:25984644

  10. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Waldron; Christopher McCloskey; Inga Earle

    2005-01-01

    This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable

  11. Physics in Auto Accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Barnes

    1960-01-01

    This article concerns a particular application of the fundamentals of physics with which most physicists have little contact. Some elementary physics commonly used by our law enforcement officers in the reconstruction of automobile accidents is reviewed. In particular, formulas for the determination of (a) vehicle speed through skid marks, (b) minimum speed for a vehicle skidding off-course while turning a

  12. Contribution of cognitive factors to the prediction of post-traumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Ehring; Anke Ehlers; Edward Glucksman

    2006-01-01

    Past research into the psychological consequences of traumatic events has largely focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), although other anxiety disorders and depression are also common in the aftermath of trauma. Little is known about differential predictors of these conditions. The present study investigated the extent to which theoretically derived cognitive variables predict PTSD, phobias and depression after motor vehicle

  13. 50 CFR 27.31 - General provisions regarding vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...in the event of accident or other conditions...the movement of traffic. (j) Load...vehicle involved in an accident is not to be moved...the scene of the accident, unless such vehicle constitutes a traffic or safety...

  14. 50 CFR 27.31 - General provisions regarding vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...in the event of accident or other conditions...the movement of traffic. (j) Load...vehicle involved in an accident is not to be moved...the scene of the accident, unless such vehicle constitutes a traffic or safety...

  15. Effects of varying scoring rules of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, E B; Hickling, E J; Taylor, A E; Forneris, C A; Loos, W; Jaccard, J

    1995-05-01

    We examined the effects of varying the scoring rules for the CAPS (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) on the diagnosis of PTSD in a sample of 100 victims of recent motor vehicle accidents. This was done by assessing, for each scoring rule, the rate of categorical diagnosis and the effect on group mean scores on measures of subjective distress and role impairment. Changing from the most liberal to the most conservative scoring rule results in a change in diagnosis of PTSD from 44% to 29% of the sample. Comparisons of those included as PTSD under the most conservative scoring criteria vs those excluded (who had previously been included) reveal significantly greater subjective distress and role impairment among those who continue to be included in the PTSD category. Thus, changes in scoring rules have clinically significant effects on the incidence and severity of diagnosed PTSD. This indicates that the selection of scoring rules has important implications for epidemiological estimates of the prevalence of PTSD, and that PTSD studies using different scoring rules as inclusion criteria may be using somewhat different samples. PMID:7755537

  16. A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Michael; Drummond, Peter; McDermott, Brett

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of four EMDR sessions in comparison to a six-week wait-list control condition in the treatment of 27 children (aged 6 to 12 years) suffering from persistent PTSD symptoms after a motor vehicle accident. An effect for EMDR was identified on primary outcome and process measures including the Child Post-Traumatic Stress-Reaction Index, clinician rated diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Subjective Units of Disturbance and Validity of Cognition scales. All participants initially met two or more PTSD criteria. After EMDR treatment, this decreased to 25% in the EMDR group but remained at 100% in the wait-list group. Parent ratings of their child's PTSD symptoms showed no improvement, nor did a range of non-trauma child self-report and parent-reported symptoms. Treatment gains were maintained at three and 12 month follow-up. These findings support the use of EMDR for treating symptoms of PTSD in children, although further replication and comparison studies are required. PMID:19923161

  17. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  18. Investigation of 184 passenger car–pedestrian accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhao; Zhiyong Yin; Rong Chen; Huipeng Chen; Cui Song; Guangyu Yang; Zhengguo Wang

    2010-01-01

    In China, pedestrians were the most common and the most vulnerable of road users, meaning pedestrians were involved in vehicle-pedestrian accidents more frequently. Little attention has been paid to the investigation of such accidents. One surveying group was built to randomly collect vehicle-pedestrian accidents and analyse these accidents from the vehicle–pedestrian crash characteristics and the relationships between the pedestrian injury

  19. Accident reconstruction methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Steffan

    2009-01-01

    While reconstructing a car accident, there are several questions that must be answered, such as the movement of all the vehicles involved or of other people involved, or of objects from the point of first visual contact to their rest positions. Time history of velocities, positions as well as crash-related data such as velocity changes, deformation energies, or passenger loads

  20. Physics in Accident Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Mary L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes physics formulas which can be used by law enforcement officials to determine the possible velocity of vehicles involved in traffic accidents. These include, among others, the slide to stop-level road, slide to stop-sloping roadway, and slide to stop-two different surfaces formulas. (JN)

  1. Light-Duty Vehicles in Tripped-Rollover Situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth L. d'Entremont; Gary M. Hutter; Ralph L. Barnett; S. Carl Uzgiris; John P. Bederka; Jr. Richard Gullickson; Diane Moshman; James T. O'Donnell; William D. Sheridan; Audrone M. Stake; Lucinda Fuller; Shelley Hamilton; Brian D. King; Jeffery W. Abendshien; Leslie A. Savage; James T. Semrau; Theodore Liber; Dolores Gildin; Dennis B. Brickman; Michael A. Dilich; Christopher W. Ferrone; Claudine P. Giebs; Suzanne A. Glowiak; John M. Goebelbecker; Crispin Hales; Dror Kopernik; Woodrow Nelson; R. Kevin Smith; Harry R. Smith; William G. Switalski; Andrew H. Tudor; James R. Wingfield; Betty Bellows; Marna Forbes; Maureen Gilligan; Jan A. King; Norene Kramer; Florence Lasky; Neil Miller; Denise Prokudowicz; Jackie Schwartz; Peter Warner; Steven Witt; Glenn Werner; Mary A. Misiewicz; Charles D'Eccliss; Alison Newberry; Anthony Provenzano; Robin Stone; Christina Timmins; Lynn Wallace-Mills; Thomas E. Zabinski

    1995-01-01

    one year, rollover impacts accounted for 9 percent of multiple-vehicle accident fatalities while rollovers accounted for 51 percent of single-vehicle accident fatalities. Light-duty vehicles include passenger cars, pickup trucks, vans, and sport-utility vehicles. Although much attention has been given to the study of vehicle rollover stability and to rollover-accident avoidance, research has yet to conclusively uncover an individual vehicle characteristic

  2. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section 634...INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic accident investigation. Installation law...

  3. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section 634...INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic accident investigation. Installation law...

  4. 32 CFR 636.12 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic accident investigation. 636.12 ...INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS...Stewart, Georgia § 636.12 Traffic accident investigation. In...

  5. Analysis of traffic accident size for Korean highway using structural equation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju-Yeon Lee; Jin-Hyuk Chung; Bongsoo Son

    2008-01-01

    Accident size can be expressed as the number of involved vehicles, the number of damaged vehicles, the number of deaths and\\/or the number of injured. Accident size is the one of the important indices to measure the level of safety of transportation facilities. Factors such as road geometric condition, driver characteristic and vehicle type may be related to traffic accident

  6. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality: Relationships to changing gender roles and other societal trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Waldron; Christopher McCloskey; Inga Earle

    2005-01-01

    This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable

  7. Decapitation due to car accident.

    PubMed

    Ausania, Francesco; Cittadini, Francesca; Cascini, Fidelia; Polacco, Matteo; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Oliva, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of complete decapitation as a consequence of car accident is an extremely rare event. This fatality is generally seen in pedestrians run over by trains and also in motorcyclists who impact against the tailboard of trucks. Moreover, complete transection of pedestrians and occupants of cars has been described in road accidents especially in case of vehicles traveling at a high speed. We present a case of decapitation with complete degloving injury of the neck in a patient involved in a traffic accident, and we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms producing this injury. PMID:21897196

  8. Performance of broadcast transmission from multiple vehicles in vehicle-roadside-vehicle relay network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Minato; Huiting Cheng; Yasushi Yamao

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication is regarded as an essential means to avoid traffic accidents and increase vehicle safety. However, reliability of the communications severely suffers from wireless propagation on the road. A vehicle-roadside-vehicle relay communication scheme has been proposed to improve the reliability of the V2V communications. The packet broadcast transmission performance of the proposed scheme with large number

  9. Implementation Automation Vehicle State Recorder System with In-Vehicle Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hyun Baek; Jong-Wook Jang

    \\u000a Recently, because life and property loss due to car accidents, the blackbox to use airplanes installed in-vehicle. existing\\u000a vehicle blackboxs stored only external video and image. if car accident, the driver is not known vehicle running condition.\\u000a to know the status of the vehicle, in-vehicle mount sensors for various measurement and control. these sensor is controlled\\u000a by ECU(Electronic Control Unit)

  10. Bicycle accidents.

    PubMed

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres. PMID:3461642

  11. 49 CFR 177.843 - Contamination of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...both sides of the exterior of the vehicle. These vehicles must be kept closed at all times...unloading. (c) In case of fire, accident, breakage, or unusual...subchapter. (d) Each transport vehicle used to transport...

  12. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Carlson; L. E. Fischer

    1992-01-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and

  13. Nuclear accidents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power plants can be especially devastating to people and the environment. This article, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Tokaimura. Students explore the incidents by examining possible causes, environmental impacts, and effects on life.

  14. Nuclear accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mobley

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement.

  15. Study of Expressway Traffic Simulations System Influence of Accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Bin; Wei QingYao; He Cao; Wang JianBo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, multiple techniques are applied to expressway traffic simulations system development in order to create accident database for accident detection data foundation. Demand analysis thought based on layering analysis method is put forward on the base of Vehicle Agent property research. Furthermore, the relationships of multiple Vehicle Agent consultation and domains are studied, and the key technical of

  16. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  17. Human body modelling for traffic accident analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Krašna; I. Prebil; M. Hribernik

    2007-01-01

    A traffic accident is a complex phenomenon with vehicles and human beings involved. During a collision, the vehicle occupant is exposed to substantial loads, which can cause the occupant injuries that depend on the level of passive safety, as well as on the occupant's individual characteristics. Correct estimation of injury severity demands a validated human body model and known impact

  18. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  19. Investigation of Human Factors in UAV Accidents Based on Analysis of Statistical Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manzoor M. Nasir; Qin Shi-Yin

    2011-01-01

    Human errors are held responsible for over 65% of accidents in more than one hundred years of manned aviation history. To evaluate the role of human factors related to accidents of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), a sample data of 56 US Army UAV accidents was used in this study, out of which 32 were related to accidents of Hunter UAV

  20. Automatic measurement of payload for heavy vehicles using strain gages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Yang; T. S. Liu; Y. C. Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Accidents caused by heavy vehicles have been increasing in recent years. This is mainly due to the fact that vehicle overloading results in steering difficulty and long braking distance. Therefore, this work aims to develop an automatic payload measurement for heavy vehicles, so that drivers and police officers can monitor vehicle payload while on board the measured vehicle. For the

  1. The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

  2. Nuclear accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mathews; S. Agrest; G. Borger; M. Lord; W. D. Marbach; W. J. Cook; M. Sheils

    1979-01-01

    A malfunctioning valve at the Three Mile Island power plant in Pennsylvania was the prelude to the worst nuclear accident in U.S. history. Despite assurances that radiation leaked from the plant posed no immediate threat, the population around the plant dwindled as unforced weekend evacuations grew common. Radiation at the power plant site reached 30 mrem\\/hr on March 30. While

  3. Optimal pathways for road vehicle navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Jarvis

    1992-01-01

    The author presents a simple method of determining optimal paths for road vehicles to navigate from known starting points to known goals where the traffic conditions may vary over the field of consideration as a function of location, time, weather, accident or traffic jam. The multiple vehicle, multiple goal case can be efficiently accommodated, and the selection of which vehicle

  4. [Snowboarding accidents].

    PubMed

    Müller, R; Brügger, O; Mathys, R; Stüssi, E

    2000-12-01

    The present review summarises the related literature of the last ten years with request to snowboarding accidents. Sport accident statistics of snowboarding show high and increasing numbers of injuries. Already snowboarding ranks third of all sport accidents in Switzerland. According to the literature the injury risk in snowboarding is twice that of skiing, although the injuries are less serious. About 50% of the injured snowboarders are beginners. Beginners have a higher risk of injury than more advanced snowboarders. Additionally, and a relative large part of them are injured the first day of their snowboard career. The pattern of injury has changed over the last years. Today, injuries to the lower extremities account no longer for more than 50% but are now decreased to about 25%. Nowadays, wrist, knee, ankle, and shoulder are the most frequently injured body parts. It is the authors opinion that with up-to-date protectors, release bindings, and training of falling techniques the numbers and seriousness of injuries could be reduced, in particular injuries to the wrist and ankle. PMID:11199401

  5. VEHICLE DYNAMICS CONTROL WITH ROLLOVER PREVENTION FOR ARTICULATED HEAVY TRUCKS

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    VEHICLE DYNAMICS CONTROL WITH ROLLOVER PREVENTION FOR ARTICULATED HEAVY TRUCKS Daniel D. Eisele potential to reduce or prevent the occurrence of these types of accidents. The Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC. The Vehicle Dynamics Control system (VDC) actively brakes individual wheels to directly influence vehicle yaw

  6. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  7. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  8. Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

    A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

  9. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  10. Sleep Apnea: Traffic and Occupational Accidents – Individual Risks, Socioeconomic and Legal Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Rodenstein

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with a high risk for motor vehicle accidents, probably the highest of all risks due to medical conditions. Treatment of sleep apnea with nasal continuous positive airway pressure appears to reduce the risk of traffic accidents to the one of the general population. The risk for accidents may also be increased in untreated patients

  11. Updating outdated predictive accident models.

    PubMed

    Wood, A G; Mountain, L J; Connors, R D; Maher, M J; Ropkins, K

    2013-06-01

    Reliable predictive accident models (PAMs) (also referred to as safety performance functions (SPFs)) are essential to design and maintain safe road networks however, ongoing changes in road and vehicle design coupled with road safety initiatives, mean that these models can quickly become dated. Unfortunately, because the fitting of sophisticated PAMs including a wide range of explanatory variables is not a trivial task, available models tend to be based on data collected many years ago and seem unlikely to give reliable estimates of current accidents. Large, expensive studies to produce new models are likely to be, at best, only a temporary solution. This paper thus seeks to develop a practical and efficient methodology to allow currently available PAMs to be updated to give unbiased estimates of accident frequencies at any point in time. Two principal issues are examined: the extent to which the temporal transferability of predictive accident models varies with model complexity; and the practicality and efficiency of two alternative updating strategies. The models used to illustrate these issues are the suites of models developed for rural dual and single carriageway roads in the UK. These are widely used in several software packages in spite of being based on data collected during the 1980s and early 1990s. It was found that increased model complexity by no means ensures better temporal transferability and that calibration of the models using a scale factor can be a practical alternative to fitting new models. PMID:23510788

  12. Accident information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  13. Accident information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  14. Do motor vehicle airbags increase risk of ocular injuries in adults?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsti S Lehto; Pekka O Sulander; Timo M. T Tervo

    2003-01-01

    PurposeThis study was undertaken to evaluate the risk of eye injury in motor vehicle accidents in which airbags deploy. An attempt was made to assess the possible associations between eye injuries and eyewear in these accidents.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

    2007-05-23

    Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

  16. Simulation study of traffic car accidents in single-lane highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentaleb, Khalid; Lakouari, Noureddine; Marzoug, Rachid; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we numerically study the probability Pac of the occurrence of car accidents in the extended Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model in the case of mixture of fast (Vmax1=5) and slow vehicles (Vmax2=1) by taking also to the risky overtaking of fast vehicles. In comparison with previous existing models, we find that accidents can occur in the free traffic phase and/or congested one depending on the overtaking rate of fast vehicles. The effect of evacuation of damaged vehicles from the road with probabilities Pevf and Pevs of fast and slow vehicles respectively on the traffic flow behavior is also computed.

  17. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  18. Interpreting Accident Statistics

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Joseph Jr.

    Accident statistics have often been used to support the argument that an abnormally small proportion of drivers account for a large proportion of the accidents. This paper compares statistics developed from six-year data ...

  19. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300[degrees]F and 1800[degrees]F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

  20. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300{degrees}F and 1800{degrees}F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

  1. Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

    1999-01-01

    Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

  2. Drive-by-wire vehicle stabilization and yaw regulation: a hybrid Model Predictive Control design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Bernardini; Stefano Di Cairano; Alberto Bemporad; H. Eric Tseng

    2009-01-01

    Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Active Front Steering (AFS) have been introduced in production vehicles in recent years, due to improved vehicle maneuverability and the effects in reducing single vehicle accident. We propose a hybrid Model Predictive Control (MPC) design for coordinated control of AFS and ESC. By formulating the vehicle dynamics with respect to the front and rear tire

  3. The Chernobyl Accident: About the Accident

    Cancer.gov

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The accident happened during a routine test, intended to demonstrate how long the turbines would spin after a power loss. Prior to the test, the automatic shutdown mechanisms were disabled. Coolant water was reduced and the power output was increased. The operator tried to shut down the reactor but a flaw in the design caused a large power surge.

  4. Electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Riezenman

    1992-01-01

    The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

  5. Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication: Fair Transmit Power Control for Safety-Critical Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Torrent-Moreno; Jens Mittag; Paolo Santi; Hannes Hartenstein

    2009-01-01

    Direct radio-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication can help prevent accidents by providing accurate and up-to-date local status and hazard information to the driver. In this paper, we assume that two types of messages are used for traffic safety-related communication: 1) Periodic messages (ldquobeaconsrdquo) that are sent by all vehicles to inform their neighbors about their current status (i.e., position) and 2) event-driven

  6. [Accidents of fulguration].

    PubMed

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous investigations. PMID:1008283

  7. Effects of disabled vehicles stopped on a freeway shoulder 

    E-print Network

    Wilshire, Roy Leon

    1963-01-01

    in the vicinity of the stopped vehicle s. Objectives snd Scope The objective of this research was to determine the effects on freeway traffic behavior of (1) a disabled vehicle and (2) a disabled vehicle accompanied by a police accident investigator's vehicle... applied in this research are to find application in freeway operation and traffic control, additional research must be accomplished. Recommendations for some of the research remaining to be accomplished include: 1. Similar studies should be made...

  8. Please cite this article in press as: Gjerde, H., et al., Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among Norwegian motor vehicle drivers: A roadside survey. Accid. Anal. Prev. (2008), doi:10.1016/j.aap.2008.06.015

    E-print Network

    Aldrin, Magne

    2008-01-01

    Please cite this article in press as: Gjerde, H., et al., Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among.elsevier.com/locate/aap Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among Norwegian motor vehicle drivers: A roadside survey Hallvard Gjerdea of alcohol, psychoactive medicinal drugs and illegal drugs among drivers in Norwegian road traffic. Drivers

  9. Accident causation study on roadways with limited sight distance crest vertical curves 

    E-print Network

    Stoddard, Angela May

    1994-01-01

    reflect the driver and vehicle population currently on the transportation network. An accident causation study was conducted to determine if roadways with limited stopping sight distance present a safety hazard for the transportation network. Rural two...

  10. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents...automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at a highway-rail grade crossing involving an...

  11. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents...automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at a highway-rail grade crossing involving an...

  12. Accident causation study on roadways with limited sight distance crest vertical curves

    E-print Network

    Stoddard, Angela May

    1994-01-01

    reflect the driver and vehicle population currently on the transportation network. An accident causation study was conducted to determine if roadways with limited stopping sight distance present a safety hazard for the transportation network. Rural two...

  13. An analysis of motorcycle injury and vehicle damage severity using ordered probit models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed A. Quddus; Robert B. Noland; Hoong Chor Chin

    2002-01-01

    Problem: Motorcycles constitute about 19% of all motorized vehicles in Singapore and are generally overrepresented in traffic accidents, accounting for 40% of total fatalities. Method: In this paper, an ordered probit model is used to examine factors that affect the injury severity of motorcycle accidents and the severity of damage to the vehicle for those crashes. Nine years of motorcycle

  14. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    PubMed

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents. PMID:3242158

  15. Insomnia and accidents: cross-sectional study (EQUINOX) on sleep-related home, work and car accidents in 5293 subjects with insomnia from 10 countries.

