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1

Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Secondary to a Motor Vehicle Accident: A Single-Subject Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are fairly common occurrences in all developed countries. Although only a small percentage of total MVAs result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the high base rate in the population has resulted in the estimation that MVAs are the leading cause of PTSD in the United States. Occupations that require…

Galovski, Tara E.; Resick, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

2

Neural Correlates of Posttraumatic Growth after Severe Motor Vehicle Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frontal brain asymmetry has been associated with emotion- and motivation-related constructs. The authors examined the relationship between frontal brain asymmetry and subjective perception of posttraumatic growth (PTG) after severe motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Eighty-two survivors of MVAs completed self-report measures of PTG, trait and state…

Rabe, Sirko; Zollner, Tanja; Maercker, Andreas; Karl, Anke

2006-01-01

3

Regional Brain Electrical Activity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Motor Vehicle Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) would show an abnormal pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha asymmetries, which has been proposed for particular types of anxiety. Patients with PTSD (n = 22) or subsyndromal PTSD (n = 21), traumatized controls without PTSD (non-PTSD with MVA; n = 21), and healthy controls

Sirko Rabe; André Beauducel; Tanja Zöllner; Andreas Maercker; Anke Karl

2006-01-01

4

Brief, Early Treatment for ASD/PTSD Following Motor Vehicle Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early, brief interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) secondary to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) have historically been, with few exceptions, unsuccessful with single session or even very brief (3 to 6 sessions) interventions. In contrast, very intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) applied over the first 6 to 8 weeks…

Hickling, Edward J.; Blanchard, Edward B.; Kuhn, Eric

2005-01-01

5

Comparison and Characteristics of Motor Vehicle Accident (MVA) and Non-MVA Driving Fears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has revealed the diagnostic complexity among people who report driving fears. However, the focus on survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) and diagnostic samples may have inadvertently led to a relative neglect of the broader driving-fearful population. No studies could be located that compared MVA survivors with those who had not experienced an MVA. The aim of the

Joanne Taylor; Frank P. Deane

2000-01-01

6

Benzodiazepine use and motor vehicle accidents. Systematic review of reported association.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between benzodiazepine (BZD) use and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched from 1980 to 1997 using the key words traffic accidents or motor vehicle accidents and benzodiazepines (and alternative terms and outcomes) in English, German, French, or Italian. STUDY SELECTION: Case-control studies of BZDs and MVAs; police or emergency studies of BZD use among travelers; driving tests with subjects taking BZDs. Outcomes were impaired driving, accidents; mortality; postaccident medical attention, emergency ward care, or hospitalization. Quality criteria were whether all driving BZD users and non-users had an equal chance of entering the study; whether medication dosage and timing were ascertained; whether all kilometres driven by BZD users and non-users were studied; whether all types of accidents were ascertained; and whether medical conditions were controlled for. SYNTHESIS: In case-control studies, the odds ratios for mortality and emergency medical treatment ranged from 1.45 to 2.4 in relation to time of use and quantity of drug taken. In police and emergency ward studies, BZD use was a factor in 1% to 65% of accidents (usually 5% to 10%). In two studies where subjects had blood alcohol concentrations less than the legal limit, BZDs were found in 43% and 65% of subjects. In one study with controls, 5% of drivers and 2% of controls in accidents had used BZDs. CONCLUSIONS: Case-control studies suggest using BZDs approximately doubles the risk of motor vehicle accidents. The risk for drivers older than 65 of being involved in reported motor vehicle collisions is higher when they take longer-acting and larger quantities of BZDs.

Thomas, R. E.

