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1

Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Motor Vehicle Accidents: Replication and Extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological assessment data, including heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and frontal electromyogram (EMG) responses to mental arithmetic, idiosyncratic audiotape descriptions of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), and a standard videotape of MVAs, were collected on 105 injured victims of recent MVAs and 54 non-MVA controls. Their data replicated data from an earlier report (Blanchard et al., 1994) and support the utility

Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Todd C. Buckley; Ann E. Taylor; Alisa Vollmer; Warren R. Loos

1996-01-01

2

Unmasking the Moving Threat: Reckless Driving, Borderline Personality Disorder, and the Impact on Motor Vehicle Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), a leading cause of mortality in the United States have an enormous impact on public health. Researchers contend that approximately 90% of all MVAs are, to some extent, a result of driver characteristics and behavior (Lewin, 1982). One of the least researched driver characteristics is psychiatric comorbidity, especially borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder that

Charlene Lam

2010-01-01

3

Neural Correlates of Posttraumatic Growth After Severe Motor Vehicle Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal brain asymmetry has been associated with emotion- and motivation-related constructs. The authors examined the relationship between frontal brain asymmetry and subjective perception of posttraumatic growth (PTG) after severe motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Eighty-two survivors of MVAs completed self-report measures of PTG, trait and state affect, and diagnostic interviews assessing clinical status, and underwent measurement of resting electroencephalographic activity. As

Sirko Rabe; Tanja Zöllner; Andreas Maercker; Anke Karl

2006-01-01

4

The psychophysiology of motor vehicle accident related posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate, BP, and electrodermal responses of four individuals with PTSD secondary to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) were measured while they imagined two separate scenes related to their MVA. Results showed reliable HR responses to these images. In addition, SBP and DBP also showed some responsivity to the images while skin resistance level changed reliably in only 2 of 4

Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Ann E. Taylor

1991-01-01

5

Symptoms of traumatic stress in mothers of children victims of a motor vehicle accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are the main cause of Posttrau- matic stress disorder (PTSD) in industrialized countries. This includes the frequently occurring but understudied situation of parents learning that their children were injured. However, unlike in other types of trauma survivors, little is known about the predictors of PTSD symptoms in mothers whose child has suffered an MVA. Methods:

Charlotte Allenou; Bertrand Olliac; Sylvie Bourdet-Loubère; Alain Brunet; Annie-Claude David; Isabelle Claudet; Nathalie Lecoules; Pascal Roullet; Eric Bui; Philippe Birmes

2009-01-01

6

Motor vehicle accidents, suicides, and assaults in epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background: The goal of our study was to compare the incidence of motor vehicle accidents (MVA), attempted or completed suicides, and injuries inflicted by others between individuals with and without epilepsy. Methods: Individuals with and without epilepsy were identified using linked administrative databases between 1996 and 2003 in a Canadian health region with a 1.4 million population. We used a validated epilepsy case definition: anyone who had 2 physician claims, one hospitalization, or one emergency room visit coded with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9-CM or ICD-10 epilepsy code any time during a 2-year period. Four subjects without epilepsy were matched to one patient with epilepsy by age (within 1 year) and sex. The incidence of MVAs, attempted or completed suicides, and inflicted injuries was assessed in 2003–2004. Outcomes were adjusted using the Elixhauser comorbidity index. Results: A total of 10,240 individuals with epilepsy and 40,960 individuals without epilepsy were identified. Mean age was 39.0 ± 21.3 years (range 0.12–99.4) and 48.5% were female. One-year odds ratios before and after adjustment for comorbidity were 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33–2.54) and 1.38 (95% CI 0.97–1.96) for MVAs, 4.32 (95% CI 2.79–6.69) and 1.32 (95% CI 0.81–2.15) for attempted or completed suicides, and 3.54 (95% CI 2.66–4.72) and 1.46 (95% CI 1.04–2.03) for injuries inflicted by others. Conclusion: In this cohort-controlled population-based study, once important medical and psychiatric comorbidities were adjusted for, people with epilepsy were not more likely to attempt suicide or experience MVAs, but were still more likely to be assaulted compared to those without epilepsy.

Kwon, C.; Liu, M.; Quan, H.; Thoo, V.; Wiebe, S.

2011-01-01

7

Multibody Models for Vehicle Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simplified multibody models can be used to reconstruct accidents involving complex dynamics, particularly, in the first stages\\u000a of accident investigation, accidents involving motorcycles and pedestrians [1], [2].\\u000a \\u000a In this work, vehicle models based on multibody dynamics formulations [3] are developed to be used in motorcycle accident reconstruction. The models developed are a four-wheel vehicle, a motorcycle\\u000a and a human biomechanical

Ricardo J. F. Portal; João M. P. Dias

8

36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Report of motor vehicle accident. 1004.4 Section 1004...and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a...

2012-07-01

9

36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Report of motor vehicle accident. 1004.4 Section 1004...and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a...

2011-07-01

10

Failure analysis in a vehicle accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metallurgical and mechanical failure analysis was applied as part of a vehicle accident reconstruction of a multi-vehicle\\u000a collision. One of these vehicles was a coal-hauling tractor-trailer. Examination of the trailer involved in the incident revealed\\u000a a fatigue fracture to a primary lateral stiffener, along with a significant misalignment of the stiffener. Stress and fatigue\\u000a analysis indicated that the misalignment

M. E. Stevenson; J. L. McDougall; E. E. Vernon; L. McCall; R. D. Bowman

2004-01-01

11

Multiple-vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Multiple-vehicle traffic accident’ refers to a crash between two or more moving objects. Unlike single-vehicle accidents, not all drivers involving in a multiple-vehicle accident are responsible for the occurrence of the event. Accordingly, variables such as road type, speed limit and number of vehicles involved in the accident are expected to play a much more important role in association with

Kelvin K. W. Yau; H. P. Lo; Sherrice H. H. Fung

2006-01-01

12

Cardiovascular Correlates of Motor Vehicle Accident Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and its Successful Treatment  

PubMed Central

Persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been shown to display elevated baseline cardiovascular activity and a heightened physiological reactivity to trauma-related stimuli. Study 1 examined differences in baseline heart rate (HR) and HR reactivity in 68 survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) and healthy controls without MVA. MVA survivors with PTSD (n=26), subsyndromal PTSD (n=22), traumatized controls without PTSD (non-PTSD with MVA, n=20) and healthy controls without MVA (HC, n=27) underwent measurement of HR during baseline and exposure to a neutral, positive, negative, and trauma-related picture. PTSD patients showed elevated baseline HR and increased HR reactivity only during exposure to the trauma-related picture. Study 2 investigated whether the elevated physiological responses observed in Study 1 normalized after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We conducted a randomized, controlled treatment trial comparing CBT (n=17) to a Wait-list condition (WLC, n=18). Results showed a greater decrease in HR reactivity for CBT than for WLC. The change in HR reactivity was associated with clinical improvement.

Dorfel, Denise; Zollner, Tanja; Maercker, Andreas; Karl, Anke

2006-01-01

13

Cooperative Collision Warning Based Highway Vehicle Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway safety is always an important issue for automobile industry, so many researches have been conducted to prevent from or reduce the accidents. Cooperative Collision Warning (CCW), which provides an active safety mechanism for vehicles on highways, is implemented by exchanging static and dynamic vehicle parameters with neighboring vehicles through inter-vehicle wireless communications. Received information is not only used for

Chung-ping Young; Bao Rong Chang; Jian-Jr Lin; Ren-yang Fang

2008-01-01

14

Highway vehicle accident reconstruction using Cooperative Collision Warning based Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is often uncertainty or negligence in measurements and calculations by collecting relevant evidence and site information at the scene for the conventional vehicle accident analysis and reconstruction. Cooperative collision warning (CCW) mechanism exchanging static and dynamic vehicle information with neighboring vehicles through inter-vehicle wireless communications provides an active safety mechanism for vehicles on highways. Received information is not only

Chung-Ping Young; Bao Rong Chang; Ting-Ying Wei

2009-01-01

15

Traffic accident prediction using vehicle tracking and trajectory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent visual surveillance for road vehicles is a key component for developing autonomous intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a probabilistic model for prediction of traffic accidents using 3D model based vehicle tracking is proposed. Sample data including motion trajectories are first obtained by 3D model based vehicle tracking. A fuzzy self-organizing neural network algorithm is then applied to learn

Weiming Hu; Xuejuan Xiao; Dan Xie; Tieniu Tan

2003-01-01

16

A retrospective quality assessment of pre-hospital emergency medical documentation in motor vehicle accidents in south-eastern Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have evaluated pre-hospital documentation quality. We retrospectively assessed emergency medical service (EMS) documentation of key logistic, physiologic, and mechanistic variables in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Methods Records from police, Emergency Medical Communication Centers (EMCC), ground and air ambulances were retrospectively collected for 189 MVAs involving 392 patients. Documentation of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), respiratory rate (RR), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was classified as exact values, RTS categories, clinical descriptions enabling post-hoc inference of RTS categories, or missing. The distribution of values of exact versus inferred RTS categories were compared (Chi-square test for trend). Results 25% of ground and 11% of air ambulance records were unretrieveable. Patient name, birth date, and transport destination was documented in >96% of ambulance records and 81% of EMCC reports. Only 54% of patient encounter times were transmitted to the EMCC, but 77% were documented in ground and 96% in air ambulance records. Ground ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 48% and SBP in 53% of cases, exact RR in 10%, and RR RTS categories in 54%. Clinical descriptions made post-hoc inference of RTS categories possible in another 49% of cases for GCS, 26% for RR, and 20% for SBP. Air ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 89% and SBP in 84% of cases, exact RR in 7% and RR RTS categories in 80%. Overall, for lower RTS categories of GCS, RR and SBP the proportion of actual documented values to inferred values increased (All: p < 0.001). Also, documentation of repeated assessment was more frequent for low RTS categories of GCS, RR, and SBP (All: p < 0.001). Mechanism of injury was documented in 80% of cases by ground and 92% of cases by air ambulance. Conclusion EMS documentation of logistic and mechanistic variables was adequate. Patient physiology was frequently documented only as descriptive text. Our finding indicates a need for improved procedures, training, and tools for EMS documentation. Documentation is in itself a quality criterion for appropriate care and is crucial to trauma research.

2011-01-01

17

Drivers’ psychological and physical reactions after motor vehicle accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate if drivers that reported being in at least one motor vehicle accident (MVA) within the past five years would report greater psychological and physical reactions than drivers not being in an accident. Of particular interest were psychological conditions such as greater fears for personal safety, worries about driving, driver stress, exhaustion, and

Jennifer L. Lucas

2003-01-01

18

Reconstruction model of vehicle impact speed in pedestrian–vehicle accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of pedestrian–vehicle accident is a worldwide problem. Numerous previous studies have been carried out on accidents with vehicular skid marks or definite pedestrian throw distances. However, little could be done if marks or throw distances cannot be obtained in accident reconstruction. This paper first describes the physical model of dynamic process of pedestrian head impact on windshield glazing. Some

Jun Xu; Yibing Li; Guangquan Lu; Wei Zhou

2009-01-01

19

Investigating traffic accidents: A collision of two motor vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic safety may be ensured by normal operation of all elements of the system, including the driver, a motor vehicle and transportation medium. Insufficient safety of some particular elements of this system (the lack of discipline of the participants of traffic, poor technical state of a motor vehicle or road, etc.) are the main causes of traffic accidents. Statistical data

Olegas Prentkovskis; Edgar Sokolovskij; Vilius Bartulis

2010-01-01

20

Influence of color on fire vehicle accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire fighting equipment is predominantly red or red\\/white. However, this study reports that if other factors are the same, the probability of a visibility-related accident for a red or red\\/white pumper is greater than the probability for a lime-yellow\\/white pumper. Data from public safety departments' records regarding fire pumper runs and accidents that occurred over a four year period in

Stephen S. Solomon; James G. King

1995-01-01

21

Improvement in numerical reconstruction for vehicle–pedestrian accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-scale vehicle-pedestrian crash simulation has been applied to pedestrian accident reconstruction worldwide in the past decade. Considering that the optimization method and pedestrian human model play an important role in this simulation, this study makes some improvements in them according to the characteristics of real-world pedestrian accidents. On the one hand, the sequential linear programming method replaces classical manual

J Shen

2008-01-01

22

Camel-Vehicle Accidents Mitigation System: Design and Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Animal-vehicle collisions (AVC) affect human safety, property and wildlife. Furthermore, the number of collisions with large animals worldwide and especially\\u000a in the Saudi Arabia Kingdom has increased substantially over the last decades. The negative effects of AVC and the increase in collisions prompted the initiation for designing a deployable and intelligent Camel-Vehicle Accident Avoidance System (CVAAS) using global positioning system

Khaled Ragab; Mohammed Zahrani; Asrar Ul Haque

23

Experimental study of hydrogen release accidents in a vehicle garage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing a hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle in a garage poses a potential safety hazard because of the accidents that could arise from a hydrogen leak. A series of tests examined the risk involved with hydrogen releases and deflagrations in a structure built to simulate a one-car garage. The experiments involved igniting hydrogen gas that was released inside the structure and studying

E. G. Merilo; M. A. Groethe; J. D. Colton; S. Chiba

2011-01-01

24

Pediatric head injury resulting from all-terrain vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

In our experience, accidents involving all-terrain vehicles are an increasingly frequent cause of brain injury in children. The risk associated with operation of these vehicles is not fully appreciated and should be better publicized. We believe that it is possible to delineate several steps that could significantly reduce the risk to the pediatric population without curtailing the recreation altogether. Although construction design has promised to produce safer vehicles, our experience has shown that extreme injury is still possible with the newer four-wheel machine. PMID:3763307

Kriel, R L; Sheehan, M; Krach, L E; Kriel, H D; Rolewicz, T F

1986-11-01

25

Engineering in accidents: vehicle design and injuries.  

PubMed

This review has touched superficially on the various mechanisms of injuries to the main classes of road-user casualties, and illustrated some of the desirable vehicle design characteristics which can minimize road trauma. There is still much to be gained by better vehicle design. For occupants, enhanced performance from restraint systems, supplementary airbags, better structural integrity and better compatibility between cars and lorries are obvious areas where known solutions are waiting to be applied. For pedestrians there is an extensive literature outlining the characteristics of friendly vehicle exteriors; many current models of cars are exhibiting some of these properties but better agreement on an optimum specification for the car's exterior is still required. For motorcyclists there is the promise of improved leg protection from energy-absorbing fairings although substantial technical debate still surrounds these proposals. For the clinician, a more accurate appreciation of the likely injuries which occur in given collision circumstances can help in diagnosis and treatment. It is for these reasons that some understanding of vehicle design and crash-worthiness is worthwhile. PMID:7989105

Mackay, M

1994-11-01

26

Characteristics of motor vehicle accidents in the Herzegovina region.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies around the world point to motor vehicle accidents as being one of the leading causes of death. The objective of our study was to analyze some characteristics of motor vehicle accidents in the region of Herzegovina. The study included 226 patients treated at the Clinic for Surgical Diseases and Urology of the University Clinical Hospital Mostar in 2005. A total of 78.3% or examinees were men and 21.7% women. The majority of patients of both sexes were aged between 20 and 30 years. Most of the accidents occurred during autumn and winter months, on weekends and in sunny-dry weather conditions. As expected, most of the hospitalized patients were injured either while driving an automobile or in a pedestrian versus automobile collisions. Of the 226 patients 92.5% admitted to the emergency department and 60.2% were hospitalized. Most of the injured (72.1%) were not under the influence of alcohol at time of the accident. 82.7% of injured were examined by medical personnel at the site within 30 minutes from injury but only 43.0% of them arrived at the hospital within 30 minutes of injury. As most of the injured patients were not under the influence of alcohol at the time of the injury we are of the opinion that more attention in preventing motor vehicle accidents should be directed to speeding and the state of the motorways and vehicles themselves. We propose a large-scale epidemiological study in the Herzegovina region and a review of current road management practices and emergency protocols. PMID:20120413

Ceremida-Dragisi?, Meliha; Dragisi?, Vedran

2009-12-01

27

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROADSIDE ACCIDENTS OF POLICE, EMERGENCY, AND NON-EMERGENCY VEHICLES IN ILLINOIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of roadside accidents involving police vehicles has received little attention by law enforcement agencies and researchers alike. The purpose of this exploratory study is: (1) to provide the frequency of roadside accidents involving police vehicles, other emergency vehicles, and large and small passenger cars in the state of Illinois; (2) to identify the types of vehicles involved in

Sesha Kethineni; David N. Falcone; Michael T. Charles

1992-01-01

28

The Impact of In-Vehicle Cell-Phone Use on Accidents or Near-Accidents among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With in-vehicle use of cell phones rapidly increasing, the safety of young drivers, who represent 14% of licensed drivers but 26% of drivers involved in fatal crashes, may be disproportionately threatened. The authors used a questionnaire to examine the association between in-vehicle cell-phone use and accidents or near-accidents among 1,291…

Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

2004-01-01

29

The prevention of injury secondary to motor vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle accidents are a common cause of death for all age groups but are the most serious threat to life for patients aged one to 34 years. Major progress has been made in reducing these losses through improved highway design, improved laws, adjudication of laws controlling the drunk driver, and the advent of vehicle safety design standards. A federal law enacted in 1966 established the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Motor vehicles, particularly passenger cars, now provide effective protection for occupants because of vehicle safety design features required by the FMVSS. Safety belts are the single most effective safety device available and are required equipment in virtually all motor vehicles sold in the United States. Passive protection for nonusers of safety belts is rapidly improving with the availability of air bags and automatic belt systems, improved windshields, steering wheels, dashboards, and seats, and other vehicle crashworthiness features. Motorcyclists, bicyclists, and pedestrians are also provided with improved protection because of the FMVSS. PMID:3304756

States, J D

1987-09-01

30

Vehicle crash accident reconstruction based on the analysis 3D deformation of the auto-body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of vehicle crash accident reconstruction is to investigate the pre-impact velocity. Elastic–plastic deformation of the vehicle and the collision objects are the important information produced during vehicle crash accidents, and the information can be fully utilized based on the finite element method (FEM), which has been widely used as simulation tools for crashworthiness analyses and structural optimization design.

Xiao-yun Zhang; Xian-long Jin; Wen-guo Qi; Yi-zhi Guo

2008-01-01

31

Analysis of injury severity and vehicle occupancy in truck and non-truckinvolved accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact that large trucks have on accident severity has long been a concern in the accident analysis literature. One important measure of accident severity is the most severely injured occupant in the vehicle. Such data are routinely collected in state accident data files in the U.S. Among the many risk factors that determine the most severe level of injury

Li-Yen Chang; Fred Mannering

1999-01-01

32

Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Family Practitioner's Role in Their Management  

PubMed Central

The modern epidemic of motor vehicle accidents claims more lives, creates more morbidity and causes more property damage every successive year. Prevention is a responsibility of every family practitioner as he prescribes and counsels in his office. He has a limited role at an accident scene, but here he supports the patient and may assist personnel of ambulance, police or fire services. In the receiving hospital emergency room the priorities of emergency care, investigations and the indications for transfer of the patient to another facility are discussed. If the victim dies, the relatives' mourning is helped by organ donation and the initiative of the family practitioner in these circumstances may help many people. ImagesFig. 3

Knight, Peter R.; Thomas, Edward J.

1980-01-01

33

Sleep apnea symptoms and accident risk factors in Persian commercial vehicle drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Motor vehicle accidents are the second highest cause of mortality in Iran. Sleep apnea symptoms have been associated with\\u000a increased risk of motor vehicle accidents in other countries. However, we have limited data in Iran. We conducted a study\\u000a to evaluate sleep apnea symptoms and sleepiness in professional drivers and to assess the predictors of motor vehicle accidents\\u000a in Iran.

Babak Amra; Reza Dorali; Salehe Mortazavi; Mohammad Golshan; Ziba Farajzadegan; Ingo Fietze; Thomas Penzel

34

Investigation of head injuries by reconstructions of real-world vehicle-versus-adult-pedestrian accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sizeable proportion of adult pedestrians involved in vehicle-versus-pedestrian accidents suffer head injuries, some of which can lead to lifelong disability or even death. To understand head injury mechanisms, in-depth accident analyses and accident reconstructions were conducted. A total of 120 adult pedestrian accident cases from the GIDAS (German in-depth accident study) database were analyzed, from which 10 were selected

Jianfeng Yao; Jikuang Yang; Dietmar Otte

2008-01-01

35

Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

36

Using Medical Records in Non-Motor-Vehicle Pedestrian Accident Identification and Countermeasure Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using emergency room and emergency medical service records in quantifying rural non- motor-vehicle pedestrian accidents and in developing countermeasures to reduce injuries resulting from such accidents. A literature review indicated that although non-motor-vehicle pedestrian accidents are a significant injury problem in the United States, there does not appear to be an

Ronald Eck; E. DARIN SIMPSON

1996-01-01

37

[An experimental study on driver identification of passenger car in vehicle to vehicle accidents].  

PubMed

A series of full-scale vehicle-to-vehicle oblique collision experiments was carried out for providing general data to clarify the question of seating positions. In all test, two unrestrained anthropometric dummies (Hybrid II) were seated on front seats in passenger cars as occupants. The bullet car collided against the target car running with 25 km/h, at 50 km/h, at impact angles of 120 degrees and 150 degrees. Five impact configurations between occupant regions and interior of vehicle were evaluated: head-face/windshield, head-face/A-pillar, chest-abdomen/instrument panel, upper body/inside door and lower extremities/instruments panel. Comparative occupant injuries and vehicle response data were obtained from electronic instrumentation, high-speed movie films and visual observations. No characteristic driver injuries was observed in oblique collision experiments. The crush characteristics of the vehicle interiors and occupant behavior had significant effect in determining the actual injury once contact occurred. The differences of injuries in occupants occurred depend on impact configurations of vehicles. Therefore, on the driver identification, it is important to clarify kinematics of occupants during the impact by an analytical reconstruction. The data and information can be used to determine who was driving in actual traffic accidents for the forensic medicine expert. PMID:2266610

Ueyama, M

1990-08-01

38

Managing moral hazard in motor vehicle accident insurance claims.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle accident (MVA) insurance in Canada is based primarily on two different compensation systems: (i) no-fault, in which policyholders are unable to seek recovery for losses caused by other parties (unless they have specified dollar or verbal thresholds) and (ii) tort, in which policyholders may seek general damages. As insurance companies pay for MVA-related health care costs, excess use of health care services may occur as a result of consumers' (accident victims) and/or producers' (health care providers) behavior - often referred to as the moral hazard of insurance. In the United States, moral hazard is greater for low dollar threshold no-fault insurance compared with tort systems. In Canada, high dollar threshold or pure no-fault versus tort systems are associated with faster patient recovery and reduced MVA claims. These findings suggest that high threshold no-fault or pure no-fault compensation systems may be associated with improved outcomes for patients and reduced moral hazard. PMID:23639998

Ebrahim, Shanil; Busse, Jason W; Guyatt, Gordon H; Birch, Stephen

2013-05-01

39

Óbitos por acidentes de trânsito e frota de veículos Death by traffic accidents and motor vehicles in use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of death by traffic accidents per motor vehicles in use represent a better indicator of the level of violence in traffic than the mortality rate for traffic accidents utilized for public health policies. This paper decomposes the mortality rate for traffic accidents in motor vehicles in use per capita and number of deaths per motor vehicles and analyses

Samuel Kilsztajn; Roberto Leite da Silva; Dorivaldo Francisco da Silva; André da Cunha Michelin; Aissa Rendall de Carvalho; Ivan Lopes; Bezerra Ferraz

40

Accident Avoidance Test Report-Nissan and Toyota Experimental Safety Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESVs) manufactured by Nissan and Toyota of Japan were tested to evaluate the accident avoidance performance of each vehicle. The report contains a brief description of each vehicle and of each test performed as well as th...

P. Boulay T. Macaulay

1975-01-01

41

ADDRESSING DEER-VEHICLE ACCIDENTS WITH AN ECOLOGICAL LANDSCAPE GIS APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of highway accidents involving animals is a nationwide and worldwide concern. In Michigan, property damage to vehicles, human injuries and fatalities, and potential reductions of local deer populations result from vehicle collisions involving white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). During 1997, Michigan had 65,451 reported deer-vehicle crashes. This is a 52.7% rise from 42,868 deer-vehicle collisions in 1988, according to

Mary Hindelang; Dean Premo; Elizabeth Rogers; Kent Premo

42

Effects of vehicle bumper height and impact velocity on type of lower extremity injury in vehicle-pedestrian accidents.  

PubMed

In nonfatal passenger vehicle-pedestrian accidents, the lower extremities are the most commonly injured body parts. The European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee Working Group 17 (EEVC/WG17) pedestrian subsystem test method using a legform impactor has been developed mainly for evaluation of aggressiveness of the front bumper of passenger vehicles. However, in recent years the number of sports utility vehicles (SUV) with a high bumper has been rapidly increasing. Since the bumper height is different between a passenger vehicle and an SUV, the type of lower extremity injury may be different. The type of lower extremity injury caused by this different bumper height should be clarified, because the test method and vehicle safety countermeasure must take into account a certain type of injury. Furthermore, the effect of vehicle impact velocity on the type of lower extremity injury in vehicle-pedestrian accidents has not been investigated so far. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the effect of vehicle bumper height and vehicle impact velocity on the type of lower extremity injury in vehicle-pedestrian accidents. The Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), an in-depth accident database in the USA, was used for the current analyses. The results indicate that the type of injury, i.e., to the tibia and knee ligament, could become an injury to the femur with an increase in bumper height. Furthermore, the main injury at an impact velocity of around 20-30km/h is to the knee ligament. On the other hand, the main injury at an impact velocity of around 40km/h is a fracture of the lower extremities. PMID:15949454

Matsui, Yasuhiro

2005-04-07

43

Reconstruction of pedestrian–vehicle accident using sequential linear programming optimizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present an optimization-based method for reconstructing pedestrian–vehicle accident and testing its performance. Using this method, the optimizer should automatically vary boundary conditions of multi-body dynamic simulation to generate the best match between simulation and real accident data. Considering the characteristic of pedestrian–vehicle collision, a corresponding optimization model is designed and sequential linear programming

J Shen; X-L Jin

2007-01-01

44

Patterns of injuries and motor-vehicle traffic accidents in Athens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extremely high cost of motor-vehicle accidents in public health leads to the necessity of a better injury data collection in the Accident and Emergency Hospital Departments. The ‘Asclepeion’ of Voula Hospital covers the southeastern suburban areas of the greater Athens area (1 000 000 population). The aim of this study is to present information on the pattern of injuries

E. Pikoulis; V. Filias; N. Pikoulis; P. Daskalakis; E. D. Avgerinos; G. Tavernarakis; M. Belechri; P. Pappa; C. Theos; A. Geranios; E. Gougoudi; A. Leppaniemi; P. Tsatsoulis

2006-01-01

45

Accidents Involving Heavy Goods Vehicles in Great Britain: Frequencies and Design Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present an overall view of the contribution that heavy goods vehicles make to the road accident situation, this being one factor of importance in considering goods transport by road. This overview is based on the accident s...

I. D. Neilson R. N. Kemp H. A. White

1979-01-01

46

Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Injuries Associated with All-Terrain Vehicle Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidents, injuries, and deaths sustained via all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use are on the rise. In addition to safe and proper ATV operation, accident-related risk factors include operator controllable behaviors such as helmet use, alcohol use, and deciding whether or not to carry a passenger. What the operator has little or no control over, however, is the inherently unstable ATV design

Paul M. Balthrop; John Nyland; Craig S. Roberts

2009-01-01

47

Digital close range photogrammetry in motor vehicle accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic accidents are consistently in the top ten causes of death world-wide. In order to reduce the number of fatalities caused by traffic collision, better knowledge and understanding of the sequence of events prior to and during a traffic accident, i.e. Accident Reconstruction, is required, so it is important to obtain detailed quantitative information about the damage sustained by

Fiona Coyle

2008-01-01

48

The impact of in-vehicle cell-phone use on accidents or near-accidents among college students.  

PubMed

With in-vehicle use of cell phones rapidly increasing, the safety of young drivers, who represent 14% of licensed drivers but 26% of drivers involved in fatal crashes, may be disproportionately threatened. The authors used a questionnaire to examine the association between in-vehicle cell-phone use and accidents or near-accidents among 1,291 conveniently recruited college students in 4 states. Of the 1,185 respondents who were drivers, 87% had a cell phone, and 86% of the cell-phone owners reported talking while driving at least occasionally. Of the 762 reported accidents or near-accidents, 21% (n = 159) involved at least 1 of the drivers talking while driving. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses showed that the frequency, not the duration, of drivers talking while driving was related to experiencing accidents or near-accidents. Differences between drivers who used cell phones and nonusers in unsafe driving behaviors and attitudes were also examined, and target groups for intervention efforts against talking on a cell phone while driving are suggested. PMID:15571112

Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R

49

In-vehicle distraction and fatal accidents in England and Wales.  

PubMed

The paper describes the coding and analysis of a database of police fatal accident reports to investigate the extent to which in-vehicle distraction is a contributory factor in vehicle crashes. A particular focus has been the involvement of mobile telephones and entertainment systems. Analysis of accidents occurring over the period 1985-1995 shows that in-vehicle distraction is reported as a contributory factor in about 2% of fatal accidents (although this figure may be a conservative estimate). Specific examples of distraction attributed to entertainment systems and telephones have been identified. Electronic driver information systems are also of particular interest, but have not featured in the available data. Work is progressing, on an annual cycle, to obtain, code and analyse further data and this is expected to provide an invaluable source of information for accident researchers. PMID:11426684

Stevens, A; Minton, R

2001-07-01

50

Biomechanical analysis of occupant kinematics in rollover motor vehicle accidents: dynamic spit test.  