    PubMed

    Léger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre; Ement, Philippe; Metlaine, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir; Faraut, Brice

    2014-04-01

    The link between sleepiness and the risk of motor vehicle accidents is well known, but little is understood regarding the risk of home, work and car accidents of subjects with insomnia. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted across 10 countries in a population of subjects with sleep disturbances. Primary care physicians administered a questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, sleep disturbance and accidents (motor vehicle, work and home) related to sleep problems to each subject. Insomnia was defined using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-10) criteria. A total of 5293 subjects were included in the study, of whom 20.9% reported having had at least one home accident within the past 12 months, 10.1% at least one work accident, 9% reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once and 4.1% reported having had at least one car accident related to their sleepiness. All types of accident were reported more commonly by subjects living in urban compared to other residential areas. Car accidents were reported more commonly by employed subjects, whereas home injuries were reported more frequently by the unemployed. Car accidents were reported more frequently by males than by females, whereas home accidents were reported more commonly by females. Patients with insomnia have high rates of home accidents, car accidents and work accidents related to sleep disturbances independently of any adverse effects of hypnotic treatments. Reduced total sleep time may be one factor explaining the high risk of accidents in individuals who complain of insomnia. PMID:24237855

  16. Road traffic accidents among alcohol-dependent patients: The effect of treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Trinidad Gómez-Talegón; F. Javier Alvarez

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that driving under the influence of alcohol increases the risk of traffic accidents. Alcohol-dependent patients are responsible for two-thirds of motor vehicle crashes involving alcohol. Studies carried out on the general population have shown a relation between alcohol dependence and traffic accidents.The aim of the study is to analyse the effect on traffic accidents of treatment

  17. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Computerized Accident\\/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Computerized Accident\\/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) is a comprehensive data base containing more than 50,000 investigation reports of injury\\/illness, property damage and vehicle accident cases representing safety data from 1975 to the present for more than 150 DOE contractor organizations. A special feature is that the text of each accident report is translated using a controlled

  18. Underreporting in traffic accident data, bias in parameters and the structure of injury severity models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Yamamoto; Junpei Hashiji; Venkataraman N. Shankar

    2008-01-01

    Injury severities in traffic accidents are usually recorded on ordinal scales, and statistical models have been applied to investigate the effects of driver factors, vehicle characteristics, road geometrics and environmental conditions on injury severity. The unknown parameters in the models are in general estimated assuming random sampling from the population. Traffic accident data however suffer from underreporting effects, especially for

  19. Investigation on the role of traffic volume in accidents on urban highways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esmaeel Ayati; Ehsan Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionRoadway safety is a major concern for the general public and public agencies, as roadway crashes claim many lives and cause substantial economic loss each year. In Iran, a large number of vehicles are involved in road accidents each year, which cause many deaths and extensive property damage; such accidents are among the major causes of death and disability in

  20. RULE MINING AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS USING ADAPTIVE REGRESSION TREES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIBEBE BESHAH TESEMA; AJITH ABRAHAM; CRINA GROSAN

    Road traffic accidents are among the top leading causes of deaths and injuries of various levels. Ethiopia is experiencing highest rate of such accidents resulting in fatalities and various levels of injuries. Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, takes the lion's share of the risk having higher number of vehicles and traffic and the cost of these fatalities and

  1. Incentive systems for accident-free and violation-free driving in the general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERALD J. S. WILDE; PAUL A. MURDOCH

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive model of driver behaviour and accident causation shows four central variables: (a) perceptual skills relative to accident risk, (b) judgemental (decisional) skills relevant to risk-reducing and risk-enhancing actions, (c) psychomotor control skills related to vehicle handling and (d) the target level of risk, that is the degree of risk the driver wishes to accept. It can be shown

  2. A highway accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Carlson; L. E. Fischer

    1992-01-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. The purpose of this report is to document the mechanical circumstances of the severe accident, confirm the nature and

  3. Anatomy of an Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

  4. The Tokaimura Nuclear Accident

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael E. Ryan

    2001-09-01

    The 1999 accident at the Tokaimura nuclear fuel processing plant near Tokyo is the context for a student discussion on nuclear power and the consequences of a nuclear accident. The case covers issues ranging from chemical process safety to risk management

  5. Simulation study of traffic accidents on a three-lane highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jau-Yang; Lai, Wun-Cing

    2015-07-01

    Unsuitable driving behaviors often lead to the occurrence of traffic accidents. To reduce accidents and to prolong human life, simulated investigations are highly desirable to evaluate the effect of traffic safety in terms of number of traffic accidents. In this paper, a three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to analyze the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents on highway. We define appropriate driving rules for the forward moving and lane changing of the vehicles. Three types of vehicle accidents are designed to investigate the relationships between different driving behaviors and traffic accidents. We simulate four road driving strategies, and compute the traffic flow, velocity, lane-changing frequency and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents for different road driving strategies. According to the simulation and analysis, it is shown that the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents can be reduced by using the specified road driving strategies. Additionally, we found that the occurrence of traffic accidents can be avoided when the slow vehicles are suitably constrained to move on a three-lane highway.

  6. Accidents on hospital wards.

    PubMed Central

    Levene, S; Bonfield, G

    1991-01-01

    Eight hospitals reported 781 non-iatrogenic accidents occurring to patients and visitors under 16 years of age during an 18 month period up to October 1989. Accidents more often involved boys and children aged 3 to 5 years old. Falls from a height, slips, and striking accidents were common by day and falls by night. A total of 41% of accidents to inpatients occurred when parents were present. Only three accidents were serious. Altogether 27% involved beds and cots, and only one consequent injury was more than minor. Data collected routinely in case of medicolegal action can be presented in a form that may facilitate preventative work. Potentially remediable causes for concern include falls from beds and cots and the use of makeshift equipment. PMID:1929510

  7. UNIVERSITY OF TRENTO ACCIDENT INSURANCE

    E-print Network

    1 UNIVERSITY OF TRENTO ACCIDENT INSURANCE POLICY This document reflects the contractual conditions; · accidents resulting from popular uproars, acts of terrorism, malicious damages, act of violence, kidnaps

  8. A Man Develops Panic Disorder After a Car Accident

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Julie P.; Morrison, Ann

    2004-01-01

    We will describe psychotherapy with a man who developed panic disorder after a motor vehicle accident. Early intervention, selection of therapeutic approach, important turning points in the therapy, the decision-making process of combining psychotherapy with medication, and successful psychiatric collaboration with the primary care physician are discussed. PMID:21191526

  9. Statin Adherence and Risk of Accidents A Cautionary Tale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin R. Dormuth; Amanda R. Patrick; William H. Shrank; James M. Wright; Robert J. Glynn; Jenny Sutherland; M. Alan Brookhart

    2011-01-01

    Background—Bias in studies of preventive medications can occur when healthier patients are more likely to initiate and adhere to therapy than less healthy patients. We sought evidence of this bias by examining associations between statin exposure and various outcomes that should not be causally affected by statin exposure, such as workplace and motor vehicle accidents. Methods and Results—We conducted a

  10. SAFETY FOR THE GROWING CHILD - EXPERIENCES FROM SWEDISH ACCIDENT DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lotta Jakobsson; Irene Isaksson-Hellman; Björn Lundell

    During the past 40 years, different child restraint systems (CRS) have been developed to improve protection for children of different sizes and ages. Development of more effective CRS, and a higher frequency in use of the restraints, in addition to enhanced vehicle safety, has resulted in an increased level of child safety. This study examines accident data with Volvo cars

  11. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  12. On-road vehicle detection using optical sensors: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zehang Sun; George Bebis; Ronald Miller

    2004-01-01

    As one of the most promising applications of computer vision, vision-based vehicle detection for driver assistance has received considerable attention over the last 15 years. There are at least three reasons for the blooming research in this field: first, the startling losses both in human lives and finance caused by vehicle accidents; second, the availability of feasible technologies accumulated within

  13. Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

  14. Motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

    1986-04-15

    An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

  15. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included....

  16. The Chernobyl Accident: Oversight

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  17. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, James K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  18. Hang-gliding accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Margreiter; L J Lugger

    1978-01-01

    Seventy-five known hang-gliding accidents causing injury to the pilot occurred in the Tyrol during 1973-6. Most occurred in May, June, or September and between 11 am and 3 pm, when unfavourable thermic conditions are most likely. Thirty-four accidents happened during launching, 13 during flight, and 28 during landing, and most were caused by human errors--especially deficient launching technique; incorrect estimation

  19. Accident management information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Ergonomics, spinal injury, and industrial vehicle safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. McLay; D. G. Wilder; M. K. Molloy

    1996-01-01

    Explores the mechanisms of spinal injury in industrial vehicle accidents. The biomechanics of balance, response to sudden loads, and impact and vibration are shown to influence the nature of trauma. A simulation of the occupant motion in a sit-down forklift shows the loads in a tipover. The packaging of the driver is discussed to reduce the probability of spinal injury

  1. From Inductance Loops to Vehicle Trajectories

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Management system Aim, reduce: accidents, (variance of) journey times Queue Ahead warning systems Temporary speed limits Lane management Spacing of inductance loop sites is in range 30m to 100m ­ usual operation42 N-bound) distance(km) speed(km/h) time (hrs) From Inductance Loops to Vehicle Trajectories ­ p.5

  2. Presidential commission investigating Challenger accident at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Views of the Presidential commission investigating the Challenger accident at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Photos include NASA Astronaut Robert Crippen pointing out Discovery tile work in the Vehicle Assembly Building (28888); KSC Director Richard Smith points out a portion of a solid rocket booster segment to Astronaut Sally Ride and to the chairman of the Presidential Commission, William P. Rogers (28889); Rogers and other members of the Pressidential commission examines the propellent contained in a solid rocket booster segment stored at one of the KSC ordinance facilities (28890).

  3. Site and landscape conditions at white-tailed deer\\/vehicle collision locations in Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca A. Finder; John L. Roseberry; Alan Woolf

    1999-01-01

    Motor vehicle collisions with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) present several problems including danger to humans, vehicle damage, and deer mortality. Knowledge of factors influencing deer movements onto or across roads and highways may reduce deer\\/vehicle collisions on existing roads, and improve planning for future roads. We used remotely sensed data to determine characteristics associated with high accident areas. Topographic features

  4. A study on using linear microphone array-based acoustic sensing to detect approaching vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Shimada; Akitoshi Itai; Hiroshi Yasukawa

    2010-01-01

    Due to recent trends in society, enhanced car safety is strongly required. To prevent traffic accidents, it is important to estimate the direction of approaching vehicles at intersections. Conventional research employs the cross correlation of a 4-microphone array to detect a single approaching vehicles, the detection of multiple vehicles has not yet been attempted. This paper describes a technique that

  5. A Study of Lane Detection Algorithm for Personal Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro; Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke

    By the word “Personal vehicle”, we mean a simple and lightweight vehicle expected to emerge as personal ground transportation devices. The motorcycle, electric wheelchair, motor-powered bicycle, etc. are examples of the personal vehicle and have been developed as the useful for transportation for a personal use. Recently, a new types of intelligent personal vehicle called the Segway has been developed which is controlled and stabilized by using on-board intelligent multiple sensors. The demand for needs for such personal vehicles are increasing, 1) to enhance human mobility, 2) to support mobility for elderly person, 3) reduction of environmental burdens. Since rapidly growing personal vehicles' market, a number of accidents caused by human error is also increasing. The accidents are caused by it's drive ability. To enhance or support drive ability as well as to prevent accidents, intelligent assistance is necessary. One of most important elemental functions for personal vehicle is robust lane detection. In this paper, we develop a robust lane detection method for personal vehicle at outdoor environments. The proposed lane detection method employing a 360 degree omni directional camera and unique robust image processing algorithm. In order to detect lanes, combination of template matching technique and Hough transform are employed. The validity of proposed lane detection algorithm is confirmed by actual developed vehicle at various type of sunshined outdoor conditions.

  6. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  7. Vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  8. Vehicle systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Bales; Tom Modlin; Jack Suddreth; Tom Wheeler; Darrel R. Tenney; Ernest O. Bayless; W. Barry Lisagor; Donald A. Bolstad; Harold Croop; J. Dyer

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass\\/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  9. Helicopter accident survivability.

    PubMed

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    Army Air Corps accident and fatality rates have now reached levels which compare favourably with data from other civilian and military sources. This improvement is the result of enhanced helicopter design and parallel progress in aircrew training. The introduction of new generations of turbine powered rotor craft has largely eliminated mechanical failure as the cause of accident. As a result 75% of Army Air Corps accidents are due to pilot error. This contribution is likely to increase in the future as the pilot's task is made more difficult by the incumberance of personal equipment. Methods whereby occupant protection and aircraft crashworthiness can be improved are reviewed and it is concluded that it would make sound economic sense to implement some of these well proven design features. PMID:6527344

  10. Prediction for traffic accident severity: comparing the artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, combined genetic algorithm and pattern search methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Metin Kunt; Iman Aghayan; Nima Noii

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on predicting the severity of freeway traffic accidents by employing twelve accident-related parameters in a genetic algorithm (GA), pattern search and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling methods. The models were developed using the input parameters of driver's age and gender, the use of a seat belt, the type and safety of a vehicle, weather conditions, road surface,

  11. [Travel and accidents].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic pathologies are the most frequent medical events to be observed among French travellers. Accidents on the public highway by lack of respect of the fundamental rules of road security, particularly abroad, traffic conditions in bad repair in numerous emergent countries, usually the destination of mass tourism and underdeveloped organization of health care and local urgency help. Sports activities are also a source of accidents. A good physical training is essential. Drowning is a real plague, especially among children due to a lack of vigilance. Preventive measures are simple, keep them constantly in mind and apply them carefully so as to have beautiful memories of our trip back home. PMID:26058199

  12. Simulation study of car accidents at the intersection of two roads in the mixed traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoug, R.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2015-05-01

    Using cellular automata (CA) Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model, we numerically study the probability Pac of the occurrence of car accidents at nonsignalized intersection when drivers do not respect the priority rules. We also investigated the impact of mixture lengths and velocities of vehicles on this probability. It is found that in the first case, where vehicles distinguished only by their lengths, the car accidents start to occur above a critical density ?c. Furthermore, the increase of the fraction of long vehicles (FL) delays the occurrence of car accidents (increasing ?c) and increases the risk of collisions when ? > ?c. In other side, the mixture of maximum velocities (with same length for all vehicles) leads to the appearance of accidents at the intersection even in the free flow regime. Moreover, the increase of the fraction of fast vehicles (Ff) reduces the accident probability (Pac). The influence of roads length is also studied. We found that the decrease of the roads length enhance the risk of collision.

  13. Expanding design process of the Airbag Control Unit ACU - Connection of Active and Passive Safety by using vehicles dynamics for rollover and side crash detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Ertlmeier; Paul Spannaus

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle safety is based on the avoidance of accidents (active safety) and reduction of injuries in case a crash isnpsilat preventable (passive safety). Therefore, the motion of the vehicle is measured with suitable sensors. The data analysis takes place in qualified vehicle control units. A vehicle stabilisation is calculated in the electronical-stability control unit (ESC). The restraint systems like seatbelts

  14. Development of Pedestrian-to-Vehicle Communication System Prototype for Pedestrian Safety Using both Wide-Area and Direct Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chika Sugimoto; Yasuhisa Nakamura; Takuya Hashimoto

    2008-01-01

    We propose a prototype pedestrian-to-vehicle communication system which uses a cellular phone and wireless communication to improve the safety of pedestrians. One of the effectual measures against pedestrian-to-vehicle accidents is to make each of pedestrians and drivers find the others and recognize the risk from out of sight and with time to spare for avoidance of accidents. A pedestrian-to-vehicle communication

  15. Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vafaee-Najar, A; Esmaeili, H; Ibrahimipour, H; Dehnavieh, R; Nozadi, M Seyyed

    2010-01-01

    Background: All over the world motorcycle accident are one of the major causes of road death and injury. This study aimed to determine the pattern of Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Mashhad-Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 to analyze the epidemiological pattern of the motorcycle accident in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Three hundred fifty cases of motorcycle accidents were included. Data gathering tool was a standard questionnaire. The compiled data were analyzed using SPSS11 and ?2 test. The significance level was considered 0.05 in all statistical tests. Results: In the time span of the study, 350 cases of motorcycle accident occurred, most of which happened at 8pm to 12pm. In 119 cases, the motorcyclist was the blameful rider. Generally, 84.2% of the motorcycle riders did not have safety helmets. About two third of blameful motorcycle riders (63.1%) were less than 25 years old. The major cause of the accidents (55.1%) was due to neglecting the Yield Right of Way. Motorcycle riders endanger pedestrian, other drivers, passengers and their own life. Conclusion: Paying attention to cultural and instructional issues of correct motorcycle riding and performing appropriate monitoring in traffic and transportation system such as honoring our and others safety and setting limitations on using this vehicle by the youth is of great importance. PMID:23113012

  16. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions aboard and also on the prevention of accidents caused by walking around aboard the ship. PMID:11850550

  17. The Chernobyl Accident: Studies

    Cancer.gov

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in the former Soviet Union in 1986 exposed large numbers of people in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia to radioactive iodines, principally I-131 which concentrates in the thyroid gland (Hatch, et al. 2005; Cardis and Hatch, 2011).

  18. Managing nuclear accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Golding; J. X. Kasperson; R. E. Kasperson; R. Goble; J. E. Seley; G. Thompson; C. P. Wolf

    1992-01-01

    An accident at a nuclear power plant can pose a serious threat to surrounding populations. If people and their government are poorly prepared, as was the case at Windscale, England in 1957, Three Mile Island (TMI) in the United States in 1979, and Chernobyl in the Soviet Union in 1986, substantial exposure to radiation could occur. Much has been done

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  3. EPR accident scenarios and provisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Bittermann; Ulrich Krugmann; Garo Azarian

    2001-01-01

    For the EPR an improved defence-in-depth concept is applied. In an evolutionary way, accident control is developed from existing French and German PWR designs, thereby achieving a high safety level quantified by probabilistic safety assessment. Independent of that, severe accidents are considered in the design. By a robust containment and severe accident mitigation measures, the need for offsite emergency response

  4. The effect on accident risk of a change in driver education in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Gitte

    2002-01-01

    Driver education in Denmark was changed radically in 1986. An evaluation study was undertaken to see whether the new education concept had had any effect on the development in accidents. In an earlier part of the study, it was found that after the change in education the number of accidents involving 18-19-year-olds in the official statistics had decreased more than that involving mature drivers. This fact could not solely be attributed to changes in population size, changes in exposure, mild winters in the period after the change, etc. It seemed, therefore, reasonable to attribute the effect to the changes in driver education. In the present study, two groups of new car drivers trained according to the old and new programs respectively--were followed-up with four questionnaires through their first 5.5 years as drivers. The decrease in accidents found in the official statistics was also found for the drivers in the questionnaire study. The decrease is mainly concentrated in the 1st year of driving, and is found in multiple-vehicle accidents and manoeuvring accidents. The number of single-vehicle accidents did not change. Those who received training which satisfied a number of the basic requirements in the new education program, had a lower accident risk than those whose education did not meet these requirements. This can be seen as an indication that the decrease in accidents is explainable, at least in part, by changes in driver education. PMID:11789569

  5. [Traffic accidents and alcohol consumption in an emergency unit of La Paz, Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Pelaez Mariscal, Inęs Magali; da Silva, Edilaine Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this quantitative, descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was to characterize the distribution and characteristics of motor vehicle accidents related to alcohol consumption. The sample was composed of 62 drivers and pedestrians, over 15 years old, who were involved in motor vehicle accidents involving alcohol, and were attended at the Emergency Unit of the Clinical Hospital of La Paz - Bolivia. A survey designed by the researchers to collect partner-demographic data and morbidity of the victim was applied and data that evaluated the alcohol consumption of the driver responsible for the accident was collected. The results demonstrated that 71% of the victims were men; 32.3% were between 21 and 30 years old; 29% were students and 25.8% were the drivers. This study shows the characterization of victims, alcohol consumption and accidents. PMID:20694432

  6. Towards the sustainability of road transport through the introduction of Autonomous Vehicle Technology

    E-print Network

    Hardy, B.; Fenner, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the potential for Level 2 autonomous vehicle (AV) technology to improve four prevailing sustainability issues specifically on highways: high congestion levels, increasing accident rates, high CO_2 emissions and poor journey...

  7. 49 CFR 398.8 - Administration inspection of motor vehicles in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Prescribed inspection report. Form MCS 63, Driver-Equipment Compliance Check...cause an accident or a breakdown. Form MCS 64, “Out of Service Vehicle” sticker shall...the “out of service notice” on Form MCS 63 have been satisfactorily...

  8. 49 CFR 398.8 - Administration inspection of motor vehicles in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Prescribed inspection report. Form MCS 63, Driver-Equipment Compliance Check...cause an accident or a breakdown. Form MCS 64, “Out of Service Vehicle” sticker shall...the “out of service notice” on Form MCS 63 have been satisfactorily...

  9. 49 CFR 398.8 - Administration inspection of motor vehicles in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Prescribed inspection report. Form MCS 63, Driver-Equipment Compliance Check...cause an accident or a breakdown. Form MCS 64, “Out of Service Vehicle” sticker shall...the “out of service notice” on Form MCS 63 have been satisfactorily...

  10. Analyzing spatial-temporal patterns of motor vehicle crashes using GIS: a case study in Dallas

    E-print Network

    Lu, Bing

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses GIS to analyze the characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of motor vehicle crashes. These characteristics include that traffic accidents are most likely to occur in the afternoon "rush hour" (4:00 - 6:00PM...

  11. Examining the Severity of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Roadside Barriers on High Speed Roads 

    E-print Network

    Xavier, Connie Beth

    2014-09-08

    DOT) CRIS crash database. The need for a higher testing impact speed was investigated by determining whether the injury severity factor significantly increased as the posted speed limit increased for real-world vehicle accidents against longitudinal roadside...

  12. [Heliogeophysical factors and aviation accidents].

    PubMed

    Komarov, F I; Oraevski?, V N; Sizov, Iu P; Tsirul'nik, L B; Kanonidi, Kh D; Ushakov, I B; Shalimov, P M; Kimlyk, M V; Glukhov, D V

    1998-01-01

    It was shown by two independent methods that there is a certain correlation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeophysical factors. The statistical and spectral analyses of time series of heliogeomagnetic factors and the number of aviation accidents in 1989-1995 showed that, of 216 accidents, 58% are related to sudden geomagnetic storms. A similar relation was revealed for aviation catastrophes (64% out of 86 accidents) and emergencies (54% out of 130 accidents) that coincided in time with heliogeomagnetic storms. General periodicities of the series were revealed by the method of spectral analysis, namely, cycles of 30, 42, 46, 64, 74, 83, 99, 115, 143, 169, 339 days, which confirms the causative relation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeomagnetic factors. It is assumed that some aviation accidents that coincided in time with geomagnetic storms, are due to changes in professional abilities of pilots that were in the zone of storms. PMID:9783079

  13. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  14. Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: A case–control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hallvard Gjerde; Per T. Normann; Asbjřrg S. Christophersen; Sven Ove Samuelsen; Jřrg Mřrland

    2011-01-01

    A case–control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003–2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N=68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005–2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples

  15. The Chernobyl Accident: Collaborators

    Cancer.gov

    A special note is made of the extraordinary leadership of the late Dr. Elaine Ron, who helped shape and oversee the conduct of the NCI-Chernobyl program. The late Dr. Geoffrey Howe of Columbia University also made invaluable contributions to this research. We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Gilbert Beebe, Jacob Robbins, and Terry Thomas, who were involved from the earliest days following the accident and continued to provide scientific input until the time of their respective deaths.

  16. Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Normann, Per T; Christophersen, Asbjřrg S; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Mřrland, Jřrg

    2011-05-01

    A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug < multiple drugs < alcohol only < alcohol+drugs. For single substance use: medicinal drug or THC < amphetamine/methamphetamine < alcohol. For most substances, higher ORs were found when studying drivers involved in single vehicle accidents than for those involved in multiple vehicle accidents, but confidence intervals were wider. PMID:21376919

  17. Two-lane traffic simulations with a blockage induced by an accident car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.; Lei, L.; Dai, S. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a highway traffic model with a blockage induced by an accident car is proposed, in which both symmetric lane changing rules and asymmetric lane changing rules are adopted. The fundamental diagrams and spatial-temporal profiles are presented after the numerical simulation and the jam transition is studied. It is shown that the accident car not only causes a local jam behind the accident car, but also causes vehicles to cluster in the bypass lane. The asymmetric lane changing rules are more advantageous in reducing the local jam than the symmetric lane changing rules when the accident car is in the right lane, and the symmetric lane changing rules are superior when the accident car is in the left lane. Furthermore the curves of lane-changing frequency against the total density are given. It is found that the vehicles will change lane more frequently when traffic is inhomogeneous with different types of vehicle or with an accident car.