1998-01-01

7

Diagnosis and Treatment of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy to Prevent Motor Vehicle Accidents: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

PubMed Central

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in cirrhosis is associated with impaired driving skills and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Detection and treatment of MHE has the potential to reduce costs and morbidity associated with MVAs. Methods We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the benefits of different strategies of MHE diagnosis and treatment for reducing MVA-related societal costs. The analyses compared five MHE management strategies: (1) presumptive treatment of all cirrhotics; (2) diagnosis by neuropsychological exam (NPE) with treatment; (3) diagnosis by standard psychometric tests (SPT) with treatment; (4) diagnosis by rapid screening using inhibitory control test (ICT) with treatment; and (5) no MHE diagnosis or treatment (status quo). Treatments considered were lactulose or rifaximin, which were assumed to reduce the MVA rate to the level of similarly-aged non-cirrhotics with benefit adjusted for treatment compliance. A Markov model followed a simulated cohort of 1000 cirrhotics without overt HE(OHE), from entry into treatment, through MHE development, and later, OHE, when they exited the modeled cohort. Follow-up was for 5 years and included biannual MHE testing. The societal cost of a single MVA was estimated at $42,100. Results All 4 strategies with lactulose were cost-saving compared to the status quo. Diagnosis with ICT and lactulose was the most cost-effective approach (cost/MVA prevented: $24,454 ICT; $25,470 SPT; $30,469 presumptive treatment and $33,742 NPE). Net program savings over 5 years ranged from $1.7 to 3.6 million depending on the strategy. Rifaximin therapy was not cost-saving at current prices but would become so at a monthly cost <$353. Conclusion Detection of MHE, especially using the ICT, and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce societal costs by preventing MVAs.

Bajaj, Jasmohan S.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Sanyal, Arun J.; Heuman, Douglas M.

2011-01-01

8

Alcohol- or drug-use disorders and motor vehicle accident mortality: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

A large body of research has linked alcohol consumption and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), but far fewer studies have estimated the risk of MVA fatality among drug users. Our study addresses this gap. We identified cohorts of individuals hospitalized in California from 1990 to 2005 with ICD-9 diagnoses of methamphetamine- (n=74,170), alcohol- (n=592,406), opioids- (n=68,066), cannabis- (n=47,048), cocaine- (n=48,949), or polydrug-related disorders (n=411,175), and these groups were followed for up to 16 years. Age-, sex-, and race-adjusted standardized mortality rates (SMRs) for deaths due to MVAs were generated in relation to the California general population. Standardized MVA mortality ratios were elevated across all drug cohorts: alcohol (4.5, 95% CI, 4.1-4.9), cocaine (3.8, 95% CI, 2.3-5.3), opioids (2.8, 95% CI, 2.1-3.5), methamphetamine (2.6, 95% CI, 2-3.1), cannabis (2.3, 95% CI, 1.5-3.2) and polydrug (2.6, 95% CI, 2.4-2.9). Males and females had similar MVA SMRs. Our large, population-based study found elevated risk of MVA mortality across all cohorts of individuals with alcohol- or drug-use disorders. Given that illicit drug users are often unaware of or misperceive the impacts of drug use on safe driving, it may be important for health-service or public-health interventions to address such biases and improve road safety. PMID:23434842

Callaghan, Russell C; Gatley, Jodi M; Veldhuizen, Scott; Lev-Ran, Shaul; Mann, Robert; Asbridge, Mark

2013-04-01

9

Motor Vehicle Accident Eye Injuries in Northern Israel  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate the occurrence and types of motor vehicle accident eye trauma in north Israel. Methods: The records between the years 2007–2011 of the Ophthalmology Emergency Room of one medical center were searched. Eye injuries due to motor vehicle accidents were classified according to type, severity of injury and demographic data of patients. Results: Nearly five percents of ER presentations were due to motor vehicle accidents. Most motor vehicle accident-related eye injuries were mild. Conclusion: Efforts should be taken to prevention and to minimize the severity of motor vehicle accident-related eye injuries.