PubMed

A better understanding of occupant kinematics in rollover accidents helps to advance biomechanical knowledge and to enhance the safety features of motor vehicles. While many rollover accident simulation studies have adopted the static approach to delineate the occupant kinematics in rollover accidents, very few studies have attempted the dynamic approach. The present work was designed to study the biomechanics of restrained occupants during rollover accidents using the steady-state dynamic spit test and to address the importance of keeping the lap belt fastened. Experimental tests were conducted using an anthropometric 50% Hybrid III dummy in a vehicle. The vehicle was rotated at 180 degrees/second and the dummy was restrained using a standard three-point restraint system. The lap belt of the dummy was fastened either by using the cinching latch plate or by locking the retractor. Three configurations of shoulder belt harness were simulated: shoulder belt loose on chest with cinch plate, shoulder belt under the left arm and shoulder belt behind the chest. In all tests, the dummy stayed within the confinement of the vehicle indicating that the securely fastened lap belt holds the dummy with dynamic movement of 3 1/2" to 4". The results show that occupant movement in rollover accidents is least affected by various shoulder harness positions with a securely fastened lap belt. The present study forms a first step in delineating the biomechanics of occupants in rollover accidents. PMID:15850090

Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Clarke, Richard; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve

2005-01-01

51

Sleepiness, Sleep-disordered Breathing, and Accident Risk Factors in Commercial Vehicle Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep-disordered breathing and excessive sleepiness may be more common in commercial vehicle drivers than in the general popula- tion. The relative importance of factors causing excessive sleepiness and accidents in this population remains unclear. We measured the prevalence of excessive sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing and assessed accident risk factors in 2,342 respondents to a ques- tionnaire distributed to a random

Mark E. Howard; Anup V. Desai; Ronald R. Grunstein; Craig Hukins; John G. Armstrong; David Joffe; Philip Swann; Donald A. Campbell; Robert J. Pierce

2004-01-01

52

A model and optimization method used for vehicles velocity calculation of non-central crash accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to satisfy request for an effective method to analyze complex accidents, the studies of car-car accidents characterized by non-central collision have been underway by our group. Here a converse analysis model is put forward. Vehicle collisions are classified into central collisions and non- central collisions. Non-central collisions are further classified as non-central point collision and non-central surface collision.

Yangshan Tang; Liying Wang

2011-01-01

53

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Emotional Problems in Children Following Motor Vehicle Accidents: An Extended Case Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general psychopathology in children following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) was investigated.Method: Twenty-six subjects aged 8–13 years presenting to an emergency department following an MVA were assessed 3 months after the accident using a standard clinical psychiatric assessment, a structured research interview and self- and parent-report questionnaires.Results: A higher prevalence of psychopathology

Brett M. McDermott; Anita Cvitanovich

2000-01-01

54

Characteristics of three- and four-wheeled all-terrain vehicle accidents in Quebec.  

PubMed

During a seven-month survey from May to November 1985, 624 victims injured from three- or four-wheeled all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) were observed in the emergency rooms of 10 regional hospitals in Quebec. A total of 1,100 injuries were identified, including 3 fatal and 104 serious to critical injuries (AIS greater than or equal to 3). These injuries were to the lower limb (29%), the upper limb (28%), the head, neck, and face (26%), and the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis (18%). Close to one-half (45%) of the victims were 19 years old and less; 54% reported wearing helmets. Ten percent of the victims were hospitalized for an average period of 8 days. In 70% of the cases, the vehicle overturned: half of these vehicles turned on the side, 27% toward the back, and 19% flipped forward. Two-thirds of persons injured were involved in accidents in which no external objects were hit by the vehicle; these accidents typically involved vehicle overturns, both on hills and on level ground. Ninety-five percent of the vehicles were in good mechanical condition. The use of these vehicles presents a danger whether used by a child or an adult, by an experienced or an inexperienced rider. The average user may not be aware that three- and four-wheel ATVs demand considerable skill and caution. We suggest the use of accident reconstruction studies for possible engineering solutions. PMID:3223983

DeLisle, A; Laberge-Nadeau, C; Brown, B

1988-10-01

55

Train accidents involving pedestrians, motor vehicles, and motorcycles.  

PubMed

In the United States, train-related accidents account for more than 18,000 injuries and 1,200 fatalities annually, yet there is a paucity of literature pertaining to this unique injury. We reviewed the medical records of 98 of 135 cases of train-related trauma treated at Ben Taub General Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, from 1990 to 1995. There were 50 train-pedestrian accidents, 47 train-automobile accidents, and 1 train-motorcycle accident, with a mean patient age of 30.1 years (range, 2 to 66 years). Eighteen patients (18%) were pronounced dead on arrival or died shortly after admission. Of the other 80 patients, 27 (34%) were discharged from the emergency department after minor medical treatment, while 53 (66%) were hospitalized, of whom 10 (13%) later expired. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 11.9 (discharged, 1.8; hospitalized, 14.3; expired, 29.2). Forty-five patients (56%) sustained 57 extremity fractures, and 30 patients (38%) required 40 amputations. Mean Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) for all injured extremities was 5.2 (amputation, 7.7; no amputation, 2.8). On average, the hospitalization cost per patient was greater than $18,698, while the reimbursement from the patients was $2,261, leaving the hospital with a net deficit of approximately 2 million dollars. Surprisingly, train accidents do not always result in serious injury. However, when serious injury is sustained, it is often of high morbidity (amputation) and mortality, which appears to correlate well with the initial MESS and ISS. Extrapolating our cost data to include all train-related accident injuries and deaths indicates that the direct costs to society may exceed 300 million dollars annually. Greater public awareness and preventive measures may reduce the tremendous human and financial costs of train-related accidents. PMID:9586732

Goldberg, B A; Mootha, R K; Lindsey, R W

1998-04-01

56

Epidemiology of accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles: A surveillance study in two Italian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper describes a study on the epidemiology of accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles in two Italian cities, Rome and Naples. Methods: A surveillance study was conducted, recruiting the victims of accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles, visiting the emergency departments of two Italian hospitals. The registration form includes personal data of the involved person, circumstances

GIUSEPPE LATORRE; GIULIANO BERTAZZONI; DONATO ZOTTA; EDWARD VAN BEECK; GUALTIERO RICCIARDI

2002-01-01

57

Biochemical and Structural Basis for Inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase, mvaS, by Hymeglusin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hymeglusin (1233A, F244, L-659-699) is established as a specific β-lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS). Inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. In contrast, the effects of hymeglusin on bacterial HMG-CoA synthase, mvaS, have been minimally characterized. Hymeglusin blocks growth of Enterococcus faecalis. After removal of the inhibitor from culture media, a growth

D. Andrew Skaff; Kasra X. Ramyar; William J. McWhorter; Michael L. Barta; Brian V. Geisbrecht; Henry M. Miziorko

2012-01-01

58

Biochemical and Structural Basis for Inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase, mvaS, by Hymeglusin  

SciTech Connect

Hymeglusin (1233A, F244, L-659-699) is established as a specific {beta}-lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS). Inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. In contrast, the effects of hymeglusin on bacterial HMG-CoA synthase, mvaS, have been minimally characterized. Hymeglusin blocks growth of Enterococcus faecalis. After removal of the inhibitor from culture media, a growth curve inflection point at 3.1 h is observed (vs 0.7 h for the uninhibited control). Upon hymeglusin inactivation of purified E. faecalis mvaS, the thioester adduct is more stable than that measured for human HMGCS. Hydroxylamine cleaves the thioester adduct; substantial enzyme activity is restored at a rate that is 8-fold faster for human HMGCS than for mvaS. Structural results explain these differences in enzyme-inhibitor thioester adduct stability and solvent accessibility. The E. faecalis mvaS-hymeglusin cocrystal structure (1.95 {angstrom}) reveals virtually complete occlusion of the bound inhibitor in a narrow tunnel that is largely sequestered from bulk solvent. In contrast, eukaryotic (Brassica juncea) HMGCS binds hymeglusin in a more solvent-exposed cavity.

Skaff, D. Andrew; Ramyar, Kasra X.; McWhorter, William J.; Barta, Michael L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Miziorko, Henry M. (UMKC)

2012-07-25

59

Posttraumatic Growth of Injured Patients after Motor Vehicle Accidents: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to explore the process of posttraumatic growth of injured patients after a motor vehicle accident in China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six patients. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four main super-ordinate themes emerged: construction of meaning; perception of self; perception of connection; and perception of life philosophy. These themes describe growth and emotional distress

Yanbo Wang; Ji Wang; Xiaohong Liu

2012-01-01

60

Patterns and consequences of inadequate sleep in college students: substance use and motor vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students. PMID:20472221

Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D

2010-02-25

61

An Application of Multidisciplinary Education to a Campus-Community Partnership to Reduce Motor Vehicle Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A collaborative campus-community partnership program provided the framework for an intervention to reduce motor vehicle accident fatalities along a rural Appalachian highway. Students from public health, nursing and medicine worked with community members to identify the problem and plan the strategy to address it. Methods: An inquiry-based learning model proved to be an appropriate approach to engage student teams

Bruce Goodrow; Gary Scherzer; Jim Florence

2004-01-01

62

Parents' Knowledge and Attitudes About Preventing Injuries in Motor Vehicle Accidents in Children in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to record parents' knowledge and perceptions about the adoption of the appropriate preventive measures in order to avoid serious injury or death of children (as passengers, pedestrians, or bicyclists) in case of motor vehicle accidents.Methods. A total of 1000 parents of children, aged 0–14 years old, served as the basis for this study;

Konstantinos Tsoumakas; Fotini Mavridi; Vasiliki Matziou; Ioannis Androulakis

2008-01-01

63

Prediction of Remission of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Motor Vehicle Accident Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred forty five individuals who sought medical attention as a result of a motor vehicle accident (MVA), and who were initially assessed 1 to 4 months post-MVA, were followed up prospectively for 6 months to determine how many of the 55 with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the 43 with sub-syndromal PTSD would remit and what variables would predict

Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Catherine A. Forneris; Ann E. Taylor; Todd C. Buckley; Warren R. Loos; James Jaccard

1997-01-01

64

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. 26F1470. Single Vehicle - Obstruction Collision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accident occurred on westbound U. S. 61 (Airline Highway) approximately 200 feet east of its intersection with Maple Ridge, involving a single car. The vehicle left the roadway to the right and struck a brick flower box in a roadside motel. Severity -...

J. K. Wickstrom C. B. McCarthy M. S. Samuels M. J. Picheloup

1970-01-01

65

Patterns and Consequences of Inadequate Sleep in College Students: Substance Use and Motor Vehicle Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students.

Daniel J. Taylor; Adam D. Bramoweth

2010-01-01

66

Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan. PMID:22768706

Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

2012-04-01

67

Road traffic accident among motor vehicle drivers in selected high ways.  

PubMed

To assess the knowledge of the motor vehicle driver about the causes of road traffic accidents. This cross sectional study was conducted among the 107 motor vehicle drivers of selected Bus & Truck terminal & taxi stands of Dhaka city. The study was carried out during April to June 2002 at the Department of Health Promotion & Health Education of NIPSOM. The study showed about 55.1% learned driving from a friend. Out of 107 respondent 20.6% showed very high speed is one of the reason for road traffic accident.39.3% claimed for poor maintenance of roads. Regarding engine/vehicle defect 46.7% said head light defect. Increased earning is one of the reasons of very fast driving 35.5% respondent opined. These may be the reason of accident proneness of the society along with factor like family pressure, job dissatisfaction etc. Majority of the driver who took part in this study used light vehicle 54.2% and the rest 30.8% were heavy and 15% like medium light vehicle. Most of the respondent 67.3% was working as professional over for 3-6 years. 41.1% for 3 and 26.2% for 6 years. There were significant relationship (p < 0.002) between very fast driving and defective road and also engine defect were highly significant association (p < 0.005) with road traffic accident It is revealed that formal education, driving license through Bangladesh road traffic authority without unnecessary botheration, proper implementation of traffic law, training of drivers and increase level of public awareness through mass communication could reduce the road traffic accident PMID:15284694

Ahmed, M; Khanom, K; Shampa, R M; Bari, M H

2004-07-01

68

Intelligent traffic cone based on vehicle accident detection and identification using image compression analysis and RFID system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed intelligent RFID traffic cone for vehicle accident detection and identification avoids problems that usually arise with normally vehicle crash reporting systems, especially those related to image processing and insurance techniques. This RFID technique deals with a multi-vehicles, multi lane and multi road even or junction area. It provides an efficiency time management scheme with correct data reporting, in

Songkran Kantawong; Tanasak Phanprasit

2010-01-01

69

Estimating vehicle roadside encroachment frequency using accident prediction models  

SciTech Connect

The existing data to support the development of roadside encroachment- based accident models are extremely limited and largely outdated. Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration and Transportation Research Board, several roadside safety projects have attempted to address this issue by providing rather comprehensive data collection plans and conducting pilot data collection efforts. It is clear from the results of these studies that the required field data collection efforts will be expensive. Furthermore, the validity of any field collected encroachment data may be questionable because of the technical difficulty to distinguish intentional from unintentional encroachments. This paper proposes an alternative method for estimating the basic roadside encroachment data without actually field collecting them. The method is developed by exploring the probabilistic relationships between a roadside encroachment event and a run-off-the-road event With some mild assumptions, the method is capable of providing a wide range of basic encroachment data from conventional accident prediction models. To illustrate the concept and use of such a method, some basic encroachment data are estimated for rural two-lane undivided roads. In addition, the estimated encroachment data are compared with the existing collected data. The illustration shows that the method described in this paper can be a viable approach to estimating basic encroachment data without actually collecting them which can be very costly.

Miaou, S.-P.

1996-07-01

70

Vehicle impoundment regulations as a means for reducing traffic-violations and road accidents in Israel.  

PubMed

The vehicle impoundment sanction in Israel is applicable to several violations, and authorizes police officers to impound a vehicle for period of 30 days, in addition to license suspension. This study examined the effects of vehicle impoundment on traffic-violations and road accidents in Israel, using both subjective and objective measures. A telephone survey was administered to 378 impounded drivers, examining their knowledge and support of the impoundment penalty, as well as the impoundment's effect on their daily life and subsequent driving behaviors. Survey results indicated most impounded drivers did not recognize the violations to which impoundment applies. Respondents described the impoundment experience as one, which interfered with a variety of daily life aspects, and eventually lead them to the adoption of safer driving behaviors. Additionally, data analysis of police records was performed on 1549 impounded drivers and 1354 controls with matching violations performed prior to the application of the impoundment regulation, comparing accident and traffic-violations involvement in the subsequent year. Results indicated that impoundment failed to yield a significant effect over subsequent accident involvement, compared to previous sanctions. A comparison of subsequent traffic-violations indicated lower rates of violations following impoundment as compared with previous sanctions. Specifically, drivers whose vehicle was impounded were less likely to commit traffic violations in the following year than drivers subjected to other sanctions. The results are explained according to psychological behavioral theories of punishment effectiveness. These findings provide further support for impoundment as a deterrent for several traffic-violations. PMID:22785090

Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud

2012-07-09

71

Personbilsfoerare i Singelolyckor. Foeraraelder, Fordonsvikt och Fordonsaelder (Car Drivers in Single Vehicle Accidents - Age of Driver, Weight and Age of Vehicle).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One method of isolating the age factor is to consider drivers in one type of accident and to keep other factors constant to as high a degree as possible. In this investigation, car drivers injured in single vehicle accidents on roads with 90 km/h outside ...

G. Nilsson

1999-01-01

72

Emergency Medical Care and Care Systems in California--Motor Vehicle Accidents  

PubMed Central

Emergency Medical Care and Emergency Medical Care Systems are defined. The need for a distinction between the two is given. Motor vehicle accidents in 58 California counties are analyzed. The status of hospitals serving traffic trauma in California is given with respect to quality of care. The location of California hospitals with respect to the percent of motor vehicle trauma is shown. The importance of time lapse in emergency medical care systems and the reasons for time lapse errors is explored. The need for data processing and systems analysis in California emergency medical care systems is pointed out.

Duffey, Kenneth E.

1972-01-01

73

Non-union (type II) odontoid fracture: A case report of a motor vehicle accident  

PubMed Central

A case report is presented of a young man injured in a motor vehicle accident who subsequently suffered neck and shoulder pain with no radiation. The pain, aggravated by motion and relieved by neck massage, had persisted for five months. Investigation by plain film radiographs, prior to treatment suggested an odontoid fracture. Tomographic radiographs revealed a type II non-union odontoid fracture. Spinal manipulation was contraindicated and this patient went on to surgical stabilization. A type II odontoid fracture non-union should be ruled out in any patient presenting with a history of a motor vehicle accident with head trauma, before manipulation is considered. ImagesFigure 2aFigure 2bFigure 2cFigure 3aFigure 3bFigure 3cFigure 4aFigure 4bFigure 5aFigure 5b

Kitchen, RG

1986-01-01

74

A TIRE-MARK IDENTIFICATION SCHEME FOR SUSPECTED VEHICLE DETECTION IN HIT AND RUN ACCIDENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs Visual dBASE to establish a systematic tire-marks matching database to increase the correctness and efficiency of tire-marks identification executed by investigators at accident scene. The database includes tire manufactures, vehicle type\\/model, and tire specifications. In addition, it encompasses a tire-marks matching function. It can be more conveniently used to identify the tire pattern and catch tire-treads by

Ying-wei WANG

75

Worldwide pattern of mortality from motor vehicle accidents, 1950–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Trends in age-specific and age-standardized death certification rates from motor vehicle accidents over the period 1950–1990 were analyzed for 48 countries from four continents (2 from North America, 10 from Latin America, 8 from Asia, 26 from Europe, Australia and New Zealand) on the basis of data produced by the World Health Organization mortality database. In most developed western

Carlo La Vecchia; Fabio Levi; Franca Lucchini; Eva Negri

1994-01-01

76

UPPER EXTREMITY FRACTURES IN PEDESTRIAN VERSUS MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS: AN UNDERAPPRECIATED CONCERN  

PubMed Central

Background Though pedestrian versus motor vehicle (PVMV) accidents are a common cause of trauma admission and subsequent orthopaedic consult, the prevalence of upper extremity fracture (UEF) in such events and its association with lower extremity injury (LEI) is unknown. We sought to describe UEF in PVMV accident patients at the time of orthopaedic consult. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all pedestrian hit by motor vehicle cases for which an orthopaedic consult was performed at Jackson Memorial Hospital between July 2006 and January 2008. Fractures were recorded by location along with relevant clinical information. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (O.R.) and 95% confidence intervals (C.I.) for variables associated with UEF. Results 336 cases were identified and reviewed. LEI was the most frequent injury type (67% of cases). UEF was also common, found in 25% of cases (humerus 11%, ulna 7%, radius 6%, hand 4%, and wrist 2%). Tibia or fibula fracture, femur fracture, and spine fracture were negatively associated with UEF in univariate analyses and after controlling for other associated factors. Conclusions In PVMV accident populations, UEF is a frequent injury often seen in the absence of any LEI. These findings emphasize the importance of carefully screening all PVMV accident patients for UEF and may call into question the usefulness of currently discussed injury pattern.

Landy, David C.; Norton, Robert A.; Barkin, Jodie A.; Henriques, Stephen; Owens, Patrick; Miki, Roberto A.

2010-01-01

77

Differences in male and female injury severities in sport-utility vehicle, minivan, pickup and passenger car accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores differences in injury severity between male and female drivers in single and two-vehicle accidents involving passenger cars, pickups, sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), and minivans. Separate multivariate multinomial logit models of injury severity are estimated for male and female drivers. The models predict the probability of four injury severity outcomes: no injury (property damage only), possible injury, evident injury,

Gudmundur F. Ulfarsson; Fred L. Mannering

2004-01-01

78

Delayed-onset post-traumatic headache after a motor vehicle collision: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Headaches are common after a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Post-traumatic headaches share many clinical symptoms including the clinical course of primary headaches. Secondary headaches (including those resulting from a subdural hematoma) are not as common, but should be considered in cases of post-traumatic events particularly if clinical symptoms progress. Clinical Features A case of a patient with a post-traumatic subdural hematoma demonstrates the importance of carefully examining, properly diagnosing and managing patients that experience headaches after MVAs. This patient presented with uncomplicated low back pain, neck pain and headache which progressed at one month to include focal neurological deficits. Since clinical examination alone may not be sufficient to diagnose secondary headaches, immediate referral to the emergency department may be required. Conclusion Primary contact practitioners should be aware of the various causes of headaches that result after a MVA. Headaches, which do not respond or progress, should be followed aggressively to determine their source.

Stupar, Maja; Kim, Peter SY

2007-01-01

79

Risk factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with all-terrain vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

Accidents, injuries, and deaths sustained via all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use are on the rise. In addition to safe and proper ATV operation, accident-related risk factors include operator controllable behaviors such as helmet use, alcohol use, and deciding whether or not to carry a passenger. What the operator has little or no control over, however, is the inherently unstable ATV design with its narrow wheelbase, short turning radius, and high center of gravity, in addition to common use of low tire pressure to maximize maneuverability. These factors lead to musculoskeletal injuries that consist predominantly of extremity fractures, primarily through rollover events. There is a need for improved ATV operator safety education and more stringent regulations. The purpose of this review is to identify the accident and injury risk factors associated with ATV operation and to compare them with bicycle and motorcycle accident and injury risk factors to enable emergency medical professionals to develop better patient management and injury prevention strategies. PMID:17933478

Balthrop, Paul M; Nyland, John; Roberts, Craig S

2007-10-15

80

The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident study investigating psychological distress: design, methods and cohort profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident (TCOM) Study has been carried out in Tokyo since 2004. This study examined\\u000a the association of medical and psychosocial variables evaluated shortly after admission to the acute critical care center\\u000a with long-term psychiatric morbidity risk in patients with accidental injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between May 2004 and January 2008, patients with accidental injury consecutively admitted were

Yutaka Matsuoka; Daisuke Nishi; Satomi Nakajima; Naohiro Yonemoto; Kenji Hashimoto; Hiroko Noguchi; Masato Homma; Yasuhiro Otomo; Yoshiharu Kim

2009-01-01

81

Chiropractic treatment of patients in motor vehicle accidents: a statistical analysis †  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are a major cause of spinal injuries treated by chiropractors. In this study the files of one chiropractor were reviewed retrospectively to generate a data base on the MVA cases (n = 149). The effect of age, sex, vehicle damage, symptoms and concurrent physiotherapy on the dependent variables of number of treatments, improvement and requirement for ongoing treatment was computed using an analysis of variance. Overall the average number of treatments given was 14.2. Patients who complained of headache or low back pain required more treatments than average. Improvement level was lowered by delay in seeking treatment, the presence of uncomplicated nausea and advancing age. Ongoing treatment to relieve persistent pain was required in 40.2 percent of the cases. None of the factors studied had a significant effect on this variable. The results of this study are comparable to those reported in the medical literature.

Dies, Stephen; Strapp, J Walter

1992-01-01

82

PEDESTRIAN ACCIDENT SIMULATIONS METHODOLOGY USING DETAILED VEHICLE MODELS AND AGE-DEPENDENT LEG FRACTURE LIMITS ON THE PEDESTRIAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to define a methodology to perform pedestrian accident simulations with multibody techniques using a detailed geometry and stiffness characterization in the impacting vehicles as well as age dependant fracture limits for the MADYMO human pedestrian legs. This methodology is applied to real world pedestrian accidents reconstructed by UPM-INSIA in the frame of the APROSYS project (TIP3-CT-2004-506503) to

Luis Martínez; Luis J. Guerra; G. Ferichola; A. García

83

Extensive brain injury in a premature infant following a relatively minor maternal motor vehicle accident with airbag deployment.  

PubMed

Traumatic injury following a motor vehicle accident during pregnancy has an enormous potential for fetal injury and demise. With the advent of seat belts, shoulder restraints and airbags, and improved maternal survival, the most common cause of fetal loss is placental injury. However, the safety of airbag deployment during pregnancy and in particular during the latter stages, and the potential for fetal trauma remains unclear. We report a case of extensive neurological injury of a premature infant with minimal maternal trauma associated with deployment of an airbag following a minor motor vehicle accident. PMID:15224120

Karimi, Prameela; Ramus, Ronald; Urban, Jill; Perlman, Jeffrey M

2004-07-01

84

Analysis and application of relationship between post-braking-distance and throw distance in vehicle–pedestrian accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through theoretical analysis and introduction of some empirical parameters, the relationship between post-braking-distance and throw distance was studied concentratedly. Here, the post-braking-distance is the distance a vehicle will travel from the impact position to when it comes to a complete stop. Two useful formulas which are meaningful in vehicle–pedestrian accident reconstruction were finally obtained. The first one can be used

Tiefang Zou; Zhi Yu; Ming Cai; Jike Liu

2011-01-01

85

The Influence of Age, Seat Belt, Time of Day, and Type of Vehicles on Road Accidents in Kerman, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Traffic accidents are one of the main external causes of morbidity and mortality in various parts of the world, including Kerman, a city that has experienced rapid growth in the number of cars in the last 5 years. The objective of this article was to identify the influence of age, belt use, time of day, and type of vehicle

Ghorbanali Mohammadi

2009-01-01

86

Is the self-reported history accurate in patients with persistent axial pain after a motor vehicle accident?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextA patient's self-reported history has, in general, assumed to be accurate. Clinical management of individuals with persistent axial pain after a motor vehicle accident (MVA) and measures to prevent future MVA, spinal cord injury, and traffic deaths often depend on a presumed accurate report of preexisting axial pain, drug, alcohol, and psychological problems to initiate intervention. In addition, research

Angus S. Don; Eugene J. Carragee

2009-01-01

87

Validity of self-reported history in patients with acute back or neck pain after motor vehicle accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextDetermining the presence of comorbid conditions in patients with persistent axial pain after motor vehicle accident (MVA) is important to direct appropriate care and as a public health measure against future traffic injuries. In the clinical care of patients after MVA, they are usually asked about previous axial pain problems and relevant comorbid conditions (psychological distress and drug and

Eugene J. Carragee

2008-01-01

88

Evaluation of Initial Posttrauma Cardiovascular Levels in Association with Acute PTSD Symptoms Following a Serious Motor Vehicle Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) levels assessed at multiple time points posttrauma and subsequent acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms present at a 1-month follow-up. HR and BP levels were measured in 65 motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors during Emergency Medical Service transport, upon admission to the trauma unit, for the

Beth Buckley; Nicole Nugent; Eve Sledjeski; A. Jay Raimonde; Eileen Spoonster; Laura M. Bogart; Douglas L. Delahanty

2004-01-01

89

Secondary thrombosis of the left internal carotid artery caused by a motor vehicle accident: a radiological case.  

PubMed

A rare case of occlusion of the internal carotid artery following a motor vehicle accident in a 34-year-old female victim who initially presented with clear consciousness and had normal computed tomogram of the brain is reported. Seven hours after the accident, the patient was unexpectedly diagnosed with the left hemisphere infarction, and two days later, she suffered from right hemiplegia and coma. The follow-up brain computed tomography scan showed an acute infarction of the left hemisphere of the cerebrum and severe cerebral edema. Anticoagulation therapy was administered, and emergency craniotomy for brain decompression was carried out. After 3.5 months, she was discharged and underwent regular follow-up in the outpatient department. Four years after the motor vehicle accident, the patient had intact awareness, was functionally independent, but remained with motor aphasia, right hand paralysis, and right leg paresis. PMID:20571296

Randakeviciene, Goda; Gleizniene, Rymante; Rastenyte, Daiva; Lukosevicius, Saulius

2010-01-01

90

The prevalence of drugs in motor vehicle accidents and traffic violations in Shanghai and neighboring cities.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive drug use among motor vehicle drivers in Shanghai and its neighboring cities. We selected 10,002 drivers involved in a traffic accident or violation between 2007 and 2008 in Shanghai, Suzhou and Wuxi. We checked for the presence of psychoactive drugs from blood samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Of the 10,002 drivers, 10.5% tested positive for drugs (excluding alcohol). Cold medicines were the most frequently detected drugs including chlorpheniramine (4.78%), pseudoephedrine (2.15%) and paracetamol (1.32%). The use of multiple cold medicines was common. Illegal drugs such as methamphetamine (0.15%), ketamine (0.03%) and MDMA (0.01%) were also detected. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs among drivers involved in traffic accidents or violations in Shanghai and its neighboring cities was lower compared to previous reports in Europe. Furthermore, cannabis--which has been reported to be the most widely used psychoactive drug after alcohol--was not commonly encountered among Shanghai drivers. PMID:20728679

Zhuo, Xianyi; Cang, Yong; Yan, Hui; Bu, Jun; Shen, Baohua

2010-08-01

91

Orthopedic Considerations in the Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Accident Polytrauma Patient.  

PubMed

Pedestrian versus motor vehicle accidents (PVMVAs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Past models of PVMVAs assume lower-extremity vehicle contact as the initiating event, with a subsequent predicted injury sequence consisting of a lower extremity injury followed by injury to the body, head, and upper extremities. The term "fatal triad" was first coined by Farley, which described concomitant injuries to the skull, pelvis, and extremity fractures. Over the years, this once well-accepted model of injury has been under scrutiny by numerous orthopedic researchers, and it has lost credibility. This case presentation glaring reveals that the patient incurred which is referred to as the "fatal triad", in contrast to the commonly circulated thoughts of biodynamic mechanisms of PVMVA fractures. More research in this arena is warranted. This lack of information contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with such devastating injuries. The overlying theme displayed in the data analyzed in this paper demonstrates the vital importance of the orthopedic surgeon in the management of the PVMVA patient. No matter the particular mechanism of injury, occurrence, or agreed-upon treatment protocol, the role of the orthopedic physician is instrumental to the wellbeing of the PVMVA trauma patient. PMID:23259110

Samona, Jason; Colen, Robert

2012-06-17

92

Orthopedic Considerations in the Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Accident Polytrauma Patient  

PubMed Central

Pedestrian versus motor vehicle accidents (PVMVAs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Past models of PVMVAs assume lower-extremity vehicle contact as the initiating event, with a subsequent predicted injury sequence consisting of a lower extremity injury followed by injury to the body, head, and upper extremities. The term “fatal triad” was first coined by Farley, which described concomitant injuries to the skull, pelvis, and extremity fractures. Over the years, this once well-accepted model of injury has been under scrutiny by numerous orthopedic researchers, and it has lost credibility. This case presentation glaring reveals that the patient incurred which is referred to as the “fatal triad”, in contrast to the commonly circulated thoughts of biodynamic mechanisms of PVMVA fractures. More research in this arena is warranted. This lack of information contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with such devastating injuries. The overlying theme displayed in the data analyzed in this paper demonstrates the vital importance of the orthopedic surgeon in the management of the PVMVA patient. No matter the particular mechanism of injury, occurrence, or agreed-upon treatment protocol, the role of the orthopedic physician is instrumental to the wellbeing of the PVMVA trauma patient.

Samona, Jason; Colen, Robert

2012-01-01

93

Staged collision and damage data. Volume 2: Report for accident reconstruction of thirty (30) test vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Test vehicles were instrumented with accelerometers to measure vehicle accelerator resultants. The vehicles were also identified for residual crush and collision deformation classification (CDC) measurements.

1981-01-01

94

DOE guide to the classification of recordable accidents: injuries and illnesses, property damage incidents, and vehicle accidents  

SciTech Connect

These guidelines are intended to simplify the classification and reporting of accidents which occur in DOE operations. They do not attempt to determine the responsibility or to place blame for the purpose of incrimination. They simply serve to aid employers in the correct classification of work-related accidents. The criteria provided in this document do not affect the requirements of DOE orders for reporting of related incidents (e.g., environmental or radiation exposure cases).