  18. Design and Implementation of Embedded Data Acquisition System for Mobile Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Nan; Zhou Zhou; Li Qingjiang; Yin Qinghong; Sun Zhaolin; Xu Xin; Xu Hui

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a FPGA based novel embedded automobile data acquisition system, which records vehicle's, environment's and driver's operation information intuitively. The data acquisition system is useful in the fields of traffic accident analyze and accident responsibility confirmation. The core of system is Altera's Nios II processor in FPGA. According to the trigger conditions set by users, the processor controls

  19. Vehicle structure

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, E.A.

    1984-05-01

    There is provided a vehicle which includes a frame, a steerable wheel mounted on the frame and at least one further wheel mounted for free rotation on the frame. A flywheel is mounted for rotation adjacent one of the wheels. The vehicle includes means for imparting rotation to the flywheel, and a clutch plate rotatably and coaxially mounted adjacent the same wheel to which the flywheel is adjacent. Speed-reduction means allows rotation of the flywheel to rotate the clutch plate at a faster rate than the flywheel, and a frictionless clutch is provided between the clutch plate and the adjacent wheel.

  20. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  1. Odontological identification in two high-impact, high-temperature accidents.

    PubMed

    Titsas, A; Kieser, J A

    1999-12-01

    Here we report on two high-impact accidents both of which were complicated by fire. The first accident involved a light aircraft which crashed in a gorge while performing a low, slow flight. Both victims were found to have experienced extensive dental fracturing. The second accident was a high speed motor vehicle crash followed by incineration which left the two victims without dental fracturing. In the absence of comparative data on the effect of burning on teeth the cause of the foregoing remains unanswered. PMID:10709563

  2. Pedestrian accident analysis with a silicone dummy block.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngnae; Park, Sungji; Yoon, Seokhyun; Kong, Youngsu; Goh, Jae-Mo

    2012-07-10

    When a car is parked in an inclined plane in a parking lot, the car can roll down the slope and cause a pedestrian accident, even when the angle of inclination is small. A rolling car on a gentle slope seems to be easily halted by human power to prevent damage to the car or a possible accident. However, even if the car rolls down very slowly, it can cause severe injuries to a pedestrian, especially when the pedestrian cannot avoid the rolling car. In an accident case that happened in our province, a pedestrian was injured by a rolling car, which had been parked on a slope the night before. The accident occurred in the parking lot of an apartment complex. The parking lot seemed almost flat with the naked eye. We conducted a rolling test with the accident vehicle at the site. The car was made to roll down the slope by purely gravitational pull and was made to collide with the silicone block leaning against the retaining wall. Silicone has characteristics similar to those of a human body, especially with respect to stiffness. In the experiment, we measured the shock power quantitatively. The results showed that a rolling car could severely damage the chest of a pedestrian, even if it moved very slowly. PMID:22455985

  3. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  4. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  5. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  6. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  7. Vehicle emissions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  8. The effect of road characteristics on motorcycle accident in Batu east Java Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusini, Sobri

    2013-09-01

    Safe of transportation on road is global problem with not only transportation problem, but also social teritory problem in sosial life. WHO pay attention to safe transportation on road to decide healthy day in the world 2004 with caption: Road Safety is no Accident. WHO is clariafy that road accident level in the world have to reach 1.2 mellion victim death and over 30 mellion injuries every year. As much 85% sacrifice death are accident in develop state, where vehicle number only 32% from vehicle number in the world. That becouse as the objective is to decide influence road charakteristics geometrics for motorcycle accident in Batu East Java Indonesia. Using some statistical analysis it is found that the best-fit motorcycle accident model is: Acc = 0,009F0,703exp(-0,334SW-0,361G+0.077S) Where: Acc = number of accident, F = Flow, pcu/hr, SW = shoulder width (m), S = speed, km/hr, G = Gradient (0,1) The model shows that the affecting factors are flow, shoulder width and speed, therefore local government should improve some related factor (flow, shoulder width, Gradient and speed) that can reduce the number of motorcycle accident at crossing road in Batu.

  9. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Sims

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions,

  10. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Bales; Tom Modlin; Jack Suddreth; Tom Wheeler; Darrel R. Tenney; Ernest O. Bayless; W. Barry Lisagor; Donald A. Bolstad; Harold Croop; J. Dyer

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels,

  11. Credible investigation of air accidents.

    PubMed

    Smart, K

    2004-07-26

    Within the United Kingdom the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has been used as a model for the other transport modes accident investigation bodies. Government Ministers considered that the AAIB's approach had established the trust of the public and the aviation industry in its ability to conduct independent and objective investigations. The paper will examine the factors that are involved in establishing this trust. They include: the investigation framework; the actual and perceived independence of the accident investigating body; the aviation industry's safety culture; the qualities of the investigators and the quality of their liaison with bereaved families those directly affected by the accidents they investigate. PMID:15231355

  12. Vehicle Tracking in Outdoor Environments using 3D Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie El Nabbout

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There has been a growth in demand,for advancing algorithms in surveillance applications concerning moving vehicles where analysis of trac,has a potential application to security, trac management (congestion and accident detection), speed measurement, car counting and statistics, as well as turning movement at intersections. This research focuses on multiple-vehicle detection, recognition, and tracking in urban environments based on video sequences

  13. Injuries associated with cycle rickshaws accidents

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Sanjay; Barwar, Nilesh; Rastogi, Devarshi; Sharma, Vineet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cycle rickshaw is an important means of transportation in Urban India. Pedestrians, rickshaw users, rickshaw pullers, two wheeled vehicle users and cyclists are among the most vulnerable road user groups in terms of injuries and fatalities resulting from road traffic accidents in India. Our objectives were to study characteristics of crashes and nature of injuries associated with cycle rickshaw. Patients and Methods: Between August 2008 to July 2009, a hospital based observational study was done of patients who presented to King George medical college trauma center with injury sustained due to cycle rickshaw in emergency department. Age, time of trauma, mode of trauma, contributing factors and type of injury were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient was 32.1. Seventeen patients were rickshaw pullers and the rest were occupants of the rickshaw. Overloading with more than two passengers was found in 24 cases (28.5%). Most common cause of injury was collision with a moving vehicle (56 patients, %) followed by fall from rickshaw. The most common contributing factor was the overloading of rickshaw. On arrival to the hospital, the mean Injury severity score (ISS) was 3.5 ± 2.2 and the mean Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was 13.4 ± 4.3. Nine patients were admitted to ICU (Intensive care unit). The median ICU stay was 4 (1-24 days). Six of the ICU admitted patients had head injury. Conclusion: Rickshaw pullers and occupants are vulnerable to road traffic accidents. Urgent preventive measures targeted towards this group are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries involving rickshaws. The need for improved understanding of the risk characteristics of cycle rickshaw is emphasized. PMID:24812450

  14. Accident characterization methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, A.L.; Harper, F.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe accident issues. In support of NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories has directed the production of Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for the Surry, Sequoyah, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf nuclear power plants. The Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) at Sandia has been responsible for the Level 1 portion of the analyses, which includes estimation of core damage frequency and characterization of the dominant sequences. The ASEP analyses are being documented in NUREG/CR-4550. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and evaluate the methodology utilized in these analyses. The methodology will soon be published in more detail as Reference 5. The results produced for NUREG/CR-4550 using this methodology are summarized in another paper to be presented at this conference.

  15. Surface Mine Truck Safety Training: A VR Approach to PreOperational Vehicle Inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien Ennis; Benjamin Lucchesi; Nerissa Oberlander; Keith Wesolowski

    In the surface mining industry, the cost of workplace accidents is high. One aspect of safetytraining is the pre-operational vehicle inspection. Training operators to correctly inspectvehicles is costly and time consuming in both equipment availability and man hours. Thispaper outlines the motivation for and the development of an alternative training method, avirtual reality (VR) based Mine Vehicle Inspection Simulator (MVIS),

  16. Lateral stabilization of vehicle-trailer combinations against crosswind disturbances by means of sliding control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hubner; T. Stork; U. Becker; E. Schnieder

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the basic properties and robust control of a vehicle-trailer combination crosswind disturbance conditions. In practice it is known that unstable roll movements may occur, especially with unfavorable combinations of vehicle and trailer conditions, operating slightly above the permissible maximum speed. This may lead to accidents mostly due to improper driver behavior. First we present two dynamic model

  17. Perceived safety and biomechanical stress to the lower limbs when stepping down from fire fighting vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Gigučre; Denis Marchand

    2005-01-01

    Injuries related to emergency vehicles represent 19% of compensated work accidents for fire fighters, 37% of which occur while stepping down from their vehicles. This study compared the impact forces, the use of upper limbs and the perception of danger of fire fighters as they step down from five different locations on fire trucks. The results show that stepping down

  18. Estimating the Risk of Collisions between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    intersections in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. This data set contains BMV accident data, bicycle flow data, motorEstimating the Risk of Collisions between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections-2700 Abstract. Collisions between bicycles and motor vehicles have caused severe life and property losses

  19. Motor vehicle crash fatalities: The effects of race and marital status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Augustine J. Kposowa; Michele Adams

    1998-01-01

    This study compared victims of motor vehicle fatalities to deaths due to natural causes. It was hypothesized that the race and marital status of victims would have significant effects on the likelihood of death from motor vehicle accidents. In particular, African Americans were expected to have fatalities significantly higher than those of whites. Cross-sectional data on a universe of all

  20. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate...

  1. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate...

  2. Industry program needed for nuclear accident management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klopp

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for a management program for nuclear power accidents. According to the author, the tools and technology for severe accident management exist. The need for a clear, realistic definition of nuclear accident program requirements is discussed.

  3. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  4. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  5. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. PMID:20817399

  6. Fatal accidents among car and truck drivers: effects of fatigue, age, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Summala, H; Mikkola, T

    1994-06-01

    Fatigue increases the risk of an accident if the driver, on recognizing symptoms of fatigue, does not stop driving. We studied whether a tendency to continue the current activity and complete the task especially affects younger drivers, who are more susceptible to motivational pressures at the wheel in general. The data consisted of Finnish in-depth studies on 586 single-vehicle and 1357 multiple-vehicle accidents in which at least one vehicle occupant died. When excluding alcohol-related cases, the results showed that, first, trailer-truck drivers who either fell asleep or were tired to a degree that contributed to the accident were younger than those involved in the other fatalities. For car drivers, the proportion of fatigue-related cases was approximately constant in each age group, but a variation was seen when studied according to the time of day of the accident, mainly resulting from two distinct peaks. The first was in young drivers 18 to 20 years old between midnight and 6:00 a.m. The other occurred in drivers 56 years and older during the late afternoon hours. These data also indicate that in terms of fatal accidents, fatigue and alcohol seem to be less of a problem for truckers than for car drivers. PMID:8070795

  7. Analysis of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Yang, Guangyu; Che, Xingping; Xie, Jingru; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhengguo

    2014-10-01

    To study the characteristics of fatal vehicle-pedestrian accidents in China?a team was established and passenger car-pedestrian crash cases occurring between 2006 and 2011 in Beijing and Chongqing, China were collected. A total of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian collisions were sampled and analyzed. The pedestrian injuries were scored according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The demographical distributions of fatal pedestrian accidents differed from other pedestrian accidents. Among the victims, no significant discrepancy in the distribution of ISS and AIS in head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities by pedestrian age was found, while pedestrian behaviors prior to the crashes may affect the ISS. The distributions of AIS in head, thorax, and abdomen among the fatalities did not show any association with impact speeds or vehicle types, whereas there was a strong relationship between the ISS and impact speeds. Whether pedestrians died in the accident field or not was not associated with the ISS or AIS. The present results may be useful for not only forensic experts but also vehicle safety researchers. More investigations regarding fatal pedestrian accidents need be conducted in great detail. PMID:25287805

  8. Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board gathers for a second day for its third public hearing, held in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The CAIB was set up to examine STS-107 and analyze exploratory tests. Navy Admiral Harold W. 'Hal' Gehman Jr. was designated as the Chairman of the Board. From left to right in this photo sit Board Members Steven B. Wallace, Scott Hubbard, Dr. John Logsdon, Rear Admiral Stephen Turcotte, Hal Gehman, General Duane Deal, Dr. Douglas Osheroff, and Maj. General Kenneth W. Hess. Not shown are Maj. General John Barry, Dr. James N. Hallock, Roger Tetrault, Dr. Sheila Widnall, and Dr. Sally Ride. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  9. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  10. Review of global menace of road accidents with special reference to malaysia- a social perspective.

    PubMed

    Kareem, Abdul

    2003-07-01

    Road accident is 'a global tragedy' with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23-34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families. PMID:23386795

  11. Image synthesis for blind corners from uncalibrated multiple vehicle cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuki Ichikawa; Jun Sato

    2008-01-01

    Because of the increasing number of car accidents, it is very important to provide safety systems for car drivers. In this paper, we propose a method for synthesizing virtual blind corner images by using multiple vehicle cameras, so that drivers can see the other side of the blind corner. The existing methods require position sensors such as GPS and calibrated

  12. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mĺrten Niklasson; David Gĺrsjö; Anders Folkesson; Per Alvfors; Eva Sunnerstedt; Joakim Hägvall

    Hydrogen is considered to be one of the most promising, and by far the most environmentally friendly, fuels to replace diesel and petrol in the future. However, public knowledge about hydrogen must increase if hydrogen is going to be accepted as a common vehicle fuel. The safety aspects must be thoroughly and objectively addressed as a single accident very well

  13. Traffic safety assessment and development of predictive models for accidents on rural roads in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled A Abbas

    2004-01-01

    This paper starts by presenting a conceptualization of indicators, criteria and accidents’ causes that can be used to describe traffic safety. The paper provides an assessment of traffic safety conditions for rural roads in Egypt. This is done through a three-step procedure. First, deaths per million vehicle kilometers are obtained and compared for Egypt, three other Arab countries and six

  14. REDUCING YOUNG DRIVERS ACCIDENT RISK GRADUATE LICENSING PROGRAM AND HAZARD PERCEPTION TEST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miklos Kedves

    Novice drivers face an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents all over the world because of their age, lack of experience, over-confident and risky driving, and their weaknesses in hazard perception abilities. Improvements in driver testing and training give an opportunity to introduce new schemes and methods to lower their crash liability. Highly refined graduate driver licensing programs with multiple

  15. Relationships Among Urban Freeway Accidents, Traffic Flow, Weather, and Lighting Conditions

    E-print Network

    Detwiler, Russell

    -object collisions and collisions involving multiple vehicles that are associated with lane-change maneuvers are more objective is to quantify relationships between the type of traffic accidents crashes that occur on urban conditions. We have data on approximately 1,200 crashes that occurred on six freeway routes in Southern

  16. Safety Performance Indicator for alcohol in road accidents—International comparison, validity and data quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terje Assum; Michael Sřrensen

    2010-01-01

    Safety Performance Indicators, SPIs, are developed for various areas within road safety such as speed, car occupant protection, alcohol and drugs, vehicle safety, etc. SPIs can be used to indicate the road safety situation and to compare road safety performance between countries and over time and to understand the process leading to accidents, helping to select the measures to reduce

  17. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  18. An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

    1998-11-01

    This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

  19. A Comprehensive Analysis of the X-15 Flight 3-65 Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Orr, Jeb S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Statler, Irving C.

    2014-01-01

    The November 15, 1967, loss of X-15 Flight 3-65-97 (hereafter referred to as Flight 3-65) was a unique incident in that it was the first and only aerospace flight accident involving loss of crew on a vehicle with an adaptive flight control system (AFCS). In addition, Flight 3-65 remains the only incidence of a single-pilot departure from controlled flight of a manned entry vehicle in a hypersonic flight regime. To mitigate risk to emerging aerospace systems, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) proposed a comprehensive review of this accident. The goal of the assessment was to resolve lingering questions regarding the failure modes of the aircraft systems (including the AFCS) and thoroughly analyze the interactions among the human agents and autonomous systems that contributed to the loss of the pilot and aircraft. This document contains the outcome of the accident review.

  20. REGISTRANT INFORMATION VEHICLE INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Wlodawer, Alexander

    REGISTRANT INFORMATION VEHICLE INFORMATION Vehicle Make: Vehicle Model:: Vehicle Year:Body Style: Vehicle Color: VIN # : LICENSE INFORMATION Tag # : Expiration Date :State : INSURANCE INFORMATION Policy OrganizationCategoryGrade / Rank StateDOB Sex Race Height Weight Eye Color Hair Color Driver's License

  1. Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Adams

    This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation

  2. Road accidents in Prishtina in the period 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Lenjani, Basri; Krasniqi, Sali; Dervishi, Haxhere; Hamiti, Arbër; Gani, Haxhire; Kodra, Nertila; Tahiri, Avdi; Zeka, Vjosa; Kukleci, Arbresha; Gjikolli, Bujar; Drevinja, Fahri

    2009-01-01

    The results of the research conducted in the Emergency Center during the period 2005 - 2008 are showing an enormous increase in the number of road traffic accidents. In this increase, except reasons mentioned above and among others, the following factors have contributed: enormous increase of number of persons equipped with driving license (5,6), driving speeds above permitted norms are considered a primary cause of road traffic accidents. An important factor that has influenced the cause of accidents was the consumption of alcohol before or during driving the vehicle, non-wearing of seat belts and protective helmets. The worldwide data show that the role of the safety belts enables a reduction of health consequences (1-3). We don't have any precise data from the Kosovo police service in regard to the existing correlation between wearing the safety belt and the degree of damage to the injured, as these data are not taken by the traffic police when an accident happens. The negligence of pedestrians continues to remain a matter of concern and the pedestrians are considered as a vulnerable group (7.8). PMID:23120877

  3. Abstract--We propose VGrid: an ad hoc networking and computing grid formed by leveraging inter-vehicle wireless

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    show through simulation that VGrid reduces speed variance, corresponding to more homogeneous vehicle exchanged over the network. This is accomplished through the application of 1) accident alert messages sent from the site of an accident or other obstruction in the road and 2) dynamically- calculated variable

  4. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary. PMID:24738521

  5. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Papers on the following subjects are presented: (1) multivariable flight control synthesis and literal robustness analysis for an aeroelastic vehicles; (2) numerical and literal aeroelastic-vehicle-model reduction for feedback control synthesis; and (3) dynamics of aerospace vehicles.

  6. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (>?60 years) are a minority (10?%) but represent a majority (50?%) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145?% more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500?W and a possible speed of 45?km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96?% of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5?‰ alcohol in their blood, 86?% more than 1.1?‰ and 59?% more than 1.7?‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2?% of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1?‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93?% of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35?% significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9?% on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher Verkehrssicherheitsrat as, e.g., "Helmets are cool". Also, spots in TV should be broadcasted like "The 7th sense" or "Traffic compass", which were warning car drivers many years ago of moments of danger but now they could be used to warn bicyclists of life-threatening situations in traffic. PMID:25874397

  7. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  8. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  9. Gaseous fuel safety assessment for light-duty automotive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Peaslee, A.T.; Laquer, H.L.

    1983-11-01

    The relative safety of gaseous and liquid fuels utilized for light-duty automotive transportation was assessed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and as reference, gasoline and diesel fuel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. Fuel-relative safety rankings were established by eliciting expert judgment and combining that judgment with a comparative scoring methodology. Selected accident scenarios included fuel leakage in both residential and public garages; fueling line rupture at a refueling station in the presence of user vehicles or delivery vehicles; and vehicle collisions under rural, urban, and vehicular tunnel conditions. Results permit the generation of selected safe handling criteria.

  10. Rough set approach for accident chains exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinn-Tsai Wong; Yi-Shih Chung

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel non-parametric methodology – rough set theory – for accident occurrence exploration. The rough set theory allows researchers to analyze accidents in multiple dimensions and to model accident occurrence as factor chains. Factor chains are composed of driver characteristics, trip characteristics, driver behavior and environment factors that imply typical accident occurrence. A real-world database (2003 Taiwan

  11. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17...General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a) In the case of an accident due to a...the locomotive shall immediately report the accident by toll free...

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Ayer; A. T. Clark; P. Loysen; M. Y. Ballinger; J. Mishima; P. C. Owczarski; W. S. Gregory; B. D. Nichols

    1988-01-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage\\/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to

  13. The Chernobyl Accident: Contact Us

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  14. The Chernobyl Accident: Research Staff

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  15. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  16. Cerebrovascular accident clinical pathway.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, G; Parcell, M; MacDonald, A

    2000-01-01

    The cerebrovascular accident (CVA) clinical pathway project was selected to complement the work already underway within the West Moreton Health Services District such as the development of a continuum of care model, revision of work practices to complement the new hospital redevelopment and encouraging team and evidence-based approaches to problem solving. Specific objectives were set for the project along with a detailed evaluation plan. A steering group was convened to run the project and a full time project officer was appointed. At the end of the 12 month period all the objectives were met. Specific achievements included a reduction in the overall average length of stay for those patients who experience CVA, improved clinical outcomes and a more effective use of resources. Quality of care has been improved through the preparation of specialized clinical pathway documentation, education packages, patient surveys, focus groups, independent reviews and benchmarking. Complementing these measures has been a series of process changes and environmental modifications. Furthermore, good working relationships have been established with private sector providers of health care and other external bodies. The development of the CVA clinical pathway at the Ipswich Hospital has meant timely referrals and a streamlined assessment and referral process to get patients into rehabilitation sooner. It has promoted good communication between, and recognition of, the professional roles of various team members and has put the patient back at the centre of the care process. PMID:11057994

  17. Columbia Accident Probe Widens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board has identified about a dozen shuttle program safety concerns it will address in its final report, in addition to foam shedding from the Lockheed Martin external tank-believed by many board members to be the direct cause for the loss of Columbia and her crew. As new evidence narrows the location of Columbia's left-wing breach to a lower corner of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) Panel 8 and its adjoining T-seal, the board is broadening its penetration of other shuttle safety issues. As the board works in Houston, United Space Alliance technicians here at Kennedy last week sent the first six of 22 RCC panels from the orbiter Atlantis left wing to Vought Aircraft Industries Inc. in Dallas for extensive testing to assess their integrity. The move is a key step toward both returning the shuttle to flight with Atlantis and obtaining more data on RCC panels subjected to fewer flights, and less exposure to the weather, than the older panels used on Columbia.

  18. Spine Immobilizer for Accident Victims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Lampson, K.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed conformal bladder filled with tiny spheres called "microballoons," enables spine of accident victim to be rapidly immobilized and restrained and permit victim to be safely removed from accident scene in extremely short time after help arrives. Microballoons expand to form rigid mass when pressure within bladder is less than ambient. Bladder strapped to victim is also strapped to rescue chair. Void between bladder and chair is filled with cloth wedges.

  19. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital. PMID:11990151

  20. Analysis of traffic accidents on rural highways using Latent Class Clustering and Bayesian Networks.

    PubMed

    de Ońa, Juan; López, Griselda; Mujalli, Randa; Calvo, Francisco J

    2013-03-01

    One of the principal objectives of traffic accident analyses is to identify key factors that affect the severity of an accident. However, with the presence of heterogeneity in the raw data used, the analysis of traffic accidents becomes difficult. In this paper, Latent Class Cluster (LCC) is used as a preliminary tool for segmentation of 3229 accidents on rural highways in Granada (Spain) between 2005 and 2008. Next, Bayesian Networks (BNs) are used to identify the main factors involved in accident severity for both, the entire database (EDB) and the clusters previously obtained by LCC. The results of these cluster-based analyses are compared with the results of a full-data analysis. The results show that the combined use of both techniques is very interesting as it reveals further information that would not have been obtained without prior segmentation of the data. BN inference is used to obtain the variables that best identify accidents with killed or seriously injured. Accident type and sight distance have been identify in all the cases analysed; other variables such as time, occupant involved or age are identified in EDB and only in one cluster; whereas variables vehicles involved, number of injuries, atmospheric factors, pavement markings and pavement width are identified only in one cluster. PMID:23182777

  1. Road Traffic Accident Patterns: A Conceptual Grouping Approach to Evaluate Crash Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska, Marzena

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the work is to highlight road traffic accident patterns in the context of interrelations between road characteristics and a traffic safety threat. The actual data concerning multi-vehicle accidents without pedestrians on non-urban roads in a chosen region of Poland was the subject of the research. The roadway and roadside data at the accident site have been combined with the crash data that define the roadway hazard, i.e. driver's behaviour, type and accident severity. The data were subject to multivariate segmentation by means of such conceptual grouping techniques as the K-means clustering algorithm and competitive artificial neural networks. The Ward's method was used as a supporting tool in establishing the final number of accident profiles. Six distinct accident patterns have been recognised, quantified and labelled, where the first, second and third one are typical of rural areas, the fourth and fifth - of built-up areas, and the last one - of intersections. The analysis indicates that apart from threat factors, the following road related features play an important role in road accident profiling tasks: area type and area development level, roadway surface condition, intersection indicator, shoulder type, and also to some extent: lighting conditions, shoulders' width, and horizontal curve radius.

  2. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a pressurized water reactor. The specific plant analyzed is the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, which is a Westinghouse-designed system that has been decommissioned.

  3. Solar powered vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomei

    1986-01-01

    A solar powered vehicle is described which consists of: an electric motor for propelling the vehicle; electric storage batteries mounted within the vehicle for providing electrical power to the electric motor; and solar panel means mounted on the exterior of the vehicle and electrically connected to the storage batteries for converting incident solar radiation into electricity for charging the batteries;

  4. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  6. Green Vehicle Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is geared toward consumers to help them choose the most fuel-efficient and clean vehicles. Users can download vehicle lists, look up vehicle ratings, learn more about reducing vehicle pollution, and use the links section to find further information. This is a timely site for a period when Americans might well want to think about reducing their dependence on oil.

  7. The TMI-2 accident evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Osetek, D.J.; Broughton, J.M.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of the event. TMI-2 accident research is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide the basis for more accurate calculations of source terms for postulated severe accidents. Research objectives supporting this goal include developing a comprehensive and consistent understanding of the mechanisms that controlled the progression of core damage and subsequent fission product behavior during the TMI-2 accident, and applying that understanding to the resolution of important severe accident safety issues. Developing a best-estimate scenario of the core melt progression during the accident is the focal point of the research and involves analytical work to interpret and integrate: (1) data recorded during the accident from plant instrumentation, (2) the post-accident state of the core, (3) results of the examination of material from the damaged core, and (4) related severe-accident research results. This paper summarizes the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program that is being conducted for the USDOE and briefly describes the important results that have been achieved. The Program is divided into four parts: Sample Acquisition and Plant Examination, Accident Scenario, Standard Problem Exercise, and Information and Industry Coordination.

  8. A CANDU Severe Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru [Institute for Nuclear Research, 1, Compului Str., Mioveni, PO Box 78, 0300 Pitesti (Romania); Prisecaru, Ilie [University Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    As interest in severe accident studies has increased in the last years, we have developed a set of simple models to analyze severe accidents for CANDU reactors that should be integrated in the EU codes. The CANDU600 reactor uses natural uranium fuel and heavy water (D2O) as both moderator and coolant, with the moderator and coolant in separate systems. We chose to analyze accident development for a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator cooling and the loss of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 10000 deg C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the residual heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) will be uncovered, then will disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. After all the quantity of moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield tank water, which normally surrounds the calandria vessel. The phenomena described above are modelled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. The results are encouraging. (authors)

  9. Vehicle detection based on the use of shadow region and edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sangheon; Kang, Seongkoo; Kim, Joongkyu

    2013-07-01

    Automotive and advanced driver assistance systems have attracted a great deal of attention lately. In these systems, effective and reliable vehicle detection is important because such systems can reduce the number of accidents and save human' lives. This paper describes an approach to detecting a forward vehicle using a camera mounted on the moving vehicle. In this paper, we describe two methods to detect a vehicle on the road. First, by using the vehicle's shadow, we can obtain the general location of the vehicular candidate. Second, we can identify the strong vertical edges at the left and right position of a vehicle. By combining the shadows and the edge, we can detect the vehicle's location. But other regions may also be detected, such as car windows, reflections, and illumination by the sun. In order to remove these other factors, defined as noises, we need to use a filter. After using the filter, we can calculate the exact location of the vehicle. Additionally, by using connected component labeling, we can obtain coordinates and establish the vehicle's location. Connected component labeling find all connected components in an image and assigns a unique label to all points in the same component. These methods are very useful for vehicle detection and the development of the driving assistance systems, and they can protect drivers' safety from having an accident.

  10. Avulsion injuries of the male external genitalia & rupture of the diaphragm following road traffic accident.

    PubMed

    Das, Siddhartha; Kumar, Virendra

    2011-11-01

    Injury to the male external genitalia and rupture of the diaphragm, are two very uncommon autopsy findings. To the best of our knowledge such a combination of injuries has not been reported in one particular case of autopsy in an English scientific literature. Degloving of the male external genitalia & rupture of the diaphragm may result from motor vehicle accidents, industrial accidents, gunshot & stab injuries. A rare case of traumatic degloving injury of the male external genitalia associated with rupture of the diaphragm & intermingling of thoracic & abdominal viscera is presented here. PMID:22018171

  11. Alternate vehicles for engine/vehicle optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatasubramanyam, G.; Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine, full flow staged combustion, integrated modular engine concept, split expander, and expander bleed rocket engine cycles were studied for use on Single-Stage-to-Orbit fully reusable vehicles. The vehicle uses vertical take-off and horizontal landing and liquid hydrogen rockets for propulsion. The PROPSIZE computer code was modified for use on the available computers. Vehicle sizing was done after trajectory optimization for various engine designs. The various rocket engine cycles were compared and it was found that the full flow staged combustion cycle had the lowest vehicle dry mass. The split expander cycle could have advantages in safety and cooling which could make it the preferred choice in some cases. Comparison to previous work with two-stage heavy-lift vehicles showed that the same ranking of the cycles was found for both vehicle concepts.

  12. Severe accident source term reassessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hazzan, M.J.; Gardner, R.; Warman, E.A.; Jacobs, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the reassessment of severe reactor accident source terms, which are defined as the quantity, type, and timing of fission product releases from such accidents. Concentration is on the major results and conclusions of analyses with modern methods for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and the special case of containment bypass. Some distinctions are drawn between analyses for PWRs and BWRs. In general, the more the matter is examined, the consequences, or probability of serious consequences, seem to be less.

  13. [The modern view on inside vehicle trauma].

    PubMed

    Shadymov, A B; Novoselov, A S

    2014-01-01

    Forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries to the driver and passengers remains a challenging problem for forensic medical experts investigating traffic accidents. Specifically, the investigators encounter difficulties in the conduction of comprehensive medico-autotechnical studies. The objective of the present work was to propose the algorithm of actions for elucidating not only qualitative but also quantitative characteristics allowing to determine the position of both the driver and the front-seat passenger of the vehicle. This algorithm significantly improves the quality of expert judgment making it more objective and reliable. PMID:25269170

  14. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Five

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehmann, H. W.; Barry, J. L.; Deal, D. W.; Hallock, J. N.; Hess, K. W.

    2003-01-01

    Volume V of the Report contains appendices that were not cited in VolumeI. These consist of documents produced by NASA and other organizations, which were provided to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board in support of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia The contents include:. Appendix G.1 Requirements and Procedures for Certification of Flight Readiness; Appendix G.2 Appendix R, Space Shuttle Program Contingency Action Plan; Appendix G.3 CAIB Charter, with Revisions; Appendix G.4 Group 1 Matrix Brief on Maintenance, Material, and Management; Appendix G.5 Vehicle Data Mapping(VDM) Team Final Report, Jun 13, 2003; Appendix G.6 SRB Working Group Presentation to CAIB; Appendix G. 7 Starfire Team Final Report, Jun 3, 2003; Appendix G.8 Using the Data and Observations from Flight STS-107, Executive Summary; Appendix G.9 Contracts, Incentives, and Safety/Technical Excellence; Appendix G.10 Detailed Summaries: Rogers Commission Report, ASAP Report, SIAT Report; Appendix G.11 Foam Application and Production Chart; Appendix G.12 Crew Survivability Report; and Appendix G.12 Aero/Aerothermal/ Thermal/Structures Team FinalReport, August 6, 2003.

  15. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aram P. Hakobyan

    2006-01-01

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order

  16. [Analysis of deaths caused by rail-vehicles in the materials collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002].

    PubMed

    Bloch-Bogus?awska, Elzbieta; Engelgardt, Piotr; Wolska, Ewa; Paradowska, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    The analysis focused on cases of death following accidents involving rail-vehicles, in which autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002. Sixty-five individuals died in train accidents (80%), 16 people (20%) were victims of tram accidents (20%). Males constituted 86% of the material, while females accounted for 14%. The highest number of rail-vehicle accidents was observed in 1992. The most common reason of death was multiorgan injury. In the subgroup of tram accidents, the authors noted no injuries of the highest severity, such as limb amputations, amputations or crushing of the head, or fragmentation or rupturing of the trunk. On the other hand, in railroad accidents, the percentage of the above injuries was 26%, 44% and 24.5%, respectively. The most severe injuries were noted in the group of people hit by a train while in prone position. PMID:17131763

  17. Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunyu Kong; Jikuang Yang

    2010-01-01

    A large number of pedestrian fatalities were reported in China since the 1990s, however the exposure of pedestrians in public traffic has never been measured quantitatively using in-depth accident data. This study aimed to investigate the association between the impact speed and risk of pedestrian casualties in passenger vehicle collisions based on real-world accident cases in China. The cases were

  18. Creating 3D animations to reconstruct transportation accidents: illustrating aviation accidents using Air Midwest flight 5481 takeoff accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christy Spangler; Alice Park; Abdullah Kakar

    2004-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) uses 3D animation to reconstruct and illustrate accident sequences so that the public can visualize and better understand the events leading up to an accident, the determination of probable cause, and the identification of safety issues. These animations factually and faithfully present the accident sequence based on measured, recorded, and calculated data. The purpose

  19. Nonintrusive biosignal measurement system in a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haet Bit; Choi, Jong Min; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Yun Seong; Baek, Hyun Jae; Ryu, Myung Suk; Sohn, Ryang Hee; Park, Kwang Suk

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of driver's state is important in both daily healthcare and prevention of car accidents. Existing measurement methods, however, are too complex and uncomfortable to measure for everyday. A nonintrusive biosignal monitoring system is demanded for increasing the accessibility. In this paper, we proposed a nonintrusive measurement system integrated in a vehicle for recording electrocardiographic (ECG) signals and tested the performance of the system. The system consists of dry electrodes attached to the steering wheel and a wireless communication module using a Bluetooth device. ECG signals measured by our system were compared with those by a conventional system employing wet electrodes during real city road driving. Various parameters used for HRV analysis in time and frequency domain showed no significant differences between the two simultaneously measured ECG signals. The result implies the possibility that developed system could have a potential to monitor health information in a vehicle instead of commercial equipments. PMID:18002452

  20. Analysis of accidents during flashing operations 

    E-print Network

    Obermeyer, Michael Edward

    1993-01-01

    occurred at intersections under flashing operation compared to those operating in the normal mode. A statistical analysis was conducted to determine the safety of flashing signal operation. No significant increases in accidents or accident severity were...

  1. Daytime running lights in the USA: what is the impact on vehicle crashes in Minnesota?

    PubMed Central

    Krajicek, Michele E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Daytime running lights (DRLs) are a safety feature intended to reduce crashes by increasing the contrast between vehicles and the background. Aims The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between vehicles in the USA being equipped with DRLs and crash rates. Methods This was a retrospective study using the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MNDOT) Crash Database from 1995 to 2002. Crash reports included in the analyses were limited to accidents involving vehicles 1995 or newer (DRLs not available on prior models) and limited to ideal conditions: (1) daylight, (2) optimal visibility, and (3) dry road surface. The vehicle identification number (VIN) was used to determine the make, model, and year. This information was cross-referenced with a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration table of manufacturer listed DRL conditions to determine vehicle DRL status. Crude crash rates for vehicles were calculated relative to the number of all registered vehicles in Minnesota in 2004, for models 1995–2002. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) for the rates were constructed assuming a Poisson error distribution. Results During 1995–2002, there were 184,637 vehicles (1995 or newer) with identifiable VINs involved in accidents which occurred under the specified test conditions. Of these vehicles, 37,909 were determined to have standard DRLs and 146,728 were determined to be models without DRLs (including those listed as DRL optional). The crash rate among vehicles without standard DRLs was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.71–1.75) times higher than the rate for vehicles with standard DRLs. The rate ratio was also significant for fatal vehicle crash rates 1.48 (95% CI: 1.23–1.76). Conclusion Minnesota vehicles equipped with DRLs were associated with a statistically significant lower crash rate compared to vehicles without DRLs from 1995 to 2002. PMID:20414380

  2. Typical pedestrian accident scenarios for the development of autonomous emergency braking test protocols.

    PubMed

    Lenard, James; Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Danton, Russell

    2014-12-01

    An increasing proportion of new vehicles are being fitted with autonomous emergency braking systems. It is difficult for consumers to judge the effectiveness of these safety systems for individual models unless their performance is evaluated through track testing under controlled conditions. This paper aimed to contribute to the development of relevant test conditions by describing typical circumstances of pedestrian accidents. Cluster analysis was applied to two large British databases and both highlighted an urban scenario in daylight and fine weather where a small pedestrian walks across the road, especially from the near kerb, in clear view of a driver who is travelling straight ahead. For each dataset a main test configuration was defined to represent the conditions of the most common accident scenario along with test variations to reflect the characteristics of less common accident scenarios. Some of the variations pertaining to less common accident circumstances or to a minority of casualties in these scenarios were proposed as optional or supplementary test elements for an outstanding performance rating. Many considerations are incorporated into the final design and implementation of an actual testing regime, such as cost and the state of development of technology; only the representation of accident data lay within the scope of this paper. It would be desirable to ascertain the wider representativeness of the results by analysing accident data from other countries in a similar manner. PMID:25180785

  3. Time Slows Down during Accidents.

    PubMed

    Arstila, Valtteri

    2012-01-01

    The experienced speed of the passage of time is not constant as time can seem to fly or slow down depending on the circumstances we are in. Anecdotally accidents and other frightening events are extreme examples of the latter; people who have survived accidents often report altered phenomenology including how everything appeared to happen in slow motion. While the experienced phenomenology has been investigated, there are no explanations about how one can have these experiences. Instead, the only recently discussed explanation suggests that the anecdotal phenomenology is due to memory effects and hence not really experienced during the accidents. The purpose of this article is (i) to reintroduce the currently forgotten comprehensively altered phenomenology that some people experience during the accidents, (ii) to explain why the recent experiments fail to address the issue at hand, and (iii) to suggest a new framework to explain what happens when people report having experiences of time slowing down in these cases. According to the suggested framework, our cognitive processes become rapidly enhanced. As a result, the relation between the temporal properties of events in the external world and in internal states becomes distorted with the consequence of external world appearing to slow down. That is, the presented solution is a realist one in a sense that it maintains that sometimes people really do have experiences of time slowing down. PMID:22754544

  4. Emergency and Post Accident Managementi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G N Kelly; C Rojas Palma

    Almost two decades after Chernobyl, off site nuclear emergency management does not occupy the forefront of political debate or public attention, and this has a direct implication in its longer term funding. Furthermore, the safety of nuclear installations is the subject of continuous improvements, with consequential reductions in the risk of an accident, which in turn has led some to

  5. Accident reduction through stress management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence R. Murphy; David DuBois; Joseph J. Hurrell

    1986-01-01

    The deleterious effects of occupational stress on worker health and well-being have been described in numerous reports for a wide range of work groups. Work overload (and underload), deadline pressures, role Stressors, underutilization of abilities, and physical discomfort have been identified as work factors associated with increased stress symptom reporting. The relationship between work stress and accident\\/injury occurrences is less

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

  7. A behavioral comparison between motorcyclists and a matched group of non-motorcycling car drivers: factors influencing accident risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Horswill; Shaun Helman

    2003-01-01

    Motorcyclists and a matched group of non-motorcycling car drivers were assessed on behavioral measures known to relate to accident involvement. Using a range of laboratory measures, we found that motorcyclists chose faster speeds than the car drivers, overtook more, and pulled into smaller gaps in traffic, though they did not travel any closer to the vehicle in front. The speed

  8. The Chernobyl Accident and its Consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Saenko; V. Ivanov; A. Tsyb; T. Bogdanova; M. Tronko; Yu. Demidchik; S. Yamashita

    2011-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably

  9. Development of severe accident procedures for Ringhals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Lutz; E. Frantz; S. R. Prokopovich; R. Bastien

    1988-01-01

    Symptom based procedures have been developed for Ringhals to improve the ability of nuclear power plant operators to respond to severe accident transients leading to core melt and reactor vessel failure. These severe accident procedures, together with the existing Ringhals emergency operating procedures, constitute an integrated package of consistent operator actions for dealing with severe accidents in both the short

  10. Serious occupational accidents in the construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simo Salminen

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine three hypotheses based on the review of literature concerning occupational accidents in the construction industry. The data concern 102 victims of 99 serious occupational accidents. Of these 102 victims, 35 worked in the construction industry. The first hypothesis assuming the higher risk-taking tendency among victims of construction accidents than among victims from

  11. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

  12. No Silver Bullet Essence and Accidents

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    No Silver Bullet Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering TR86-020 September 1986 Frederick P. #12;No Silver Bullet Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering September, 1986 Doc. 860905 fpb TR Hill, North Carolina 27514 #12;NO SILVER BULLET - ESSENCE AND ACCIDENTS OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

  13. Perception of road accident causes.

    PubMed

    Vanlaar, Ward; Yannis, George

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical two-dimensional model on prevalence and risk was developed. The objective of this study was to validate this model empirically to answer three questions: How do European drivers perceive the importance of several causes of road accidents? Are there important differences in perceptions between member states? Do these perceptions reflect the real significance of road accident causes? Data were collected from 23 countries, based on representative national samples of at least 1000 respondents each (n=24,372). Face-to-face interviews with fully licensed, active car drivers were conducted using a questionnaire containing closed answer questions. Respondents were asked to rate 15 causes of road accidents, each using a six-point ordinal scale. The answers were analyzed by calculating Kendall's tau for each pair of items to form lower triangle similarity matrices per country and for Europe as a whole. These matrices were then used as the input files for an individual difference scaling to draw a perceptual map of the 15 items involved. The hypothesized model on risk and prevalence fits the data well and enabled us to answer the three questions of concern. The subject space of the model showed that there are no relevant differences between the 23 countries. The group space of the model comprises four quadrants, each containing several items (high perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items; high perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items; low perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items and low perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items). Finally, perceptions of the items driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs and medicines and driving using a handheld or hands-free mobile phone are discussed with regard to their real significance in causing road accidents. To conclude, individual difference scaling offers some promising possibilities to study drivers' perception of road accident causes. PMID:16191426

  14. Intelligent pothole repair vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Minocher Homji, Ruzbeh Adi

    2006-10-30

    This thesis presents an endeavor to design and construct a prototype of an automated road repair vehicle called the Intelligent Pothole Repair Vehicle (IPRV). The IPRV is capable of automatically detecting and filling ...

  15. [Driving simulators in risk assessment of traffic accident among drivers with obstructive sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders in the form of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are still underdiagnosed and insufficiently treated in drivers. This is a very important problem, because chronic sleepiness during the day and episodes of sleep during driving a road vehicle are now regarded as one of the main causes of traffic accidents, including fatal ones, caused by professional drivers. For many years driver fatigue has been considered a major risk factor of traffic accidents, while obstructive sleep apnea has remained almost completely disregarded. In the late 1980s and early 1990s epidemiological data began to indicate sleepiness and sleep deficit as the cause of up to 20% of road accidents. Later studies conducted in many countries in different groups of drivers have confirmed that people with breathing problems during sleep are much more likely to cause accidents than healthy ones. These accidents often result from sleep disorders experienced by drivers while driving, during both long monotonous journeys and in heavy urban traffic. The application of treatment involving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces the rate of accidents among drivers. In the recent years, the studies of this problem has been expanded by the use of drive simulators that quite accurately simulate real driving conditions. This approach allows to assess the driver's reactions and behaviors in different situations on the road, including the most dangerous ones. By comparing the results from the simulator with those in real conditions it will be possible to see to what extent the risk of accident in simulated conditions correlates with the risk of accident in real life settings. PMID:22779329

  16. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  17. Solar space vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  18. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  19. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  20. Domestic accidents: their cause and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mackessack-Leitch, K.