Eicher, R.W.; Walker, J.S.

1986-01-01

95

Lime-yellow color as related to reduction of serious fire apparatus accidents--the case for visibility in emergency vehicle accident avoidance.  

PubMed

Fire departments have long used red as the traditional color for fire apparatus and have been reluctant to change. Optometric research and literature offers ample proof that red is a poorly detected color. This paper views the shortcomings of red. Simultaneously, it reports that the ancillary equipment and markings used to make fire vehicles detectable are not as effective as previously thought. These safety measures include flashing lights, strobe lights, retroreflective material, and audible alarms. Lime-yellow has been found to be a distinctive, highly visible safety color. Research reveals it can reduce or prevent serious fire apparatus accidents through early detection. PMID:2081824

Solomon, S S

1990-11-01

96

Written Exposure as an Intervention for PTSD: A Randomized Clinical Trial with Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the efficacy of a brief, written exposure therapy (WET) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were 46 adults with a current primary diagnosis of motor vehicle accident-related PTSD. Participants were randomly assigned to either WET or a wait list (WL) condition. Independent assessments took place at baseline and 6-, 18-, and 30- weeks post baseline (WL condition not assessed at 30 weeks). Participants assigned to WET showed significant reductions in PTSD symptom severity at 6- and 18- week post-baseline, relative to WL participants, with large between-group effect sizes. In addition, significantly fewer WET participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD at both the 6- and 18- week post-baseline assessments, relative to WL participants. Treatment gains were maintained for the WET participants at the 30-week post baseline assessment. Notably, only 9% of participants dropped out of WET and the WET participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with the treatment. These findings suggest that a brief, written exposure treatment may efficaciously treat PTSD. Future research should examine whether WET is efficacious with other PTSD samples, as well as compare the efficacy of WET with that of evidence-based treatments for PTSD.

Sloan, Denise M.; Marx, Brian P.; Bovin, Michelle J.; Feinstein, Brian A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.

2012-01-01

97

Staged collision and damage data. Volume 1: Report for accident reconstruction of thirty (30) test vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The test vehicles were impacted tested for compliance with FMVSS 212/219/301-75. As a parallel nonconflicting effort, the test vehicles were instrumented with accelerometers to measure vehicle accelerator resultants.

Hand, D. H.

1981-01-01

98

Staged collision and damage data. Volume 1: Report for accident reconstruction of thirty (30) test vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The test vehicles were impacted tested for compliance with FMVSS 212\\/219\\/301-75. As a parallel nonconflicting effort, the test vehicles were instrumented with accelerometers to measure vehicle accelerator resultants.

D. H. Hand

1981-01-01

99

Predictive Factors for Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Motor Vehicle Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since traffic accidents are more common in developing countries than in developed countries, we aimed to investigate the association of several factors with the development and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traffic accidents. Sampling and Methods: In the study,95 participants with injuries from traffic accidents were evaluated at 4 different times: in the beginning, and after 3,

Aslan Güzel; Yusuf Tamam; Mustafa Ozkan

2009-01-01

100

Posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress disorder and resilience of motor vehicle accident survivors  

PubMed Central

Background Although some previous studies have suggested that posttraumatic growth (PTG) is comprised of several factors with different properties, few have examined both the association between PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between PTG and resilience, focusing on each of the factors of PTG. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that some factors of PTG, such as personal strength, relate to resilience, whereas other factors, such as appreciation of life, relate to PTSD symptoms among Japanese motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed with 118 MVA survivors at 18 months post MVA. Data analyzed included self-reporting questionnaire scores on the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), the Impact of Event Scale- Revised (IES-R), and the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, which is one of the most widely used scales for measuring resilience. Correlations between scores on the PTGI and IES-R, the PTGI and SOC scale, and the IES-R and SOC scale were established by calculating Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results PTGI was positively correlated with both SOC and PTSD symptoms, in spite of an inverse relationship between SOC and PTSD symptoms. Relating to others, new possibilities, and personal strength on the PTGI were correlated positively with SOC, and spiritual change and appreciation of life on the PTGI were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Some factors of PTG were positively correlated with resilience, which can be regarded as an outcome of coping success, whereas other factors of PTG were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms, which can be regarded as signifying coping effort in the face of enduring distress. These findings contribute to our understanding of the psychological change experienced by MVA survivors, and to raising clinicians' awareness of the possibility that PTG represents both coping effort coexisting with distress and outcome of coping success.

2010-01-01

101

Assessment of risk due to vehicle accident for the plutonium solution transfer from H-area to F-area  

SciTech Connect

Transporting radioactive material onsite (intrasite transfers) via truck or train must be performed in a safe manner. Adequate safety is assured for each transfer, as documented in the corresponding Onsite Safety Assessment (OSA). One aspect of the OSA is to show that the package to be used for the transfer meets onsite acceptance criteria. The activity being analyzed in this report is the movement of plutonium solution with greater than 20 curies, all reasonable mitigative controls will be implemented to minimize the likelihood of an accidental release, and a probabilistic analysis will be used to evaluate the risk associated with the move. The purpose of this report is to document the evaluation of risk due to vehicle accident associated with transporting plutonium solution from H-area to F-area. Included in the report is a list of the required mitigative controls which reduce the predicted accident and release frequencies to those reported in the summary.

Sarrack, A.G.

1996-09-01

102

Drowsiness and Fatigue, The Most Frequent Causes of Sever Accidents Among Heavy Vehicle Drivers in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the results of the recent study (October 2003) by the coronial organization of Iran, this country at present time possesses the highest rate of the road accidents in the world. The rate of the increase of the said rate and caused losses are also incredible. During the summer 2003, 7933 persons were killed in Iran road accidents. This

Esmaeel Ayati

103

An exploratory multinomial logit analysis of single-vehicle motorcycle accident severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous research on motorcycle accident severity has focused on univariate relationships between severity and an explanatory variable of interest (e.g., helmet use). The potential ambiguity and bias that univariate analyses create in identifying the causality of severity has generated the need for multivariate analyses in which the effects of all factors that influence accident severity are considered. This paper

Venkataraman Shankar; Fred Mannering

1996-01-01

104

The Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents Involving Drivers With Prescriptions for Codeine or Tramadol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have only partially characterized the road-accident risks linked to driving while taking opioid analgesics used for moderate pain.1,2,3,4 A prospective cohort design with data from national population–based registries—the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Norwegian Road Accident Registry—and observation of >8 million person-years were used in order to examine whether a driver who has filled a prescription for codeine

LC Bachs; A Engeland; JG Mørland; S Skurtveit

2009-01-01

105

Demographic Characteristics of 38 Patients Injured in Motor Vehicle Accidents Referred by Chiropractors to Physiatrists  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to describe the demographic profile of patients in the New Jersey area who are involved in motor vehicle personal injury lawsuits and who are referred from chiropractors to physiatrists.

Adam L. Schreiber; Guy W. Fried

2009-01-01

106

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. 12B1670. Single Vehicle-Ran off the Roadway.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a multidisciplinary investigation of an accident involving one car whose driver failed to negotiate a sharp left turn at a 'Wye' intersection, left the roadway and skidded across a level grass plot and impacted the side of a concrete bridge ...

J. K. Wickstrom C. B. McCarthy

1970-01-01

107

Maladaptive Cognitive Appraisals Mediate the Evolution of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions: A 6Month Follow-Up of Child and Adolescent Assault and Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective longitudinal follow-up study (n = 59) of child and adolescent survivors of physical assaults and motor vehicle accidents assessed whether cognitive processes predicted posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) at 6 months posttrauma in this age group. In particular, the study assessed whether maladaptive posttraumatic appraisals mediated the relationship between initial and later posttraumatic stress. Self-report measures of PTSS, maladaptive

Richard Meiser-Stedman; Tim Dalgleish; Ed Glucksman; William Yule; Patrick Smith

2009-01-01

108

Medical conditions and the severity of commercial motor vehicle drivers' road accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we studied the association between commercial motor vehicle drivers' medical conditions and crash severity. Some aspects of medical condition were considered. To our knowledge, no study has everisolated this association. The severity of a crash was measured by the total number of victims (injured and dead). We estimated nonlinear regression models (specifically, Poisson and negative binomial) which

Claire Laberge-Nadeau; Georges Dionne; Urs Maag; Denise Desjardins; Charles Vanasse; Jean-Marie Ékoé

1996-01-01

109

Thermal Image-Based Deer Detection to Reduce Accidents Due to Deer-Vehicle Collisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Deer-vehicle collision (DVC) is one of the most serious traffic issues in the Unite States. To reduce DVCs, this research developed a system using a contour-based histogram of oriented gradients algorithm (CNT-HOG) to identify deer through the processing ...

D. Zhou

2013-01-01

110

Effectiveness of Wildlife Warning Reflectors in Reducing Deer-Vehicle Accidents in Washington State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of Swareflex Wildlife Reflectors in reducing deer-vehicle collision rates was tested on SR 395 in eastern Washington State where high mortality rates of white-tailed deer had previously been recorded. Reflectors were placed in four test ...

J. A. Schafer S. Penland W. P. Carr

1984-01-01

111

Statistical adjustment for misclassification of seat belt and alcohol use in the analysis of motor vehicle accident data.  

PubMed

The use of seat belts and alcohol is often mis-reported in police motor vehicle accident reports for a number of reasons. To avoid penalties, occupants often over report seat belt use and under report alcohol use. Police officers sometimes fail to account for evidence such as presence of belt burn, condition of belts, odor of alcohol, crash patterns, etc. Biased conclusions result when using misclassified accident data to estimate the effectiveness of seat belts in preventing injuries and reducing medical costs. We investigated the effects of misclassification of seat belt and alcohol use on the odds ratio of injury as well as medical costs. A statistical method and a SAS program were developed to adjust odds ratios of injury and medical cost estimates to account for misclassification of seat belts and alcohol use. The method allowed for incorporation of variables that could affect misclassification of seat belt and alcohol use. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation and found that when there were large differences between the misclassification rates for major and minor injury, the unadjusted odds ratio could have up to a 90% bias while our adjusted odds ratio was effectively unbiased. To illustrate the method, we estimated the misclassification rates of seat belt and alcohol use by comparing merged police and hospital reports from Nebraska motor vehicle accident data sets (1996-1997) and then evaluated the bias of the odds ratio of injury and medical costs estimates due to misclassification. Our results showed that the bias of the odds ratio of injury and medical costs due to misclassification of seat belts and alcohol use depended both on the amount of misclassification and the reported frequencies. Misclassification about seat belt and alcohol use only slightly biased the unadjusted odds ratio estimates and mean hospital charge, while misclassification resulted in approximately a 69% underestimate of the total medical costs savings due to seatbelts. However, due to the small size of the merged Nebraska police and hospital data set used to estimate misclassification rates, these results are likely somewhat imprecise. PMID:16949537

Guo, Haifeng; Eskridge, Kent M; Christensen, Daniel; Qu, Ming; Safranek, Thomas

2006-09-01

112

A Vehicle Tracking System Overcoming Occlusion and an Accident Detection Monitoring Using Tracking Trace  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We consider the video image detector systems using tracking techniques which can be handling of the all kind of problems in\\u000a the real world, such as shadow, occlusion, and vehicle detection by nighttime. Also we have derived the traffic information,\\u000a volume count, speed, and occupancy time, under kaleidoscopic environments. In this system we propose a shadow cast algorithm\\u000a and this

In Jeong Lee

113

Drinking, Driving, and Crashing: A Traffic-Flow Model of Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Accidents*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study examined the influence of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities on rates of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. A traffic-flow model is developed to represent geographic relationships between residential locations of drinking drivers, alcohol outlets, and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Method: Cross-sectional and time-series cross-sectional spatial analyses were performed using data collected from 144 geographic units over 4 years. Data were obtained from archival and survey sources in six communities. Archival data were obtained within community areas and measured activities of either the resident population or persons visiting these communities. These data included local and highway traffic flow, locations of alcohol outlets, population density, network density of the local roadway system, and single-vehicle nighttime (SVN) crashes. Telephone-survey data obtained from residents of the communities were used to estimate the size of the resident drinking and driving population. Results: Cross-sectional analyses showed that effects relating on-premise densities to alcohol-related crashes were moderated by highway traffic flow. Depending on levels of highway traffic flow, 10% greater densities were related to 0% to 150% greater rates of SVN crashes. Time-series cross-sectional analyses showed that changes in the population pool of drinking drivers and on-premise densities interacted to increase SVN crash rates. Conclusions: A simple traffic-flow model can assess the effects of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities as they vary across communities to produce alcohol-related crashes. Analyses based on these models can usefully guide policy decisions on the siting of on-premise alcohol outlets.

Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.

2010-01-01

114

Factbook on U.S. Pedestrian Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three sets of accident data files have been analyzed to obtain a greater understanding of the personal, situational, and vehicle-related factors involved in pedestrian accidents. These include all fatal pedestrian accidents contained in the Fatal Accident...

A. C. Wolfe J. O'Day

1981-01-01

115

Traumatic injuries in pregnant women: a case of motor vehicle accident for "Ground Round" discussion  

PubMed Central

Abstract: The main objective for introducing this case study is to create a platform from which the importance of road traffic related injuries and traumas can be emphasized and discussed within and across various fields of investigation. The long term goal is to entice public campaign around unmet needs for higher road safety measures to reduce primary, secondary, and tertiary risks of injuries and traumas. Case: A 28-year-old pregnant woman with a 16-week gestational age fetus was involved in a road car crash resulting in multiple traumas. Evaluation and treatment was initiated in the local Urgent Care Unit and continued in the emergency department and operation room. Patient underwent the following procedures: laparotomy, diverting colostomy, terminating pregnancy, right calcaneal traction and long leg splint, as well as multiple irrigation-debridements. Finally, the wound was left open and the patient was admitted to Intensive Care Unit. We hope that the introduction of this case for a "Ground Round" discussion will stir up a comprehensive discussion regarding the injury and trauma related preventive measures as well as treatment approaches in cases involving pregnant women in car accidents, and will bring about a holistic overview of this issue by the experts in various fields.

Ahmadi, Alireza; Fakheri, Taravat; Amini-Saman, Javad; Amanollahi, Omid; Mordi, Mahmoudreza; Almasi Nasrabadi, Maryam; Gholipour, Yousef; Dehghani, Reza; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2011-01-01

116

The Impact of Social Support on the Relationship Between Trauma History and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Motor Vehicle Accident Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined how different types of social support differentially moderated the relationship between trauma history characteristics and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Two hundred thirty-five MVA victims self-reported levels of social support and trauma history, and were evaluated for PTSS 6- and 12-months post-MVA. Results indicated that after controlling

Crystal A. Gabert-Quillen; Leah A. Irish; Eve Sledjeski; William Fallon; Eileen Spoonster; Douglas L. Delahanty

2012-01-01

117

A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the efficacy of four EMDR sessions in comparison to a six-week wait-list control condition in the treatment of 27 children (aged 6 to 12 years) suffering from persistent PTSD symptoms after a motor vehicle accident. An effect for EMDR was identified on primary outcome and process measures including the Child Post-Traumatic Stress — Reaction Index, clinician

Michael Kemp; Peter Drummond; Brett McDermott

2010-01-01

118

Comparison between younger and older drivers of the effect of obstacle direction on the minimum obstacle distance to brake and avoid a motor vehicle accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine the effects of age and direction of appearance of an obstacle on the minimum obstacle distance to brake and avoid a motor vehicle accident. Ten younger and 10 older drivers were tested in a custom-made driving simulator using an animation of a straight suburban road. Driving at 50km\\/h, participants suddenly encountered pedestrians appearing at increasingly

Pierre-Luc Martin; Thérèse Audet; Hélène Corriveau; Mathieu Hamel; Monia D’Amours; Cécile Smeesters

2010-01-01

119

Prospective study of the effect of safety belts on morbidity and health care costs in motor-vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

To assess the impact of safety belt use on the extent of injuries sustained in motor-vehicle accidents and the incurred health care costs, 1364 patients were prospectively evaluated at four Chicago-area hospitals. Of these, 791 (58%) were wearing a safety belt whereas 573 (42%) were not. The mean injury severity score for safety belt wearers was 1.8 +/- 0.07 vs 4.51 +/- 0.31 in those not wearing a safety belt. Only 6.8% of safety belt wearers required admission vs 19.2% of those not wearing a safety belt. Restrained occupants incurred mean charges of $534 +/- $67 compared with $1583 +/- $201 in unrestrained occupants. Thus, safety belt wearers had a 60.1% reduction in severity of injury, a 64.6% decrease in hospital admissions, and a 66.3% decline in hospital charges. Our findings demonstrate the significant societal burden of nonuse of safety belts in terms of morbidity and the costs of medical care. PMID:3193590

Orsay, E M; Turnbull, T L; Dunne, M; Barrett, J A; Langenberg, P; Orsay, C P

120

Prospective audit of the pattern, severity and circumstances of injury sustained by vehicle occupants as a result of road traffic accidents.  

PubMed Central

The pattern and severity of injuries sustained by 174 vehicle occupants consecutively admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary were prospectively documented. Drivers (DR) accounted for 66% of the patients, 20% were front seat passengers (FSP) and 14% were rear seat passengers (RSP). Injured patients were more likely to be male, young, intoxicated and not wearing a seat-belt. The position of the patient within the vehicle at the time of the accident and point of impact significantly affected the pattern of injury sustained. The majority of injuries were sustained by the upper body and the pattern of injury is discussed. Most accidents occurred at low speeds and higher speeds were associated with an increased severity of injury. Seat-belts reduced the overall severity of injuries, in particular those to the face and chest, but may increase the risk of neck injury. Head-rests do not appear to influence the incidence of neck injury. Clinically apparent alcohol intoxication was associated with a markedly increased risk of severe injury.

Bradbury, A; Robertson, C

1993-01-01

121

Mr. Joseph Cuadrado is an Associate in Exponent's Vehicle Engineering practice. He is experienced and has received specialized training in the areas of accident reconstruction and crash simulations, and supports a variety of full-scale vehicle tests performed at Exponent's Test and Engineering Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr. Cuadrado's education, training, and experience include technical accident investigation and reconstruction, vehicle dynamics, computer-aided-drafting (CAD) software, 3-D vehicle dynamics and collision simulation programs, as well as MADYMO and finite element modeling. His support has extended to the Technology Development practice Tire Rapid Entanglement and Arresting Device (TREAD) program. Mr. Cuadrado extensively contributed to the design, testing, and manufacturing of

Joseph Cuadrado

122

Musculoskeletal injuries in terrorist attacks--a comparison between the injuries sustained and those related to motor vehicle accidents, based on a national registry database.  

PubMed

Terror-related injuries are becoming more prevalent. The predominant mechanism of damage is related to blast effects. These include penetrating injury due to material in the explosives and blunt trauma due to objects falling after detonation. However, the more commonly encountered severe trauma in civilian centres is related to motor vehicle accidents. A comparison between the two, although problematic, might enhance the knowledge of orthopaedic traumatologists dealing with these injuries. Thus 1072 in-patients, treated in levels I and II centres in Israel for orthopaedic injuries due to terrorist attack from November 2000 to December 2003, were compared with 9714 similar in-patients injured in motor vehicle accidents (controls). Analysis included age, gender, severity of injuries, diagnoses, lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stay, operations and mortality. The victims of terrorist attack included significantly more young adults, males, severe associated injuries and operations, and increased lengths of stay and mortality. Prompt recognition and awareness of the unique character of terror-related injuries is required. PMID:18550058

Weil, Yoram A; Peleg, Kobi; Givon, Adi; Mosheiff, Rami

2008-06-12

123

Comparison between younger and older drivers of the effect of obstacle direction on the minimum obstacle distance to brake and avoid a motor vehicle accident.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine the effects of age and direction of appearance of an obstacle on the minimum obstacle distance to brake and avoid a motor vehicle accident. Ten younger and 10 older drivers were tested in a custom-made driving simulator using an animation of a straight suburban road. Driving at 50 km/h, participants suddenly encountered pedestrians appearing at increasingly closer distances in front, from the left or from the right. They then had to brake as fast as possible and come to a complete stop before running over the pedestrian. Results showed that older drivers had 1.8m greater minimum obstacle distance than younger drivers. This decreased ability with age appeared to be due to a decline in response initiation. Pedestrians appearing from the periphery also resulted in 2.1m (left) and 2.8m (right) greater minimum obstacle distance than those appearing directly in front. This decreased ability with obstacle direction appeared to be mostly due to declines in response initiation and response geometry. Finally, the difference with age was greater when pedestrians appeared from the right compared to the left or front. Therefore, it is important to include both temporal and geometrical performance measures in studies on motor vehicle accidents. PMID:20441824

Martin, Pierre-Luc; Audet, Thérèse; Corriveau, Hélène; Hamel, Mathieu; D'Amours, Monia; Smeesters, Cécile

2010-02-04

124

Bicycle Accidents to School Aged Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boys are involved in more motor vehicle accidents than are girls. Nighttime accidents account for relatively few accidents. However, severity of accident is increased at dark. A different type of accident occurs when the bicycle is used as a toy or as a m...

F. J. Vilardo J. H. Anderson

1969-01-01

125

Do Vehicle Recalls Reduce the Number of Accidents? The Case of the U.S. Car Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has sharply increased in the last decade and a half, and the number of units involved in these recalls are often counted in the millions. In 2006 alone, over 10.6 million vehicles were recalled in the United States. However, there is no quantitative evidence of the effect of recalls on safety. Without

Hugo Benitez-Silva; Yong-Kyun Bae

2005-01-01

126

Do Vehicle Recalls Reduce the Number of Accidents? The Case of the U.S. Car Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has increased sharply in the last two decades, and the numbers of units involved are often counted in the millions. In 2010 alone, over 20 million vehicles were recalled in the United States, and the massive recalls of full model lines by Toyota have brought this issue to the front pages around the…

Bae, Yong-Kyun; Benitez-Silva, Hugo

2011-01-01

127

Do Vehicle Recalls Reduce the Number of Accidents? The Case of the U.S. Car Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has increased sharply in the last two decades, and the numbers of units involved are often counted in the millions. In 2010 alone, over 20 million vehicles were recalled in the United States, and the massive recalls of full model lines by Toyota have brought this issue to the front pages around the…

Bae, Yong-Kyun; Benitez-Silva, Hugo

2011-01-01

128

Injury risk to specific body regions of pedestrians in frontal vehicle crashes modeled by empirical, in-depth accident data.  

PubMed

Evaluation of safety benefits is an essential taskduring design and development of pedestrian protection systems. Comparative evaluation of different safety concepts is facilitated by a common metric taking into account the expected human benefits. Translation of physical characteristics of a collision, such as impact speed,into human benefits requires reliable and preferably evidence-based injury models. To this end, the dependence of injury severity of body regions on explanatory factors is quantified here using the US Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) for pedestrians in frontal vehicle collisions. The explanatory and causal factors include vehicle component characteristics, physiological and biomechanical variables, and crash parameters. Severe to serious injuries most often involve the head, thorax and lower extremities. In terms of causing components; severe head and thorax injuries occur mainly on the windshield and hood region; serious lower extremity injuries usually occur on the front bumper. In order to formulate a common metric for evaluating the effect sizes of distinct causal factors, multivariate models of injury severity are obtained by binary logistic regression. Impact speed is clearly the most important injury severity predictor for every body region, although biomechanical and physiological variables as well as geometrical characteristics of the vehicle are also significant in multivariate analysis, even controlling for speed. The injury-metric approach is illustrated in a comparison of hypothetical active and passive safety measures. The relative risk reduction to various body regions by this reduction is formulated as a benchmark for comparison of benefits from proposed structural changes to individual vehicle components. PMID:21512905

Helmer, Thomas; Ebner, Adrian; Samaha, Randa Radwan; Scullion, Paul; Kates, Ronald

2010-11-01

129

Knee injuries in motor vehicle collisions: a study of the National Accident Sampling System database for the years 1979-1995.  

PubMed

A detailed study of knee injuries recorded in the 1979-1995 National Accident Sampling System database maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration was conducted. Injuries to other body regions were also considered in order to illustrate the relative frequency of knee injuries. This study demonstrated that knee injuries constitute approximately 10% of all injuries recorded every year. However, the majority of these injuries were of low severity (i.e. contusions, abrasions, lacerations) with an abbreviated injury score (AIS) of 1. Most knee injuries occurred following a frontal collision with no intrusion. The study also indicated most knee fractures occur in crashes where the vehicle velocity differences (deltaVs) were less than 45 kmph, with some occurring at deltaVs as low as 10 kmph. Serious non-fracture knee injuries (i.e. ligament tears) rated AIS 2 accounted for 20 out of every 1000 injuries and predominantly occurred at deltaVs below 25 kmph. In this study it was noted that women were more likely to experience a knee contusion than men. This study further suggests that knee impact scenarios have remained relatively constant over the years as the knee injury rates showed little variation. The rate of lap and shoulder belt use was lower in occupants who experienced a knee injury vs. the rate in the overall database and airbags were present in only a small number of cases. As this study largely included only vehicles without airbags it provides a good baseline for analysis of the influence of the airbag on knee injury trends in the future. PMID:10994605

Atkinson, T; Atkinson, P

2000-11-01

130

A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the efficacy of four EMDR sessions in comparison to a six-week wait-list control condition in the treatment of 27 children (aged 6 to 12 years) suffering from persistent PTSD symptoms after a motor vehicle accident. An effect for EMDR was identified on primary outcome and process measures including the Child Post-Traumatic Stress-Reaction Index, clinician rated diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Subjective Units of Disturbance and Validity of Cognition scales. All participants initially met two or more PTSD criteria. After EMDR treatment, this decreased to 25% in the EMDR group but remained at 100% in the wait-list group. Parent ratings of their child's PTSD symptoms showed no improvement, nor did a range of non-trauma child self-report and parent-reported symptoms. Treatment gains were maintained at three and 12 month follow-up. These findings support the use of EMDR for treating symptoms of PTSD in children, although further replication and comparison studies are required. PMID:19923161

Kemp, Michael; Drummond, Peter; McDermott, Brett

2009-11-18

131

Tractor accidents in Swedish traffic.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving tractors and to suggest ways of preventing them. In an earlier study we analyzed police-reported fatal accidents and accidents that led to physical injuries from 1992 to 2005. During each year of this period, tractors were involved in 128 traffic accidents on average, an average of 7 people were killed, 44 sustained serious injuries, and 143 sustained slight injuries. The number of fatalities in these tractor accidents was about 1.3% of all deaths in traffic accidents in Sweden. Cars were most often involved in the tractor accidents (58%) and 15% were single vehicle accidents. The mean age of the tractor driver involved was 39.8 years and young drivers (15-24 years) were overrepresented (30%). We are now increasing the data collected with the years 2006-2010 in order to study the changes in the number of accidents. Special attention will be given to the younger drivers and to single vehicle accidents. Based on the results we aim to develop suggestions for reducing road accidents, e.g. including measures for making farm vehicles more visible and improvement of the training provided at driving schools. PMID:22317543

Pinzke, Stefan; Nilsson, Kerstin; Lundqvist, Peter

2012-01-01

132

Estimation of vehicle lateral tire-road forces: a comparison between extended and unscented Kalman filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research has shown that most of road accidents occur as a result of driver errors. A close examination of accident data reveals that losing the vehicle control is responsible for a huge proportion of car accidents. Preventing such kind of accidents using vehicle control systems, requires certain input data concerning vehicle dynamic parameters and vehicle road interaction. Unfortunately, some

Moustapha Doumiati; Alessandro Victorino; Ali Charara; Daniel Lechner

2009-01-01

133

Investigation of 184 passenger car–pedestrian accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, pedestrians were the most common and the most vulnerable of road users, meaning pedestrians were involved in vehicle-pedestrian accidents more frequently. Little attention has been paid to the investigation of such accidents. One surveying group was built to randomly collect vehicle-pedestrian accidents and analyse these accidents from the vehicle–pedestrian crash characteristics and the relationships between the pedestrian injury

Hui Zhao; Zhiyong Yin; Rong Chen; Huipeng Chen; Cui Song; Guangyu Yang; Zhengguo Wang

2010-01-01

134

Statistics of Truck Accidents: An Addendum to a Study of Longer and Wider Trucks on the Texas Highway System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The addendum provides a summary of truck accident statistics on the Texas highway system which include reported frequency of truck accident involvements; distributions of truck accident involvements by some accident, vehicle, and environmental variables; ...

T. Chira-Chavala D. Burke

1987-01-01

135

Physics in Accident Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes physics formulas which can be used by law enforcement officials to determine the possible velocity of vehicles involved in traffic accidents. These include, among others, the slide to stop-level road, slide to stop-sloping roadway, and slide to stop-two different surfaces formulas. (JN)|

Brake, Mary L.

1981-01-01

136

Accident reconstruction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

While reconstructing a car accident, there are several questions that must be answered, such as the movement of all the vehicles involved or of other people involved, or of objects from the point of first visual contact to their rest positions. Time history of velocities, positions as well as crash-related data such as velocity changes, deformation energies, or passenger loads

Hermann Steffan

2009-01-01

137

National Transportation Safety Board Highway Accident Report: Truck-Tractor Semitrailer Rear-End Collision Into Passenger Vehicles On Interstate 44 Near Miami, Oklahoma, on June 26, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 1:19 p.m. on June 26, 2009, a multivehicle accident occurred on Interstate 44 (I-44) near Miami, Oklahoma, shortly after a minor accident in the vicinity had resulted in a traffic queue. A truck driver operating a Volvo truck-tractor in combination ...

2010-01-01

138

Potential impact of propofol immediately after motor vehicle accident on later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder at 6-month follow up: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Critically injured patients are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Propofol was recently reported to enhance fear memory consolidation retrospectively. Thus, we investigated here whether administration of propofol within 72 h of a motor vehicle accident (MVA) affects the subsequent development of PTSD symptoms. Methods We examined data obtained from a prospective cohort study of MVA-related injured patients, admitted to the intensive care unit of a general hospital. We investigated the effect of propofol administration within 72 h of MVA on outcome. Primary outcome was diagnosis of full or partial PTSD as determined by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were diagnosis of full or partial PTSD at 1 month and CAPS score indicating PTSD at 1 and 6 months. Multivariate analysis was conducted adjusting for being female, age, injury severity score (ISS), and administration of ketamine or midazolam within 72 h of MVA. Results Among 300 patients recruited (mean ISS, 8.0; median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, 15.0; age, 18 to 69 years), propofol administration showed a higher risk for full or partial PTSD as determined by CAPS at 6 months (odds ratio = 6.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57 to 23.85, P = 0.009) and at 1 month (odds ratio = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.41 to 4.23, P = 0.647) in the multivariate logistic regression. Multivariate regression analysis showed a trend toward adverse effects of propofol on PTSD symptom development at 6 months after MVA (? = 4.08, 95% CI: -0.49 to 8.64, P = 0.080), but not at 1 month after MVA (? = -0.42, 95% CI: -6.34 to 5.51, P = 0.890). Conclusions These findings suggest that using propofol in the acute phase after MVA might be associated with the development of PTSD symptoms 6 months later. However, since the design of this study was retrospective, these findings should be interpreted cautiously and further study is warranted.

2012-01-01

139

Spatial analysis of Honolulu motor vehicle crashes: II. Zonal generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial relationship between activities which generate trips and motor vehicle accidents is examined and applied to the City and County of Honolulu for 1990. A method is described for examining spatial variations in motor vehicle accidents, aggregated into small geographical areas. A spatial lag model is developed which examines the zonal relationship of motor vehicle accidents to population, employment

Ned Levine; Karl E. Kim; Lawrence H. Nitz

1995-01-01

140

Rollover Accident Model and Injury Mechanism of Occupants in Bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze injury mechanism of occupants in buses when rollover accidents occur, causes of rollover accident and rolling process were analyzed. And rollover accidents were classified to tripped rollover and un-tripped rollover, critical collision force model and rollover velocity model were established. Roller model was applied to calculate vehicles position. Main injured parts of occupants after rollover accidents

Zhang Wenhui; Li Shengqin

2010-01-01

141

[Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].  

PubMed

All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation. PMID:8815364

Pianosi, G

142

32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traffic accident investigation reports. 634.29 Section...ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.29 Traffic accident...

2013-07-01

143

32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section 634...ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic accident...

2013-07-01

144

32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traffic accident investigation reports. 636...CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.13 Traffic accident investigation reports....

2013-07-01

145

32 CFR 636.12 - Traffic accident investigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traffic accident investigation. 636.12 ...CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.12 Traffic accident investigation. In...

2013-07-01

146

Accident Reviews: M113 Accident, AMV Accident, Environmental Injuries, Field Training Accident, Tactical Parachuting Accident, Physical Training Accident, Weapons-Handling Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains reviews on various kinds of accidents: armored personnel carriers, environmental injuries, field training accidents, tactical parachuting accidents, physical training accidents and weapon-handing accidents.

1985-01-01

147

Traffic Violator School Dismissals: The Effects of Citation Masking on Accident-Risk Assessment and on the Volume of Department of Motor Vehicles' License Control Actions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SB 1455, enacted on January 1, 1983, required that California courts report traffic violator school (TVS) dismissals to the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) for research purposes only. Dismissals were not to be reported to any persons or agencies other ...

M. A. Gebers H. N. Tashima W. C. Marsh

1987-01-01

148

Knee injuries in motor vehicle collisions: a study of the National Accident Sampling System database for the years 1979–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of knee injuries recorded in the 1979–1995 National Accident Sampling System database maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration was conducted. Injuries to other body regions were also considered in order to illustrate the relative frequency of knee injuries. This study demonstrated that knee injuries constitute ?10% of all injuries recorded every year. However, the majority

Theresa Atkinson; Patrick Atkinson

2000-01-01

149

[Possibilities, limitations and results in accident prevention in non-occupational accidents, especially in road traffic].  

PubMed

Traffic accident occurrence in Switzerland has undergone a positive development, in spite of the fact that the number of motor vehicles in use and the overall driving performance have increased. The main features of accident occurrence are illustrated, alcohol and driving too fast being the most frequent accident causes. The construction of a motorway network, the use of safety-belts and the introduction of general speed limits play the most important part in the positive development of accident occurrence. PMID:2346700

Jung, H

1990-01-01

150

Accurate Accident Reconstruction in VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose a forensic VANET application to aid an accurate accident reconstruction. Our application provides a new source\\u000a of objective real-time data impossible to collect using existing methods. By leveraging inter-vehicle communications, we compile\\u000a digital evidence describing events before, during, and after an accident in its entirety. In addition to sensors data and\\u000a major components’ status, we provide relative positions

Yuliya Kopylova; Csilla Farkas; Wenyuan Xu

151

Winter Vehicle Traction and Controllability Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Snow and ice conditions have been considered the main factors that contribute to reduced vehicle traction forces and potential traffic accidents during winter seasons. To increase a vehicle's traction forces on snow and icy surfaces, studded and non-studd...

J. J. Lu

1995-01-01

152

Reduction in health service use for whiplash injury after motor vehicle accidents in 2000-2009: Results from a defined population.  

PubMed

Objective: To establish trends in whiplash-related health service use and cost in Victoria, Australia. Design: Administrative data analysis. Subjects: Whiplash patients claiming Transport Accident Commission (TAC) compensation for accidents dating between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2009 (n?=?51,263). Methods: Injury-related health service use during one year following the accident was determined from claim payment records. The incidence of whiplash claims in Victoria was calculated, as were inflation-adjusted health care costs. Results: In 2000-2009, the incidence of compensable whiplash decreased from 1.56 to 1.14 per 1,000 person-years. Physiotherapy, pharmaceuticals, general practitioner, chiro-practic, radiology and osteopathy sessions were the most commonly claimed services. General practitioner, allied health and radiology services decreased, but analgesic use increased. Per person-years in the population, whiplash-related medical expenses were 71% greater for women than men. Overall, population burden decreased by 38%; the decline was most pronounced in persons aged 18-24 (54% decrease) and least pronounced in those aged ??55 (23% decrease). Conclusion: The population-based health service cost of whiplash decreased between 2000 and 2009. The overall reduction was related to a decrease in incidence and a reduction in service use per whiplash claim. PMID:23974853

Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Collie, Alex; McClure, Roderick

2013-10-23

153

National Transportation Safety Board Highway Accident Report: Work Zone Collision Between a Tractor-Semitrailer and a Tennessee Highway Patrol Vehicle in Jackson, Tennessee, on July 26, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 8:52 a.m. on July 26, 2000, an eastbound 1999 International truck tractor pulling a loaded semitrailer, and traveling at a driver-estimated speed of 65 mph in a 55-mph work zone, collided with a Tennessee Highway Patrol (THP) vehicle trailing constr...

2002-01-01

154

Radiotherapy Accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

Mckenzie, Alan

155

The study of traffic accident reproduction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through investigating the progress of domestic and international traffic simulation systems, we constructed the simulation model of vehicle movement during traffic accident after analyzing the one-dimensional and two-dimensional collision image of the accident vehicle impact. In a virtual simulation based on the theory of OpenGL technology, we built a three-dimensional simulation model for reading, displaying and controlling. Meanwhile, we developed

Xue-hua Liao; Zhou-sen Zhu; Yan Yu-song; Li Ping

2011-01-01

156

Tire Blow-Outs and Motorway Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period from 1996 to 2002, 60,397 vehicles were involved in crashes with property damage and\\/or injury on a French motorway network of 2000 km. It was observed that 6.7% of these accidents involved tire blow-outs. In 87% of cases, only one vehicle was involved in the accident. Tire blow-outs occurred in 6.5% of cars that represented more than

JEAN-LOUIS MARTIN; BERNARD LAUMON

2005-01-01

157

Slow-moving vehicles in Swedish traffic.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving slow-moving vehicles and to suggest ways of preventing such accidents. We analyzed accident data from a 5-year period (1992-1996) involving all types of farm vehicles as well as horses and horse-drawn vehicles. During each year of the period under investigation, slow-moving vehicles were involved in more than 250 traffic accidents on Swedish roads, and an average of 10 people were killed, 66 sustained serious injuries, and 192 sustained slight injuries. This was about 1.3% of all persons injured in traffic accidents in Sweden. The deaths and injuries mostly involved car drivers and passengers. Tractor drivers and unprotected road users (people walking or traveling by motorcycle, moped, or bicycle) also sustained serious injuries and deaths. Vehicles overtaking slow-moving vehicles from behind were the most common type of accident (30%), followed by turning accidents (27%), accidents at crossroads (26%), and with oncoming vehicles (17%). To strengthen the suggestions for improvement, a questionnaire was sent out to driving school teachers in Sweden. Subjects were asked about their experiences with farm vehicles on the roads and their suggestions for ways to increase traffic safety. Based on the accident data and the questionnaire responses, we developed several suggestions for reducing road accidents, including measures for making farm vehicles more visible, improvement of the training provided at driving schools, and information campaigns directed at drivers of farm vehicles and other road users. Further in-depth research is needed to analyze road accidents involving slow-moving vehicles and to test different intervention measures. PMID:15216651

Pinzke, S; Lundqvist, P

2004-05-01

158

Nuclear accidents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Accidents at nuclear power plants can be especially devastating to people and the environment. This article, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Tokaimura. Students explore the incidents by examining possible causes, environmental impacts, and effects on life.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

159

The Physics of Traffic Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)|

Knight, Peter

1975-01-01

160

Vehicle dynamics control and controller allocation for rollover prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle rollover accidents are a particularly dangerous form of road accident. Commercial vehicles are especially prone to rollover accidents due to their high centres of gravity. A nonlinear control strategy is presented which guarantees asymptotic tracking of a yaw rate reference while bounding the roll angle, thus preventing rollover. A new computationally-efficient control allocation strategy is used to map controller

Brad Schofield; T. Hagglund; A. Rantzer

2006-01-01

161

Research on the taxi traffic accident and violation identification model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxi accident reasons were analysed deeply and the special taxi supervising system for preventing taxi break traffic regulations and reducing taxi traffic accident were established. After analysing the deeply level reasons that taxi traffic accident occurred from driver and passenger psychological, vehicle performance, service facility, operation condition and mechanism, quantity control and management system, etc., the paper put forward

Zhang Zheng-ke

2010-01-01

162

Fatal training accidents: The military unit as a recovery context  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory study of military units' recovery from fatal training accidents focused on four Army units which had lost one to three members in maneuver or live-fire accidents involving tracked vehicles. One hundred seventeen soldiers affected by the accidents provided detailed interview data. In each case, the unit offered a recovery context in which formal and informal organizational structures facilitated

Mary P. Tyler; Robert K. Gifford

1991-01-01

163

Frequency of Work Zone Accidents on Construction Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this research was to study work zone accidents in New York State, with particular attention to the occurrence and mitigation of rear-end vehicle accidents. The specific objectives were to recommend changes to the NYSDOT's accident...

Y. Qi R. Srinivasan H. Teng R. F. Baker

2005-01-01

164

Preliminary study on speed evaluation and impact configuration reconstruction of vehicles with human- machine interactive programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at developing analysis approaches of vehicle-accident reconstruction in an attempt to recreate the initial impact configuration and clarify accident responsibility. One purpose is to conclude a straightforward and confident recon- struction module as a base of dealing with vehicle impact accidents. Both forward and backward deriving methods have been applied as the means of accident reconstruction. The

Y.-S. Chiang; M.-H. Huang

165

The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.  

PubMed

The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

2013-04-01

166

Possible aggregation biases in road safety research and a mechanism approach to accident modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accident reconstruction, individual road accidents are treated as essentially deterministic events, although incomplete information can leave one uncertain about how exactly an accident happened. In statistical studies, on the other hand, accidents are treated as individually random, although the parameters governing their probability distributions may be modeled deterministically. Here, a simple deterministic model of a vehicle\\/pedestrian encounter is used

Gary A. Davis

2004-01-01

167

Neural Networks Based Modelling of Traffic Accidents in Interurban Rural Highways, Duzce Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

this study, alternatively, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based modelling of traffic accidents on two line interurban rural highways in terms of number of accidents; injuries and dead have been presented. This study was conducted for D100\\/11 state highway section in Duzce. In this section of the highway, totally 783 traffic accidents occurred and 1396 vehicles involved in these accidents between

Ercan Ozgan; Recep Demirci

2008-01-01

168

Systematic variation of the severity of motor vehicle accident-related traumatic brain injury vignettes produces different post-concussion symptom reports.  

PubMed

This study investigated the specificity of the post-concussion syndrome (PCS) expectation-as-etiology hypothesis. Undergraduate students (n?=?551) were randomly allocated to one of three vignette conditions. Vignettes depicted either a very mild (VMI), mild (MI), or moderate-to-severe (MSI) motor vehicle-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants reported the PCS and PTSD symptoms that they imagined the depicted injury would produce. Secondary outcomes (knowledge of mild TBI, and the perceived undesirability of TBI) were also assessed. After data screening, the distribution of participants by condition was: VMI (n?=?100), MI (n?=?96), and MSI (n?=?71). There was a significant effect of condition on PCS symptomatology, F(2, 264)?=?16.55, p??VMI; medium effect, r?=?.33; MSI?> MI; small-to-medium effect, r?=?.22). The same pattern of group differences was found for PTSD symptoms, F(2, 264)?=?17.12, p?

Sullivan, Karen A; Edmed, Shannon L

2012-01-01

169

49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...its attachment to the vehicle must be designed to...the cargo tank motor vehicle at rated payload, at a...longitudinal axis of the vehicle. (e) Longitudinal...longitudinal impact in an accident, the cargo tank shell...strength of the material of construction using a safety factor of...

2010-10-01

170

49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...its attachment to the vehicle must be designed to...the cargo tank motor vehicle at rated payload, at a...longitudinal axis of the vehicle. (e) Longitudinal...longitudinal impact in an accident, the cargo tank shell...strength of the material of construction using a safety factor of...

2009-10-01

171

National Safety Transportation Board Special Investigation Report. Mobile Acetylene Trailer Accidents: Fire During Unloading in Dallas, Texas, July 25, 2007; Fire During Unloading in The Woodlands, Texas, August 7, 2007; and Overturn and Fire in East New Orleans, Louisiana, October 20, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Transportation Safety Board investigated three accidents that involved highway vehicles transporting bulk quantities of acetylene gas that occurred in 2007 and reviewed reports of a 2008 overturn accident of another vehicle. The vehicles, cal...

2009-01-01

172

Supplemental national crash severity study accident reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accident data was collected that allows determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger compartment during the collision. In some 52 percent of the accidents contained in the pre-April 1978 National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) data file, these velocity changes were established with the CRASH computer program. A substantial number of the remaining cases were reconstructable with other methods. Procedures were developed to estimate velocity changes in two car accidents in which the damage to 484 additional accidents from the pre-April 1978 NCSS file were reconstructed to the point of having velocity change estimates for the vehicles involved.

Segal, D. J.; McGrath, M. T.; Balasubramanian, N.

1980-09-01

173

Epidemiological analysis of serious occupational accidents in southern Finland.  

PubMed

The aims of this article were, on the one hand, to indicate the risk groups exposed to serious occupational accidents and, on the other hand, to examine what makes serious occupational accidents 'serious'. We compared the data on 99 serious occupational accidents gathered by ourselves to the information from official statistics. The results showed that the risk of a serious accident was highest for a man working in the manufacturing industry, at a construction site, or in transporting, and who was in his first year of service. Typical serious occupational accidents were falls from heights, accidents with machines, and getting run over by moving vehicles. The most general injuries were fractures, loss of extremities, and injuries to internal organs. Serious occupational accidents differ from minor accidents as regards type of accident and injured part of the body. PMID:7846482

Salminen, S T

1994-09-01

174

Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with the opportunity to investigate 'What if?' questions relating to causal factors. The system addressed both the vehicle and the human elements of performance. Significant integration of engineering principles and human factors probability data enhance the outcomes assessment. The pictorial display provides a near real- time image of the vehicle as supported by the engineering data, rather than the more traditional approach of line graphs and interpolative tables. This enables the investigator to consider far more data at a given time than in the past. Interaction between the workstation and the investigator is through a menu system derived from data tables and displayed as ICON symbology. Relational database operations and a user toolbox round out the system. Presentation of this system will provide a fundamental understanding of the capabilities of the system, and an actual air carrier accident will be examined briefly.

Blanchard, James W.

1992-06-01

175

A Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Protocol for Cooperative Collision Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a vehicle-to-vehicle commu- nication protocol for cooperative collision warning. Emerging wireless technologies for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to- roadside (V2R) communications such as DSRC (1) are promising to dramatically reduce the number of fatal roadway accidents by providing early warnings. One major technical challenge addressed in this paper is to achieve low-latency in deliver- ing emergency warnings in

Xue Yang; Jie Liu; Feng Zhao; Nitin H. Vaidya

2004-01-01

176

Proposed Method for Estimating Traffic Accident Risk Factors Based on Object Tracking and Behavior Prediction Using Particle Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traffic accident prediction method using a priori knowledge based on accident data is proposed for safe driving support. Implementation is achieved by an algorithm using particle filtering and fuzzy inference to estimate accident risk factors. With this method, the distance between the host vehicle and a vehicle ahead and their relative velocity and relative acceleration are obtained from the

Youichi Natori; Kazuhiko Kawamoto; Hiroshi Takahashi; Kaoru Hirota

2008-01-01

177

Statistical analysis of accident severity on rural freeways.  

PubMed

The growing concern about the possible safety-related impacts of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has focused attention on the need to develop new statistical approaches to predict accident severity. This paper presents a nested logit formulation as a means for determining accident severity given that an accident has occurred. Four levels of severity are considered: (1) property damage only, (2) possible injury, (3) evident injury, and (4) disabling injury or fatality. Using 5-year accident data from a 61 km section of rural interstate in Washington State (which has been selected as an ITS demonstration site), we estimate a nested logit model of accident severity. The estimation results provide valuable evidence on the effect that environmental conditions, highway design, accident type, driver characteristics and vehicle attributes have on accident severity. Our findings show that the nested logit formulation is a promising approach to evaluate the impact that ITS or other safety-related countermeasures may have on accident severities. PMID:8799444

Shankar, V; Mannering, F; Barfield, W

1996-05-01

178

New and Emerging Technologies for Improved Accident Data Collection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study entailed the identification and examination of technologies and a review of the current processes related to the collection and management of motor vehicle traffic accident data. The study identified those technologies that are most promising in...

D. Reinfurt D. Yohanan H. W. McGee M. Rouchon W. E. Hughes

1993-01-01

179

Development of a collaborative vehicle collision avoidance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced systems for driver assistance in combination with new preventive safety systems offer great potential for collision avoidance, reducing accident severity and increasing occupant protection. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a system targeting to vehicle collision avoidance in emergency situations. The proposed system provides the nearby vehicles with information about possible accident involvement. The main feature of

Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; George I. Patoulidis; Ioannis N. Vandikas; Constantinos Parisses; Nikos Asimopoulos

2010-01-01

180

Fatal traffic injuries among pedestrians, bicyclists and motor vehicle occupants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate characteristic injuries of pedestrians and bicyclists (unprotected) compared to motor vehicle occupants’ (protected) in fatal traffic accidents. Cases of 664 fatal traffic accidents (371 pedestrians, 45 bicyclists, and 248 motor vehicle occupants) were collected from 1999 to 2001 using the database of the Forensic Institute in Budapest. Autopsy reports were analyzed. Location

K. Tör?; M. Hubay; P. Sótonyi; E. Keller

2005-01-01

181

Benchmarking haulroad design standards to reduce transportation accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport and tramming operations on South African mines are an area of considerable accident risk. In the context of surface mining, 74 percent of such accidents were associated with ore transfer by haul truck and service vehicle operations. However, the extent to which haul road design and operation activities impact on the overall safety of transport operations in mining was

R. J. Thompson; G. A. Fourie; A. T. Visser; R. A. F. Smith

1998-01-01

182

Cellular phones and traffic accidents: An epidemiological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using epidemiological case-control design and logistic regression techniques, this study examined the association of cellular phone use in motor vehicles and traffic accident risk. The amount of time per month spent talking on a cellular phone and 18 other driver inattention factors were examined. Data were obtained from: 1.(1) a case group of 100 randomly selected drivers involved in accidents

John M. Violanti; James R. Marshall

1996-01-01

183

Causes and effects of road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Saudi Arabia the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation. Between 1971 and 1997; 564 762 people died or were injured in road traffic accidents, a figure equivalent to 3.5% of the total population in Saudi Arabia. During this period 66 914 people have died on the roads in Saudi Arabia due to road accidents, amounting to one

S Ansari; F Akhdar; M Mandoorah; K Moutaery

2000-01-01

184

A VDS Based Traffic Accident Prediction Analysis and Future Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to present the prediction analysis of traffic accident and future applications by calculating\\u000a accident risks based on ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) data via VDS (Vehicle Detecting System). Many researches have\\u000a described various traffic accident predictions and reductions. However, until recently, empirical studies considering real\\u000a traffic environments are still insufficient. Site selections in this study

Chungwon Lee; Bong Gyou Lee; Kisu Kim; Hye Sun Lee

2007-01-01

185

Radiation accidents  

SciTech Connect

It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

Saenger, E.L.

1986-09-01

186

Acute appendicitis following motor vehicle accident.  

PubMed

There are many recorded cases in the medical literature where it has been determined that blunt injury to the abdomen may injure any organ or structure within the abdomen. There were, however, no recorded cases of acute appendicitis resulting from blunt abdominal trauma.The vermiform appendix is not immune to blunt abdominal trauma; in fact, by its anatomy and disposition, it is a very vulnerable structure.One case is recorded in this paper where acute appendicitis has followed a steering wheel abdominal injury. PMID:20469080

Fiorini, G T

1974-06-01

187

IVVI: Intelligent vehicle based on visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human errors are the cause of most traffic accidents, with drivers' inattention and wrong driving decisions being the two main sources. These errors can be reduced, but not completely eliminated. That is why Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can reduce the number, danger and severity of traffic accidents. Several ADAS, which nowadays are being researched for Intelligent vehicles, are based

José María Armingol; Arturo De La Escalera; Cristina Hilario; Juan Manuel Collado; Juan Pablo Carrasco; Marco Javier Flores; José Manuel Pastor; F. José Rodríguez

2007-01-01

188

Characterization of Wild Pig-Vehicle Collisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-v...

J. J. Mayer P. E. Johns

2006-01-01

189

Hierarchical Probabilistic Network-Based System for Traffic Accident Detection at Intersections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, traffic congestion and traffic accidents have been rapidly increasing in proportion to increasing number of vehicles. Although the roadway design and signal system have been improved to relieve traffic congestion, traffic casualties and property damage do not decrease. The traffic accident is a serious issue of society because vehicle is a primary means of transportation. This paper develops

Ju-Won Hwang; Young-Seol Lee; Sung-Bae Cho

2010-01-01

190

A decision support system for the single-depot vehicle rescheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruptions in trips can prevent vehicles from executing their schedules as planned. Mechanical failures, accidents, and tra-c congestion often hinder a vehicle schedule. When a vehicle on a scheduled trip breaks down, one or more vehicles need to be rescheduled to serve the passengers\\/cargo (if there are any) on that trip. The main objective of the vehicle rescheduling problem (VRSP)

Jing-quan Li; Denis Borenstein; Pitu B. Mirchandani

2007-01-01

191

Component Head Test Accident Reconstruction Feasibility Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Motor vehicle accidents cause about 44% of all head injuries in the U.S., and are the most common source of severe head injuries. A hybrid II dummy headform was instrumented with a nine-accelerometer array to permit the measurement of rotational accelerat...

R. A. Saul M. Farson D. A. Guenther

1986-01-01

192

Urban development and traffic accidents in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil started to experience high traffic accident rates since the 1960s, when road transportation began to be dominant and the number of motorized vehicles increased sharply. The severity of the problem was also related to the fast and uncontrolled urban growth, which allowed for the organization of an inherently dangerous circulation space, characterized by a complex pattern of traffic conflicts.

Eduardo Alcântara Vasconcellos

1999-01-01

193

Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response  

SciTech Connect

The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

2000-06-06

194

Accident Investigation Studies: Project 8327 Task 6 Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data was gathered to obtain information on various impact modes and vehicle types through staged collisions for use in the CRASH 2 computer program. Vehicle and accident scene information from each test was collected for the purpose of improving crash...

S. Davis R. Thomas R. Baczynski R. Garn

1982-01-01

195

3D Laser Scanning for Road Safety and Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of traffic reconstruction is to recreate motor vehicle collision scenes in order to analyze the dynamics of the collision events, to provide evidence in court cases and allow the manufacturers to evaluate the vehicle's design. However, at the scene of the accident it is not known exactly the amount of information that will be required at the

Vassilios PAGOUNIS; Maria TSAKIRI; Spriridon PALASKAS; Barbara BIZA

196

Do motor vehicle airbags increase risk of ocular injuries in adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis study was undertaken to evaluate the risk of eye injury in motor vehicle accidents in which airbags deploy. An attempt was made to assess the possible associations between eye injuries and eyewear in these accidents.

Kirsti S Lehto; Pekka O Sulander; Timo M. T Tervo

2003-01-01

197

Probabilistic assessment of road vehicle safety in windy environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several wind- and weather-related accidents of road vehicles occur every year, especially at exposed locations where topographical features magnify the wind effects. The most notable ones involve high-sided vehicles. The objective of this paper is to investigate parameters influencing wind-related accidents of road vehicles. A general probabilistic model, based on reliability approach, is outlined and applied for assessment of road

J. Th. Snæbjörnsson; C. J. Baker; R. Sigbjörnsson

2007-01-01

198

[FTIR-based vehicles paint comparison].  

PubMed

In order to determine a range on vehicle types by the vehicle paints left on the accident site, 940 infrared spectra of vehicle paint from 287 vehicle samples were collected, and then the infrared spectrum database on vehicle body paint was established. The vehicle paints comparison was implemented by characteristic peaks method and correlation coefficient method, and the comparison tests on different vehicle scrap paints were carried out. The test results show that the key of vehicle paint comparison is the spectrum of topcoat layer and the coating layer for the integrated scrap paint, and spectrum should be searched after layer separating for partial scrap paint. For aging paint, topcoat layer spectrum should be main emphasis and the range of suspect vehicle should be extended. PMID:23697113

Chen, Tao; Long, Xian-Jun; Wei, Lang; Gong, Biao; Li, Chun-Ming

2013-02-01

199

Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.  

PubMed

For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

Riley, R; Paddon, P

1989-01-01

200

Situation Assessment of an Autonomous Emergency Brake for Arbitrary Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collision Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomous emergency brake (AEB) is an active safety function for vehicles which aims to reduce the severity of a collision. An AEB performs a full brake when an accident becomes unavoidable. Even if this system cannot, in general, avoid the accident, it reduces the energy of the crash impact and is therefore referred to as a collision mitigation system.

Nico Kaempchen; Bruno Schiele; Klaus Dietmayer

2009-01-01

201

VEHICLE DYNAMICS CONTROL WITH ROLLOVER PREVENTION FOR ARTICULATED HEAVY TRUCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rollover and jack-knifing of articulated heavy trucks are serious threats for motorists. Active safety technologies have been demonstrated to have potential to reduce or prevent the occurrence of these types of accidents. The Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) system utilizes differential braking to affect vehicle response and has been shown to be quite effective in controlling vehicle yaw response. In this

Daniel D. Eisele; Huei Peng

2000-01-01

202

Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)|

Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

1999-01-01

203

Motor Vehicle Safety at Temporary Construction or Repair Sites on Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Informational materials on motor vehicle safety in areas undergoing temporary road construction and repair operations were collected. The intention of the publication is simply to indicate the dimensions of the problem of accidents involving vehicles pass...

D. M. Munro N. W. Huang

1968-01-01

204

[ACN (Automatic Collision Notification)--reducing fatalities in traffic accidents by automated accident reporting].  

PubMed

To improve patient's outcome of seriously injured occupants after vehicle accident rescue should be performed as soon as possible. While the rescue-time-period after EMS alarming is well-defined the rescue-time-period before EMS-alarm is very variable from minutes to several hours. To reduce the rescue-time-period between accident occurrence and EMS-alarm the Automatic Collision Notification (ACN) was developed. The ACN is a new invehicle-equipment which detects a severe vehicle crash and alarms via cellular phone the EMS automatically. Simultaneously the exact accident location is transmitted (GPS). Official data of the European Community predict a 15% reduction of road traffic fatalities with ACN. Thereby the economical benefit of about 561 million [symbol: see text] could be calculated for Germany 2000. PMID:12704910

Pieske, O; Lob, G; Messner, G; Lange, W; Haberl, J

2002-01-01

205

Two-vehicle side impact crashes: The relationship of vehicle and crash characteristics to injury severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injury type and severity among front outboard occupants of passenger vehicles struck in the side by another passenger vehicle and recorded in the United States National Accident Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were examined in relation to the location of impact, the angle of impact, occupant gender and age, seat belt use, the weight and body style of the side-impacted

Charles M. Farmer; Elisa R. Braver; Eric L. Mitter

1997-01-01

206

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

M. J. Riezenman

1992-01-01

207

World commercial aircraft accidents  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

208

Neural Networks Based Modelling of Traffic Accidents in Interurban Rural Highways, Duzce Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this study, alternatively, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based modelling of traffic accidents on two line interurban rural highways in terms of number of accidents; injuries and dead have been presented. This study was conducted for D100/11 state highway section in Duzce. In this section of the highway, totally 783 traffic accidents occurred and 1396 vehicles involved in these accidents between 2002 and 2006 years. Using traffic accident reports data, ANN was applied for modelling of traffic accidents with respect to distance and months. As a result, it was observed that there was a perfect fit between the simulation results and actual data of accidents and the created neural network model of accidents resembles the actual data. Therefore, the developed model could be an alternative method for predictions of traffic accidents on interurban rural highways.

Ozgan, Ercan; Demirci, Recep

209

Electrical hazards and accidents  

SciTech Connect

This book contains proceedings of Electrical Hazards and Accidents. Topics covered include: Electrical Systems; Electrical and Lightning Accidents and Fires; Conductors and Overcurrent Protection; OSHA Standards and Requirements; and High Voltage Systems: Design.

Greenwald, E.K. (College of Engineering, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States))

1991-01-01

210

Accident Data Availability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accident information is valuable for identifying problem areas or locations of interest. This project investigates alternate forms of dissemination for the accident information. Costs, capabilities, and compatibility are reviewed for integration of the ac...

P. Martin J. Perrin B. Hansen A. Barrios

2000-01-01

211

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication: Fair Transmit Power Control for Safety-Critical Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct radio-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication can help prevent accidents by providing accurate and up-to-date local status and hazard information to the driver. In this paper, we assume that two types of messages are used for traffic safety-related communication: 1) Periodic messages (ldquobeaconsrdquo) that are sent by all vehicles to inform their neighbors about their current status (i.e., position) and 2) event-driven

Marc Torrent-Moreno; Jens Mittag; Paolo Santi; Hannes Hartenstein

2009-01-01

212

Diepgaand Onderzoek Verkeersongevallen DOVO. Bijdrage aan een Methodologische Verkenning (Through Traffic Accident Investigation. A Contribution to a Methodological Survey).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When a severe traffic accident occurs, in which many vehicles are involved and many persons are killed, or severely injured, there should be a thorough investigation of the accident. The whole accident process not just the outcome must be studied by means...