    1978-01-01

    The study of domestic accidents, which includes accidents in and around the home and in institutions, is of increasing importance. The mortality statistics are shown in Table 1. In 1974, 18,335 people died from accidents in the UK (RoSPA, 1974) equivalent to the population of a reasonably sized town. Accidents form one of the four main causes of death in this country and have become relatively more common in recent years. Analysis of the causes of home accidents make it possible to plan ways of preventing them. General practitioners and their colleagues in the primary health care team have the principal responsibility. PMID:553168

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Aircraft Loss of Control Accidents: Worst Case Precursor Combinations and Temporal Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Groff, Loren; Newman, Richard L.; Foster, John V.; Crider, Dennis H.; Klyde, David H.; Huston, A. McCall

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft loss of control (LOC) is a leading cause of fatal accidents across all transport airplane and operational classes, and can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of conditions and uncertainties, including multiple hazards, and their validation must provide a means of assessing system effectiveness and coverage of these hazards. This requires the definition of a comprehensive set of LOC test scenarios based on accident and incident data as well as future risks. This paper defines a comprehensive set of accidents and incidents over a recent 15 year period, and presents preliminary analysis results to identify worst-case combinations of causal and contributing factors (i.e., accident precursors) and how they sequence in time. Such analyses can provide insight in developing effective solutions for LOC, and form the basis for developing test scenarios that can be used in evaluating them. Preliminary findings based on the results of this paper indicate that system failures or malfunctions, crew actions or inactions, vehicle impairment conditions, and vehicle upsets contributed the most to accidents and fatalities, followed by inclement weather or atmospheric disturbances and poor visibility. Follow-on research will include finalizing the analysis through a team consensus process, defining future risks, and developing a comprehensive set of test scenarios with correlation to the accidents, incidents, and future risks. Since enhanced engineering simulations are required for batch and piloted evaluations under realistic LOC precursor conditions, these test scenarios can also serve as a high-level requirement for defining the engineering simulation enhancements needed for generating them.

  2. Road traffic accidents among alcohol-dependent patients: the effect of treatment.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Talegón, M Trinidad; Alvarez, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that driving under the influence of alcohol increases the risk of traffic accidents. Alcohol-dependent patients are responsible for two-thirds of motor vehicle crashes involving alcohol. Studies carried out on the general population have shown a relation between alcohol dependence and traffic accidents. The aim of the study is to analyse the effect on traffic accidents of treatment of patients with alcohol-related problems. To do so, the prevalence of traffic problems in a sample of patients with a diagnosed dependence on alcohol was assessed for three periods: during their lifetime, in the year preceding the start of treatment and over the year of treatment. A prospective study was carried out of 176 patients (147 males, 29 females; mean age 42.9 years) diagnosed as alcohol dependent according to the DSM-IV criteria in three alcoholic treatment centres in Castilla y León, Spain. 36.9% of the alcohol-dependent patients had had some kind of traffic problem during their life and 8.5% in the year prior to starting treatment. The most frequent problem was positive breath tests, followed by accidents with damage to the vehicle. Sixty-nine of the 176 patients were still receiving treatment after a year. The prevalence of traffic problems among those patients who followed treatment for 1 year (4.3%) was lower than in the year before treatment (15.9%). The study showed that the treatment is also effective in reducing traffic problems. PMID:16236233

  3. Biomechanical injury evaluation of laminated side door windows and sunroof during rollover accidents.

    PubMed

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Carlin, Fred; Friedman, Keith; Meyer, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Significantly more fatalities and serious injuries occur due to ejection in roll over accidents. The present study was conducted to determine the occupant retention and head-neck injury potential aspects of laminated glass in side door windows and sunroofs during roll over accidents. The test protocol for this study was based on National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies for advanced glazing. The impact study of 18 kg with head-neck form was conducted on laminated glass of side doors and sunroofs from production vehicles. The drop speed was varied from 11 to 16 kph. The Hybrid III 50% male dummy head-neck form was impacted on the approximately center of the glass portion of the windows. The head injury criteria, head resultant acceleration, and neck loads and moments were quantified. A series of drop tests were conducted on roll down side windows with laminated glass. The head-neck biomechanical parameters were well below the critical value injury tolerance limits. Results indicated that the glass contained the dummy assembly and the head-neck biomechanical parameters were below the critical value injury tolerance limits in simulated rollover accidents. The present study demonstrates that head-neck injury is unlikely due to laminated glass side windows and sunroof laminated glass used in production vehicles during rollover accidents and that the dummy is contained by the laminated glazing. PMID:12724901

  4. Effects of oncoming vehicle size on overtaking judgments.

    PubMed

    Levulis, Samuel J; DeLucia, Patricia R; Jupe, Jason

    2015-09-01

    During overtaking maneuvers on two-way highways drivers must temporarily cross into the opposite lane of traffic, and may face oncoming vehicles. To judge when it is safe to overtake, drivers must estimate the time-to-contact (TTC) of the oncoming vehicle. Information about an oncoming vehicle's TTC is available in the optical expansion pattern, but it is below threshold during high-speed overtaking maneuvers, which require a large passing distance. Consequently, we hypothesized that drivers would rely on perceived distance and velocity, and that their overtaking judgments would be influenced by oncoming vehicle size. A driving simulator was used to examine whether overtaking judgments are influenced by the size of an oncoming vehicle, and by whether a driver actively conducts the overtaking maneuver or passively judges whether it is safe to overtake. Oncoming motorcycles resulted in more accepted gaps and false alarms than larger cars or trucks. Results were due to vehicle size independently of vehicle type, and reflected shifts in response bias rather than sensitivity. Drivers may misjudge the distances of motorcycles due to their relatively small sizes, contributing to accidents due to right-of-way violations. Results have implications for traffic safety and the potential role of driver-assistance technologies. PMID:26080078

  5. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  6. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  7. William and Mary Athletics State Vehicle / Rental Vehicle / Personal Vehicle Policies

    E-print Network

    Swaddle, John

    that comes with the vehicle must only be used for regular unleaded gas needed to fuel the vehicle. 3 unleaded gas to fuel the rental vehicle. Do not use the card for any other purpose. The gas card mustWilliam and Mary Athletics State Vehicle / Rental Vehicle / Personal Vehicle Policies Last Update

  8. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses. PMID:1467020

  9. Source of head injury for pedestrians and pedal cyclists: Striking vehicle or road?

    PubMed

    Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Lenard, James

    2013-01-01

    The potential effectiveness of vehicle-based secondary safety systems for the protection of pedestrians and pedal cyclists is related to the proportion of cases where injury arises by contact with the road or ground rather than with the striking vehicle. A detailed case review of 205 accidents from the UK On-the-Spot study involving vulnerable road users with head injuries or impacts indicated that contact with the road was responsible in 110 cases. The vehicle however was associated with a majority of more serious casualties: 31 (vehicle) compared with 26 (road) at AIS 2+ head injury level and 20 (vehicle) compared with 13 (road) at AIS 3+ level. Further analysis using a multivariate classification model identified several factors that correlated with the source of injury, namely the type of interaction between the striking vehicle and vulnerable road user, the age of the vulnerable road user and the nature of injury. PMID:23046694

  10. The design of infrared laser radar for vehicle initiative safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Xiao-yu; Li, Tian-zhi; Liu, Yu-long; Wu, Jia-hui

    2013-09-01

    Laser radar for vehicle is mainly used in advanced vehicle on-board active safety systems, such as forward anti-collision systems, active collision warning systems and adaptive cruise control systems, etc. Laser radar for vehicle plays an important role in the improvement of vehicle active safety and the reduction of traffic accidents. The stability of vehicle active anti-collision system in dynamic environment is still one of the most difficult problems to break through nowadays. According to people's driving habit and the existed detecting technique of sensor, combining the infrared laser range and galvanometer scanning technique , design a 3-D infrared laser radar which can be used to assist navigation, obstacle avoidance and the vehicle's speed control for the vehicle initiative safety. The device is fixed to the head of vehicle. Then if an accident happened, the device could give an alarm to remind the driver timely to decelerate or brake down, by which way can people get the purpose of preventing the collision accidents effectively. To accomplish the design, first of all, select the core components. Then apply Zemax to design the transmitting and receiving optical system. Adopt 1550 nm infrared laser transmitter as emission unit in the device, a galvanometer scanning as laser scanning unit and an InGaAs-APD detector as laser echo signal receiving unit. Perform the construction of experimental system using FPGA and ARM as the core controller. The system designed in this paper can not only detect obstacle in front of the vehicle and make the control subsystem to execute command, but also transfer laser data to PC in real time. Lots of experiments using the infrared laser radar prototype are made, and main performance of it is under tested. The results of these experiments show that the imaging speed of the laser radar can reach up to 25 frames per second, the frame resolution of each image can reach 30×30 pixels, the horizontal angle resolution is about 6. 98mrad, the vertical angle resolution is about 3. 49mrad, the maximum value of range error is 0. 5m, minimum value is 0. 07m at the detectable distance range 10-200m and the detection probability is more than 99. 9%.

  11. Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  12. Sensor systems for vehicle environment perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  13. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    PubMed

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions. PMID:2617285

  14. The evaluation of road-rail crossing safety with limited accident statistics.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, V; Hakkert, A S

    1997-03-01

    Safety evaluation is an essential issue in ranking road-rail crossings as candidates for grade-separation. Many small countries like Israel do not possess sufficient data to generate statistical models similar to the US DOT accident prediction formula or others. At the same time, it is desirable to provide estimates stemming from local conditions. For these, available Israeli accident data were artificially enlarged using the unification of accident statistics and information from crossings functioning over a six-year period. A hazard index serves as a basic evaluation tool. The datasets on accidents and crossings are split according to several crossing characteristics (category of warning device, volume of vehicle traffic, volume of train traffic, visibility conditions); the obtained values are combined to supply safety estimates for crossing types defined by these characteristics. The validity of model performance is explored. For Israeli conditions the model provides for a safety evaluation of 168 crossing types. This presents a sufficient base from which to estimate the accident potential of any local crossing when the need for its grade separation is discussed. PMID:9088356

  15. The use of multilevel models for the prediction of road accident outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew P; Jřrgensen, Stig H

    2003-01-01

    An important problem in road traffic accident research is the resolution of the magnitude by which individual accident characteristics affect the risk of fatality for each person involved. This article introduces the potential of a recently developed form of regression models, known as multilevel models, for quantifying the various influences on casualty outcomes. The application of multilevel models is illustrated by the analysis of the predictors of outcome amongst over 16,000 fatally and seriously injured casualties involved in accidents between 1985 and 1996 in Norway. Risk of fatality was found to be associated with casualty age and sex, as well as the type of vehicles involved, the characteristics of the impact, the attributes of the road section on which it took place, the time of day, and whether alcohol was suspected. After accounting for these factors, the multilevel analysis showed that 16% of unexplained variation in casualty outcomes was between accidents, whilst approximately 1% was associated with the area of Norway in which each incident occurred. The benefits of using multilevel models to analyse accident data are discussed along with the limitations of traditional regression modelling approaches. PMID:12479897

  16. MSHA releases data on CM crushing accidents

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MHSA) recently formed a committee to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents. The final report found that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another, place changing. Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are experienced miners who are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. This article was excerpted from the 'Remote Control Continuous Mining Machine Crushing Accident Data Study' published in May 2006. The report may be found from the website: www.msha.gov. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Modeling the vehicle cycle impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Q. Wang; L. Gaines; R. Cuenca

    1997-01-01

    Pure and hybrid electric vehicles, considered environmentally benign, are being developed to reduce urban air pollutant emissions. The obvious emissions benefit of pure electric vehicles is that they produce no tailpipe emissions. Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. However, both electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) do have their own environmental impacts.

  18. Development of an in-vehicle intersection collision countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierowicz, John A.

    1997-02-01

    Intersection collisions constitute approximately twenty-six percent of all accidents in the United States. Because of their complexity, and demands on the perceptual and decision making abilities of the driver, intersections present an increased risk of collisions between automobiles. This situation provides an opportunity to apply advanced sensor and processing capabilities to prevent these collisions. A program to determine the characteristics of intersection collisions and identify potential countermeasures will be described. This program, sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, utilized accident data to develop a taxonomy of intersection crashes. This taxonomy was used to develop a concept for an intersection collision avoidance countermeasure. The concept utilizes in-vehicle position, dynamic status, and millimeter wave radar system and an in-vehicle computer system to provide inputs to an intersection collision avoidance algorithm. Detection of potential violation of traffic control device, or proceeding into the intersection with inadequate gap will lead to the presentation of a warning to the driver. These warnings are presented to the driver primarily via a head-up display and haptic feedback. Roadside to vehicle communication provides information regarding phased traffic signal information. Active control of the vehicle's brake and steering systems are described. Progress in the development of the systems will be presented along with the schedule of future activities.

  19. Electric vehicle parametric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    During the period from 1990 to 1995, the automobile manufacturers of Europe, America, and Japan have been responsive to the need to re-evaluate the battery electric vehicle (EV) an a zero emission vehicle, and have released key design specifications and vehicle performance characteristics for more than thirty electric vehicles displayed at the: 55th IAA International Motor Show in Frankfurt, NAIAS`95 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, and the 30th International Motor Show in Tokyo. This paper includes a comparative parametric correlation analysis of these key design parameters which include: vehicle test mass, tire coefficients, overall aerodynamic drag and skin friction drag coefficients, equivalent flat plate frontal area, length to hydraulic diameter ratio, peak tractive force, peak traction motor power, and battery energy storage capacity. The conclusions show that the automobile manufacturers have achieved dramatic improvements in many of these key design parameters, and as a result the battery electric vehicle now promises to have a brighter future.

  20. Vehicle speed control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, D.; Tanno, T.; Fukunaga, T.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a vehicle speed control system for performing vehicle speed control by controlling the displacement of at least one of a hydraulic pump and a hydraulic motor of a hydraulic transmission through an electric servo device, comprising: vehicle speed setting means for generating a voltage signal corresponding to a vehicle speed to be set; compensating means interposed between the vehicle speed setting means and the electric servo device, the compensating means comprising a first delay element; and second delay element having a response characteristic slower than that of the first delay element. A selecting means for judging as to whether a voltage signal changed by the operation of the vehicle speed setting means represents an acceleration command or a deceleration command and for selecting the first delay element when the voltage signal represents an acceleration command and for selecting the second delay element when the voltage signal represents a deceleration command.

  1. Accident cost saving and highway attributes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Forkenbrock; Norman S. J. Foster

    1997-01-01

    Two semi-logarithmic regression models are developed to estimate accident rates and accident costs, respectively, for rural non-interstate highways in the state of Iowa. Data on 21,224 accidents occurring between 1989 and 1991 on 17,767 road segments are used in the analysis. Seven road attributes of these road segments are included as predictor variables. Applying the resulting regression models to a

  2. [Expert opinions in German statutory accident insurance].

    PubMed

    Widder, B; Gaidzik, P W

    2012-02-01

    German statutory accident insurance covers employees and trainees against occupational accidents, employers bear the inherent charges. Expert opinion is obtained, in particular, for discussing causality questions and for rating accidental health disorders. Causality has to be estimated based on the "theory of essential condition", health disorders have to be substantiated without any reasonable doubt. Reduction in earning capacity due to an accident may not consider the individual kind of occupation and has to be rated by an abstract approach. PMID:22161230

  3. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  4. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  5. Millimetre wave radar sensor for the highway global positioning of a vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corrado Cugiani; Luigi Giubbolini

    1994-01-01

    The trajectory control of a vehicle travelling along a motorway requires the acquisition of the lateral distance; such a datum is of paramount importance to improve the active safety for preventing accidents. To acquire this datum a reliable recognition of the road boundary has to be guaranteed. We demonstrate that by a mechanical modification of the actual cat-eyes, a highly

  6. Night-Time Traffic Surveillance: A Robust Framework for Multi-vehicle Detection, Classification and Tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostia Robert

    2009-01-01

    Traffic data extraction is an increasing demand for applications such as traffic lights control, population evacuation, or to reduce traffic issues including congestion, pollution, delays, and accidents. We present in this paper a new framework to reliably detect, classify and track multiple vehicles at night-time. The system shows excellent performance after an evaluation procedure involving many cameras and different conditions.

  7. Towards Intelligent Vehicles: Automatic Merge Control Gurulingesh Raravi, Jatin Bharadia and Krithi Ramamritham

    E-print Network

    Ramamritham, Krithi

    control, are handled by ECS applications. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is one such intelligent featureTowards Intelligent Vehicles: Automatic Merge Control Gurulingesh Raravi, Jatin Bharadia and Krithi of computer-controlled automotive applica- tions to improve safety, reduce accidents, increase traffic flow

  8. USV: Unmanned Space Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, G.; De Matteis, P. P.; Sabatano, R.; Richiello, C.; Marino, G.

    This paper reports an overview of the Unmanned Space Vehicle Programme, led by CIRA, in the frame of PRORA, focusing on the first dropped transonic flight performed on 24 February 2007, performed in order to do accomplish the DTFT mission based on stratospheric balloon. The vehicle reached the target altitude by means of a stratospheric balloon system. The flight had the objective to test the vehicle behaviour in transonic regime.

  9. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  10. A Modular Telerobot Control System for Accident Response

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert J.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-07-20

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements eight different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  11. General situation of radiation accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Wenyi, Zhang; Liang'an, Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Information on radiation accidents in China compiled by the health authorities was collected. About 468 accidents were reported in 1988-2004. Detailed data from 1988 to 1998 were analysed. As to the 332 accidents reported in 1988-98, 77.7% of the cases are related to lost sources, 84.64% are liability accidents and five persons died owing to the cases occurring in the application of gamma irradiators. It is essential to improve the data bank to manage radiation sources, and to make sure that the relevant laws, together with professional theory and technical knowledge, are disseminated well and learned by professionals. PMID:17561521

  12. Thermal hydraulic features of the TMI accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolman, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Three Mile island (TMI)-2 accident resulted in extensive core damage and recent data confirms that the reactor vessel was challenged from molten core materials. A hypothesized TMI accident scenario is presented that consistently explains the TMI data and is also consistent with research findings from independent severe fuel damage experiments. The TMI data will prove useful in confirming our understanding of severe core damage accidents under realistic reactor systems conditions. This understanding will aid in addressing safety and regulatory issues related to severe core damage accidents in light water reactors.

  13. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  14. Accident selection methodology for TA-55 FSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Letellier, B.C.; Pan, P.Y.; Sasser, M.K. [and others

    1995-07-01

    In the past, the selection of representative accidents for refined analysis from the numerous scenarios identified in hazards analyses (HAs) has involved significant judgment and has been difficult to defend. As part of upgrading the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the TA-55 plutonium facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an accident selection process was developed that is mostly mechanical and reproducible in nature and fulfills the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3009 and DOE Order 5480.23. Among the objectives specified by this guidance are the requirements that accident screening (1) consider accidents during normal and abnormal operating conditions, (2) consider both design basis and beyond design basis accidents, (3) characterize accidents by category (operational, natural phenomena, etc.) and by type (spill, explosion, fire, etc.), and (4) identify accidents that bound all foreseeable accident types. The accident selection process described here in the context of the TA-55 FSAR is applicable to all types of DOE facilities.

  15. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. PMID:24473412

  16. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  17. Summer activities: incidents and accidents.