S. Oppe

1984-01-01

213

Death from petrol inhalation after an armoured vehicle rollover.  

PubMed

A case is reported of cardiac arrest in a young man after an armoured vehicle rollover accident. The proposed mechanism of death is myocardial sensitisation to endogenous catecholamines after exposure to petroleum fuel. PMID:12954705

Davies, M L; Rowlands, T K

2003-09-01

214

Vehicle Tracking Method Using Background Subtraction and MeanShift Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

As urban road intersections are prone to traffic congestion and traffic accidents, monitoring the crossing of vehicles and predicting the state is needed to reduce traffic congestion, regulate driver behavior and prevent accidents. Background subtraction and mean shift tracking are used to track vehicles. The whole monitoring process is as following. Firstly, secondary selected strategy is used to construct background

Yonghong Long; Xiyu Xiao; Xiaohua Shu; Shenglan Chen

2010-01-01

215

A study of road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In Saudi Arabia, with its rapid expansion of road construction and increase in the number of vehicles, road traffic accidents are becoming a serious public health problem. The object of this paper is to discuss the magnitude of this problem and to compare the situation with that of other rich, developing countries which have also had rapid expansion of road construction and increase in the number of vehicles. It appears that Saudi Arabia has lower accident rates but higher casualty and fatality rates than Kuwait. PMID:3358837

Ofosu, J B; Abouammoh, A M; Bener, A

1988-04-01

216

Vehicle Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1966, a decision was made to go on a plant-wide pooling basis with no vehicles assigned to individuals. After investigation, it was decided that some of the vehicles formerly used as pools should be classified as functional. Pool vehicles are...

J. E. Harding

1976-01-01

217

[Accidents of fulguration].  

PubMed

Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous investigations. PMID:1008283

Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

218

Improving unmanned aerial vehicle pilot training and operation for flying in cluttered environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future applications will bring unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to new environments such as urban areas, causing a change in the way that UAVs are currently operated. However, UAV accidents still occur at a much higher rate than the accident rate for commercial airliners. Therefore, there is a need to better train UAV pilots and augment their performance to minimize accidents.

James T. Hing; Keith W. Sevcik; Paul Y. Oh

2009-01-01

219

32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of traffic accident investigation report data. 634.30...ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.30 Use of traffic...

2013-07-01

220

Uncertainty of calculation results in vehicle collision analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analysis of road accidents two types of calculation result uncertainty can be distinguished: modelling uncertainty and uncertainty in calculation results [R.M. Brach, M. Brach, Vehicle Accident Analysis & Reconstruction Methods, SAE International Publisher, Warrendale, 2005]. The problem becomes very important first of all when minor modifications of input parameters or application of different models of the phenomenon lead

Wojciech Wach; Jan Unarski

2007-01-01

221

I.A.V. method for pedestrians accidents reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  This work aims to introduce the “I.A.V. METHOD” ( Instituto de Accidentología Vial) for pedestrians accident reconstruction.\\u000a This method allows to correct some of the disadvanteges from traditionally used methods to determine the vehicle’s speed in\\u000a pedestrians’s impact cases. Among these disadvantages we can mention: They are valid only for some of the typical trajectories\\u000a of pedestrians. For its application

Víctor Irureta

2010-01-01

222

Accident cause analysis method based on traffic accident information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the characteristics of data base and data of road traffic accident in China. On the basis of specific analysis of accident cause, this article offers classification and layer for accident data of road traffic accident information system in China, provides traffic accident causes analysis method based on rough set and gives quantitative analysis for the contribution of

Xi Jianfeng; Chen Xiaodong; Wang Shuangwei; Zhurong Tao

2010-01-01

223

[Trends in traffic accidents in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil: the increasing involvement of motorcyclists].  

PubMed

In order to describe trends in traffic accidents, mortality, vehicle types, fleet sizes, and victims' characteristics in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2008, this study analyzed vehicle rates, traffic accident rates per inhabitant and per vehicle, case-fatality rates, proportional mortality, mortality rates, and rates ratios. The motorcycle fleet increased 241%. Although the case-fatality rate of motorcycle users from 2000 to 2008 decreased, in 2008 they accounted for 49.3% of fatal accidents on public byways in Campinas. Motorcycles were responsible for the highest run-over rate (66.7 pedestrians/1,000 accidents) and highest pedestrian fatality rate (4 deaths/1,000 accidents). Men showed much higher mortality rates than women. Pedestrian victims were mainly elderly; most vehicle occupants in traffic accidents were in the 15 to 29-year age bracket. From 2006 to 2008, nearly 80% of vehicle users 15 to 39 years of age were motorcyclists. Motorcycle accident prevention should be a priority, using multi-institutional measures. PMID:22267064

Marín-León, Leticia; Belon, Ana Paula; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Almeida, Solange Duarte de Mattos; Restitutti, Maria Cristina

2012-01-01

224

Contiguous HOV Lane Safety: A Before and After Comparison of Accident Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research studies have investigated increases in accident rates related to high occupancy vehicle (HOV) freeway lanes. Accidents were found to be concentrated at ingress\\/egress locations for barrier- or buffer-separated HOV lanes. However, in Northern California, HOV lanes on freeways are contiguous. That is, the HOV lane is immediately adjacent to the other lanes of traffic so that entering and

Carol Pearce; David Stanek

225

Risk evaluation of real-time accident scenarios in the transport of hazardous material on road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to tackle the complex problem of integrating real-time data information about the tracking of a hazardous material (hazmat) vehicle with classical risk evaluation methodologies in order to describe possible accident scenarios. The application deals with the transport of hydrocarbon dangerous goods, where the accident consequences may involve the population exposed along the infrastructure used for

Angela Maria Tomasoni; Emmanuel Garbolino; Massimo Rovatti; Roberto Sacile

2010-01-01

226

RULE MINING AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS USING ADAPTIVE REGRESSION TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic accidents are among the top leading causes of deaths and injuries of various levels. Ethiopia is experiencing highest rate of such accidents resulting in fatalities and various levels of injuries. Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, takes the lion's share of the risk having higher number of vehicles and traffic and the cost of these fatalities and

TIBEBE BESHAH TESEMA; AJITH ABRAHAM; CRINA GROSAN

227

Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents, 1987. Center for National Truck Statistics. (Version October 19, 1990).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides weighted and unweighted one-way frequencies for all the vehicles in UMTRI's file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents, 1987. The file combines the coverage of the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) data with the detail of the Offi...

D. Blower L. Pettis K. P. Sullivan

1990-01-01

228

The use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances by victims of traffic accidents in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol is one of the main causes of traffic accidents worldwide. Its use decreases significantly the driving ability of an individual as well as the reflexes of a pedestrian increasing in this way the possibilities of their involvement in motor-vehicle accidents. The above possibilities are increased when a psychoactive substance has been taken in combination with alcohol due to their

Sotiris Athanaselis; Artemis Dona; Stavroula Papadodima; Giannis Papoutsis; Costas Maravelias; Antonios Koutselinis

1999-01-01

229

Current situation analysis and safety countermeasure study on road traffic accidents in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of economy and continuous improvement of people's purchase ability in China, the motor vehicles ownership is increasing rapidly, so as the traffic accidents and traffic death toll, which make the road traffic situation in China worse and worse. According to data on the national road traffic accidents from 1990 to 2007, the characteristics of road traffic

Weigao Qiao; Bo Shang

2011-01-01

230

Underreporting in traffic accident data, bias in parameters and the structure of injury severity models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injury severities in traffic accidents are usually recorded on ordinal scales, and statistical models have been applied to investigate the effects of driver factors, vehicle characteristics, road geometrics and environmental conditions on injury severity. The unknown parameters in the models are in general estimated assuming random sampling from the population. Traffic accident data however suffer from underreporting effects, especially for

Toshiyuki Yamamoto; Junpei Hashiji; Venkataraman N. Shankar

2008-01-01

231

Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents, 1986. Center for National Truck Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides one-way frequencies for all the vehicles in UMTRI's file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents, 1986. The file combines the coverage of the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) data with the detail of the Office of Motor Carriers (OM...

D. Blower L. Pettis K. P. Sullivan

1990-01-01

232

Harm effect distances evaluation of severe accidents for gaseous hydrogen refueling station  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of large-scale fell cell vehicle demonstration project worldwide, the global number of hydrogen refueling stations has increased rapidly in recent years. The external safety of hydrogen refueling stations has always been a public concern for its further development. This paper examines the harm effect distances of severe accidents for a gaseous hydrogen refueling station. First, different accident

Li Zhiyong; Pan Xiangmin; Ma Jianxin

2010-01-01

233

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

234

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

235

Injury protection and accident causation parameters for vulnerable road users based on German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS.  

PubMed

Within a study of accident data from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study), vulnerable road users are investigated regarding injury risk in traffic accidents. GIDAS is the largest in-depth accident study in Germany. Due to a well-defined sampling plan, representativeness with respect to the federal statistics is also guaranteed. A hierarchical system ACASS (Accident Causation Analysis with Seven Steps) was developed in GIDAS, describing the human causation factors in a chronological sequence. The accordingly classified causation factors - derived from the systematic of the analysis of human accident causes ("7 steps") - can be used to describe the influence of accident causes on the injury outcome. The bases of the study are accident documentations over ten years from 1999 to 2008 with 8204 vulnerable road users (VRU), of which 3 different groups were selected as pedestrians n=2041, motorcyclists n=2199 and bicyclists n=3964, and analyzed on collisions with cars and trucks as well as vulnerable road users alone. The paper will give a description of the injury pattern and injury mechanisms of accidents. The injury frequencies and severities are pointed out considering different types of VRU and protective measures of helmet and clothes of the human body. The impact points are demonstrated on the car, following to conclusion of protective measures on the vehicle. Existing standards of protection devices as well as interdisciplinary research, including accident and injury statistics, are described. With this paper, a summarization of the existing possibilities on protective measures for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists is given and discussed by comparison of all three groups of vulnerable road users. Also the relevance of special impact situations and accident causes mainly responsible for severe injuries are pointed out, given the new orientation of research for the avoidance and reduction of accident patterns. PMID:22062349

Otte, Dietmar; Jänsch, Michael; Haasper, Carl

2011-01-07

236

Vehicle classification for road tunnel surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle classification for tunnel surveillance aims to not only retrieve vehicle class statistics, but also prevent accidents by recognizing vehicles carrying dangerous goods. In this paper, we describe a method to classify vehicle images that experience different geometrical variations and challenging photometrical conditions such as those found in road tunnels. Unlike previous approaches, we propose a classification method that does not rely on the length and height estimation of the vehicles. Alternatively, we propose a novel descriptor based on trace transform signatures to extract salient and non-correlated information of the vehicle images. Also, we propose a metric that measures the complexity of the vehicles' shape based on corner point detection. As a result, these features describe the vehicle's appearance and shape complexity independently of the scale, pose, and illumination conditions. Experiments with vehicles captured from three different cameras confirm the saliency and robustness of the features proposed, achieving an overall accuracy of 97.5% for the classification of four different vehicle classes. For vehicles transporting dangerous goods, our classification scheme achieves an average recall of 97.6% at a precision of 98.6% for the combination of lorries and tankers, which is a very good result considering the scene conditions.

Frías-Velázquez, Andrés.; Van Hese, Peter; Pižurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

2013-03-01

237

Driver Behavior and Situation Aware Brake Assistance for Intelligent Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the development of Human-Centric Intelligent Driver Assistance Systems. Rear-end collisions account for a large portion of traffic accidents. To help mitigate this problem, predictive braking systems and adaptive cruise control systems have been developed. However, these types of systems usually rely solely on the vehicle and vehicle surround sensors, either ignoring the human component of driving

Joel C. McCall; Mohan M. Trivedi

2007-01-01

238

MEASUREMENTS OF VISIBILITY FROM THE DRIVING SEAT OF MOTOR VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in daylight in clear conditions the driver's visibility, both forward and rearwurd, is restricted by the structure of the vehicle. Important sections of the view can be obscured ; thus a windscreen pillar can obscure a pedestrian Or cyclist until it is too late to avoid an accident. A given vehicle has certain visibility characteristics. The work described in

R. A. C. FOSBERRY

1958-01-01

239

Acoustic Accident Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we considered the development of a system for automatically detecting and reporting traffic accidents at intersections. A system with these properties would be a great benefit in determining the cause of accidents and could also be useful in determining features of the intersection that relate to safety. A complete system would automatically detect and record traffic conditions

Charles Harlow; Yu Wang

2002-01-01

240

Civil aircraft accident investigation.  

PubMed

This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

Haines, Daniel

2013-01-01

241

Sport accidents in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries among children during sporting activities are common. This study is a one year study including children between five and fourteen years of age who sustained their injuries during sporting activities and were treated at Trondheim Regional and University Hospital. Sport accidents account for 27 per cent of all childhood accidents in this age group. Fifty-three per cent of the

Y Sahlin

1990-01-01

242

Research by accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article addresses the issue of uncertainty in technological knowledge. “Research by accident” is seen as a central cognitive process to generate (unanticipated) knowledge about the characteristics of a technology. In the example of nuclear weapons, scientific programs have initially led to a sequency of unanticipated discoveries — a process of research by accident that subsequently reveals properties and characteristics

Thomas C. Schelling

1996-01-01

243

Anatomy of an Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

Mobley, Michael

1984-01-01

244

Highway Lighting to Prevent Deer-Auto Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Deer vehicle accidents have been the cause of considerable property damage and the loss of biotic resources. This is especially the case in rural areas in mountainous terrain where nighttime driver visibility is poor. The purpose of this research was to d...

D. F. Reed T. N. Woodard T. D. I. Beck

1977-01-01

245

Causal models for road accident fatalities in Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An identification of the causes of road accident fatalities is becoming more important with the growth of technology, population, number of vehicles and the need for their use. Many authors have addressed the problem in the past but no universal findings have been obtained. The problem tends to be different under different environments and for different geographical regions. The aim

Jamal R. M Ameen; Jamil A Naji

2001-01-01

246

Evaluation of emergency braking deceleration for accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tire–road coefficient of friction is often used to estimate stopping distances and other aspects of accident reconstruction. The actual value that must be used in the calculations is often obtained from published data and sometimes measured on-site. While it depends mainly on tires, road surface, ambient conditions and speed, the effective stopping capability of a vehicle is influenced also by

D. Vangi; A. Virga

2007-01-01

247

Killer crashes: fatal road traffic accidents in the UK.  

PubMed

Road traffic accidents are responsible for over 3000 deaths per year in the UK, according to Department for Transport (2004a) figures. Although progress is being made in a number of areas, vehicle occupant fatalities have not been falling in line with casualty reduction targets for the year 2010. A sample of 1185 fatal vehicle occupant cases was considered, from ten UK police forces, from the years 1994-2005 inclusive. The main findings were: (1) over 65% of the accidents examined involved driving at excessive speed, a driver in excess of the legal alcohol limit, or the failure to wear a seat belt by a fatality, or some combination of these. (2) Young drivers have the great majority of their accidents by losing control on bends or curves, typically at night in rural areas and/or while driving for 'leisure' purposes. These accidents show high levels of speeding, alcohol involvement and recklessness. (3) Older drivers had fewer accidents, but those fatalities they were involved in tended to involve misjudgement and perceptual errors in 'right of way' collisions, typically in the daytime on rural rather than urban roads. Blameworthy right of way errors were notably high for drivers aged over 65 years, as a proportion of total fatal accidents in that age group. PMID:20159105

Clarke, David D; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig; Truman, Wendy

2009-12-23

248

Attributions of responsibility for motor vehicle crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 321 motor vehicle crash survivors completed a survey in which they provided attribution ratings of the extent to which they were responsible for their crashes, other people (drivers) were responsible, or road\\/weather conditions were responsible. The attribution ratings were consistent with the predictions of defensive attribution theory (DAT; [Walster, E., 1966. Assignment of responsibility for an accident.

Alan E. Stewart

2005-01-01

249

Lateral Stability of Towed Flexible Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highway transport of mobile homes is a matter of concern for the increasingly safety-minded driving public. The low speeds of towed vehicles necessary to maintain stability, together with the requirements for excessive lane widths due to clearance for the lateral motion, result in increased likelihood of traffic accidents, impeded traffic flow, and reduced highway capacity. A safe increase in

Jeries ABOU-HANNA; Charles R. EVCES; James L. HILL

1988-01-01

250

Real time lane detection for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing safety and reducing road accidents, thereby saving lives are one of great interest in the context of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Apparently, among the complex and challenging tasks of future road vehicles is road lane detection or road boundaries detection. It is based on lane detection (which includes the localization of the road, the determination of the relative

A. A. M. Assidiq; O. O. Khalifa; R. Islam; S. Khan

2008-01-01

251

The interaction of lightning with airborne vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the available information on the mechanisms of lightning-aircraft interactions based primarily on studies involving four different instrumented aircraft. Further, we present available statistics on lightning-related aircraft incidents as a function of aircraft altitude and of ambient temperature. Finally, we examine the most significant aircraft and launch vehicle accidents attributed to lightning.

M. A. Uman; V. A. Rakov

2003-01-01

252

Nonintrusive Biosignal Measurement System in a Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of driver's state is important in both daily healthcare and prevention of car accidents. Existing measurement methods, however, are too complex and uncomfortable to measure for everyday. A nonintrusive biosignal monitoring system is demanded for increasing the accessibility. In this paper, we proposed a nonintrusive measurement system integrated in a vehicle for recording electrocardiographic (ECG) signals and tested the

Haet Bit Lee; Jong Min Choi; Jung Soo Kim; Yun Seong Kim; Hyun Jae Baek; Myung Suk Ryu; Ryang Hee Sohn; Kwang Suk Park

2007-01-01

253

Analysis of traffic accident injury severity on Spanish rural highways using Bayesian networks.  

PubMed

Several different factors contribute to injury severity in traffic accidents, such as driver characteristics, highway characteristics, vehicle characteristics, accidents characteristics, and atmospheric factors. This paper shows the possibility of using Bayesian Networks (BNs) to classify traffic accidents according to their injury severity. BNs are capable of making predictions without the need for pre assumptions and are used to make graphic representations of complex systems with interrelated components. This paper presents an analysis of 1536 accidents on rural highways in Spain, where 18 variables representing the aforementioned contributing factors were used to build 3 different BNs that classified the severity of accidents into slightly injured and killed or severely injured. The variables that best identify the factors that are associated with a killed or seriously injured accident (accident type, driver age, lighting and number of injuries) were identified by inference. PMID:21094338

de Oña, Juan; Mujalli, Randa Oqab; Calvo, Francisco J

2010-10-20

254

Vehicle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

1993-02-01

255

An Effective Message Flooding Method for Vehicle Safety Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent vehicle safety system can be constructed by exchanging emergency-related information between any unrelated\\u000a vehicles, such as urgency stop, traffic accident, and obstacles. In the most of vehicle safety communication applications,\\u000a an emergency message is propagated in the form of broadcasting. However, it causes a lot of problems in terms of efficiency\\u000a due to the multi-hop propagation and radio

Sukdea Yu; Gihwan Cho

2006-01-01

256

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. 25. Single Car High-Speed Off-The-Road Collision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The single car, high-speed off-the-road accident took place on Durham County RPR 1182. The single vehicle involved was a 1969 Ford 2-door Fairlane 500. The vehicle was traveling north when, during a passing maneuver, it failed to negotiate a left-hand cur...

1970-01-01

257

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. 19E1170. Car/Car, Intersection Collision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accident occurred at the intersection of the West Bank Expressway and Cohen Street, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana on Monday, May 11, 1970, at 9:35 p.m. involving two passenger cars, one a police vehicle. The private vehicle entered the intersection into...

J. K. Wickstrom C. B. McCarthy J. G. Hair M. S. Samuels

1970-01-01

258

Research of Speed Model and Simulation Based on Vehicle Braking Tyre Imprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

For accurately calculating the former speed of vehicle braking, by analyzing the vehicle wheels braking-forces, and considering the changing position of gravity center and the speed changing of braking-force during time increasing, constructing the vehicle speed calculating models which is based on tyre imprint. Considering the variety types of tyre printing on accident site and the requirements for quickly and

Wang Shuda; Xiao Jingyang; Han Xuena

2009-01-01

259

A Selective Flooding Method for Propagating Emergency Messages in Vehicle Safety Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent vehicle safety system can be constructed by exchanging emergency-related information between any unrelated vehicles, such as urgency stop, traffic accident, and obstacles. In the most of vehicle safety communication applications, an emergency message is propagated in the form of broadcasting. However, it causes a lot of problems in terms of efficiency due to the multi-hop propagation and radio

Sukdea Yu; Gihwan Cho

2006-01-01

260

Cardiac injuries in car occupants in fatal motor vehicle collisions – An autopsy-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle accidents contribute widely to population morbidity and mortality around the world, and cardiac injuries are a major factor determining outcome. Autopsy reports from 380 motor vehicle occupants who died in motor vehicle crashes in Adelaide, Australia, and Hamburg, Germany, over a 6-year period were reviewed, analysing the presence and type of cardiac injuries and their correlation with factors

Elisabeth E. Turk; Yee-Wah Tsang; Anisha Champaneri; Klaus Pueschel; Roger W. Byard

2010-01-01

261

Site and landscape conditions at white-tailed deer\\/vehicle collision locations in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle collisions with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) present several problems including danger to humans, vehicle damage, and deer mortality. Knowledge of factors influencing deer movements onto or across roads and highways may reduce deer\\/vehicle collisions on existing roads, and improve planning for future roads. We used remotely sensed data to determine characteristics associated with high accident areas. Topographic features

Rebecca A. Finder; John L. Roseberry; Alan Woolf

1999-01-01

262

Persistence of airline accidents.  

PubMed

This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

2010-10-01

263

[Road accidents morbidity and mortality in district of Vrancea].  

PubMed

Nowadays, road accidents represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The present paper is a descriptive study of the most important factors involved in road accidents appearance from the district of Vrancea, in year 2001 and assesses the gravity of premature deaths using potential years of lost life (PYLL). In this district, the level of PYLL due to road accidents in male is significant higher in comparison with female (964 and respectively 408), these data being in concordance with PYLL of the entire country. The most frequent causes involved in road accidents are related to human factor and less to vehicle or road conditions. This category of trauma and deaths may be entirely prevented through educational, law, control or technical measures and using descriptive epidemiological data regarding road traffic. PMID:14974230

Duma, Odetta

264

Physician Flight Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of physician flight accidents during the period 1964-1965 is presented. More than thirty physicians sustained fatal injuries while piloting light aircraft: a fatality record four times the ratio of physician pilots in the general aviation pilo...

S. R. Mohler S. F. Freud J. E. Veregge E. L. Umberger

1966-01-01

265

Accident Risk Forecasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography represents literature acquired since the establishment of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in 1967, as related to accident forecasting. It is comprised of NHTSA contract reports, reports of other organizations c...

L. Flynn

1977-01-01

266

Safety Is No Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Liability suits involving accidents in park and recreation areas are expensive and intangible costs are incalculable. Risk management practices related to park planning, personnel, and administrative practices are discussed. (MT)|

Christiansen, Monty L.

1985-01-01

267

FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included....

268

Accident management information needs  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-04-01

269

Identifying roadway sections with ''critical'' large truck accident rates  

SciTech Connect

A technique for merging accident record and roadway inventory files and for utilizing the combined data set to identify sections of a rural interstate highway system that have unusually high accident rates involving large truck vehicles is presented here as a prototype of the accident probability methodology. This statistical technique, known as the rate/quality control method, involves calculating a ''critical rate'' for each roadway section. This critical rate is a function of the traffic volume on the section, the overall systemwide accident rate, and a desired level of statistical significance. Observed accident rates on each section are then compared to the section's critical rate sections are ranked according to their ''criticality,'' that is, the numerical difference between their observed and ''critical'' rates. With ongoing data collection efforts and concomitant improvements in data quality, particularly involving large truck accident rates, the technique may ultimately have application to the formulation of routing decisions regarding the transport of radioactive or other hazardous materials and in the evaluation of routing alternatives. Subsequent sections of the paper describe in detail the rate/quality control technique and its application to a state-wide rural interstate highway network, develop the computer code for merging the accident and inventory files, and describe the selection of critical roadway sections. Conclusions and recommendations for further work follow. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Brogan, J.D.; Cashwell, J.W.

1989-01-01

270

Proposed Method for Estimating Traffic Accident Risk Factors Based on Object Tracking and Behavior Prediction Using Particle Filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traffic accident prediction method using a priori knowledge based on accident data is proposed for safe driving support. Implementation is achieved by an algorithm using particle filtering and fuzzy inference to estimate accident risk factors. With this method, the distance between the host vehicle and a vehicle ahead and their relative velocity and relative acceleration are obtained from the results of particle filtering of driving data and are used as attributes to build the relative driving state space. The attributes are evaluated as likelihoods and then consolidated as a risk level using fuzzy inference. Experimental validation was done using videos of general driving situations obtained with an on-vehicle CCD camera and one simulated accident situation created based on the video data. The results show that high risk levels were calculated with the proposed method in the early stages of the accident situations.

Natori, Youichi; Kawamoto, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Hirota, Kaoru

271

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1997-02-11

272

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1998-08-11

273

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

274

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

275

Introduction of Child Safety Seat Legislation in Virginia: Types and Levels of Community Response and Effects on Automobile Accident Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1983 Virginia legislated child safety seat use for children under four years of age riding in motor vehicles. This project explored two major issues: legislative impact on changes in accident statistics for the year immediately following legislation, a...

R. B. Montague

1984-01-01

276

Motorcycle accidents, rider behaviour, and psychological models.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to: (a) investigate the factor structure of the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) [Elliott, M.A., Baughan, B.J., Sexton, B.F., 2007. Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists' crash risk. Accident Analysis and Prevention 39, 491-499] in among Turkish riders, and (b) study the relationships between different types of rider behaviour and motorcyclists' active and passive accidents and offences, and (c) investigate the usefulness of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Health Belief Model (HBM), and Locus of Control (T-LOC) in explaining rider behaviours. MRBQ was administered to a sample of motorcyclists (N=451). Principal components analysis yielded a 5-factor solution including traffic errors, control errors, speed violations, performance of stunts, and use of safety equipment. Annual mileage was related to higher number of active and passive accidents and offences whereas age was related to lower number of active and passive accidents. Stunts were the main predictors of active accidents and offences. Speeding violations predicted offences. Stunts and speeding violations were associated with the fate factor of the T-LOC, and with attitudes, subjective norms, and intention components of TPB, and cues to action and perceived severity components of the HBM. Use of safety equipment was related to the high level of perceived behavioural control and intention components of the TPB, the low score of perceived barriers component of the HBM, and the low fate factor of the T-LOC. While traffic errors were associated with the high score of perceived barriers and cues to action component of the HBM, control errors were related to the high score of vehicle and environment factor of the T-LOC. PMID:23036389

Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo; Do?ruyol, Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Zümrüt; Çoymak, Ahmet

2011-04-02

277

Virtopsy—noninvasive detection of occult bone lesions in postmortem MRI: additional information for traffic accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traffic accidents with pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists, patterned impact injuries as well as marks on clothes can\\u000a be matched to the injury-causing vehicle structure in order to reconstruct the accident and identify the vehicle which has\\u000a hit the person. Therefore, the differentiation of the primary impact injuries from other injuries is of great importance.\\u000a Impact injuries can be identified

Ursula Buck; Andreas Christe; Silvio Naether; Steffen Ross; Michael J. Thali

2009-01-01

278

Work-related versus non-work-related road accidents, developments in the last decade in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to analyze the changes that have affected work-related road accidents between 1997 and 2006, using police data. The study focused on drivers aged between 14 and 64 years. The characteristics considered were the age, gender, type of vehicle and occupation of the individuals involved and the location, time and severity of the accident. Two

Barbara Charbotel; Jean Louis Martin; Mireille Chiron

2010-01-01

279

A method of limiting pressure build-up in motorcycle gasoline tanks due to tank deformation in an accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most motorcycle accidents are angle collisions, constituting 57% of the multi vehicle accidents. In some of these collisions, the motorcycle gasoline tank is dented, decreasing the internal volume and increasing the internal pressure. If this happens when the gasoline tank is full, or nearly full, the pressure build-up can be quite severe, blowing off the gasoline tank cap and drenching

M. A. Erza; A. H. Erza

1982-01-01

280

Accidents in Childhood  

PubMed Central

The causes of injury to 17,141 children brought to the emergency department of a large pediatric hospital in one year were studied. The leading causes of injury were: falls, 5682; cuts or piercings, 1902; poisonings, 1597; and transportation accidents, 1368. Included in these are 587 falls on or down stairs, 401 cuts due to glass, 630 poisonings from household or workshop substances, 510 poisonings from salicylate tablets, and 449 accidents involving bicycles or tricycles. Other findings included 333 injuries to fingers or hands in doors, usually car doors; 122 instances of pulled arms; 384 ingestions and 53 inhalations of foreign bodies; 60 alleged sexual assaults, 58 chemical burns, 127 wringer injuries, and four attempted suicides. A rewarding opportunity in accident prevention exists for hospitals that undertake to compile and distribute pertinent source data.

Keddy, J. Arthur

1964-01-01

281

Accident prevention manual  

SciTech Connect

Among the many common needs and goals are the safety and well-being of families, ourselves, fellow employees, and the continuing success of this organization. To these ends--minimizing human suffering and economic waste--the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Accident Prevention Program and this Accident Prevention Manual (APM) are dedicated. The BPA Accident Prevention Program is revised as necessary to ensure compliance with relevant Federal safety and health standards. The mandatory rules herein express minimum requirements for dealing with the principal hazards inherent in daily work activities. These and other written requirements, which neither can nor should provide complete coverage of all work situations, must be continually reinforced through the sound and mature safety judgments of all workers on each assigned task. In the event of conflicting judgments, the more conservative interpretation shall prevail pending review and resolution by management.

Not Available

1998-05-01

282

The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.  

PubMed

The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

2012-08-01

283

Vehicle structure  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a vehicle which includes a frame, a steerable wheel mounted on the frame and at least one further wheel mounted for free rotation on the frame. A flywheel is mounted for rotation adjacent one of the wheels. The vehicle includes means for imparting rotation to the flywheel, and a clutch plate rotatably and coaxially mounted adjacent the same wheel to which the flywheel is adjacent. Speed-reduction means allows rotation of the flywheel to rotate the clutch plate at a faster rate than the flywheel, and a frictionless clutch is provided between the clutch plate and the adjacent wheel.

Stroud, E.A.

1984-05-01

284

Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with

James W. Blanchard

1992-01-01

285

Prevention of nervous system trauma from travel in motor vehicles.  

PubMed

Brain and spinal cord injuries are a frequent cause of death and long-term disability in motor vehicle accidents. Helmet use reduces death and head injury severity in motorcycle accidents. Proper use of child restraints can prevent death from falls and vehicle crashes. Auto lap and shoulder restraints, when in use, reduce death from accidents and falls from cars. Passive protections, such as air bags, vehicle design for crashworthiness, and automatic seatbelt systems are less available for economic reasons. Voluntary use of available devices is the remaining viable option. One-to-one education may help promote use of protective devices. The greatest impact lies in legislative requirements for self-protection. It is ethically justifiable to require use of devices such as child restraints, seatbelts, and motorcycle helmets to prevent death and disability. PMID:3845964

Lipe, H P

1985-04-01

286

Shielding Factors for Vehicles to gamma Radiation from Activity Deposited on Structures and Ground Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a measuring procedure for the determination of shielding factors for vehicles passing through areas that have been contaminated by activity released to the atmosphere from a reactor accident. A simulated radiation field from fallout ...

B. Lauridsen P. Hedemann Jensen

1982-01-01

287

FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident.

Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

2009-01-01

288

Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: All over the world motorcycle accident are one of the major causes of road death and injury. This study aimed to determine the pattern of Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Mashhad-Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 to analyze the epidemiological pattern of the motorcycle accident in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Three hundred fifty cases of motorcycle accidents were included. Data gathering tool was a standard questionnaire. The compiled data were analyzed using SPSS11 and ?2 test. The significance level was considered 0.05 in all statistical tests. Results: In the time span of the study, 350 cases of motorcycle accident occurred, most of which happened at 8pm to 12pm. In 119 cases, the motorcyclist was the blameful rider. Generally, 84.2% of the motorcycle riders did not have safety helmets. About two third of blameful motorcycle riders (63.1%) were less than 25 years old. The major cause of the accidents (55.1%) was due to neglecting the Yield Right of Way. Motorcycle riders endanger pedestrian, other drivers, passengers and their own life. Conclusion: Paying attention to cultural and instructional issues of correct motorcycle riding and performing appropriate monitoring in traffic and transportation system such as honoring our and others safety and setting limitations on using this vehicle by the youth is of great importance.

Vafaee-Najar, A; Esmaeili, H; Ibrahimipour, H; Dehnavieh, R; Nozadi, M Seyyed

2010-01-01

289

The epistemics of accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human intervention has played a critical role in the causes of many major accidents. At Three Mile Island, the operators isolated a reactor from its heat sink. The pilots of the Boeing 737 at Kegworth managed to shut down their one functioning engine. Staff continued to allow trains to deposit passengers in Kings’ Cross after the fire had started. In

C. W. Johnson

1997-01-01

290

Accident and emergency monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a set of practical quality audit criteria relevant to the examination of nursing care delivered to patients and relatives in hospital Accident and Emergency (A & E) departments. The project was initiated by senior nurse managers at the North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, UK, conducted in partnership with Leeds Polytechnic (now the Leeds Metropolitan University),

J. Dutton

1995-01-01

291

Stress, violations and accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of stress among Western Australian car and truck drivers were investigated using an extended version of the Driver Behaviour Inventory (DBI) developed by Gulian et a\\/(1989). The associations between reported stress and drivers' accident or violation records were also examined. The DBI was mailed to two groups each of 500 truck drivers with 'high' or 'low' traffic violation involvements

L. R. Hartley; J. El Hassani

1994-01-01

292

Accident characterization methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe accident issues. In support of NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories has directed the production of Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for the

A. L. Camp; F. T. Harper

1986-01-01

293

1976 Hanford Americium Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substa...

K. R. Heid B. D. Breitenstein H. E. Palmer B. J. McMurray N. Wald

1979-01-01

294

Profile of an Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Depicts two helicopter crashes which happen on the same day, within the same area, not because of chance or fate, but because of carelessness and hastiness. Procedures are outlined by the accident investigation board as to why the mishaps occured, and why...

1994-01-01

295

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

Box, W.D.

1996-03-12

296

Vehicle emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

297

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

298

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

299

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

300

Factors Associated with Fatal Traffic Accidents in Tirana, Albania: Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the prevalence of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana, Albania, and describe their determinants. Methods This cross-sectional study included all road traffic accidents recorded by the Traffic Police Department of Tirana district for the period 2000-2005. A structured questionnaire included information about the type of traffic accident (fatal vs non-fatal event), year of event, age and sex of the responsible party, reason of accident, location and time of event, and the type of vehicle involved. Multivariable-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of fatal road traffic accidents. Results Overall, there were 1578 recorded road traffic accidents in Tirana district during 2000-2005. Of these, 272 (17%) were fatal. Multivariable-adjusted models showed that younger age (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 2.28-6.91), high speed (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.62-3.98), and especially alcohol consumption (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 3.54-10.66) were strong and significant predictors of fatal accidents. Fatal accidents were more prevalent on intercity roads (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 3.11-5.82) and involved especially vans and trucks (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 2.34-7.24). Conclusion Young age, high speed, and alcohol are predictors of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana district. These findings can serve as a basis for health care professionals and policymakers to create preventive measures for traffic accidents.

Qirjako, Gentiana; Burazeri, Genc; Hysa, Bajram; Roshi, Enver

2008-01-01

301

Development of probabilistic pedestrian fatality model for characterizing pedestrian-vehicle collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedestrian-related accidents are considered to be the most serious of traffic accidents due to the associated high fatality\\u000a rates. In Korea, pedestrian fatalities accounted for approximately 40% of all traffic-related fatalities in 2004. Significant\\u000a efforts have been made to develop effective countermeasures for pedestrian-vehicle collisions. A basis for devising such countermeasures\\u000a is to understand the characteristics of pedestrian-vehicle collisions. This

C. Oh; Y. S. Kang; Y. Youn; A. Konosu

2008-01-01

302

Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory where the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows

Nancy Leveson; Mirna Daouk; Nicolas Dulac; Karen Marais

2003-01-01

303

The use of impairment for establishing accident injury research priorities  

SciTech Connect

Various approaches to establishing research priorities are reviewed and the desirability of a life based rather than an economic based metric is discussed. The concept of using impairment for this purpose is explored. The development of a data base covering the impairment resulting from motor vehicle crashes is described, based on the incidence and demographic data in the 1982-1984 National Accident Sampling System (NASS), standard life tables, and factors for whole-body impairment. A similar analysis was made of the years of life lost as the result of motor vehicle crashes using 1985 Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) data and standard life tables. Examples are presented on how these data could be used to establish priorities.

Luchter, S.

1987-01-01

304

Application of Composite Grey BP Neural Network Forecasting Model to Motor Vehicle Fatality Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate mathematical model for describing traffic accidents is difficult to be constructed due to various factors such as humans, vehicles and environments. To achieve a better estimation of traffic crashes, a novel composite grey BP neural network (CGBNN) model is presented in this paper. First, the original predicted values of traffic accidents are separately obtained by the GM (1,1)

Xinglin Zhu

2010-01-01

305

Gender equality and the sex differential in mortality from accidents in high income nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their neglect by researchers relative to other causes of death, motor vehicle and other accidents contribute substantially to sex differences in mortality and address theoretical debates over the consequences of gender equality. A reduction-in-protection hypothesis argues that gender equality reduces the female advantage in accident mortality, a reduction-in-inequality hypothesis argues that gender equality increases the advantage, and an institutional

Fred C. Pampel

2001-01-01

306

Virtual Reconstruction of Two Types of Traffic Accident by the Tire Marks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the development of simulation technology, the numerical methods can help to reconstruct the traffic accidents. Based\\u000a on the dynamic models of collisions, a Momentum\\/Energy method to predict the pre-impact motion was introduced through the\\u000a optimization of the rest positions of the vehicles. With the help of Pc-Crash, the method of traffic accident reconstruction\\u000a can be achieved, and several simulation

Xiaoyun Zhang; Xianlong Jin; Jie Shen

2006-01-01

307

Automatic determination of traffic accidents based on KMC-based attribute weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the traffic accidents recognizing risk factors related to the environmental (climatological) conditions that\\u000a are associated with motor vehicles accidents on the Konya-Afyonkarahisar highway with the aid of Geographical Information\\u000a Systems (GIS) have been determined using the combination of K-means clustering (KMC)-based attribute weighting (KMCAW) and\\u000a classifier algorithms including artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference

Kemal Polat; S. Sava? Durduran

308

Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

309

Vehicle Controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

1985-01-01

310

Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study.  

PubMed

A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug < multiple drugs < alcohol only < alcohol+drugs. For single substance use: medicinal drug or THC < amphetamine/methamphetamine < alcohol. For most substances, higher ORs were found when studying drivers involved in single vehicle accidents than for those involved in multiple vehicle accidents, but confidence intervals were wider. PMID:21376919

Gjerde, Hallvard; Normann, Per T; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Mørland, Jørg

2011-01-21

311

Injuries and Fatalities in All-Terrain Vehicle Crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a All-terrain vehicles (ATV) are gasoline-powered vehicles with a bicycle-like seat for the rider and handle bars for steering.\\u000a They have large soft tires designed to provide optimal traction in the irregular terrain encountered in off-road conditions.\\u000a Although compared to road traffic accidents involving cars, bikes, and pedestrians, ATV crash victims constitute a relatively\\u000a small group of trauma victims, the forensic

Richard J. Mullins; J. H. Mullins

312

Accident prevention manual  

SciTech Connect

Among our many common needs and goals are the safety and well-being of our families, ourselves, our fellow employees, and the continuing success of our organization. To these ends--minimizing human suffering and economic waste--the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Accident Prevention Program and this Accident Prevention Manual (APM) are dedicated. The BPA Accident Prevention Program is revised as necessary to ensure compliance with relevant Federal safety and health standards. The mandatory rules herein express minimum requirements for dealing with the principal hazards inherent in daily work activities. These and other written requirements, which neither can nor should provide complete coverage of all work situations, must be continually reinforced through the sound and mature safety judgments of all workers on each assigned task. The APM is divided into two distinct sections: (1) Rules, and (2) Switching and Clearance Procedure (Operating Bulletin No. 2). For added awareness, the life-or-death Safety Rules are captioned in red; both in the index and throughout the text.

Not Available

1996-06-01

313

The intriguing effects of ecstasy (MDMA) on cognitive function in mice subjected to a minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The use of ecstasy (MDMA) among young adults has dramatically increased over the years. Since MDMA may impair the users' driving\\u000a ability, the risk of being involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) is notably increased. Minimal traumatic brain injury\\u000a (mTBI) a common consequence of MVAs—produces short- and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To investigate the effects of an

Shahaf Edut; Vardit Rubovitch; Shaul Schreiber; Chaim G. Pick

2011-01-01

314

The effect of road characteristics on motorcycle accident in Batu east Java Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe of transportation on road is global problem with not only transportation problem, but also social teritory problem in sosial life. WHO pay attention to safe transportation on road to decide healthy day in the world 2004 with caption: Road Safety is no Accident. WHO is clariafy that road accident level in the world have to reach 1.2 mellion victim death and over 30 mellion injuries every year. As much 85% sacrifice death are accident in develop state, where vehicle number only 32% from vehicle number in the world. That becouse as the objective is to decide influence road charakteristics geometrics for motorcycle accident in Batu East Java Indonesia. Using some statistical analysis it is found that the best-fit motorcycle accident model is: Acc = 0,009F0,703exp(-0,334SW-0,361G+0.077S) Where: Acc = number of accident, F = Flow, pcu/hr, SW = shoulder width (m), S = speed, km/hr, G = Gradient (0,1) The model shows that the affecting factors are flow, shoulder width and speed, therefore local government should improve some related factor (flow, shoulder width, Gradient and speed) that can reduce the number of motorcycle accident at crossing road in Batu.

Abusini, Sobri

2013-09-01

315

[Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].  

PubMed

It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

Takada, Jun

2012-03-01

316

Motor vehicle crashes in roadway construction workzones: An analysis using narrative text from insurance claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle travel through roadway construction workzones has been shown to increase the risk of a crash. The number of workzones has increased due to recent congressional funding in 1991 for expanded roadway maintenance and repair. In this paper, we describe the characteristics and costs of motor vehicle crashes in roadway construction workzones. As opposed to using standard accident codes

Gary S. Sorock; Thomas A. Ranney; Mark R. Lehto

1996-01-01

317

A Perspective on Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries and Speeding in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess how high-speed driving of motor vehicles affects traffic safety in United Arab Emirates. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The motor vehicle accidents statistics used in this study were taken from the Ministry of Interior's Yearly Statistical Report and the Annual Reports of the Directorate of Traffic (Directorate of Traffic Annual Reports

Abdulbari Bener; R. Alwash

2002-01-01

318

Wind tunnel tests on heavy road vehicles: Cross wind induced loads—Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years, rollover has become an important safety issue for a large class of vehicles. Even though rollovers constitute a small percentage of all accidents, they have unproportionally large contribution to severe and fatal injuries. Under this point of view, rollover of heavy vehicles is particularly critical being associated with large traffic disruption, economic loss and risks connected

F. Cheli; R. Corradi; E. Sabbioni; G. Tomasini

2011-01-01

319

Human­Usable and Emergency Vehicle-Aware Control Policies for Autonomous Intersection Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic congestion and automobile accidents are two of the leading causes of decreased standard of living and lost productivity in ur- ban settings. Recent advances in artificial intelligence and, specif- ically, intelligent vehicle technology suggest that vehicles driven entirely by autonomous agents will be possible in the near future. In previous work, we presented a novel reservation-based approach for governing

Kurt Dresner; Peter Stone

2006-01-01

320

Challenges in the Tracking and Prediction of Scheduled-Vehicle Journeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of applications in areas such as logistics, cargo delivery, and collective transport involve the man- agement of fleets of vehicles that are expected to travel along known routes according to fixed schedules. Due to road construction, accidents, and other unanticipated con- ditions, the vehicles deviate from their schedules. At the same time, there is a need for the

Dalia Tiesyte; Christian S. Jensen

2007-01-01

321

Concepts for image management and communication system for space vehicle health management  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a space vehicle, the Crew Health Care System will handle minor accidents or illnesses immediately, thereby eliminating the necessity of early mission termination or emergency rescue. For practical reasons, only trained personnel with limited medical experience can be available on space vehicles to render preliminary health care. There is the need to communicate with medical experts at different locations

Yasser Alsafadi; Ralph Martinez

1993-01-01

322

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle for self-propelled travel over the ground and for increased efficiency while executing an inherently unstable maneuver such as turning, the vehicle comprising: a. a chassis having a forward end including; i. a body, and ii. wheel means for supporting the body above the ground; b. a drive unit having a forward end and a rearward end and including: i. a pair of laterally spaced steerable wheels for contacting the ground, the steerable wheels having a normal axis of rotation and; ii. power means for imparting rotation to at least one of the pair of steerable wheels; and c. coupling means for securing the drive unit to the chassis and for substantially equalizing the contribution of each of the pair of steerable wheels in directing and propelling the vehicle, the coupling means including; i. connection means pivotally joining the drive unit to the chassis forwardly of the body; ii. a first strut laterally spaced from the connection means and extending between the chassis and the drive unit; iii. a second strut laterally spaced from the connection means in a direction opposite from the lateral spacing of the first strut and extending between the chassis and the drive unit. Each of the strut has a first end movably affixed to the chassis and a second end movably affixed to the drive unit, the second end of each of the struts being affixed to the drive unit at a location spaced above and forward of the normal axis of rotation of the pair of steerable wheels.

Roe, D.A.; Harp, T.D.

1987-03-10

323

Vehicle barrier  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01

324

The randomness of accident counts.  

PubMed

Road accident occurrence is generally assumed to be governed by a random process. Experience analysing accident count series indicates a need for testing the randomness of such a series, and a simple statistical test is described. The test is a modified one-sample runs test, which can be used to assist the identification of three distinct patterns constituting non-randomness (namely, a trend, a discontinuity and over-correction). The test is designed for the preliminary analysis of accident count data, and its use is demonstrated, using both artificial and actual accident count series. PMID:3730092

Nicholson, A J

1986-06-01

325

Vehicle–road interaction modelling for estimation of contact forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper deals with appropriate modelling (of a vehicle and the tyre–road contact) for online estimation of contact forces. This model will be helpful for trajectory monitoring, for steering control and also for diagnosis to avoid accidents or detection of oversteering or understeering situations. A robust observer is developed for adaptive estimation of the contact forces.

N. K. Msirdi; A. Rabhi; N. Zbiri; Y. Delanne

2005-01-01

326

[Medical peculiarities and social effects of accidents with motorcycles].  

PubMed

During the period 1976 until 1982, 133 accident patients with two-cycle motor vehicles were treated at the traumatological Department of the Dr. Horst Schmidt Hospital. 80% of those patients were below or 21 years of age, 58.5% were undergoing training for professional work. 23.3% had suffered severe injuries (according to the Gögler scheme), 6.8% died as a result. Six out of nine dead patients were caused by severe head injuries, five of whom did not wear protective helmets. 37.7% cover all head injuries 5% more than injuries of the lower extremities (thigh and shins). The result of these accidents causes an enormous impact on those concerned as well as on the society. 32.3% interruptions and extensions of training periods and change of training for the youth became necessary. Treatment after admissions as in-patient (for minor injuries costs ca. DM 1000, for major injuries DM 20,000) costs about DM719,368,000 excluding costs for rents and auxiliary requirements which have not been taken into consideration. The invaluation of treatment of 133 accident cases with motorcycles has resulted in the following consideration: 1. Yearly publication of motor cycle accidents and its death tolls including cost sustained or prospective costs involved. 2. Strict rules concerning covering clothing. 3. Rigorous accident theching during driving lesions. 4. Security measures and its execution enforced by law to control the construction of motorized two cycle in consideration of optical and technical performance criteria. 5. Severe criticism of advertisers in usage of words like speed, performance and freedom which influence the youth without indicating the risks of the two-cycle vehicles. PMID:3455056

Tittel, K; Fichtner, K; Schauwecker, F

1987-12-01

327

A study of head–brain injuries in car-to-pedestrian crashes with reconstructions using in-depth accident data in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work was to study the dynamic responses and head–brain injuries in car-to-pedestrian collisions via accident reconstructions. Six pedestrian accident cases were used in the reconstructions using mathematical models of the pedestrians and passenger vehicles. The cases were selected from an in-depth analysis of accident data collected through on-the-spot and retrospective investigations and documented in a

F. Li; J. K. Yang

2010-01-01

328

Vehicle Classifying Counter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns the design, development and testing of a vehicle classifying counter. The vehicle classifying counter was developed at the Materials and Research Department to classify vehicles by their wheelbase and number of axles. Tests were perfor...

E. F. Nordlin L. G. Kubel A. F. Bailey T. F. Grillo L. E. Welsh

1969-01-01

329

Accident characterization methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe accident issues. In support of NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories has directed the production of Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for the Surry, Sequoyah, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf nuclear power plants. The Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) at Sandia has been responsible for the Level 1 portion of the analyses, which includes estimation of core damage frequency and characterization of the dominant sequences. The ASEP analyses are being documented in NUREG/CR-4550. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and evaluate the methodology utilized in these analyses. The methodology will soon be published in more detail as Reference 5. The results produced for NUREG/CR-4550 using this methodology are summarized in another paper to be presented at this conference.

Camp, A.L.; Harper, F.T.

1986-01-01

330

AutoVeCoN: Automatic vehicle collision notification and intelligent police deployment system for Radio Flying Squad and traffic department  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low cost, Cell Phone based system design has been proposed in this paper, which would automatically inform the nearest Police Radio Flying Squad or Traffic Dept. vehicles from a vehicle affected in an accident without the need of any human intervention. The collision detector inside the vehicle would send an update to the Police Control Room Server which in

Budhaditya Majumdar; Sumana Basu

2011-01-01

331

Vehicle suspension  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle consisting of sprung and unsprung masses, the combination of struts and support springs for the weight of the sprung mass, an axis defined by pivots between sprung and unsprung masses, with a front pivot approximately midway between the wheels and near the vertical and horizontal planes through the front axles, with a rear pivot lying in an axis through the front pivot and in a plane through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, with the plane parallel to the centrifugal force vector through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, and with the rear pivot positioned approximately midway between the rear wheels, means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the front pivot to the front wheels and ground, and means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the rear pivot to the rear wheels and ground.

Mikina, S.J.

1986-08-05

332

Two-vehicle side impact crashes: the relationship of vehicle and crash characteristics to injury severity.  

PubMed

Injury type and severity among front outboard occupants of passenger vehicles struck in the side by another passenger vehicle and recorded in the United States National Accident Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were examined in relation to the location of impact, the angle of impact, occupant gender and age, seat belt use, the weight and body style of the side-impacted vehicle, and the weight and body style of the striking vehicle. Elderly occupants were three times as likely as younger occupants in similar crashes to be seriously injured. Serious injuries were also more likely for occupants seated on the struck side and occupants of lightweight passenger vehicles. After accounting for vehicle weight differences, struck-side occupants of cars were still much more likely to be seriously injured than struck-side occupants of light trucks. However, among occupants seated on the side of the vehicle opposite the impact, the likelihood of serious injury was higher for those seated in light trucks. PMID:9183477

Farmer, C M; Braver, E R; Mitter, E L

1997-05-01

333

Chornobyl Accident, Radiation, and Health Concerns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Chornobyl Accident Facts; (The 1986 Accident, Causes of the Accidental, The Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant Today); Medical and Health Effects of the Accident (Prompt or Early Health Effects, Thyroid Cancer, Leukemia, Teratogenesis - Radiation and...

G. J. Vargo

2000-01-01

334

Supplemental National Crash Severity Study Accident Reconstruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study collected accident data that would allow determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger...

D. J. Segal M. T. McGrath N. Balasubramanian

1980-01-01

335

Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: (1) the energy deposition in the

W. Frid; F. Höjerup; I. Lindholm; J. Miettinen; L. Nilsson; E. K. Puska; H. Sjövall

2001-01-01

336

First Responders and Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

2005-11-01

337

Model based vehicle detection for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are being researched nowadays for Intelligent Vehicles has to deal -with the detection and tracking of other vehicles. It will have many applications: Platooning, Stop&go, Blind angle perception, Manoeuvres supervisor. In this paper, a system based on computer vision is presented. A geometric model of the vehicle is defined where its energy function

J. M. Collado; C. Hilario; J. M. Armingol

2004-01-01

338

Factors correlated with traffic accidents as a basis for evaluating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify factors which influence and cause errors in traffic accidents and to use these as a basis for information to guide the application and design of driver assistance systems. A total of 474 accidents were examined in depth for this study by means of a psychological survey, data from accident reports, and technical reconstruction information. An error analysis was subsequently carried out, taking into account the driver, environment, and vehicle sub-systems. Results showed that all accidents were influenced by errors as a consequence of distraction and reduced activity. For crossroad accidents, there were further errors resulting from sight obstruction, masked stimuli, focus errors, and law infringements. Lane departure crashes were additionally caused by errors as a result of masked stimuli, law infringements, expectation errors as well as objective and action slips, while same direction accidents occurred additionally because of focus errors, expectation errors, and objective and action slips. Most accidents were influenced by multiple factors. There is a safety potential for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which support the driver in information assimilation and help to avoid distraction and reduced activity. The design of the ADAS is dependent on the specific influencing factors of the accident type. PMID:19664441

Staubach, Maria

2009-07-01

339

The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.  

PubMed

This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. PMID:23246705

Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

2012-12-17

340

Fatality Reduction by Air Bags. Analyses of Accident Data through Early 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fatality risk of front-seat occupants of passenger cars and light trucks equipped with air bags is compared to the corresponding risk in similar vehicles without air bag, based on statistical analyses of Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) data fro...

C. J. Kahane

1996-01-01

341

Seat belt utilization in Saudi Arabia and its impact on road accident injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most industrialized countries and many developing countries have passed laws that require the use of seat belts in motor vehicles. It is widely believed that seat belt use is an effective way to reduce road accident fatalities and injuries. Saudi Arabia joined these countries when it enacted a similar law on 5 December 2000 making seat belt use compulsory for

Salaheddine Bendak

2005-01-01

342

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for PTSD Symptoms after a Road Accident: An Uncontrolled Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examined whether Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) could be used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident. Six individuals reporting either full or severe subsyndromal PTSD completed 10 sessions of VRET, which was conducted using software designed to…

Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Winer, Eliot H.; Schwagler, Brad E.; Ang, Eu Jin

2007-01-01

343

Using traffic conviction correlates to identify high accident-risk drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the primary missions of the California Department of Motor Vehicles is to protect the public from drivers who represent unacceptably high accident risks. Optimum fulfillment of this objective requires the development and implementation of strategies for identifying high-risk drivers. One such system in California is the department’s negligent operator point system. This system assigns points to moving violations

Michael A Gebers; Raymond C Peck

2003-01-01

344

Revising the AASHTO Curve: Accident Involvement Rates for Trucks and Speed Differentials on Highway Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents as suggestion the adaptation of the AASHTO criteria for the design of climbing lanes on Brazilian highways, which focus on the development of relations between accident involvements rates of trucks and speed distribution of vehicles. Two relations are proposed for Brazil: one for two-lane highways and one for divided multi-lane highways. The proposed relations were developed using

Ricardo A. de Melo

345

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. 6914. Mv-Mv-Truck--Intersection Collision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an in-depth multidisciplinary investigation of a motor vehicle accident involving two cars and a truck. One car, traveling west toward the setting sun, ran a stop sign at an intersection and was hit, first by a car in the left side and secon...

J. R. Cromack

1970-01-01

346

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. 6904. Pickup Truck - Fixed Object Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an in-depth multidisciplinary investigation of an automobile accident involving a pickup truck which hit a small concrete post and pedestrian footbridge at the end of a vehicle bridge and ran off the road. The severity was fatal.

J. R. Cromack

1970-01-01

347

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. 7007. Mv/Ran off Roadway, Rollover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a multidisciplinary investigation of an automobile accident in which one speeding car ran off the road and overturned. The road was on a vertical curve which did not exhibit a 'no-passing zone' marking. The vehicle was passing a second car a...

J. R. Cromack J. L. Wright

1970-01-01

348

Pelvis and hip joint injuries as a reconstructive factors in car-to-pedestrian accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pelvic girdles of 371 pedestrian victims of road traffic accidents were evaluated during postmortem examinations. Additionally, 144 hip joints were opened. The pelvic injuries were found in 28% of the pedestrians hit exclusively in their upright position and 52% of the victims run over by a vehicle. The side of the body hit by a car was determined on

Grzegorz Teresi?ski; Roman M

2001-01-01

349

Road traffic accidents in the United Arab Emirates compared to Western countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are increasingly being recognized as a growing public health problem in Bedouin Arabian Gulf countries. The discovery of oil around the middle of the last century has lead to changes in many aspects of life in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), not least in regard to the amount of vehicles on the roads. Whilst affluence may

A. Bener; D. Crundall

350

Preview based control of a tractor trailer using DGPS for preventing road departure accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the number of road departure accidents caused by fatigue and driver inattention, we are investigating intervention strategies during critical situations, part of a human centered approach to lateral vehicle control. Alarms and warning devices are for the most part ineffective since their effects on a fatigued driver are only short term. We have designed and integrated

Vassilios Morellas; Ted Morris; Lee Alexander; M. Donath

1997-01-01

351

Road Traffic Accident: An Emerging Public Health Problem in Assam  

PubMed Central

Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study.

Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Ahmed, Faruquddin

2013-01-01

352

An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

1998-11-01

353

A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.  

PubMed

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments. PMID:22269550

Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

2011-10-10

354

Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen

1997-01-01

355

Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen [Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space P.O. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 (United States)

1997-01-10

356

Hybrid vehicle systems analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique has been developed for deriving the optimal operating strategy including engine calibration for a hybrid vehicle given the vehicle hardware description, the operating cycle, emission constraints, and the relative costs of the two energy sources carried on the vehicle. The technique is described. The results of applying it to a set of electric\\/ICE hybrid vehicles attempt to encompass

F. G. Willis; R. R. Radtke

1985-01-01

357

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a

L. J. Jacovides; E. P. Cornell; R. Kirk

1981-01-01

358

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energyâs Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine

James Francfort

2003-01-01

359

Green Vehicle Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is geared toward consumers to help them choose the most fuel-efficient and clean vehicles. Users can download vehicle lists, look up vehicle ratings, learn more about reducing vehicle pollution, and use the links section to find further information. This is a timely site for a period when Americans might well want to think about reducing their dependence on oil.

2001-01-01

360

Stowable and Inflatable Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stowable and inflatable vehicle, adapted for use as a decoy space vehicle and as a replica of a relatively hot parent space vehicle. In addition to other components, the inventive decoy and replica vehicle includes: a telescoping central tubular member ...

C. F. Seifert H. S. Seapy T. K. Petersen

1979-01-01

361

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

This report contains data on the number of onroad alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities and data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume.

Information Center

2013-04-08

362

Causal models for road accident fatalities in Yemen.  

PubMed

An identification of the causes of road accident fatalities is becoming more important with the growth of technology, population, number of vehicles and the need for their use. Many authors have addressed the problem in the past but no universal findings have been obtained. The problem tends to be different under different environments and for different geographical regions. The aim of this paper is to develop a model for the analysis and forecasting of road accident fatalities in Yemen considering data restrictions. The proposed data has a particular structure of accident occurrence that has not been reported in any existing research using data in other countries. The available data for the period 1978-1995 is used to build models to understand the nature and extent of the causes of fatalities. Part of the data is used for model building and part of it for test purposes. The issues of correlation and causality have been addressed and multiple collinearity is investigated and dealt with. Two alternative models are proposed based on both statistical grounds and that of practicality in viable decision making. The influence of consuming a locally grown stimulant called Qat on road users has been addressed and it is found that it increases the risk of accidents. This is not the common understanding within the authorities in Yemen as growing and consuming Qat is unregulated. PMID:11426685

Ameen JRM; Naji, J A

2001-07-01

363

Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident  

PubMed Central

A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool.

Srivastava, Ankur; Bradley, Marcus; Kelly, Michael

2008-01-01

364

Audibility of train horns in passenger vehicles.  