    PubMed

    Krau, Stephen D

    2013-06-01

    Summer invites activities and sports that are unique to this time of year. Although safety is a priority, there are commonly accidents and incidents that occur while individuals are participating in these activities. The prevalence and incidence of several types of injuries and trauma related to water activities, camping, caving, backpacking, and hiking are discussed. Treatment of nonfatal drowning is discussed, along with the pathophysiologic process that must be corrected for optimal outcomes. Summer is a time for outdoor cooking, campfires, and the traditional Fourth of July firework pastimes, which can result in admissions to critical care areas. PMID:23692945

  18. Gender Differences in PTSD Symptoms: An Exploration of Peritraumatic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Leah A.; Fischer, Beth; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Sledjeski, Eve M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Females are at higher risk than males for developing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) following exposure to trauma, which may stem from gender differences in initial physiological and psychological responses to trauma. The present study aimed to examine a number of peri- and initial post-traumatic reactions to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) to determine the extent to which they contributed to gender differences in PTSS. 356 adult MVA survivors (211 males and 145 females) reported on peritraumatic dissociation, perception of life threat and initial PTSS. In addition, heart rate and urinary cortisol levels were collected in-hospital. 6 weeks and 6 months later, PTSS were assessed via clinical interviews. Results suggested that initial PTSS and peritraumatic dissociation were marginally significant mediators at 6-week follow-up and significant mediators at 6-month follow-up, providing partial support for the hypothesis that initial responses to trauma may account for observed gender differences in PTSS development. PMID:20956066

  19. Helmet use and cervical spine injury: a review of motorcycle, moped, and bicycle accidents at a level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Kristopher G; Murad, Gregory J A

    2014-08-01

    Helmet use in two-wheeled vehicle accidents is widely reported to decrease the rates of death and traumatic brain injury. Previous reports suggest that there exists a trade off with helmet use consisting of an increased risk of cervical spine injuries. Recently, a review of a national trauma database demonstrated the opposite, with reduction in cervical spinal cord injuries in motorcycle crashes (MCC). In 2000, the State of Florida repealed its mandatory helmet law to make helmet use optional for individuals older than 21 with $10,000 of health insurance coverage. To better ascertain the risks of cervical spine injury with non-helmet use in all two-wheeled vehicles, we analyzed the University of Florida level one trauma center experience. We reviewed the Traumatic injury database over a five-year period (January 1, 2005, to July 1, 2010) for all patients involved in two-wheeled vehicle accidents. Patients were stratified according to vehicle type (motorcycle, scooter, and bicycle), helmet use, and the presence or absence of a cervical spine injury. Outcomes were compared for injury severity, cervical spine injury, cervical spinal cord injury, and presence of cervical spine injuries requiring surgery. Population means were compared using paired t-test. A total of 1331 patients were identified: 995 involved in motorcycle accidents, 87 involved in low-powered scooter accidents, and 249 involved in bicycle accidents. Helmet use was variable between each group. One hundred thirty-five total cervical spine injuries were identified. No evidence was found to suggest an increased risk of cervical spine injury or increased severity of cervical spine injury with helmet use. This fact, in combination with our previous findings, suggest that the law's age and insurance exemption should be revoked and a universal helmet law be reinstated in the state of Florida. PMID:24661125

  20. Securing vehicles against cyber attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf E. Larson; Dennis K. Nilsson

    2008-01-01

    The automobile industry has grown to become an integral part of our everyday life. As vehicles evolve, the primarily mechanical solutions for vehicle control are gradually replaced by electronics and software solutions forming in-vehicle computer networks. An emerging trend is to introduce wireless technology in the vehicle domain by attaching a wireless gateway to the in-vehicle network. By allowing wireless

  1. Control of Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Control of Unmanned Surface Vehicles Experiments in Vehicle Following · By Marco Bibuli, Massimo are extended to execute the task of vehicle fol- lowing in the case of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Indeed in the following deals with aspects related to cooperative motion control of unmanned marine vehicles (UMVs

  2. TVA and the electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This brochure illustrates and describes the reliability testing carried out on electric vehicles. Seventeen vehicles including passenger car, station wagons, pick-up trucks, and mini-vans were tested under real-world conditions. Tests include vehicle reliability testing, vehicle performance testing, in-vehicle battery testing, battery charger testing, and EV support systems testing. (MHR)

  3. ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS

    E-print Network

    Brennan, Sean

    - 1 - ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS S. Brennan & A. Alleyne published sets of Vehicle Dynamics reveals a normal distribution about a line through - space. The normal

  4. Sleep Disorders as a Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Marco Túlio; Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Tufik, Sergio; Paiva, Teresa; Spence, David Warren; BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Verster, Joris C.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that a large proportion of traffic accidents around the world are related to inadequate or disordered sleep. Recent surveys have linked driver fatigue to 16% to 20% of serious highway accidents in the UK, Australia, and Brazil. Fatigue as a result of sleep disorders (especially obstructive sleep apnea), excessive workload and lack of physical and mental rest, have been shown to be major contributing factors in motor vehicle accidents. A number of behavioral, physiological, and psychometric tests are being used increasingly to evaluate the impact of fatigue on driver performance. These include the oculography, polysomnography, actigraphy, the maintenance of wakefulness test, and others. Various strategies have been proposed for preventing or reducing the impact of fatigue on motor vehicle accidents. These have included: Educational programs emphasizing the importance of restorative sleep and the need for drivers to recognize the presence of fatigue symptoms, and to determine when to stop to sleep; The use of exercise to increase alertness and to promote restorative sleep; The use of substances or drugs to promote sleep or alertness (i.e. caffeine, modafinil, melatonin and others), as well as specific sleep disorders treatment; The use of CPAP therapy for reducing excessive sleepiness among drivers who have been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. The evidence cited in this review justifies the call for all efforts to be undertaken that may increase awareness of inadequate sleep as a cause of traffic accidents. It is strongly recommended that, for the purpose of promoting highway safety and saving lives, all disorders that cause excessive sleepiness should be investigated and monitored. PMID:23626880

  5. EMPIRICAL MODEL OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An empirical model that characterizes the relationship between equilibrium vehicle emission distributions and malfunction, repair, and replacement rates by splitting vehicles into two emission categories has been developed. ross emitters and clean vehicles are defined by the magn...

  6. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  7. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Rajamani

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction

  8. Air vehicle path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Jeffrey Michael

    This dissertation explores optimal path planning for air vehicles. An air vehicle exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. An analytic solution yielding the trajectory minimizing the received radar energy reflected from the target is derived using the Calculus of Variations. Additionally, the related problem of an air vehicle tracked by a passive sensor is also solved. Using the insights gained from the single air vehicle radar exposure minimization problem, a hierarchical cooperative control law is formulated to determine the optimal trajectories that minimize the cumulative exposure of multiple air vehicles during a rendezvous maneuver. The problem of one air vehicle minimizing exposure to multiple radars is also addressed using a variational approach, as well as a sub-optimal minmax argument. Local and global optimality issues are explored. A novel decision criterion is developed determining the geometric conditions dictating when it is preferable to go between or around two radars. Lastly, an optimal minimum time control law is obtained for the target identification and classification mission of an autonomous air vehicle. This work demonstrates that an awareness of the consequences of embracing sub-optimal and non-globally optimal solutions for optimization problems, such as air vehicle path planning, is essential.

  9. Air vehicle path planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Michael Hebert

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation explores optimal path planning for air vehicles. An air vehicle exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. An analytic solution yielding the trajectory minimizing the received radar energy reflected from the target is derived using the Calculus of Variations. Additionally, the

  10. USV: Unmanned Space Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Russo; P. P. De Matteis; R. Sabatano; C. Richiello; G. Marino

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an overview of the Unmanned Space Vehicle Programme, led by CIRA, in the frame of PRORA, focusing on the first dropped transonic flight performed on 24 February 2007, performed in order to do accomplish the DTFT mission based on stratospheric balloon. The vehicle reached the target altitude by means of a stratospheric balloon system. The flight had

  11. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  12. 32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 636...Stewart, Georgia § 636.13 Traffic accident investigation reports. In...Airfield installations will record traffic accident investigations on DA Form...

  13. 32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic accident investigation reports. 636...Stewart, Georgia § 636.13 Traffic accident investigation reports. In...Airfield installations will record traffic accident investigations on DA Form...

  14. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic accident investigation reports. 634...Traffic Supervision § 634.29 Traffic accident investigation reports. ...enforcement officials will record traffic accident investigations on...

  15. Risk Advisor for Car Accidents Javier Larrosa

    E-print Network

    Larrosa, Javier

    Risk Advisor for Car Accidents Javier Larrosa LSI­UPC 1 Description of the Problem The purpose of this project is to design a Bayesian Network modeling the risk of having a car accident, when planing a trip. -- Distance of the trip. -- Road conditions. -- Weather -- Car age -- Car equipment -- Car type -- Driver

  16. Traumatic aortic incompetence following road traffic accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Irving

    1974-01-01

    This case report describes the presentation and treatment of a case of aortic incompetence, resulting from a road traffic accident. The relevant literature is briefly reviewed.Aortic incompetence due to trauma has been described following non-penetrating chest injuries, such as kicks from horses (Barie, 1881), falls from heights and crushing accidents (Kissane, Koons and Clark, 1948; Levine, Roberts and Morrow, 1962).

  17. Bayesian networks and traffic accident reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Davis; Jianping Pei

    2003-01-01

    The attempt to draw rational conclusions about a road accident can be viewed as a problem in uncertain reasoning about a particular event, to which developments in the modeling of uncertain reasoning for artificial intelligence can be applied. Physical principles can be used to develop a structural model for the accident, and this model can then be combined with an

  18. Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents?

    E-print Network

    Deen, Sophia 1988-

    2012-04-20

    This paper studies the effect of changes in accident pattern due to Daylight Savings Time (DST). The extension of the DST in 2007 provides a natural experiment to determine whether the number of traffic accidents is affected by shifts in hours...

  19. Injury reduction by the airbag in accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Kuner; W. Schlickewei; D. Oltmanns

    1996-01-01

    Today an increasing number of automobiles are being equipped with additional passive safety devices: driver and passenger airbags. To examine the efficiency of the airbag in real road traffic accidents, a collective study was conducted from 181 traumatology centres throughout Germany. The inquiry was answered by 81 per cent of the medical centres contacted. From the evaluation of 122 accident

  20. Assessing the Effects of a Nuclear Accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Norman

    1985-01-01

    Studies prompted by the accident at Three Mile Island which indicate that radiation released by a severe accident may be less than expected could have implications for nuclear regulation, emergency planning, and nuclear reactor design, but critics are not convinced. They contend that uncertainties in estimates of what would happen due to the diversity of plant designs are too great

  1. Accident risks in nuclear-power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Strupczewski

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the results of estimates of nuclear-power plant safety based on probabilistic safety analyses and discusses the means used to decrease core damage factors, large release frequency and cancer deaths due to nuclear accidents. Estimates made for new nuclear power plants show that these risks are negligibly small. The radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident are discussed and

  2. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caples, Linda Griffin

    1992-01-01

    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  3. Characterization of a nuclear accident dosimeter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burrows

    1995-01-01

    The 23rd nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison was held during the week of June 12--16, 1995 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report presents the results of this event, referred to as NAD 23, as related to the performance of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). Two separate critical assemblies, SHEBA and Godiva, were used to generate seven

  4. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  5. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables. PMID:15676598

  6. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum with cerebrovascular accident.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Nanda; Ragi, K V; Nair, Pradeep S

    2007-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented with right hemiparesis and skin lesions. On examination, the patient had multiple, discrete, skin-colored papules on the neck and upper chest with wrinkling of the skin. The lateral part of the trunk and medial aspect of both upper arms showed atrophic plaques. A computerized tomography scan of the head showed dilatation of the basilar artery with a frontoparietal infarct. Funduscopic examination showed characteristic angioid streaks. Skin biopsy of the papule and atrophic plaques showed epidermal atrophy, calcium deposits in the mid-dermis and basophilic clumped and fragmented elastic fibers in the mid- and lower dermis, all findings consistent with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. We are reporting here a case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with cerebrovascular accident. PMID:17558055

  7. Characteristics of maxillofacial injuries resulting from road traffic accidents – a 5 year review of the case records from Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice, Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Malara; Beata Malara; Jan Drugacz

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of employing numerous devices improving the safety in motor vehicles, traffic accidents are still among the main reasons of maxillofacial injuries. The maxillofacial injuries remain the serious clinical problem because of the specificity of this anatomical region. The knowledge of etiologic factors and mechanisms of injuries can be helpful in a satisfactory trauma prevention. The aim of

  8. Diving injuries are (usually) no accident.

    PubMed

    Buzzacott, Peter

    2015-03-01

    When recently submitting a manuscript to DHM, I noticedthat three of our keywords contain the word accident, namely 'accidents', 'diving accidents' and 'scuba accidents'. 'Accident' is most strictly defined in the legal sense thus: "… the word accident is used only for events that occur without the intervention of a human being. This kind of accident also may be called an act of God. It is an event that no person caused or could have prevented - such as a tornado, a tidal wave, or an ice storm." In a review of cave diving fatalities, the medical examiner's cause of death in each case (n = 368) was considered and, from these and their extensive case files, case histories were traced back through the disabling injury to the triggering event. In the majority of cases there was a clear breach of established safe procedures. The number of 'accidents' where, for example, a cave unexpectedly collapsed was rare, by far the exception. Including these words in our approved list is at odds with the stable of British Medical Journal publications, (e.g., Injury Prevention) which have dissuaded use of the word 'accident' since 1993 and banned the word since 2001. Since 2004, at considerable expense, many former NHS hospital accident and emergency wards in the UK have steadily been renamed emergency departments. The Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine has been renamed Emergency Medicine Journal and, as recently as last year, the New York Police Department changed the name of their Accident Investigation Squad to Collision Investigation Squad. They also no longer use the word 'accident' in their reports, following the lead of the US Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration which stopped using the word in all its printed material in 1997, claiming it "…promotes the concept that these events are outside of human influence or control."(p.1.) There are many such examples of this subtle yet important change that is overtaking both western medicine and, in particular, public health. Rather than 'accident' the current trend is to accurately describe the cause of an injury. To illustrate, a submission formerly entitled 'Hot water accidents in Welsh children' would now more likely be titled 'Hot water burns in Welsh children'. The difference should be obvious; hot water burns in children are largely avoidable, (as are diving injuries). Therefore, I respectfully request we remove these key words from our journal's list. Hopefully this would not inconvenience some of our European colleagues for whom English is a second language, and this should be considered. In France, for example, decompression sickness (DCS) is known as an "accident de desaturation" and decompression illness (DCI, including arterial gas embolism), is initially described in French as an accident de decompression (ADD). After all signs and symptoms are identified, commonly at around 24 h, then the injury is termed a "maladie de decompression" (MDD). The Canadian Government department responsible for aviation, Transports Canada, also refer to DCS/DCI as MDD. The BMJ makes exceptions, e.g., if the word appears in a formal title such as Child Accident Prevention Trust. Regarding ADD however, may I respectfully suggest to my French colleagues they consider adopting "blessure de décompression" (BDD)? In diving research at least, the leading hypothesis is that DCS may be prevented through better understanding of the mechanisms of this protean disease. That DCS is an 'accident' is the null hypothesis. PMID:25964042

  9. [A study on fall accident].

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Kim, M J

    1997-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996 at the one general hospital in Seoul. The total subjects of this study were 412 patients who have the experience of fall accident, among them 31 was who have fallen during hospitalization and 381 was who visited emergency room and out patient clinic. The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics, risk factors and results of fall accident and to suggest the nursing strategies for prevention of fall. Data were collected by reviewing the medical records and interviewing with the fallers and their family members. For data analysis spss/pc+ program was utilized for descriptive statistics, adjusted standardized X2-test. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Total subjects were 412 fallers, of which 245 (59.5%) were men and 167 (40.5%) were women. Age were 0-14 years 79 (19.2%), 15-44 years 125 (30.4%), 45-64 years 104 (25.2%), over 65 years 104 (25.2%). 2) There was significant association between age and the sexes (X2 = 39.17, P = 0.00). 3) There was significant association between age and history of falls (X2 = 44.41, P = .00). And history of falls in the elderly was significantly associated with falls. 4) There was significant association with age and medical diagnosis (X2 = 140.66, P = .00), chief medical diagnosis were hypertension (34), diabetes mellitus (22), arthritis (11), stroke (8), fracture (7), pulmonary tuberculosis (6), dementia (5) and cataract (5). 5) There was significant association between age and intrinsic factors: cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, insomnia, emotional problems, urinary difficulty, visual impairments, hearing impairments, use of drugs (sedatives, antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, antidepressants) (P < 0.05). But there was no significant association between age and dizziness (X2 = 2.87, P = .41). 6) 15.3% of total fallers were drunken state when they were fallen. 7) Environmental factors of fall accident were unusual posture (50.9%), slips (35.2%), trips (9.5%) and collision (4.4%). 8) Most of falls occurred during the day time, peak frequencies of falls occurred from 1 pm to 6 pm and 7 am to 12 am. 9) The places of fall accident were roads (22.6%), house-stairs (16.7%), rooms, floors, kitchen (11.2%), the roof-top, veranda, windows (10.9%), hospital (7.5%), ice or snowy ways (5.8%), bathroom (4.9%), playground, park (4.9%), subway-stairs (4.4%) and public-bathrooms (2.2%). 10) Activities at the time of fall accident were walking (37.6%), turning around or reaching for something (20.9%), going up or down stairs (19.2%), exercise, working (17.4%), up or down from a bed (2.7%), using wheelchair or walking aids, standing up or down from a chair (2.2%) and standing still (2.2%). 11) Anatomical locations of injuries by falls were head, face, neck (31.3%), lower extremities (29.9%), upper extremities (20.6%), spine, thorax, abdomen or pelvic contents (11.4%) and unspecified (2.9%). 12) Types of injures were fracture (47.6%), bruises (13.8%), laceration (13.3%), sprains (9.0%), headache (6.6%), abrasions (2.9%), intracranial hemorhage (2.4%) and burns (0.5%). 13) 41.5% of the fallers were hospitalized and average of hospitalization was 22.3 days. 14) The six fallers (1.46%) died from fall injuries. The two fallers died from intracranial hemorhage and the four fallers died of secondary infection; pneumonia (2), sepsis (1) and cellulitis (1). It is suggested that 1) Further study is needed with larger sample size to identify the fall risk factors. 2) After the fall accident, comprehensive nursing care and regular physical exercise should be emphasized for the elderly person. 3) Safety education and safety facilities of the public place and home is necessary for fall prevention. PMID:10437605

  10. The effects of age and experience on accidents with injuries: should the licensing age be raised?

    PubMed

    Laberge-Nadeau, C; Maag, U; Bourbeau, R

    1992-04-01

    In Canadian Provinces and in several states of the United States the minimal legal age to drive a motor vehicle is 16 years old and in some, it is 15. The excess mortality and morbidity registered by 15 to 24-year-old drivers is well known. Several studies have reported that accident rates decrease with experience, but the effect of the age of new drivers has not been well documented. The objective is to study injury accident rates in terms of the age and experience factors. The data sources are computer files of the Government Insurance Corporation (Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec), which covers all Quebec drivers. For each driver, the file contains birth date, sex, year and month of first license, involvement in accidents, and other parameters. The yearly rates (1970-1984) of new permits per age last birthday and sex show an increase over time, particularly for 16-year-old men. For the period 1979-1984, injury accident involvement rates were computed for all Quebec drivers by age, sex, and driving experience. An experienced driver has been defined as a person who has been licensed for at least one year. The results show, for experienced as well as inexperienced young men (16-18), a high injury accident rate that decreases with age. For women, the rates are much lower and decrease more gradually than for men. This study does not take into account the kilometers driven. Since young drivers (16-18) have the highest accident rates, the question of regulating access to first licensing for such drivers must be examined as a possible strategy for injury prevention. PMID:1558618

  11. Effects of in-vehicle warning information on drivers’ decelerating and accelerating behaviors near an arch-shaped intersection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junyi Zhang; Koji Suto; Akimasa Fujiwara

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the effects of in-vehicle warning information on drivers’ decelerating and accelerating behavior when approaching an intersection near an arch-shaped bridge, where traffic accidents have often occurred due to poor visibility. The warning information was provided with images and\\/or voice, triggered by the actual presence of a stopped vehicle at the downhill road section of the

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  13. Electric vehicle future examined

    SciTech Connect

    Weslowski, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    A major oil disruption is probably necessary before electric vehicles (EVs) can make a market breakthrough, but the 1980s will see a period of experimentation and demonstration to develop a battery and components that will attract buyers. Batter research focuses on weight, energy density, endurance, and economics, but the first generation of vehicles will likely rely on lead-acid batteries until the new technologies are proved. The budding EV industry needs to collect more standardized performance data on vehicles in service. Several new batteries are under study by private and government groups, but these efforts need to be coordinated before the EV industry can develop. (DCK)

  14. Hypoglycaemia and accident risk in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with non-insulin antidiabetes drugs

    PubMed Central

    Signorovitch, J E; Macaulay, D; Diener, M; Yan, Y; Wu, E Q; Gruenberger, J-B; Frier, B M

    2013-01-01

    Aims To assess associations between hypoglycaemia and risk of accidents resulting in hospital visits among people with type 2 diabetes receiving antidiabetes drugs without insulin. Methods People with type 2 diabetes who were not treated with insulin were identified from a US-based employer claims database (1998–2010). Following initiation of an antidiabetes drug, the occurrence of accidents resulting in hospital visits was compared between people with, and without, claims for hypoglycaemia using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, prior treatments and prior medical service use. Additional analyses were stratified by age 65 years or older. Results A total of N = 5582 people with claims for hypoglycaemia and N = 27 910 with no such claims were included. Accidents resulting in hospital visits occurred in 5.5 and 2.8% of people with, and without, hypoglycaemia, respectively. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, hypoglycaemia was associated with significantly increased hazards for any accident [hazard ratio (HR) 1.39, 95% CI 1.21–1.59, p < 0.001], accidental falls (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13–1.65, p < 0.001) and motor vehicle accidents (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.18–2.80, p = 0.007). In age-stratified analyses, hypoglycaemia was associated with greater hazards of driving-related accidents in people younger than age 65 and falls in people aged 65 or older. Conclusions In people with type 2 diabetes receiving antidiabetes drugs without insulin, hypoglycaemia was associated with a significantly higher risk of accidents resulting in hospital visits, including accidents related to driving and falls. PMID:23121373

  15. Some implications of an event-based definition of exposure to the risk of road accident.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new definition of exposure to the risk of road accident as any event, limited in space and time, representing a potential for an accident to occur by bringing road users close to each other in time or space of by requiring a road user to take action to avoid leaving the roadway. A typology of events representing a potential for an accident is proposed. Each event can be interpreted as a trial as defined in probability theory. Risk is the proportion of events that result in an accident. Defining exposure as events demanding the attention of road users implies that road users will learn from repeated exposure to these events, which in turn implies that there will normally be a negative relationship between exposure and risk. Four hypotheses regarding the relationship between exposure and risk are proposed. Preliminary tests support these hypotheses. Advantages and disadvantages of defining exposure as specific events are discussed. It is argued that developments in vehicle technology are likely to make events both observable and countable, thus ensuring that exposure is an operational concept. PMID:25560900

  16. Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers. PMID:24486771

  17. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  18. Security of passive access vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ansaf Ibrahem Alrabady

    2002-01-01

    A passive vehicle system for automotive applications is an evolution of the popular remote keyless entry systems. It provides the ultimate user comfort to access the vehicle. The user no longer needs to reach for any form of mechanical or electronic key to gain access to the vehicle. The vehicle recognizes an authorized user from others by the possession of

  19. Warning: accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.; Rosen, I.

    1982-01-01

    A reporter and an engineer reconstruct the events leading up to and following the March, 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island Reactor Number Two. They begin with the compromises and work pace required in designing, siting, and building a nuclear reactor and the warnings from incidents involving other reactors. The authors give a chronological report of the events and responses during the days following the accident. They view Three Mile Island as a warning that all the safety systems may not work in a future accident. 7 figures. (DCK)

  20. New Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-02-01

    The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

  1. Constellation Launch Vehicles Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Steve; Fragola, Joseph R.; Priskos, Alex; Davis, Danny; Kaynard, Mike; Hutt, John; Davis, Stephan; Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of the launch vehicles associated with the Constellation Program. These are the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of the Ares launch vehicles is included. The presentation stresses that the major criteria for the Ares I launcher is the safety of the crew, and the presentation reviews the various features that are designed to assure that aim. The Ares I vehicle is being built on a foundation of proven technologies, and the Ares V will give NASA unprecedented performance and payload volume that can enable a range of future missions. The CDs contain videos of scenes from various activities surrounding the design, construction and testing of the vehicles.