PubMed

Studies of accident rates associated with train horn bans indicate that motorists rely on horns to warn them of approaching trains. However, researchers have not yet established the levels of horn sounds necessary for detection at railroad crossings. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline measures of the auditory component of the motorist's detection task. Horn sounds recorded in three test vehicles were presented to 20 normal-hearing listeners in quiet and in four types of vehicle interior noise: engine idling, ventilation fan off; engine idling, fan on; vehicle moving at 30 miles/hr (mph), fan off; and vehicle moving at 30 mph, fan on. Thresholds of the horn sounds were determined by an adaptive procedure. Mean thresholds were lowest in quiet (1.8-4.4 dBA) and highest for the 30-mph, fan-on condition (49.7-58.4 dBA). Mean horn thresholds for all 12 noise conditions were more than 10 dB below the overall level of the vehicle interior noise. Our data are compared with those of previous studies and their implications are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the establishment of a lower limit of signal-to-noise ratios required for the detection of horn sounds at highway-rail crossings. PMID:16435701

Dolan, Thomas G; Rainey, Jess E

2005-01-01

365

Impact of roadside features on the frequency and severity of run-off-roadway accidents: an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the US, single-vehicle run-off-roadway accidents result in a million highway crashes with roadside features every year and account for approximately one-third of all highway fatalities. Despite the number and severity of run-off-roadway accidents, quantification of the effect of possible countermeasures has been surprisingly limited due to the absence of data (particularly data on roadside features) needed to rigorously analyze

Jinsun Lee; Fred Mannering

2002-01-01

366

Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.  

PubMed

Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. PMID:21819835

Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

2011-06-12

367

Safety analysis of natural gas vehicles transiting highway tunnel  

SciTech Connect

A safety analysis was performed to assess the relative hazard of compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicles traveling on various tunnels and bridges in New York City. The study considered those hazards arising from the release of fuel from CNG vehicles ranging in size from a passenger sedan to a full size 53 passenger bus. The approach used was to compare the fuel hazard of CNG vehicles to the fuel hazard of gasoline vehicles. The risk was assessed by estimating the frequency of occurrence and the severity of the hazard. The methodology was a combination of analyzing accident data, performing a diffusion analysis of the gas released in the tunnel and determining the consequences of ignition. Diffusion analysis was performed using the TEMPEST code for various accident scenarios resulting in CNG release inside the Holland Tunnel. The study concluded that the overall hazard of CNG vehicles transiting a ventilated tunnel is less than the hazard from a comparable gasoline fueled vehicle. 134 refs., 23 figs., 24 tabs.

Shaaban, S.H.; Zuzovsky, M.; Anigstein, R.

1989-01-01

368

Train-pedestrian accidents.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the injury pattern, morbidity, and mortality in pedestrians involved in train accidents. The study was performed in the Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Turkey. Hospital records of 41 cases who were hit by train between the period of 1985-97 were evaluated. Age, gender, mechanism of injury (falling from train, hit by train), suicide attempts, pre-existing illnesses, RTS (Revised Trauma Score) and mortality were evaluated. Sixty-eight per cent (n = 28) of the victims were male. The mean age was 32 (9-72) years. Fifty-nine per cent of the victims had fallen from the train. The rate of suicide attempt was 22% (n = 9). The mean RTS was 10+/-3.6. Survivors had better RTS (11+/-2) than nonsurvivors (3.5+/-2.5) (p < 0.0001, 95% CI = 6.0-9.5). Extremity fractures and lower extremity amputations were frequently encountered. The mortality rate was 17%. The mortality rate was high in victims who were hit by the train (p = 0.00013). Suicide attempts carry a high mortality rate (p = 0.0001). Six mortalities were seen in nine documented suicide attempts. It is concluded that train-pedestrian injuries represent a different type of trauma. The mortality rate in suicide attempts is high. RTS lower than 11 and being hit by train are associated with high mortality. PMID:11132074

Agalar, F; Cakmakci, M; Kunt, M M

2000-06-01

369

Plutonium Accident Resistant Container Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air tr...

J. A. Andersen

1978-01-01

370

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the methodology, results, discussions, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the investigation of 50 fatal and non-fatal vehicular accidents occurring in the Greater Baltimore metropolitan area from June 28, 1974 to June 30, 1...

R. S. Fisher

1976-01-01

371

Standby after the Chernobyl Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an investigation concerning standby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The fin...

1987-01-01

372

CANDU safety under severe accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CA...

V. G. Snell J. Q. Howieson S. Alikhan G. M. Frescura F. King

1988-01-01

373

Automated Traffic Accident Data Entry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to develop a method to automatically enter traffic accident records into an existing database and to provide a computerized method of achiving the forms. This involved redesigning the existing forms, developing a method for...

S. B. Johnson K. Hofer

2000-01-01

374

The TMI2 accident evaluation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of

D. J. Osetek; J. M. Broughton; R. R. Hobbins

1989-01-01

375

Supplemental national crash severity study accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident data was collected that allows determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger compartment during the collision. In some 52 percent of the accidents contained in the pre-April 1978 National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) data file, these velocity

D. J. Segal; M. T. McGrath; N. Balasubramanian

1980-01-01

376

Aircraft accident reconstruction: comparison of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from the reconstruction of nine airplane accidents that occurred during the period of 1992 through 2000. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine previously compiled accident and test data for small airplanes. Comparing accident data from the present study with previous accident data shows the need to include the roll and yaw angles of an

Michael W. Dobbs

2010-01-01

377

Pedestrian Head Impact Conditions Depending on the Vehicle Front Shape and Its Construction--Full Model Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the evaluation of pedestrian protection, the European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee Working Group 17 report is now commonly used. In the evaluation of head injuries, the report takes into account only the hood area of the vehicle. But recent pedestrian accident data has shown the injury source for head injury changing to the windshield and A-pillar from the hood. The

Yutaka Okamoto; Tomiji Sugimoto; Koji Enomoto; Junichi Kikuchi

2003-01-01

378

Causes of fatal childhood accidents involving head injury in northern region, 1979-86.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To examine the causes and circumstances surrounding fatal accidents involving head injuries in children in the Northern region. DESIGN--Retrospective review of the hospital case notes, necropsy reports, and records of the coroners' inquests. SETTING--Northern Regional Health Authority. PATIENTS--All 255 children aged less than 16 years who died with a head injury during 1979-86. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cause of injury and circumstances of accident according to reports of inquests; injury severity score; number of fatal accidents and mortality per 100,000 children in 10 groups of local authority wards ranked according to their score on the overall deprivation index; and distance of site of accident from child's home. RESULTS--Of the 255 children who died after a head injury, 136 (53%) children were playing at the time of the accident. 195 (76%) children sustained the head injury in road traffic accidents, 135 as pedestrians, 35 as cyclists, and 25 as passengers in a vehicle. In 120 accidents in child pedestrians the primary cause of accident was the unsafe behaviour of the child. 172 (67%) accidents occurred within one to two km of the child's home and 153 (63%) between 3 pm and 9 pm. The mortality was significantly related to social deprivation; excluding eight children injured while on holiday in the region, 15-fold decrease in mortality was recorded between the local authority wards that ranked highest on the overall deprivation index and those that ranked lowest (14.0/100,000 children, group 10 v 0.9/100,000, group 1 respectively, p less than 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS--The finding that most accidents occurred in children living in deprived areas who were playing unsupervised near their home suggests that childhood mortality might be appreciably reduced if children at play were protected from traffic, particularly in socially deprived areas.

Sharples, P M; Storey, A; Aynsley-Green, A; Eyre, J A

1990-01-01

379

Estimation of blood alcohol concentration in deaths due to roadside accidents.  

PubMed

Like any other disease, accidents too are caused by interaction between agent, host, and environment. Human factors include age, (accidents most common between 10 and 24 years), sex, education, medical conditions (heart attack, impaired vision), fatigue, influence of alcohol and other drugs, lack of bodily protection (like helmets, seat belts) and psychosocial factors like lack of experience, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, defective judgment and delay in decisions. Drunken driving is an important risk factor in causing accidents. This study was focused on the status of alcohol consumption in relation with roadside accidents in northern India in the region of Amritsar. The present study was carried out in 100 cases alleged to have died of roadside accident and brought to the mortuary attached to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Government Medical College, Amritsar for autopsy examination. Blood samples were collected from the femoral vein and were tested for the presence of alcohol with steam distillation and titration method using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. In the present study, 23% of the fatal driver/pedestrian victims of roadside accidents were found to have consumed alcohol before accident. Most of the victims of road accident were from the age group 21-30 and 31-40 years. Most of the accidents occurred on straight roads instead of bends or intersections, more during daytime and weekends. 57% of the blood alcohol positives were between 100 mg% and 149 mg%. Majority of the victims of roadside accidents were motorcyclists and the striking vehicles were trucks and buses causing head & neck injuries in most of the victims. Death occurred within a few minutes in most of the cases. PMID:23622478

Arora, Puneet; Chanana, Ashok; Tejpal, Hakumat R

2013-01-16

380

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

James Francfort

2003-11-01

381

Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a pressurized water reactor. The specific plant analyzed is the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, which is a Westinghouse-designed system that has been decommissioned.

Hakobyan, Aram P.

382

Case-control study of recidivist drivers involved in fatal highway accidents in Alberta in 1970-72.  

PubMed Central

A 3-year enpidemiologic study of fatal motor vehicle accidents was carried out by the Alberta Task Force on Highway Accidents. It was found that 11.1% of culpable drivers had been driving while impaired by alcohol on at least one occasion prior to the fatal accident, while only 3.3% of exonerated drivers had previous records. This significant difference led to a case-control study that demonstrated that the recidivist drivers (case group) differed significantly in a number of aspects from the innocent drivers (control group)--notably, age distribution, sex, whether drinking before the accident, blood alcohol concentration, ethnic distribution, class of accident and type of collision. Thus the recidivist driver is a greater threat to highway safety than the innocent driver and needs special attention by legislators and law enforcement agencies.

Bako, G.; Mackenzie, W. C.; Smith, E. S.

1977-01-01

383

Motor Vehicle Trauma: An Unnecessary Disease  

PubMed Central

The motor vehicle accident kills and maims more of our young people than any other affliction. Yet prevention of injuries and deaths from MVA receives less emphasis in medical education, medical publications and collective political action than the problem merits. In daily practice, there are numerous opportunities for prevention counselling, alcoholic driver case finding, and critical assessment of the privilege of driving. Within their community, family physicians can have input into some preventive programs. At government level, physicians should increase their pressure for legislative action to reduce MVA injuries and deaths.

Johnson, Douglas H.

1987-01-01

384

Computer vision applied to vehicle operation  

SciTech Connect

Among many tasks of car development, safety, economy, environmental benefits and convenience, safety should have a high priority. One of the main goals is the reduction of the number of accidents. Environment and situation recognition by autonomous vehicle-electronic systems can contribute to the recognition of problems together with information to the driver or direct intervention in the car's behaviour. This paper describes some techniques for environment recognition, the status of a present project, and the goals of some PROMETHEUS (Program for a European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety) projects.

Metzler, H.G.

1988-01-01

385

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

1981-01-01

386

Daytime running lights in the USA: what is the impact on vehicle crashes in Minnesota?  

PubMed Central

Background Daytime running lights (DRLs) are a safety feature intended to reduce crashes by increasing the contrast between vehicles and the background. Aims The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between vehicles in the USA being equipped with DRLs and crash rates. Methods This was a retrospective study using the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MNDOT) Crash Database from 1995 to 2002. Crash reports included in the analyses were limited to accidents involving vehicles 1995 or newer (DRLs not available on prior models) and limited to ideal conditions: (1) daylight, (2) optimal visibility, and (3) dry road surface. The vehicle identification number (VIN) was used to determine the make, model, and year. This information was cross-referenced with a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration table of manufacturer listed DRL conditions to determine vehicle DRL status. Crude crash rates for vehicles were calculated relative to the number of all registered vehicles in Minnesota in 2004, for models 1995–2002. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) for the rates were constructed assuming a Poisson error distribution. Results During 1995–2002, there were 184,637 vehicles (1995 or newer) with identifiable VINs involved in accidents which occurred under the specified test conditions. Of these vehicles, 37,909 were determined to have standard DRLs and 146,728 were determined to be models without DRLs (including those listed as DRL optional). The crash rate among vehicles without standard DRLs was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.71–1.75) times higher than the rate for vehicles with standard DRLs. The rate ratio was also significant for fatal vehicle crash rates 1.48 (95% CI: 1.23–1.76). Conclusion Minnesota vehicles equipped with DRLs were associated with a statistically significant lower crash rate compared to vehicles without DRLs from 1995 to 2002.

Krajicek, Michele E.

2010-01-01

387

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation....

H. D. Kim

2010-01-01

388

Design of a dependable model vehicle for rear-end collision avoidance and its evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for constructing a safe automobile society to decrease traffic accidents such as rear-end collision, crossing collision, and right turn collisions. Especially, the number of the traffic accidents can be decreased significantly if the occurrence of rear-end collision can be avoided. The purpose of this paper is to design a dependable model vehicle for rear-end collision avoidance even

Takeshi Kasuga; Satoshi Yakubo

2010-01-01

389

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers design for autonomous intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers are proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles in both non-tight and tight vehicle following manoeuvres. A nonlinear vehicle model is used for designing the controllers. The proposed vehicle following controller is designed based on a constant time headway policy; whereas, the proposed entrainment controller is designed based on a k-factor headway policy. The proposed vehicle following

C. C. Chien; P. Ioannou; M. C. Lai

1994-01-01

390

Recent Developments in Vehicle Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent developments in vehicle dynamics are discussed. Vehicle suspension systems, applications of multi-body dynamics problems in vehicle dynamics, rear steer, and special aspects of commercial vehicle dynamics are discussed.

J. Bernard M. Vanderploeg J. Shannan

1987-01-01

391

Workplace accidents in materials transfer in Finland.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to show the proportion of workplace accidents related to materials transfer and to decide whether they were more serious than other kinds of workplace accidents. The research material for this study were statistics and data, available in Finland, regarding workplace accidents and fatal accidents. Twenty-five percent of studied fatal accidents were related to materials transfer; 26.9-27.7% of all workplace accidents in Finland in 2003-2007 were workplace accidents related to materials transfer. Over half (54.7%) of workplace accidents related to materials transfer caused disabilities lasting over 3 days. Most accidents related to materials transfer occurred to men aged 20-49 years. The most common types of injuries were dislocations, sprains and strains. PMID:23294658

Perttula, Pia; Salminen, Simo

2012-01-01

392

[Analysis of deaths caused by rail-vehicles in the materials collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002].  

PubMed

The analysis focused on cases of death following accidents involving rail-vehicles, in which autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002. Sixty-five individuals died in train accidents (80%), 16 people (20%) were victims of tram accidents (20%). Males constituted 86% of the material, while females accounted for 14%. The highest number of rail-vehicle accidents was observed in 1992. The most common reason of death was multiorgan injury. In the subgroup of tram accidents, the authors noted no injuries of the highest severity, such as limb amputations, amputations or crushing of the head, or fragmentation or rupturing of the trunk. On the other hand, in railroad accidents, the percentage of the above injuries was 26%, 44% and 24.5%, respectively. The most severe injuries were noted in the group of people hit by a train while in prone position. PMID:17131763

Bloch-Bogus?awska, Elzbieta; Engelgardt, Piotr; Wolska, Ewa; Paradowska, Agnieszka

393

Electric Vehicle Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

Moore, Pam

2011-01-01

394

Police Patrol Vehicles1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the design of the police patrol vehicle as used by the Detroit Police Department. The objective was to identify areas where the vehicle could be improved so that its desired functions could be performed safely and expeditiously. Most of the recommendations resulting from this study involve the man-machine relationship between the patrolman and his vehicle. Because this

Gerald E. Clark; Herbert G. Ludwig

1970-01-01

395

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01

396

Access systems of heavy construction vehicles: Parameters, problems and pointers.  

PubMed

As part of an investigation of accidents occuring during mounting on and dismounting from heavy construction equipment a study was conducted of operator behaviour during mounting and dismounting. Measurements of access systems of representative vehicles were compared with those from various Standards. In most instances the vehicles did not conform. Recommendations are made for improvements in the safety characteristics of the access. These recommendations are in three classes, namely; changes and developments in procedures and practices, retrofit of existing equipment, and changes in design philosophy. The need for maintaining three point contact at all times during mounting and dismounting is emphasised. PMID:15676403

Couch, D B; Fraser, T M

1981-06-01

397

76 FR 52043 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...election agencies for verification. The election agencies forward this information to their State Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA), who inputs the data into the American Association of MVAs, a central consolidation system that routes the voter data...

2011-08-19

398

Energy efficient passenger vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

Dessert, R.

1983-02-22

399

Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

1999-08-01

400

[Driver identification of the motorcycle in motorcycle/car accidents].  

PubMed

A series of motorcycle/car collision experiments and in-depth investigations involving motorcycle/car accidents with two riders were carried out in order to study the difference in behavior and injuries between the driver and the passenger of the motorcycle during a collision, and to provide general data for identifying their seat positions on the motorcycle in traffic accidents. In all the tests, two Hybrid II dummies were seated on the double seats of the motorcycle as riders. The motorcycle collided against the front door, front end or rear door of the passenger car at a speed of 50 km/h, at impact angles of 60 degrees, 90 degrees or 120 degrees. The speeds of the passenger car were tested at 0 km/h or 25 km/h. With different speeds of vehicles and different impact angles, the difference in rider behavior between the driver and the passenger was distinctly verified by analysis of high speed films. It is possible to distinguish the driver's injuries from the passenger's. The abrasion and/or contusions in the chest, face and groin area were severe for the drivers, but less serious for the passengers. The typical injuries of the driver can be expected in terms of the rider behavior during collision from 25 ms to about 150 ms after starting contact. The data and information can be used to clarify the question of who was driving in accident reconstruction. PMID:2266609

Ueyama, M

1990-08-01

401

Energy efficient passenger vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

Dessert, R.

1980-01-01

402

Construction equipment and motor vehicle related injuries on construction sites in Turkey.  

PubMed

Research on occupational accidents on construction sites in Turkey is very few. Moreover, research on motor vehicle and equipment accidents also do not exist. Investigation in the scope of this study shows that after falls and contact with electricity, accidents involving heavy equipment and motor vehicles rank third and fourth, respectively. This study aims to reveal the characteristics of these types of accidents, deduct the prominent causes that lead to fatalities as well as permanent disabilities using the present data. With the aid of obtained results, recommendations are made for safety experts on how to derive data from insufficient sources in Turkey and to evaluate these data for prevention and mitigation of the risks that construction workers are exposed to. 168 fatal and 38 non-fatal traffic accident-caused incidents as well as 206 fatal and 97 non-fatal construction equipment accidents, which were selected from official statistics and expert reports, were taken into consideration. Analysis and classification of these accidents were done according to the way they happened, the type of construction site and the occupation of the victims. Moreover, the leading causes of fatal and non-fatal injuries, to which drivers, operators and co-operators are exposed, are presented. Critical findings concerning prominent ways of occurrence, type of construction work and occupation are presented; and a number of measures for reducing the present risks are suggested. Some approaches for analysing relevant data are proposed for further research. PMID:18716386

Gürcanli, G Emre; Müngen, Ugur; Akad, Murat

2008-08-01

403

Musculoskeletal trauma in four-wheeled all-terrain vehicles.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study of four-wheeled all-terrain vehicle-related musculoskeletal injuries requiring orthopedic surgery was performed. Avoidable risk factors such as alcohol intake, lack of helmets, inexperience, and excess speed were identified. This study also shows that the quantity, severity, cost, and frequency of preventable accidents while riding continue to be the same as prior to a Consent Decrees issued by the Consumer Products Safety Commission > 10 years ago. PMID:12401015

Rios-Reboyras, Luis A; Grovis, Jorge E; Ramirez, Norman; Zierenberg, Charles; Otero, Antonio; Vilella, Fernando E

2002-10-01

404

Accident-Related Risk Behaviors Associated with Motivations for Motorcycle Use in Iran: A Country with Very High Traffic Deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Injuries caused by motor vehicle accidents in Middle East countries are among the highest in the world. Several successful interventions preventing road traffic injuries in developed countries have been practiced; however, these interventions have not been tailored to the cultural, behavioral, and environmental milieu of low- and middle-income countries. Scientifically based efforts to understand risk factors for traffic injury

Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh; Shamsaddin Niknami; Mohsen Bazargan; Eesa Mohammadi; Ali Montazeri; Fazlollah Ahmadi; Fazlollah Ghofranipour

2009-01-01

405

A Multiple Criteria Decision?Making Approach for Prioritizing Accident Hotspots in the Absence of Crash Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an efficient transportation system, traffic safety is an important issue and it is influenced by many factors. In a country like Iran, until now safety improvements are mainly concentrated on road engineering activities, without much attention for vehicle technology or driving behaviour. One important aspect of road safety engineering activities is the so?called treatment of hotspots or dangerous accident

Ali Pirdavani; Tom Brijs; Geert Wets

2010-01-01

406

A highway accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991  

SciTech Connect

In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. The purpose of this report is to document the mechanical circumstances of the severe accident, confirm the nature and quantity of the radioactive materials involved, and assess the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The report consists of five major sections. The first section describes the circumstances and conditions of the accident and the finding of facts. The second describes the containers, the unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies, and the tie down arrangement used for the trailer. The third describes the damage sustained during the accident to the tractor, trailer, containers, and unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. The fourth evaluates the accident environment and its effects on the containers and their contents. The final section gives conclusions derived from the analysis and fact finding investigation. During this severe accident, only minor injuries occurred, and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-06-01

407

Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents, Factbook 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. The BI...

A. Matteson J. Woodrooffe L. Jarossi

2010-01-01

408

Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents Factbook 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2006. The statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. The BI...

A. Matteson J. Woodrooffe L. Jarossi

2008-01-01

409

Traffic Accident Analysis and Roadway Visibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Assessment of existing general purpose data bases for highway safety analysis; Accident data as a tool for highway risk management; Generalized loglinear models of truck accidents rates; Estimation of wet pavement exposure from available weather...

K. K. Mak J. G. Viner L. I. Griffin D. S. Turner C. W. Colson

1988-01-01

410

Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle. Vehicle Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of the TACRV in terms of speed, acceleration and deceleration is discussed in this report and the range of cushion operating gaps is summarized. These performance items are presented for the vehicle operating at the Department of Transport...

C. Savatteri J. Helgesen

1971-01-01

411

Research Triangle Institute Case No. 2. Car to Car Rear-End Collision. Type: Vehicle No. 1: 10FDMW2; Vehicle No. 2: 01RYEW3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis is given of possible causes of an accident which occurred on Wake County Road 1152 at the intersection of Wake County Road 1301, approximately two miles east of Holly Springs, North Carolina, on Saturday, September 13, 1969 at 1945 EDT. Vehicl...

1969-01-01

412

Notes on Road Accident Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Research Laboratory has organised courses in traffic and safety for the benefit of police officers and highway engineerings for a number of years. The notes for one of the lectures, dealing with accident statistics form the basis of the report. I...

H. D. Johnson F. Garwood

1971-01-01

413

Plutonium accident resistant container project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package

1978-01-01

414

Time Slows Down during Accidents  

PubMed Central

The experienced speed of the passage of time is not constant as time can seem to fly or slow down depending on the circumstances we are in. Anecdotally accidents and other frightening events are extreme examples of the latter; people who have survived accidents often report altered phenomenology including how everything appeared to happen in slow motion. While the experienced phenomenology has been investigated, there are no explanations about how one can have these experiences. Instead, the only recently discussed explanation suggests that the anecdotal phenomenology is due to memory effects and hence not really experienced during the accidents. The purpose of this article is (i) to reintroduce the currently forgotten comprehensively altered phenomenology that some people experience during the accidents, (ii) to explain why the recent experiments fail to address the issue at hand, and (iii) to suggest a new framework to explain what happens when people report having experiences of time slowing down in these cases. According to the suggested framework, our cognitive processes become rapidly enhanced. As a result, the relation between the temporal properties of events in the external world and in internal states becomes distorted with the consequence of external world appearing to slow down. That is, the presented solution is a realist one in a sense that it maintains that sometimes people really do have experiences of time slowing down.

Arstila, Valtteri

2012-01-01

415

Tank Car Accident Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a study of accidents involving railroad tank cars. The study is part of an overall effort to provide improved safety of rail transportation at reduced life-cycle costs. A major goal of the study is to provide a technical...

M. E. Hazel

1991-01-01

416

Severe accident research in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactor safety research program in Canada not only recognizes the unique features of the CANDU reactor, but is supplemented by a strong interaction with the LWR research community. This is especially so in the area of severe accidents. We participate in international programs such as Phebus FP and CSARP to take advantage of cooperative efforts on phenomena that are

1994-01-01

417

Chernobyl accident sequence of events  

SciTech Connect

A chronology of the Chernobyl accident begins with the 1 a.m. reduction to half power on Friday, April 25, and reports significant events until all fires were extinguished at 5 a.m. on Saturday. Mathematical reconstruction derived some of the times. The sequence uses data from the Soviet report.

Not Available

1986-09-01

418

Driving Circumstances and Accidents Among Novice Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The study evaluated the accident risk of certain driving circumstances and driving motives among novice drivers.Methods. Self-reported exposure and accidents according to driving circumstances and driving motives were compared between young (n = 6,847) and middle-aged (n = 942) male and female novice drivers. For young drivers, self-reported accidents were further compared to fatal accidents (n = 645) in

S. Laapotti; E. Keskinen; M. Hatakka; K. Hernetkoski; A. Katila; M. Peräaho; I. Salo

2006-01-01

419

Tri-Level Accident Investigation Study. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 1 is the final technical report of a program that describes accident investigation studies, which incorporate varying levels of accident detail, and accompanying analysis of accident data. In-depth multidisciplinary accident case studies are discus...

P. Cooley J. Beaumont T. Gates J. O'Day D. E. Cleveland

1973-01-01

420

The design of infrared laser radar for vehicle initiative safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser radar for vehicle is mainly used in advanced vehicle on-board active safety systems, such as forward anti-collision systems, active collision warning systems and adaptive cruise control systems, etc. Laser radar for vehicle plays an important role in the improvement of vehicle active safety and the reduction of traffic accidents. The stability of vehicle active anti-collision system in dynamic environment is still one of the most difficult problems to break through nowadays. According to people's driving habit and the existed detecting technique of sensor, combining the infrared laser range and galvanometer scanning technique , design a 3-D infrared laser radar which can be used to assist navigation, obstacle avoidance and the vehicle's speed control for the vehicle initiative safety. The device is fixed to the head of vehicle. Then if an accident happened, the device could give an alarm to remind the driver timely to decelerate or brake down, by which way can people get the purpose of preventing the collision accidents effectively. To accomplish the design, first of all, select the core components. Then apply Zemax to design the transmitting and receiving optical system. Adopt 1550 nm infrared laser transmitter as emission unit in the device, a galvanometer scanning as laser scanning unit and an InGaAs-APD detector as laser echo signal receiving unit. Perform the construction of experimental system using FPGA and ARM as the core controller. The system designed in this paper can not only detect obstacle in front of the vehicle and make the control subsystem to execute command, but also transfer laser data to PC in real time. Lots of experiments using the infrared laser radar prototype are made, and main performance of it is under tested. The results of these experiments show that the imaging speed of the laser radar can reach up to 25 frames per second, the frame resolution of each image can reach 30×30 pixels, the horizontal angle resolution is about 6. 98mrad, the vertical angle resolution is about 3. 49mrad, the maximum value of range error is 0. 5m, minimum value is 0. 07m at the detectable distance range 10-200m and the detection probability is more than 99. 9%.

Gong, Ping; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Xiao-yu; Li, Tian-zhi; Liu, Yu-long; Wu, Jia-hui

2013-09-01

421

Dublin Accident Lists (1976-1980).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alphabetical list of streets in Dublin showing accident statistics for the years 1976-1980 is now available. The lists are intended to provide information on number and types of accidents in each street during this period. Accident rates in terms of to...

A. Marry

1982-01-01

422

Work accidents among shiftworkers in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the risk potentials and accident patterns amongst the monthly rotating shiftworkers and permanent nightworkers in textile industries. The retrospective- cum-prospective study covered 3470 fatal and non-fatal accidents that had been taken place in 11 textile departments, spinning, weaving, engineering, etc. A detailed questionnaire survey indicates that frequent occurrence of accidents in the industries was a culmination of

P. K. Nag; V. G. Patel

1998-01-01

423

Economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan during the year of 1996 and to derive unit accident costs for various accident severity levels. The related data were acquired from different sources, including traffic police records, insurance companies, private hospitals and medical centers. In this study, a framework for applying unit casualty

Hashem R Al-Masaeid; Adel A Al-Mashakbeh; Abdalla M Qudah

1999-01-01

424

Scoping the extent of adventure tourism accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the scope and extent of adventure tourism accidents in New Zealand. The concept of tourist well-being is introduced to characterize the emergence of a new research paradigm based on related multidisciplinary evaluations. Analysis of accident claim data from the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Scheme suggests that this tourism practice might be a significant contributor to tourists'

Tim A. Bentley; Stephen J. Page

2001-01-01

425

Severe accident research in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USNRC research program on light-water-reactor severe accidents is, with extensive international contributions, preeminent in this subject area. The program focuses on accidents that could exceed plant design bases and protection against severe accident risks, particularly with respect to containment integrity. This paper describes the issues and the nature, status, and results of the research. A number of the issues,

E. S. Beckjord; F. Eltawilla

1994-01-01

426

Variety of attentional failures in traffic accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation - Attentional problems have been considered by many authors as one of the main causes of traffic accidents, but the results given leave to presume a certain notional vagueness. Research approach - Analysis of the detailed data gathered at traffic accident scenes (EDA - Etudes Détaillées d'Accidents) is an original tool that can be used for fine definition of

Pierre Van Elslande; Magali Jaffard; Katel Fouquet; Véronique Vatonne

2008-01-01

427

School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

McMichael, Judith

428

Offshore accidents and effects on their performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine accidents are some of the risk sources on human life at sea and also make the founded budget to be sank to the deep. In order to prevent these damages and losses, it is necessary to do a proper understanding of these accidents. Offshore systems as of the main parts of ocean structures and their accidents are considered here

H. Sayyaadi; P. Hemati

2004-01-01

429

Dose calculations for severe LWR accident scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a set of precalculated doses based on a set of postulated accident releases and intended for use in emergency planning and emergency response. Doses were calculated for the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) accident categories of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) using the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) code. Whole body and thyroid doses are presented for

T. S. Margulies; J. A. Jr. Martin

1984-01-01

430

Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1?±?27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists. PMID:23945263

Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

2013-08-14

431

Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the

Schexnayder

2002-01-01

432

Smart vehicle video management  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method includes selecting a video source view from at least one of a plurality of vehicle-mounted video sources based on detection of a vehicle event. The video source view may be displayed according to a presentation mode. The method may include associating a plurality of vehicle events with a video source view or video presentation mode. A system includes display logic selecting a video source view from a plurality of vehicle-mounted video sources based on detection of a vehicle event. The system can include presentation rules specifying an association between a plurality of vehicle events and a video source view and/or a video presentation mode. The presentation rules are editable and configurable.

Luskin; Eugene (Issaquah, WA); Petrochuk; Andrew (Bellevue, WA); Kizhnerman; David (Kirkland, WA)

2008-12-09

433

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort

2004-06-01

434

Vehicle underbody fairing  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA); McCallen, Rose (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09

435

Head injuries in infants and children: Measures to reduce mortality and morbidity in road accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 6-year period from 1983 to 1988, 12 infants (<24 months of age) and 103 children (2 to 14 years of age) were killed in road crashes in South Australia. This represents an annual incidence of 6.4 deaths per 100,000 children at risk. At least 4 other children were killed in off-road vehicle-related accidents. Of these deaths, approximately half

D. A. Simpson; P. C. Blumbergs; A. J. McLean; G. Scott

1992-01-01

436

A theory-based preventive intervention program for bereaved parents whose children have died in accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting theoretical propositions regarding what type of support is most effective at what time during bereavement guided the development and initial testing of a preventive intervention program for bereaved parents. Parents whose adolescent or young adult children died within 4 days following a vehicle-related accident were assigned to early (2–6 months postloss) or later (7–13 months postloss) transition groups in

Shirley A. Murphy; Karen Aroian; Robert Baugher

1989-01-01

437

Characterization of pedestrian accidents and an examination of infrastructure measures to improve pedestrian safety in Israel.  

PubMed

The high share of pedestrian fatalities in Israel provided the impetus for this study which looked for infrastructure solutions to improve pedestrian safety. First, a detailed analysis of pedestrian accidents in 2006-2007, with an emphasis on the infrastructure characteristics involved, was performed; it found that 75% of the fatalities and 95% of the injuries occurred in urban areas, the majority of cases occurring on road sections (not at junctions). About 80% of the accidents took place when a pedestrian crossed the road, the majority of them at non-crosswalk locations or at non-signalized crosswalks. International comparisons showed that the characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Israel were similar to the average pedestrian accident in Europe in terms of accident location, time, and the demographic characteristics of the victims. A typology of pedestrian fatalities in Israel was built for the years 2003-2006; it demonstrated a high share of accidents at these locations: in Jewish or mixed-population towns-not at pedestrian crossings on urban street sections, and both at pedestrian crossings and not at pedestrian crossings at urban junctions; in Arab towns; and on dual-carriageway rural roads. Second, based on a literature study, a summary of about 60 pedestrian-safety-related measures was developed. Third, to diagnose the infrastructure characteristics and deficiencies associated with pedestrian accidents, detailed field studies were carried out at 95 urban locations. A major finding revealed that more than 80% of the sites with a high concentration of pedestrian-vehicle accidents in Israel were situated on arterial multi-lane streets belonging to city centers, where on a micro-level there were no indications of major deficiencies in the basic design elements of most sites. Finally, cross-checking of the safety problems identified and the infrastructure solutions available provided lists of measures recommended for application at various types of sites. It was concluded that in order to generate a significant change in the state of pedestrian injury in Israel, a move from spot treatment to a systemic treatment of the problem is required. A systemic inquiry and the transformation of the urban road network should be performed in order to diminish the areas of vehicle-pedestrian conflicts and to significantly reduce vehicle speeds in areas of pedestrian presence and activity. PMID:22062338

Gitelman, Victoria; Balasha, Doron; Carmel, Roby; Hendel, Limor; Pesahov, Fany

2010-12-21

438

Motor vehicle crashes in roadway construction workzones: an analysis using narrative text from insurance claims.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle travel through roadway construction workzones has been shown to increase the risk of a crash. The number of workzones has increased due to recent congressional funding in 1991 for expanded roadway maintenance and repair. In this paper, we describe the characteristics and costs of motor vehicle crashes in roadway construction workzones. As opposed to using standard accident codes to identify accident types, automobile insurance claims files from 1990-93 were searched to identify records with the keyword "construction" in the accident narrative field. A total of 3,686 claims were used for the analysis of crashes. Keywords from the accident narrative field were used to identify five pre-crash vehicle activities and five crash types. We evaluated misclassification error by reading 560 randomly selected claims and found it to be only 5%. For each of four years, 1990-93, there was a total of 648,996,977 and 1,065 crashes, respectively. There was a 70% increase in the crash rate per 10,000 personal insured vehicles from 1990-93 (2.1-3.6). Most crashes (26%) involved a stopped or slowing vehicle in the workzone. The most common crash (31%) was a rear-end collision. The most costly pre-crash activity was a major judgment error on the part of a driver (n = 120, median cost = $2,628). An overturned vehicle was the most costly crash type (n = 16, median cost = $4,745). In summary, keyword text analysis of accident narrative data used in this study demonstrated its utility and potential for enhancing injury epidemiology. The results suggest interventions are needed to respond to growing traffic hazards in construction workzones. PMID:8924180

Sorock, G S; Ranney, T A; Lehto, M R

1996-01-01

439

Vehicle health management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle health management (VHM) for space system avionics can ensure system readiness for launch vehicles and space-based dormant vehicles. In a research to evaluate space system avionics VHM for its guidance, navigation, and control systems (GN&C), researchers examined fault tolerance, redundancy, and levels of built-in test coverage needed to meet system performance requirements. They also analyzed ground and on-orbit test

Kathleen Radke; Paul Bursch; Ron Frazzini; Jerry Wald; Don Brown

1994-01-01

440

A rollover indicator based on the prediction of the load transfer in presence of sliding: application to an All Terrain Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral rollover of quad bikes represents a significant part of severe accidents in the field of agricultural work. The specifities of such vehicles (small wheelbase, track and weight), together with the terrain configuration (off-road environment) prevent from describing rollover occurence as it is proposed for car-like vehicles moving on asphalted roads. This paper proposes a rollover risk indicator dedicated

Nicolas Bouton; Roland Lenain; Benoit Thuilot; Jean-christophe Fauroux

2007-01-01

441

[Case report: fatal diving-accident. Or: accident while diving?].  

PubMed

This example of a fatal diving accident shows how challenging such cases can be in pre-hospital and clinical care. There is no common mechanism in diving fatalities and more than one group of disorders coming along with decompression sickness. Diving medicine is not an element of medical education, which results in insecurity and hampers adequate therapy of diving incidents. This is aggravated by an insufficient availability of hyperbaric chambers in Germany. PMID:22354401

Böttcher, F; Jüttner, B; Krause, A; Rocha, M; Koppert, W

2012-02-01

442

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

443

Biomechanical injury evaluation of laminated side door windows and sunroof during rollover accidents.  

PubMed

Significantly more fatalities and serious injuries occur due to ejection in roll over accidents. The present study was conducted to determine the occupant retention and head-neck injury potential aspects of laminated glass in side door windows and sunroofs during roll over accidents. The test protocol for this study was based on National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies for advanced glazing. The impact study of 18 kg with head-neck form was conducted on laminated glass of side doors and sunroofs from production vehicles. The drop speed was varied from 11 to 16 kph. The Hybrid III 50% male dummy head-neck form was impacted on the approximately center of the glass portion of the windows. The head injury criteria, head resultant acceleration, and neck loads and moments were quantified. A series of drop tests were conducted on roll down side windows with laminated glass. The head-neck biomechanical parameters were well below the critical value injury tolerance limits. Results indicated that the glass contained the dummy assembly and the head-neck biomechanical parameters were below the critical value injury tolerance limits in simulated rollover accidents. The present study demonstrates that head-neck injury is unlikely due to laminated glass side windows and sunroof laminated glass used in production vehicles during rollover accidents and that the dummy is contained by the laminated glazing. PMID:12724901

Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Carlin, Fred; Friedman, Keith; Meyer, Steve

2003-01-01

444

Application of 3D documentation and geometric reconstruction methods in traffic accident analysis: with high resolution surface scanning, radiological MSCT/MRI scanning and real data based animation.  

PubMed

The examination of traffic accidents is daily routine in forensic medicine. An important question in the analysis of the victims of traffic accidents, for example in collisions between motor vehicles and pedestrians or cyclists, is the situation of the impact. Apart from forensic medical examinations (external examination and autopsy), three-dimensional technologies and methods are gaining importance in forensic investigations. Besides the post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the documentation and analysis of internal findings, highly precise 3D surface scanning is employed for the documentation of the external body findings and of injury-inflicting instruments. The correlation of injuries of the body to the injury-inflicting object and the accident mechanism are of great importance. The applied methods include documentation of the external and internal body and the involved vehicles and inflicting tools as well as the analysis of the acquired data. The body surface and the accident vehicles with their damages were digitized by 3D surface scanning. For the internal findings of the body, post-mortem MSCT and MRI were used. The analysis included the processing of the obtained data to 3D models, determination of the driving direction of the vehicle, correlation of injuries to the vehicle damages, geometric determination of the impact situation and evaluation of further findings of the accident. In the following article, the benefits of the 3D documentation and computer-assisted, drawn-to-scale 3D comparisons of the relevant injuries with the damages to the vehicle in the analysis of the course of accidents, especially with regard to the impact situation, are shown on two examined cases. PMID:16997523

Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Braun, Marcel; Bolliger, Stephan; Friederich, Hans; Jackowski, Christian; Aghayev, Emin; Christe, Andreas; Vock, Peter; Dirnhofer, Richard; Thali, Michael J

2006-09-25

445

Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehi...

S. M. Schexnayder S. Das R. Dhingra J. G. Overly B. E. Tonn

2001-01-01

446

Development of an in-vehicle intersection collision countermeasure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intersection collisions constitute approximately twenty-six percent of all accidents in the United States. Because of their complexity, and demands on the perceptual and decision making abilities of the driver, intersections present an increased risk of collisions between automobiles. This situation provides an opportunity to apply advanced sensor and processing capabilities to prevent these collisions. A program to determine the characteristics of intersection collisions and identify potential countermeasures will be described. This program, sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, utilized accident data to develop a taxonomy of intersection crashes. This taxonomy was used to develop a concept for an intersection collision avoidance countermeasure. The concept utilizes in-vehicle position, dynamic status, and millimeter wave radar system and an in-vehicle computer system to provide inputs to an intersection collision avoidance algorithm. Detection of potential violation of traffic control device, or proceeding into the intersection with inadequate gap will lead to the presentation of a warning to the driver. These warnings are presented to the driver primarily via a head-up display and haptic feedback. Roadside to vehicle communication provides information regarding phased traffic signal information. Active control of the vehicle's brake and steering systems are described. Progress in the development of the systems will be presented along with the schedule of future activities.

Pierowicz, John

1997-02-01

447

Braking hazards of golf cars and low speed vehicles.  

PubMed

Research and analysis of braking issues for golf cars and other low speed vehicles (LSVs) are reported in this study. It is shown that many such vehicles only provide braking for their rear wheels, which can lead to a driver losing control during travel on typical steep downgrades. The braking performance of a golf car equipped with brakes on two or four wheels was analyzed to determine the effects of two and four wheel brake designs on braking efficiency and vehicle yaw stability. Besides reducing braking efficiency, it is demonstrated that installing brakes on only the rear wheels can lead to directional instability (fishtailing) and rollover when the rear wheels are braked until skidding occurs. The nonexistence of golf course standards and the inadequacy of golf car and LSV standards are noted and a connection between this and the comparatively high level of accidents with such vehicles is inferred. Based on these results, it is advisable to install brakes on all four wheels of golf cars and LSVs. In addition, new safety standards should be considered to reduce the occurrence of golf car accidents on steep downhill slopes. PMID:16806027

Seluga, K J; Ojalvo, I U

2006-06-27

448

FFTF containment of hypothetical accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FFTF facility was evaluated for the consequences of an HCDA followed by failure of in-vessel post-accident heat removal, reactor vessel melt-through, and release of core debris and sodium coolant to the reactor cavity. Two cases are presented based on parameters considered to represent upper limits for rates of chemical and thermal attack of the reactor cavity concrete containment structure.

R. D. Peak; H. C. Martin; R. L. Jensen; D. D. Stepnewski; J. P. Hale

1979-01-01

449

Rural vs urban motor vehicle crash death rates: 20 years of FARS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Historically, motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related mortality is higher in rural areas than in urban areas. The authors evaluated whether the difference in rural and urban MVC deaths is persisting, and whether the frequency of patients being found dead at the scene, particularly in rural areas, is increasing. Methods. Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) data for 1-977 through 1996 were

Lawrence H. Brown; Ankush Khanna; Richard C. Hunt

2000-01-01

450

The location of motor vehicle crashes in Honolulu: a methodology for geocoding intersections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a geographic information system to geocode motor vehicle accidents by intersection (or corner) matching is described. Starting with the basic street network of TIGER or another linear reference system, the process of geocoding is described as well as the types of errors that can be introduced from loosening matching conditions. With an administrative database, such as the

Ned Levine; Karl E Kim

1998-01-01

451

Road Reservation for Fast and Safe Emergency Vehicle Response Using Ubiquitous Sensor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation has been playing important role in our society by providing mobility for people, freight, and information. However, it cuts its own throat by causing car accidents and, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The main cause of these problems is a noticeable growth in the number of vehicles. The easiest way is to build new road infrastructures unless resources such

Jae-Bong Yoo; Jihie Kim; Chan-Young Park

2010-01-01

452

Preliminary study on vehicle-to-roadside system using RFIDs for detecting road shoulders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ldquoAnnual Statistics on car accidentrdquo reveals that driver's error is one of the major causes of car accidents on curved roads and some of they can be classified into crashes on road shoulders. Car vendors have developed some lane keeping assist systems (LKAS) to prevent vehicles from straying into other lanes or straying off the road. These systems mainly use

Hiroaki Togashi; Shigeki Yamada

2009-01-01

453

Study of Vehicle Speeds on a Major Highway in Ghana: Implication for monitoring and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Vehicular speeds have been identified to be at the core of road accident severity and frequency globally. Whereas speed control is a fundamental priority and the cornerstone of road safety in the developed world, the subject is at rudimentary stages in most developing countries thus making research into vehicle speeds in developing nations imperative. The main aim of the

James Damsere Derry; Francis K. Afukaar; Peter Donkor; Charles Mock

2007-01-01

454

Coping Strategies during Hospitalisation and Recovery Following Motor Vehicle Trauma: A Personal Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described in this paper are the multiple injuries the author sustained as a result of a serious motor vehicle accident 5 years previously and the subsequent surgical and medical treatment. Also described are the different coping and adaptive skills he utilised during and after hospitalisation and how the nature of surgical and medical…

Denholm, Carey John

2009-01-01

455

Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died within 24h of the accident, in the years 2001 and

Jørg Mørland; Anni Steentoft; Kirsten Wiese Simonsen; Ilkka Ojanperä; Erkki Vuori; Kristin Magnusdottir; Jakob Kristinsson; Gunnel Ceder; Robert Kronstrand; Asbjørg Christophersen

2011-01-01

456

EMPIRICAL MODEL OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

An empirical model that characterizes the relationship between equilibrium vehicle emission distributions and malfunction, repair, and replacement rates by splitting vehicles into two emission categories has been developed. ross emitters and clean vehicles are defined by the magn...

457

Measurement of vehicle trajectories using 3D laser radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement system using 3-D imaging laser radars and real-time image processing to quantitatively measure and characterize inter-vehicular motion (i.e., the vehicle motion environment, VME) in real-world traffic settings is being developed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) under a subcontract with the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), who has a cooperative agreement with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The system will be deployed at the roadside to acquire data on vehicle centroid and heading trajectories that will be used to study vehicle dynamics and accident causation. This effort is a direct response to the recognized need for a fundamental understanding of the vehicle motion environment to aid in the development of automotive active safety technologies for Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) applications. This paper presents overviews of the national initiative for crash avoidance research, the role of the VME Program and the vehicle motion environment measurement system (i.e., VME-MS). Simulation studies were conducted in support of the image and data processing algorithm development. The motivation for and the implementation, capabilities and results of these simulation studies are presented.

Gilbert, R. Kent; Gerber, Garth L.; Pont, William F.; Reiley, Michael F.; de Sonia, Robert D.

1995-01-01

458

Intelligent vehicle applications worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent vehicles are an application in which the words “intelligent autonomous systems” represent not only an important research topic but also a strategic solution to the mobility problems that may arise in the coming years. Vehicles that can move autonomously and navigate in everyday traffic, on highways, and in urban and unstructured scenarios will become a reality in the next

R. Bishop

2000-01-01

459

Vehicle Dynamics and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction

Rajesh Rajamani

2006-01-01

460

Reentry vehicle instrumentation survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the state of the art in reentry vehicle on-board instrumentation. Brief descriptions of each class of instruments are given with the discussion centering principally on the currently employed instrumentation and their limitations (accuracy). References are given to provide further information on individual instrumentation systems. These systems include methods to measure nosetip forces and shapes, vehicle dynamics, and

W. R. Grabowsky; H. P. Eldridge; R. C. Wheaton

1981-01-01

461

The automated transfer vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) was confirmed at the October 1995 ESA Ministerial Council meeting in Toulouse by the ESA Member States as part of the programme for European participation in the International Space Station. The ATV will be a servicing and logistics vehicle for periodically resupplying the Station. It will be operational from early 2003, flying

J. Y. Heloret

1999-01-01

462

Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

463

Magnetic Gradient Vehicle Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an apparatus for detecting metallic objects. In a more limited sense, it relates to a vehicle detection apparatus of the type which senses vehicles by detecting variations in the coupling of a magnetic field between a tra...

M. K. Mills

1974-01-01

464

Case for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Cars that rely on electricity, not burning fuel, for motive power may offer the only workable solution to the joint predicaments of a global greenhouse effect and severe air pollution in cities. Much of the technology needed for building effective electric vehicles exists now or is under development. The emergence of electric vehicles has important economic implications. Whoever pioneers the commercialization of cost-competitive electric vehicle technologies will find inviting export markets around the world. Electric vehicles will be attractive where pollution is severe and intractable, peak vehicle performance is less highly valued than reliability and low maintenance, cheap electricity is available off-peak, and investments in oil distribution are small. Indeed, if the U.S. and other major industrial nations do not act, it is quite possible that the next generation of corporate automotive giants may arise in developing countries, where cars are relatively scarce today. This paper discusses the issues involved.

Sperling, D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

465

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-03-01

466

Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Piloting System with Integrated Motion Cueing for Training and Pilot Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

UAV accidents have been steadily rising as demand and use of these vehicles increases. A critical examination of UAV accidents\\u000a reveals that human error is a major cause. Advanced autonomous systems capable of eliminating the need for human piloting\\u000a are still many years from implementation. There are also many potential applications of UAVs in near Earth environments that\\u000a would require

James T. Hing; Paul Y. Oh

467

Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Piloting System with Integrated Motion Cueing for Training and Pilot Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

UAV accidents have been steadily rising as demand and use of these vehicles increases. A critical examination of UAV accidents\\u000a reveals that human error is a major cause. Advanced autonomous systems capable of eliminating the need for human piloting\\u000a are still many years from implementation. There are also many potential applications of UAVs in near Earth environments that\\u000a would require

James T. Hing; Paul Y. Oh

2009-01-01

468

Mortality rate in children caused by traffic accidents according to geographical regions - Brazil, 1997 - 2005.  

PubMed

Fatal injuries in children caused by motor vehicle accidents represent a common situation in many countries worldwide. The present study addresses the mortality rate in children as vehicle passengers in Brazil, from 1997 to 2005. To evaluate mortality rates, the number of deaths was collected from the National Mortality Information System (SIM) and the population size was obtained using the Brazilian Bureau Census (IBGE) data available at DATASUS. Mortality rates were estimated in three-year periods and analyzed according to age groups (younger than 1 year old, 1-4 years old, 5-9 years old) and geographical regions using a 95% confidence interval. Overall results showed mortality rates of 5.68, 7.32 and 6.78 (per 1,000,000) for the 1997-1999, 2000-2002 and 2003-2005 periods, respectively for the whole country. Children younger than 1 year old had a mortality rate of 10.18 (per 1,000,000), which was higher than for the other age groups. For the period analyzed, the highest rates were observed for the Mid-West and South regions of Brazil, with rates of 13.88 and 11.47 (per 1,000,000), respectively. These results show the risk of fatal injury in children caused by motor vehicle accidents and may contribute to the establishment of educational campaigns aiming injury prevention in children as vehicle passengers. PMID:22782096

Loffredo, Maria; Arruda, Celso; Loffredo, Leonor de Castro Monteiro

2012-06-01

469

MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze the first 174 minutes of the TMI-2 accident. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison of the code predictions to the available data shows that MELCOR is capable of modeling the key events of the TMI-2 accident and reasonable agreement with the available data is obtained. In particular, the core degradation and hydrogen generation models agree with best-estimate information available for this phase of the accident. While the code uses simplified modeling, all important characteristics of the reactor system and the accident phenomena could be modeled. This exercise demonstrates that MELCOR is applicable to severe accident analysis. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Boucheron, E.A.; Kelly, J.E.

1988-01-01

470

Mars manned transportation vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

1987-07-01

471

[Expert opinions in German statutory accident insurance].  

PubMed

German statutory accident insurance covers employees and trainees against occupational accidents, employers bear the inherent charges. Expert opinion is obtained, in particular, for discussing causality questions and for rating accidental health disorders. Causality has to be estimated based on the "theory of essential condition", health disorders have to be substantiated without any reasonable doubt. Reduction in earning capacity due to an accident may not consider the individual kind of occupation and has to be rated by an abstract approach. PMID:22161230

Widder, B; Gaidzik, P W

2011-12-12

472

The accident liability of British car drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data had been collected from a structured sample of just over 18 500 drivers using a postal questionnaire, to determine the relationship between their accident liability—defined as the expected number of accident involvement per year—and their exposure to driving, age, driving experience, sex and socio?economic group. The statistical model developed from this data suggests that accident liability is dependent mainly

G. Maycock; C. R. Lockwóod

1993-01-01

473

Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and

R Mayou; B Bryant; R Duthie

1993-01-01

474

Skidding Accidents: Wet-Weather Accident Experience, Human Factors, and Legal Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 10 papers deal with the following areas: Skidding accidents, friction numbers, and the legal aspects involved report of the PIARC technical committee on slipperiness and evenness; traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance; the location an...

K. H. Schulze

1976-01-01

475

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12

476

Rapid road repair vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, L.M.

1999-09-07

477

Summer activities: incidents and accidents.  

PubMed

Summer invites activities and sports that are unique to this time of year. Although safety is a priority, there are commonly accidents and incidents that occur while individuals are participating in these activities. The prevalence and incidence of several types of injuries and trauma related to water activities, camping, caving, backpacking, and hiking are discussed. Treatment of nonfatal drowning is discussed, along with the pathophysiologic process that must be corrected for optimal outcomes. Summer is a time for outdoor cooking, campfires, and the traditional Fourth of July firework pastimes, which can result in admissions to critical care areas. PMID:23692945

Krau, Stephen D

2013-03-27

478

Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

1999-09-19

479

Trauma scores, accident deformity codes, and car restraints in children.  

PubMed

The importance and effectiveness of the appropriate use of automobile restraints by young children has been emphasized in several studies. Once the child has entered the emergency care system, however, restraint use may not be the best predictor of injury severity. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship of restraint status to morbidity and mortality in children examined in a hospital emergency facility following involvement in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). The emergency room charts of 101 children under 18 years of age, who were victims of MVCs, were reviewed and the following trauma scores were calculated: Glascow Coma Scale, Pediatric Trauma Score, Revised Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score, and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score. In addition, the Traffic Accident Damage (TAD) score, an estimate of crash severity determined by the police at the accident scene, was recorded. The patients were age stratified as follows: 0 to 4 years (n = 24), 5 to 11 years (n = 29), and 12 to 17 years (n = 48). Fifty patients were appropriately restrained at the time of the crash. There was a significant correlation between mean trauma scores and mean TAD codes (P < .05). There were no significant differences in mean trauma scores between improperly restrained (n = 11) and unrestrained (n = 40) children (P > .05) across all age groups, and these children were grouped together as "unrestrained" in further analyses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8229599

Drongowski, R A; Coran, A G; Maio, R F; Polley, T Z

1993-08-01

480

Traffic accident segmentation by means of latent class clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic accident data are often heterogeneous, which can cause certain relationships to remain hidden. Therefore, traffic accident analysis is often performed on a small subset of traffic accidents or several models are built for various traffic accident types. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of a clustering technique, i.e. latent class clustering, for identifying homogenous traffic accident types. Firstly,

Benoît Depaire; Geert Wets; Koen Vanhoof

2008-01-01

481

POSSIBILITIES OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND RISK CRASH EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the traffic accident rate on roads and highways and possibilities of risk evaluation related to traffic accident occurrence based on factors that were the causes of accidents. A new term - risk of traffic accident occurrence is a product of probability of accident occurrence and its impacts. The results are presented by way of example that uses

Stodola Jiri

482

Safety Management of Traffic Accident Scene Based on System Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic system is a dynamic complicated one which is constituted of some factors. Traffic accident will happen if these factors mismatch with each other. Safety level of traffic accident scene affects occurrence rate of secondary accident. In order to evaluate safety level of traffic accident scene, prevent from secondary accident happening and protect the policemen, crowds by the scene and

Wen-hui Zhang; Hong-guo Xu; Biao Wu; Sheng-qin Li

2008-01-01

483

Accident Patterns on Arterial Streets in Dublin with Above Average Accident Rate 1980/82.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An examination of the complete list of High Accident Locations in Dublin City showed that a number of urban arterial streets had a higher than average accident rate. It was decided to examine accident patterns on these streets with a view to determining t...

M. McCarthy

1984-01-01

484

Accident evolution and barrier function and accident evolution management modeling of nuclear power plant incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every analysis of an accident or an incident is founded on a more or less explicit model of what an accident is. On a general level, the current approach models an incident or accident in a nuclear power plant as a failure to maintain a stable state with all variables within their ranges of stability. There are two main sets

Svenson

1992-01-01

485

Older drivers and accidents: A meta analysis and data mining application on traffic accident data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teenage driving and associated accidents have been thoroughly studied. With the graying of our population in the United States, a focus on senior drivers and related accidents is needed. Unfortunately, there is not one comprehensive study that reviews the major existing studies conducted on senior drivers and accidents. In examining the literature, it also appears that data mining has rarely

Evrim Bayam; Jay Liebowitz; William W. Agresti

2005-01-01

486

Vehicle jack with wedge mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many developing countries, particularly Nigeria, the high cost of production of a vehicle jack and the prevailing economic situation has made the commercial production of vehicle jacks difficult. Thus, the development of an appropriate technology for a vehicle jack would be of vital utility to vehicle users. This paper presents the design and construction of a low-price, simple mechanical

Ademola A. Dare; Sunday A. Oke

487

Power transmission apparatus for vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a power transmission apparatus for a vehicle comprising: an output shaft for transmitting power from a power unit to the front and rear wheels of the vehicle; a front wheel driving device for driving the vehicle front wheel; a rear wheel driving device for driving the vehicle rear wheel; a driving shaft operatively driven by the output

Oka

1987-01-01

488

Vehicle detection from aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle detection from aerial images is becoming an increasingly important research topic in surveillance, traffic monitoring and military applications. The system described in this paper focuses on vehicle detection in rural environments and its applications to oil and gas pipeline threat detection. Automatic vehicle detection by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) will replace current pipeline patrol services that rely on pilot

Joshua Gleason; Ara V. Nefian; Xavier Bouyssounousse; Terry Fong; George Bebis

2011-01-01

489

Throttle Control for Vehicle Following  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throttle control design is an important part of Au- tomated Vehicle Control System (AVCS). In this paper we design some throttle control schemes for vehicle following under constant time headway spacing policy. The schemes maintain a steady state inter-vehicle spacing decided by a desired time headway set by the driver. One verified nonlinear longitudinal vehicle model is used for simulations

P. Ioannou; Z. Xu

1993-01-01

490

Remotely Operated Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center, learn how some students are putting to work both technical skills as well as soft skills, such as teamwork and problem solving, in creating underwater remotely operated vehicles.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-10-25

491

Vehicle Bumper Performance Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a study of various aspects of vehicle bumper performance. Included are: current bumper design, override and underride propensity, ability to sustain dynamic loading, pedestrian protection, ancillary uses, and a survey of...

W. J. Rup J. M. Daly M. Erten

1968-01-01

492

Household Vehicles Energy Consumption  

EIA Publications

This report provides newly available national and regional data and analyzes the nation's energy use by light-duty vehicles. This release represents the analytical component of the report, with a data component having been released in early 2005.

Mark Schipper

2005-11-30

493

Tracked-Vehicle Transportability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the procedures for evaluating the transportability characteristics of tracked vehicles moving under their own power, or moved by carrier over highway, off-road terrain, rail, water, or by air. Keywords: Crane, Dynamometer, Lifting ...

1987-01-01

494

New Mars vehicle concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

Sherwood, Brent

1993-02-01

495

Surrogate teleoperated vehicle (STV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotics Systems Technology is building surrogate teleoperated vehicles (STV). The STV system consists of two parts-the remote platform (RP) and the mobility\\/RSTA module (MOB\\/RSTA). The RP is based on an off-the-shelf Polaris six-wheel drive, Ackerman-steered all terrain vehicle. Its full suspension allows the operator to drive at speeds exceeding 58 k\\/h. The current automatic drive train will be modified using

S. D. Myers

1991-01-01

496

An efficient method for extracting road lane mark by fusing vehicle-based stereo image and laser range data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, an integration of real-time sensing and map reference from vehicles would be very effective to achieve a complete Cruise-Assist system such as what can make a driver avoid a traffic accident. However, existing digital road maps such as network data or simple 3D data for vehicle navigation cannot support Cruise-Assist well, in particular, in an urban area. In fact,

Y. Shi; R. Shibasaki; Z. C. Shi

2008-01-01

497

Fire vehicle hardening  

SciTech Connect

After attack, the wartime fire fighter faces a harsh environment in which he must operate to perform his mission. Debris, unexploded bombs, and munitions pose hazards that must be overcome. Without modification to the fire-fighting vehicles, there is little assurance that the fire fighter would even be able to reach the locations necessary for performing his mission. Adding armor to the vehicle to protect both the operator and the vehicle from these hazards is the proposed solution. Through a study performed by the BDM Corporation under a subcontract to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., the recommended types, thicknesses, and locations of material necessary to allow the P-19 crash-rescue fire vehicle to survive, with 95% probability, 100 random events using the NATO Standard Fragment Threat Criteria was determined. Using