  2. Compact Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Ohm, Timothy R.

    1993-01-01

    Radio-controlled microrover features light weight and agility. Miniature robotic vehicle, called Go-For, implements new fork-wheeled mobility concept to traverse extremely rough terrain. Weighs 4 kg and is 0.4 m long, climbs over obstacles as large as 60 percent of its length. Mobility concept applied to much larger vehicles. Demonstrates such applications as exploration of planetary surfaces, military surveillance, and assessing hazardous situations. Video camera on vehicle sends images to control station, where human supervisor chooses sequence of paths to traverse to reach locations of interest. For planetary exploration, spectrometer and seisometer on vehicle sends scientific data to control station, and onboard tools collect soil and rock samples. Terrestrial version equipped similarly to take samples in chemically and/or biologically contaminated areas.

  3. Simplified method for evaluating energy loss in vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Vangi, Dario

    2009-05-01

    A method is proposed for the evaluation of energy loss in road vehicle collisions. The energy loss evaluation is an essential task to reconstruct the dynamics of a road accident. The proposed method combines the simplicity of visual evaluation, typical of the method based on EES (equivalent energy speed), with flexibility, in order to evaluate the energy loss on any kind of vehicle deformation profile, of the methods based on measuring residual crush. The method is based on linearizing the damage profile, so that it is possible to predetermine the analytical expression of the kinetic energy loss in relation to only two parameters that characterise the shape of the damage. The stiffness of the vehicle is determined by estimating the geometric parameters of the damage starting from a photograph of generic damage, with documented EES, on a vehicle of the same model as the one under investigation. The proposed method was validated performing crash tests and using data from crash tests found in the literature. The method estimate with sufficient accuracy the kinetic energy loss in deformation on vehicles. The method, thanks to its simplicity and versatility, can constitute a valid alternative to the classic procedures for evaluating energy loss commonly utilised. PMID:19393816

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Washburn; Moshe Kress

    This chapter is concerned with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). A UAV\\u000a is a remotely piloted or self-piloted aircraft that can carry a payload\\u000a of cameras, sensors, communications, and electronic warfare equipment. A UAV may carry also a weapon, in which case it is\\u000a called an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV). UCAV\\u000a s are effective attack weapons. Typical missions of UAVs

  5. Vehicle Internet Appliance (VIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hariri; Mahesh Indran

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. We present the design and implementation of an open and cost-effective vehicle information appliance (VIA) to enable the access to all car status information (e.g., engine temperature, engine condition, brakes, etc), as well as communicating with car passengers (e.g., multimedia video conferencing). The main objective of the vehicle Internet appliance is to effectively utilize the Internet

  6. Aerospace vehicle synthesis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A modified version of the Aerospace Vehicle Synthesis Program (VSP) to simulate a space shuttle on the computer is presented. The effects of various changes such as payload weight, and orbital velocity can be determined along with minimum costs in vehicle design. The program logic, and weight estimating equations are discussed, and an example case of a solid propellant boosted, drop tank orbiter is included to indicate the type of results produced by the VSP.

  7. Launch Vehicle Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

  8. Industrial Vehicle Routing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geir Hasle; Oddvar Kloster

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is\\u000a an NP-hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded\\u000a as one of the great successes of OR. Vehicle routing decision support tools provide substantial savings in society every day,

  9. The reality of multiple casualty triage: putting triage theory into practice at the scene of multiple casualty vehicular accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Arbon; K Zeitz; J Ranse; H Wren; R Elliott; K Driscoll

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:The project investigated the experiences of ambulance paramedics in applying the principles and protocols of prehospital multiple casualty triage at the scene of motor vehicle accidents. Key objectives included investigation of the situational cues and other contextual factors influencing triage practice and the development of recommendations for the future education of ambulance paramedics.Methods:A triangulated approach was used incorporating demographic data,

  10. Driver Behavior and Situation Aware Brake Assistance for Intelligent Vehicles To reduce rear-end collisions, intelligent car safety systems must predict what drivers need to know and how they will try to act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel C. McCall; Mohan M. Trivedi

    This paper deals with the development of Human- Centric Intelligent Driver Assistance Systems. Rear-end colli- sions account for a large portion of traffic accidents. To help mitigate this problem, predictive braking systems and adaptive cruise control systems have been developed. However, these types of systems usually rely solely on the vehicle and vehicle surround sensors, either ignoring the human component

  11. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  12. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  13. Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Zangooei Dovom, Hossein; Shafahi, Yousef; Zangooei Dovom, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated road traffic deaths, but few have compared by road user type. Iran, with an estimated 44 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in 2002 had higher road traffic deaths than any other country for which reliable estimates can be made. So, the present study was conducted on road death data and identified fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury as well as the influences of age and gender on deaths at accident scenes for all road user groups. Data used in this study are on fatal road accidents recorded by forensic medicine experts of the Khorasan Razavi province in Mashhad, the capital of the province, the second largest city and the largest place of pilgrimage, immigration and tourism in Iran. Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to identify the relation of death place with age and gender in 2495 fatal road accidents from 2006 to 2009. The t-test and analysis of variance were employed for continues variable, age, to compare males' and females' mean age for all road user categories. For two genders, all three groups of fatalities (pedestrian, motorcyclist and motor vehicle occupant) had a peak at the ages of 21-30. The youngest were male motorcyclists (mean age = 28). Old pedestrians were included in road deaths very much, too. Male/female overall ratio was 3.41 and the highest male/female ratio was related to motorcyclists (14). The overall ratio of head injury to other organ injuries (torso and underbody) was 2.51 and pedestrians had the largest amount of head injury (38.2%). Regarding death at accident scene, for all road users, gender did not have any significant relation with death at the scene (P-value > 0.1); on the contrary, age had significant relation (P-value < 0.05). Females were more vulnerable at accident scenes (male/female ratio at accident sense < 1). Pedestrians aged 21-30, motorcyclists 41-50 and motor vehicle occupants 31-40 died the most at accident scenes. Identifying the most endangered groups of road accident fatalities, which was conducted in this study, is invaluable for the appropriate design of prevention strategies and allocation of financial resources for each group of road user fatalities - since in developing nations, there are insufficient financial resources to traffic safety and we should consider superiorities, i.e. the most risky groups. Steps which may contribute to safety promotion for local conditions include suitable facilities for old pedestrians, a training course before obtaining motorcycle license for motorcyclists, informing young road users by provincial media about death risk of road users and improving management of the head-injured patients. Finally, suggestions for future researches were made. PMID:22681408

  14. Micro-simulation of vehicle conflicts involving right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections based on cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D

    2014-02-01

    At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies. PMID:24275720

  15. How Important is Vehicle Safety in the New Vehicle Purchase\\/Lease Process for Fleet Vehicles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood.Methods. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase\\/lease process and the importance that is placed on

  16. Effects of Vehicle-vehicle/ roadside-vehicle Communication on Adaptive Cruise Controlled Highway Systems

    E-print Network

    Sengupta, Raja

    Effects of Vehicle-vehicle/ roadside-vehicle Communication on Adaptive Cruise Controlled Highway/vehicle-roadside communication on the performance of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. Two simulation works are presented in the field [3]. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems are the first driver control assistance systems

  17. Proposal for computer investigation of LMFBR core meltdown accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Boudreau; F. H. Harlow; W. H. Reed; J. F. Barnes

    1974-01-01

    The environmental consequences of an LMFBR accident involving breach of ; containment are so severe that such accidents must not be allowed to happen. ; Present methods for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accidents like a loss ; of flow with failure to scram cannot show conclusively that such accidents do not ; lead to a rupture of the pressure vessel.

  18. Use of Human Factors Analysis for Wildland Fire Accident Investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Ryerson; Chuck Whitlock

    2005-01-01

    Accident investigators at any level are challenged with identifying causal factors and making preventative recommendations. This task can be particularly complicated considering that 70-80% of accidents are associated with human error. Due to complexities of the wildland fire environment, this is especially challenging when investigating a wildland fire-related accident. Upon reviewing past accident investigations within the United States Federal wildland

  19. Probabilistic Approach to Analysis of Death Traffic Accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgenia Suzdaleva; Ivan Nagy

    The paper is devoted to analysis of data related to traffic accidents at one of the roads in Czech Republic. The data sets are available as discrete-valued variables providing results of traffic accident (with death or not) as well as conditions under which the accident has happened (weather, visibility, speed etc). Situation of a traffic accident is modeled within state-space

  20. Considerations in the development of severe-accident strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Jr. Lutz; R. Prior; R. Bastien

    1990-01-01

    A set of proceduralized severe-accident strategies was developed for Ringhals pressurized water reactor units (beyond emergency response guidelines (BERGs)) to provide guidance in the event of an accident that progresses to core damage. The development of the ringhals severe-accident guidance was a three-phase program: Phase 1 - development of the fundamental strategy for dealing with severe accidents; Phase 2 -

  1. Traffic Accident Treatment Expert System Based on Integrated Reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Xu; Wen-hua Yan

    2009-01-01

    In order to handle the traffic accidents timely and accurately and draw conclusions from them to formulate measures of preventing similar accidents, an expert system with integrated reasoning method is put forward and applied to traffic accident treatment according to the characteristics of traffic accidents. This method adopts an integrated reasoning approach in which the CBR (case-based reasoning) is the

  2. Accidents in the chemical industry: are they foreseeable?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. M. Sonnemans; Patrick M. W. Körvers

    2006-01-01

    Accidents recur,’ which is what Kletz [Kletz T. (1993). Lessons from disasters, how organisations have no memory and accidents recur. UK: Institution of Chemical Engineers] wrote in 1993. Indeed, despite all measures taken accidents may re-occur, but ‘disruptions’ in a process reoccur much more frequently. If a disruption occurs it may lead to an accident. If the same disruption reoccurs

  3. General model of accident rate growth in the construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bozena Hola

    2007-01-01

    The accident level in sectors of the national economy is estimated from such data as: the number of persons employed in the analysed sector, the number of victims of accidents at work and the frequency and seriousness of the accidents. The data have a static character: they inform about the accident level in the analysed period but not about its

  4. Characterization of a nuclear accident dosimeter 

    E-print Network

    Burrows, Ronald Allen

    1995-01-01

    National Laboratories' (SNL) personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). Two separate critical assemblies, SHEBA and Godiva, were used to generate seven separate neutron spectra for use in dose comparisons. SNL's PNAD measured absorbed doses that were...

  5. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of...

  6. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of...

  7. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    PubMed

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T

    1993-06-01

    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries. PMID:8342057

  8. Containment leakage during severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Bagchi, G.; Noonan, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    An alternate to the THRESHOLD model used in most severe accident risk assessments has been investigated. One reference plant for each of six containment types has been studied to determine the magnitude of containment leakage that would result from the pressures and temperatures associated with severe accident conditions. Containment penetrations having the greatest potential for early containment leakage are identified. The studies indicate that containment leakage through penetrations prior to reaching containment threshold pressures (currently reported containment shell failure pressures) should be considered in severe accident risk assessments. Failure of non-metallic seals for containment penetrations can be a significant source of containment leakage under severe accident pressure and temperature conditions. Although studies of containment types are useful in identifying sources of containment leakage, final conclusions may need to be plant specific. Recommendations concerning future studies to better develop the use of continuous leakage models are provided. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Delay in ambulance dispatch to road accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, H

    1992-01-01

    When a road accident occurs, the police communications officer, or 911 operator, generally receives the first call. If the caller reports injuries, the emergency medical services dispatcher is notified immediately; but if the caller is uncertain of injuries, the operator may wait. Most often an ambulance is not needed. However, in nearly 20% of fatal road accidents in Missouri, waiting for confirmation of need resulted in a delay of 5 minutes or more in the dispatch of an ambulance. PMID:1585968

  10. MELCOR analyses for accident progression issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dingman, S.E.; Shaffer, C.J.; Payne, A.C.; Carmel, M.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Results of calculations performed with MELCOR and HECTR in support of the NUREG-1150 study are presented in this report. The analyses examined a wide range of issues. The analyses included integral calculations covering an entire accident sequence, as well as calculations that addressed specific issues that could affect several accident sequences. The results of the analyses for Grand Gulf, Peach Bottom, LaSalle, and Sequoyah are described, and the major conclusions are summarized. 23 refs., 69 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Rast, D.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Reichel, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident.

  13. Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, Săo Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

  14. A study of bicyclist kinematics and injuries based on reconstruction of passenger car-bicycle accident in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jin; Yang, Jikuang

    2014-10-01

    Like pedestrians, bicyclists are vulnerable road users, representing a population with a high risk of fatal and severe injuries in traffic accidents as they are unprotected during vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to investigate the kinematics response of bicyclists and the correlation of the injury severity with vehicle impact speed. Twenty-four car-bicyclist cases with detailed information were selected for accident reconstruction using mathematical models, which was implemented in the MADYMO program. The dynamic response of bicyclists in the typical impact configuration and the correlation of head impact conditions were analyzed and discussed with respect to the head impact speed, time of head impact and impact angle of bicyclists to vehicle impact speed. Furthermore, the injury distribution of bicyclists and the risk of head injuries and fractures of lower limbs were investigated in terms of vehicle impact speed. The results indicate that wrap-around distance (WAD), head impact speed, time of head impact, head impact angle, and throw-out distance (TOD) of the bicyclists have a strong relationship with vehicle impact speed. The vehicle impact speed corresponding to a 50% probability of head AIS 2+ injuries, head AIS 3+ injuries, and lower limb fracture risk for bicyclists is 53.8km/h, 58.9km/h, and 41.2km/h, respectively. A higher vehicle impact speed produces a higher injury risk to bicyclist. The results could provide background knowledge for the establishment or modification of pedestrian regulations considering bicyclist protection as well as being helpful for developing safety measures and protection devices for bicyclists. PMID:24880929

  15. Evaluating Product-Related Hazards At the Consumer Product Safety CommissionThe Case of All-Terrain Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory B. Rodgers

    1990-01-01

    Multivariate qualitative response models, such as logit regression models, are useful in evaluating product-related risk at the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). They are used to determine and quantify the factors associated with accidents, and can suggest or justify appropriate regulatory responses. This article applies the method to evaluating risks associated with all-terrain vehicles. A logit regression model is used

  16. Development of a Collision Warning System for Adaptive Cruise Control Vehicles Using a Comparison Analysis of Recent Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oncil Ararat; E. Kural; B. A. Guvenc

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new collision warning (CW) algorithm for rear-end collisions. Considering the large number of traffic accidents that result due to driver errors or situations that are unpredictable for the driver, many CW Algorithms were developed in the past years. However, these algorithms did not adequately take into account vehicles with an adaptive cruise control (ACC) System. This

  17. Vehicle design and speed and pedestrian injury: Australia's involvement in the International Harmonised Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Expert Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Anderson; Jack McLean

    Australia is contributing to the International Harmonised Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Expert Group (IHRA PSEG) through research undertaken at the Road Accident Research Unit, and funded by the Commonwealth Department of Transport and Regional Services. The IHRA PSEG is charged with the development of test procedures for assessing the protection afforded by the vehicle to a pedestrian in the event

  18. Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create the spatial or temporal clustering of crash accidents. Since the 1990's, Geographical Informational Systems (GIS) became a very important tool for traffic and road safety management, allowing not only the spatial and multifactorial analysis, but also graphical and non-graphical outputs. The current paper presents an accessible GIS methodology to study the spatio-temporal pattern of injury related road accidents, to identify the high density accidents zones, to make a cluster analysis, to create multicriterial typologies, to identify spatial and temporal similarities and to explain them. In this purpose, a Geographical Information System was created, allowing a complex analysis that involves not only the events, but also a large set of interrelated and spatially linked attributes. The GIS includes the accidents as georeferenced point elements with a spatially linked attribute database: identification information (date, location details); accident type; main, secondary and aggravating causes; data about driver; vehicle information; consequences (damages, injured peoples and fatalities). Each attribute has its own number code that allows both the statistical analysis and the spatial interrogation. The database includes those road accidents that led to physical injuries and loss of human lives between 2007 and 2012 and the spatial analysis was realized using TNTmips 7.3 software facilities. Data aggregation and processing allowed creating the spatial pattern of injury related road accidents through Kernel density estimation at three different levels (national - Romania; county level - Iasi County; local level - Iasi town). Spider graphs were used to create the temporal pattern or road accidents at three levels (daily, weekly and monthly) directly related to their causes. Moreover the spatial and temporal database relates the natural hazards (glazed frost, fog, and blizzard) with the human made ones, giving the opportunity to evaluate the nature of uncertainties in risk assessment. At the end, this paper provides a clustering methodology based on several environmenta

  19. Ground vehicle convoying

    SciTech Connect

    Gage, D.W.; Pletta, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the ground vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control in nighttime and inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, actuators, computers, communications, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  20. An analytical study of electric vehicle handling dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, J. E.; Segal, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Hypothetical electric vehicle configurations were studied by applying available analytical methods. Elementary linearized models were used in addition to a highly sophisticated vehicle dynamics computer simulation technique. Physical properties of specific EV's were defined for various battery and powertrain packaging approaches applied to a range of weight distribution and inertial properties which characterize a generic class of EV's. Computer simulations of structured maneuvers were performed for predicting handling qualities in the normal driving range and during various extreme conditions related to accident avoidance. Results indicate that an EV with forward weight bias will possess handling qualities superior to a comparable EV that is rear-heavy or equally balanced. The importance of properly matching tires, suspension systems, and brake system front/rear torque proportioning to a given EV configuration during the design stage is demonstrated.

  1. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  2. High speed electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Nasa, K.; Tavakoli, M.; Thompson, M.; Jordan, C. [GMI Engineering and Management Inst., Flint, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Formula Lighting is an exciting new addition to GMI Engineering and Management Institute. This project is an excellent opportunity for students to use their acquired skills in a real life application. The vehicle is slated to compete in several races around the country. These events offer students the exposure to high caliber competitions in engineering design, combined with the thrill of racing. The Formula Lightning is an electric vehicle. Most of the challenging design tasks lie within the drive train setup and battery system efficiency. Part of the battery system efficiency includes a quick and reliable exchange technique of battery packs under race conditions. The vehicle is designed and built by GMI students, except for the chassis. This project allows students from all fields of engineering to gain experience in mechanical and electrical design as well as project management.

  3. Impact characteristics of a vehicle population in low speed front to rear collisions.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Naoya; Simms, Ciaran K; Wood, Denis P

    2015-06-01

    Rear impact collisions are mostly low severity, but carry a very high societal cost due to reported symptoms of whiplash and related soft tissue injuries. Given the difficulty in physiological measurement of damage in whiplash patients, there is a significant need to assess rear impact severity on the basis of vehicle damage. This paper presents fundamental impact equations on the basis of an equivalent single vehicle to rigid barrier collision in order to predict relationships between impact speed, maximum dynamic crush, mean and peak acceleration, time to common velocity and vehicle stiffness. These are then applied in regression analysis of published staged low speed rear impact tests. The equivalent mean and peak accelerations are linear functions of the collision closing speed, while the time to common velocity is independent of the collision closing speed. Furthermore, the time to common velocity can be used as a surrogate measure of the normalized vehicle stiffness, which provides opportunity for future accident reconstruction. PMID:25795922

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, J.M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators.

  5. Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali

    2004-04-01

    The Indian farming employs 225 million workforce to cover 140 million hectares of total cultivated land. In spite of rapid farm mechanization (e.g., 149 million farm machinery), the vast resource-poor family farming has primary dependence on traditional methods (e.g., 520 million hand tools and 37 million animal-drawn implements are in operation). The work drudgery, the traumatic accidents and injuries are the major concerns to examine options for ergonomics intervention and betterment of work in crop production activities. This review summarizes human energy expenditure in crop production activities, to assess the job severity, tools and machinery, and formulate the basis to reorganize work and work methods. While the farm mechanization is more in the northern India, the accidents were more in the villages in southern India. On average of the four regions, the tractor incidents (overturning, falling from the tractor, etc.) were highest (27.7%), followed by thresher (14.6%), sprayer/duster (12.2%), sugarcane crusher (8.1%) and chaff cutter (7.8%) accidents. Most of the fatal accidents resulted from the powered machinery, with the annual fatality rate estimated as 22 per 100,000 farmers. The hand tools related injuries (8% of the total accidents) were non-fatal in nature. In spite of the enactment of legislation, the shortcomings in production and monitoring of the machinery in field use may be responsible for the high rate of accidents (e.g., 42 thresher accidents/1,000 mechanical threshers/year in southern India). Due to the lack of technical capability of the local artisans, adhering to safety and design standards is impractical to the implements fabricated in the rural areas. The analysis emphasizes that the effective safety and health management may be possible through legislative enabling of the local infra-structure, such as block development authority and primary health services, to permeate occupational health and safe work practices in the farming sector. PMID:15128164

  6. Vehicle brake testing system

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Samuel S. (Harriman, TN); Hodgson, Jeffrey W. (Lenoir City, TN)

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  7. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction estimation. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics.

  8. Control device for vehicle speed

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, S.; Hyodo, H.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a control device for vehicle speed comprising: a throttle driving means operatively coupled to a throttle valve of a vehicle; a set switch means for commanding memorization of the vehicle speed; a resume switch means for commanding read of the vehicle speed; a vehicle speed detecting means for generating a signal in accordance with the vehicle speed; a vehicle speed memory; an electronical control means for memorizing in the vehicle speed memory vehicle speed information corresponding to the signal obtained from the vehicle speed detecting means in response to actuation of the set switch means. The control means is also for reading out the content of the vehicle speed memory in response to actuation of the resume switch means to control the throttle driving means in accordance with the read-out content; a power supply means for supplying power to the electronical control means; and a power supply control switch means for controlling supply of power to the electronical control means in response to the state of at least one of the set switch means and the resume switch means and the state of the electronical control means. The improvement described here comprises the electronical control means sets the power supply control switch means into such a state that supply of power to the electronical control means is turned OFF, when vehicle speed information is not memorized in the vehicle speed memory.

  9. Vehicle dynamics and external disturbance estimation for vehicle path prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiu-Feng Lin; A. Galip Ulsoy; David J. LeBlanc

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the onboard prediction of a motor vehicle's path to help enable a variety of emerging functions in autonomous vehicle control and active safety systems. It is shown in simulation that good accuracy of path prediction is achieved using numerical integration of a linearized two degree of freedom vehicle handling model. To improve performance, a steady-state Kalman filter

  10. ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS

    E-print Network

    Brennan, Sean

    ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS S. Brennan & A. Alleyne Dept called pi-groups. Investigation of these pi- groups using compiled data from 44 published sets of Vehicle Dynamics reveals that the data does not span the pi-space, but instead follows a multi-dimensional line

  11. Lifestyle and accidents among young drivers.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, N P; Berg, H Y

    1994-06-01

    This study covers the lifestyle component of the problems related to young drivers' accident risk. The purpose of the study is to measure the relationship between lifestyle and accident risk, and to identify specific high-risk and low-risk groups. Lifestyle is measured through a questionnaire, where 20-year-olds describe themselves and how often they deal with a large number of different activities, like sports, music, movies, reading, cars and driving, political engagement, etc. They also report their involvement in traffic accidents. With a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, lifestyle profiles are defined. These profiles are finally correlated to accidents, which makes it possible to define high-risk and low-risk groups. The cluster analysis defined 15 clusters including four high-risk groups with an average overrisk of 150% and two low-risk groups with an average underrisk of 75%. The results are discussed from two perspectives. The first is the importance of theoretical understanding of the contribution of lifestyle factors to young drivers' high accident risk. The second is how the findings could be used in practical road safety measures, like education, campaigns, etc. PMID:8011042

  12. Single pilot IFR accident data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. F.; Morrisete, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft accident data recorded and maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board for 1964 to 1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964 to 1975 provided a basis for comparison. The purpose was to determine what changes, if any, have occurred in trends and cause-effect relationships reported in the earlier study. The increasing numbers have been tied to measures of activity to produce accident rates which in turn were analyzed in terms of change. Where anomalies or unusually high accident rates were encountered, further analysis was conducted to isolate pertinent patterns of cause factors and/or experience levels of involved pilots. The bulk of the effort addresses accidents in the landing phase of operations. A detailed analysis was performed on controlled/uncontrolled collisions and their unique attributes delineated. Estimates of day vs. night general aviation activity and accident rates were obtained.

  13. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

  14. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

  15. Parametrized maneuvers for autonomous vehicles

    E-print Network

    Dever, Christopher W. (Christopher Walden), 1972-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for creating continuously parametrized maneuver classes for autonomous vehicles. These classes provide useful tools for motion planners, bundling sets of related vehicle motions based on a ...

  16. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  17. Vehicle Management Driver Safety Program

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    enforcement, or otherwise used to provide information relative to compliance investigations. Driver NameVehicle Management and Driver Safety Program Manual Facilities & Operations / Finance & Administration Version 2 April 2012 #12;© 2012 University of Alberta. #12;The Vehicle Management and Driver

  18. Introduction to LNG vehicle safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

    1994-03-01

    Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

  19. Electrohydraulic vehicle drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, E.W. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A power system is described for a vehicle comprising: a battery source for driving a DC electric motor mechanically coupled to a fluid pump which pressurizes a fluid for actuating a fluid motor that is operatively connected to reciprocate a worm screw gear assembly which rotates an output shaft connected to axles which drive the wheels of a vehicle, an auxiliary power device for operating an alternator to generate electricity and means for recovering kinetic energy. The auxiliary power device includes means for supplying compressed air or steam to an air or steam motor which is operatively connected to a second worm screw gear assembly which drives an output shaft connected to the alternator for generating electricity, and wherein the kinetic energy recovery means includes an air pump connected between the axles and frame of the vehicle chassis so that vehicular movement actuates the air pump for compressing air for storage and also a worm screw gear driven alternator assembly connected between the axle and frame of the vehicle chassis for generating electricity during vehicular movement.

  20. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  1. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  2. Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

  3. Lunar Roving Vehicle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, learners will construct a model of a lunar roving vehicle. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

  4. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. it relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  5. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. It relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  6. Washington State Electric Vehicle

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    #12;Challenges · Vehicle Acquisition Costs · Range Anxiety · Acceptance of New Technology · Emerging of ownership tool to compare competing models based on different utilization #12;Range Anxiety and Acceptance for replacement, 2. The anticipated driving range or use would not require battery charging in the field

  7. Comprehensive analysis of single- and multi-vehicle large truck at-fault crashes on rural and urban roadways in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Islam, Samantha; Jones, Steven L; Dye, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    The research described in this paper analyzed injury severities at a disaggregate level for single-vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) large truck at-fault accidents for rural and urban locations in Alabama. Given the occurrence of a crash, four separate random parameter logit models of injury severity (with possible outcomes of major, minor, and possible or no injury) were estimated. The models identified different sets of factors that can lead to effective policy decisions aimed at reducing large truck-at-fault accidents for respective locations. The results of the study clearly indicated that there are differences between the influences of a variety of variables on the injury severities resulting from urban vs. rural SV and MV large truck at-fault accidents. The results showed that some variables were significant only in one type of accident model (SV or MV) but not in the other accident model. Again, some variables were found to be significant in one location (rural or urban) but not in other locations. The study also identified important factors that significantly impact the injury severity resulting from SV and MV large truck at-fault accidents in urban and rural locations based on the estimated values of average direct pseudo-elasticity. A careful study of the results of this study will help policy makers and transportation agencies identify location specific recommendations to increase safety awareness related to large truck involved accidents and to improve overall highway safety. PMID:24667236

  8. EOD Vehicle Conceptual Design Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rogers; G. Bane; W. Laing

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a tethered undersea remotely operated vehicle (ROV) has been made for the U.S. Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Technology Center. The conceptual design vehicle is designated ROV-EOD. The purpose of the vehicle is to locate, identify and neutralize suspected ordnance on the ocean floor, normally at or near harbors; thus relieving divers of a very

  9. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  10. Nonlinearities in Road Vehicle Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Pacejka

    1986-01-01

    In the study of lateral vehicle dynamics with the objective to enhance stability and handling qualities, non-linear aspects may have to be included to cover also larger lateral accelerations and amplitudes. The paper treats whole vehicle motions and relative motions of vehicle subsystems. In particular, single car stability, also in the large, is discussed as well as the shimmy phenomenon

  11. Hybrid & Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Lee, Dongwon

    Hybrid & Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory www.vss.psu.edu/hhvrl Joel R. Anstrom, Director 201 The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory will contribute to the advancement of hybrid and hydrogen vehicle technology to promote the emerging hydrogen economy by providing

  12. United States launch vehicle systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Krause

    1990-01-01

    United States policy for national space launch capability provides for a balanced mix of launches, utilizing the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). The current mixed fleet includes the Space Shuttle and four expendable launch vehicles - Titan, Atlas, Delta, and Scout. New small class launch vehicles, including Pegasus, are in development. In addition, studies are underway to assure

  13. Autonomous ground vehicle path tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Wit; Carl D. Crane III; David G. Armstrong II

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous ground vehicle navigation requires the integration of many technologies such as path planning, position and orientation sensing, vehicle control, and obstacle avoidance. The work presented here focuses on the control of a nonholonomic ground vehicle as it tracks a given path. A new path tracking technique called ''vector pursuit'' is presented. This new technique is based on the theory

  14. Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

    1988-09-02

    On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

    1984-03-01

    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  16. Nuclear fuel in a reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Burns, Peter C; Ewing, Rodney C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear accidents that lead to melting of a reactor core create heterogeneous materials containing hundreds of radionuclides, many with short half-lives. The long-lived fission products and transuranium elements within damaged fuel remain a concern for millennia. Currently, accurate fundamental models for the prediction of release rates of radionuclides from fuel, especially in contact with water, after an accident remain limited. Relatively little is known about fuel corrosion and radionuclide release under the extreme chemical, radiation, and thermal conditions during and subsequent to a nuclear accident. We review the current understanding of nuclear fuel interactions with the environment, including studies over the relatively narrow range of geochemical, hydrological, and radiation environments relevant to geological repository performance, and discuss priorities for research needed to develop future predictive models. PMID:22403382

  17. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  18. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  19. [Traffic accidents--the national killer].

    PubMed

    Shemer, Joshua

    2004-02-01

    Traffic accidents are the most prevalent cause of death in developed countries between the ages of 1-33 years. In spite of a low motorization level in Israel, the rate of injury per 100,000 residents in Israel (2.8) was higher than in the US (1.8), NZ (1.7), Canada (1.7), Japan (1.3) and most European countries. The worst injuries were among pedestrians; particularly children aged 1-9 years and elderly (70+ years). In the past decade there have been significant advances in trauma care in Israel. Major strides included the foundation of trauma centers in hospitals, the establishment of the National Council for Trauma and the National Center for Trauma and Emergency Medicine Research at the Gertner Institute that coordinates the national trauma registry. One of the primary aims of the registry was to provide data to support decision-makers in setting national policy for accident prevention. The Israeli Police Department provides data on traffic accident victims to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) which publishes the national figures. In their article in this edition of the journal, Dr Peleg and Dr. Aharonson-Daniel present a grave concern regarding the fact that details of over 50% of hospitalized traffic accident victims were not reported to the CBS by the police, including data on the severely injured casualties. Traffic accidents are a major cause of loss of life and disability, creating a heavy economic burden on the state and the health care system. Hence, the authors recommend establishing a national database which will combine data from medical and other sources and present the complete comprehensive picture of traffic accident injuries. Such a database will improve the decision-making process, providing more focused data to enhance the preparation and dissemination of appropriate injury prevention policies. PMID:15143693

  20. French policy for managing the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Gallay, F; Godet, J L; Niel, J C

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, at the request of the French Government, the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) established a Steering Committee for the Management of the Post-Accident Phase of a Nuclear Accident or a Radiological Emergency, with the objective of establishing a policy framework. Under the supervision of ASN, this Committee, involving several tens of experts from different backgrounds (e.g. relevant ministerial offices, expert agencies, local information commissions around nuclear installations, non-governmental organisations, elected officials, licensees, and international experts), developed a number of recommendations over a 7-year period. First published in November 2012, these recommendations cover the immediate post-emergency situation, and the transition and longer-term periods of the post-accident phase in the case of medium-scale nuclear accidents causing short-term radioactive release (less than 24?h) that might occur at French nuclear facilities. They also apply to actions to be undertaken in the event of accidents during the transportation of radioactive materials. These recommendations are an important first step in preparation for the management of a post-accident situation in France in the case of a nuclear accident. PMID:25915552

  1. Visual Reconstruction of an Intersection by Integrating Cameras on Multiple Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Ota; Shintaro Ono; Katsushi Ikeuchi

    2007-01-01

    A method is presented for generating a bird's-eye view of a road traffic scene via the integration of multiple im- ages from in-vehicle cameras; the resulting bird's-eye view supports the goal of greater traffic safety. As there are typically many blind spots at any given intersection which could lead to accidents or traffic jams, if views can be obtained from

  2. Car restraints and seating position for prevention of motor vehicle injuries in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Petridou; A Skalkidou; I Lescohier; D Trichopoulos

    1998-01-01

    The protective effect of child restraint and the relative safety of front and rear seating in a population where children often travel unrestrained was assessed in a population based case-control study. The cases were all 129 children aged 0–11 years injured as car passengers in a motor vehicle accident who contacted, during 1996, one of the two major children’s hospitals

  3. Control System Architecture for Unmanned Land Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandor Szabo; Karl N. Murphy; Harry A. Scott; Steven A. Legowik; Roger V. Bostelman

    A second major effort is currently underway toward the development of vehicles with autonomous capabilities. The Autonomous Land Vehicle and Advanced Ground Vehicle Technology programs highlighted the first efforts in autonomous vehicles. The second push is fueled by the Office of the Secretary of Defense's (OSD) Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) program. The Surrogate Teleoperated Vehicle and Demo I programs have

  4. The medical investigation of airship accidents.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

    1988-07-01

    A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident. PMID:3171506

  5. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Anatomy of the accident scene: a prospective study of injury and mortality.

    PubMed

    Fox, M A; Fabian, T C; Croce, M A; Mangiante, E C; Carson, J P; Kudsk, K A

    1991-06-01

    This study of the accident scene focuses on the effects of vehicular deformity and restraint devices on occupant injury. In 500 patients evaluated in a Level I trauma center, seatbelts significantly reduced the likelihood of individuals' requiring the trauma center (P less than 0.0001). Seatbelts also significantly reduced the mortality rate of those who were transported to the trauma center (P less than 0.04). Dashboard intrusion correlated with pelvic (P less than 0.001) and femur (P less than 0.03) fractures, closed head injuries (P less than 0.001), and intraabdominal injuries (P less than 0.02). Steering wheel deformity correlated with pelvic fractures (P less than 0.001) and closed head injuries (P less than 0.005). Windshield violation correlated with closed head injuries (P less than 0.014) and spinal fractures (P less than 0.03). Irreparable vehicles correlated with pelvic (P less than 0.0001) and femur fractures (P less than 0.01), closed head injuries (P less than 0.0001) and intra-abdominal injuries (P less than 0.0001). The authors conclude that a careful examination of the accident scene for specific mechanisms of injury can lead to better prehospital care, more rapid and consistent diagnosis of injury, and improved patient outcome. Further prospective studies should accumulate data that will improve prehospital care, alert physicians to possible injury, increase community awareness of injury prevention, and improve vehicle construction. PMID:2048854

  7. Residence place as a risk factor in different types of fatal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Leveau, Carlos M; Vacchino, Marta N

    2015-06-01

    The association between place of residence, population density, relief and type of event (collision or non-collision of the vehicle) has not been evaluated in developing countries. The main objective of this study is to determine the differential factors associated with the occurrence of deaths of collision and non-collision automobile users in Patagonia, Argentina. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using as the dependent variable death by car accident (collision or non-collision of the vehicle) and sex, age, place of residence of the victim, relief and population density as the independent variables. Collision fatalities were related to areas of high population density, while non-collision fatalities were related to areas of low population density, mountainous landscape and place of residence of the victims outside the Patagonian region. The results obtained in this study indicate the need to develop differential primary prevention policies by place of residence of car occupants, focusing on Patagonia non-resident drivers and by emphasising non-collision accidents. PMID:24134389

  8. Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

  9. Impact crash analyses of an off-road utility vehicle – part I: validation of finite-element model for body structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiwen Hu; Zhenyuan Lu; Jieming Wang; Wei-Jun Lu

    2012-01-01

    A Taiwanese manufacturer of off-road utility vehicles (OUVs) was so concerned by the increased number in U.S. accidents and federal probes, involving OUVs from other manufacturers in the industry that it recently funded a thorough, analytical crashworthiness evaluation of its production vehicle body structure. The approach is to employ a transient dynamic, large-strain, material nonlinear finite-element modelling and analysis using

  10. Impact crash analyses of an off-road utility vehicle – part I: validation of finite-element model for body structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiwen Hu; Zhenyuan Lu; Jieming Wang; Wei-Jun Lu

    2011-01-01

    A Taiwanese manufacturer of off-road utility vehicles (OUVs) was so concerned by the increased number in U.S. accidents and federal probes, involving OUVs from other manufacturers in the industry that it recently funded a thorough, analytical crashworthiness evaluation of its production vehicle body structure. The approach is to employ a transient dynamic, large-strain, material nonlinear finite-element modelling and analysis using

  11. [Medical protection during radiation accidents: some results and lessons of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Legeza, V I; Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Actions of medical radiation protection of liquidators of consequences of on Chernobyl atomic power station accident are analysed. It is shown, that during the early period of the accident medical protection of liquidators was provided by administration of radioprotectors, means of prophylaxis: of radioactive iodine incorporation and agent for preventing psychological and emotional stress. When carrying out decontamination and regenerative works, preparations which action is caused by increase of nonspecific resistance of an organism were applied. The lessons taken from the results of the Chernobyl accident, have allowed one to improve the system of medical protection and to introduce in practice new highly effective radioprotective agents. PMID:21520618

  12. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  13. Stabilizing Wheels For Rover Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed articulated, normally-four-wheeled vehicle holds extra pair of wheels in reserve. Deployed to lengthen wheelbase on slopes, thereby making vehicle more stable, and to aid vehicle in negotiating ledge or to right vehicle if turned upside down. Extra wheels are drive wheels mounted on arms so they pivot on axis of forward drive wheels. Both extra wheels and arms driven by chains, hydraulic motors, or electric motors. Concept promises to make remotely controlled vehicles more stable and maneuverable in such applications as firefighting, handling hazardous materials, and carrying out operations in dangerous locations.

  14. Hypersomnolence and accidents in truck drivers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Rachel S N; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco P; Bastos, Joăo Paulo C; Maia, Werllen S; de Mello, Marco Túlio; de Bruin, Veralice M S; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe C

    2006-01-01

    Truck drivers are more likely to suffer severe injury and death due to certain truck driving characteristics. Identifying and preventing factors associated with accidents in this population is important to minimize damage and improve road safety. Excessive daytime sleepiness is a major public health problem, leading to impaired cognitive function, reduced alertness, and increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypersomnolence (defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score greater than 10) among truck drivers. Three hundred male truck drivers were studied. Quality of sleep was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the association between demographic, clinical, and occupational data with excessive sleepiness was analyzed. The mean daily sleep duration was 5.6+/-1.3 h, and poor quality of sleep was found in 46.3% of the individuals. Hypersomnolence was found in 46% of the drivers and was associated with younger age, snoring, and working >10 h without rest. A positive correlation between hypersomnolence and previous accidents was detected (p=0.005). These results show that sleep deprivation and hypersomnolence are frequent among truck drivers. The treatment of sleep-disordered breathing and the implementation of educational programs, particularly targeting younger drivers and promoting increased awareness of the deleterious effects of sleep loss and work overload, may help to reduce hypersomnolence and accidents among truck drivers. PMID:17050211

  15. Road accidents and tourism: the case of the Balearic Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rosselló, Jaume; Saenz-de-Miera, Oscar

    2011-05-01

    The increase in the number of tourists for many destinations and their increased mobility within host countries or regions has implied a rise in tourism-associated externalities, with vehicle crashes as the most common cause of injury for tourists. Within the transport literature, the number and variation in the amount of accidents has been related to a large set of determining variables, including weather conditions, socio-economic characteristics, exposure, physical characteristics of the road and a variety of dummies that try to capture effects such as safety laws and seasonal variations. However, the presence of tourism has been neglected. Using the case study of the Balearic Islands, the present study estimates the role of tourism in determining the number of accidents in a daily context, using the set of variables suggested by the literature and incorporating a daily measure for the stock of tourists at a host destination. Results show how tourism can be associated with a significant amount of the accidents that take place in the Balearics. PMID:21376854

  16. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  17. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to potentially constitute a critical mass, such that the excessive exposure of individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those...

  18. Remote control continuous mining machine crushing accident data study

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-05-11

    A committee was formed to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents as part of US MSHA's efforts to reduce and eliminate these types of accidents. The committee was tasked with collecting, reviewing, and evaluating remote control accident data to identify significant factors that could possibly contribute to remote control accidents. The report identifies that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another (place changing). Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. 10 figs., 5 tabs., 7 apps.

  19. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5 Section 233...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting from signal failure. Each carrier...

  20. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5 Section 233...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting from signal failure. Each carrier...

  1. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5 Section 233...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting from signal failure. Each carrier...

  2. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5 Section 233...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting from signal failure. Each carrier...

  3. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5 Section 233...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting from signal failure. Each carrier...

  4. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (iii) The accident involves only minor damage to the POV and...to any criminal traffic statements provided...following about the accident: (i) Location... (v) Property damage involved. ...visibility, road surface...

  5. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (iii) The accident involves only minor damage to the POV and...to any criminal traffic statements provided...following about the accident: (i) Location... (v) Property damage involved. ...visibility, road surface...

  6. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (iii) The accident involves only minor damage to the POV and...to any criminal traffic statements provided...following about the accident: (i) Location... (v) Property damage involved. ...visibility, road surface...

  7. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential...

  8. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential...

  9. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential...

  10. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential...

  11. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential...

  12. 49 CFR 382.303 - Post-accident testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Post-accident testing. 382.303 Section 382.303 Transportation...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.303 Post-accident testing. (a) As soon as practicable...

  13. 49 CFR 655.34 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Use following an accident. 655.34 Section 655.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.34 Use following an accident. Each...

  14. 49 CFR 655.34 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Use following an accident. 655.34 Section 655.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.34 Use following an accident. Each...

  15. 49 CFR 655.34 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Use following an accident. 655.34 Section 655.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.34 Use following an accident. Each...

  16. PNNL Results from 2009 Silene Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2010-06-30

    This document reports the results of testing of the Hanford Personnel Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on October 13, 14, and 15, 2009.

  17. The Role of Software in Spacecraft Accidents Nancy G. Leveson

    E-print Network

    Leveson, Nancy

    , unnecessary complexity and software functionality, software reuse without appropriate safety analysisThe Role of Software in Spacecraft Accidents Nancy G. Leveson Aeronautics and Astronautics software-related space- craft accidents were studied to determine common systemic factors. Although

  18. Responsibility for crashes of autonomous vehicles: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Hevelke, Alexander; Nida-Rümelin, Julian

    2015-06-01

    A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles. In particular, Patrick Lin's concern that any security gain derived from the introduction of autonomous cars would constitute a trade-off in human lives will be addressed. The second question is whether it would be morally permissible to impose liability on the user based on a duty to pay attention to the road and traffic and to intervene when necessary to avoid accidents. Doubts about the moral legitimacy of such a scheme are based on the notion that it is a form of defamation if a person is held to blame for causing the death of another by his inattention if he never had a real chance to intervene. Therefore, the legitimacy of such an approach would depend on the user having an actual chance to do so. The last option discussed in this paper is a system in which a person using an autonomous vehicle has no duty (and possibly no way) of interfering, but is still held (financially, not criminally) responsible for possible accidents. Two ways of doing so are discussed, but only one is judged morally feasible. PMID:25027859

  19. An Ontology-Based Traffic Accident Risk Mapping Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wang; Xin Wang

    \\u000a Road traffic accidents are a social and public challenge. Various spatial concentration detection methods have been proposed\\u000a to discover the concentration patterns of traffic accidents. However, current methods treat each traffic accident location\\u000a as a point without consideration of the severity level, and the final traffic accident risk map for the whole study area ignores\\u000a the users’ requirements. In this

  20. Three orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace engineering students at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University undertook three design projects under the sponsorship of the NASA/USRA Advanced Space Design Program. All three projects addressed cargo and/or crew transportation between low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit. Project SPARC presents a preliminary design of a fully reusable, chemically powered aeroassisted vehicle for a transfer of a crew of five and a 6000 to 20000 pound payload. The ASTV project outlines a chemically powered aeroassisted configuration that uses disposable tanks and a relatively small aerobrake to realize propellant savings. The third project, LOCOST, involves a reusable, hybrid laser/chemical vehicle designed for large cargo (up to 88,200 pounds) transportation.