Yulish, Michael; Pikkel, Joseph

2014-01-01

10

Who develops PTSD from motor vehicle accidents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within 1 to 4 months of their motor vehicle accident (MVA), we assessed 158 MVA victims who sought medical attention as a result of the MVA. Using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS: Blake, Weathers, Nagy, Kaloupek, Klauminzer, Charney & Keane, 1990. National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Boston, MA)., we found that 62 (39%) met DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987.

Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Ann E. Taylor; Warren R. Loos; Catherine A. Forneris; James Jaccard

1996-01-01

11

Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review  

PubMed Central

Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only duration of the drive is built into legislation protecting professional drivers. Older drivers are also vulnerable to sleepiness in the mid-afternoon. Possible pathological causes of driver sleepiness are discussed, but there is little evidence that this factor contributes greatly to the accident statistics. Sleep does not occur spontaneously without warning. Drivers falling asleep are unlikely to recollect having done so, but will be aware of the precursory state of increasing sleepiness; probably reaching a state of fighting off sleep before an accident. Self awareness of sleepiness is a better method for alerting the driver than automatic sleepiness detectors in the vehicle. None of these have been proved to be reliable and most have shortcomings. Putative counter measures to sleepiness, adopted during continued driving (cold air, use of car radio) are only effective for a short time. The only safe counter measure to driver sleepiness, particularly when the driver reaches the stage of fighting sleep, is to stop driving, and--for example, take a 30 minute break encompassing a short (< 15 minute) nap or coffee (about 150 mg caffeine), which are very effective particularly if taken together. Exercise is of little use. CONCLUSIONS: More education of employers and employees is needed about planning journeys, the dangers of driving while sleepy, and driving at vulnerable times of the day.  

Horne, J.; Reyner, L.

1999-01-01

12

Reduction of police vehicle accidents through mechaniically aided supervision.  

PubMed

Tachograph recorders were installed in 224 vehicles of a metropolitan police department to monitor vehicle operation in an attempt to reduce the rate of accidents. Police sergeants reviewed each tachograph chart and provided feedback to officers regarding their driving performance. Reliability checks and additional feedback procedures were implemented so that upper level supervisors monitored and controlled the performance of field sergeants. The tachograph intervention and components of the feedback system nearly eliminated personal injury accidents and sharply reduced accidents caused by officer negligence. A cost-benefit analysis revealed that the savings in vehicle repair and injury claims outweighed the equipment and operating costs. PMID:16795634

Larson, L D; Schnelle, J F; Kirchner, R; Carr, A F; Domash, M; Risley, T R

1980-01-01

13

Experimental study of hydrogen release accidents in a vehicle garage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing a hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle in a garage poses a potential safety hazard because of the accidents that could arise from a hydrogen leak. A series of tests examined the risk involved with hydrogen releases and deflagrations in a structure built to simulate a one-car garage. The experiments involved igniting hydrogen gas that was released inside the structure and studying

E. G. Merilo; M. A. Groethe; J. D. Colton; S. Chiba

2011-01-01

14

Livestock Vehicle Accidents in Spain: Causes, Consequences, and Effects on Animal Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock vehicle accidents are rare but involve significant economic, human, and nonhuman farm animal losses. This study obtained information on the characteristics of accidents, the animals involved, and injuries to humans from newspaper reports about livestock vehicle accidents in Spain from January 2000 to December 2008. Most accidents involved pig transport (57%), followed by bovine (30%), poultry (8%), and sheep

Genaro C. Miranda-de la Lama; Wilmer S. Sepúlveda; Morris Villarroel; Gustavo A. María

2011-01-01

15

Proefkoppeling van het Kentekenbestand aan het Ongevallenbestand (Linkage of the Road Accident and Vehicle Registration Files).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vehicle characteristics are of importance in all phases of a road accident. None are however recorded by the police on the road accident registration form in the Netherlands. By linking the vehicle registration file to the road accident file a number of i...

J. E. Lindeijer

1983-01-01

16

Vergelijkende Analyse van Ongevallen met Zware Voertuigen (Comparative Analysis of Accidents with Heavy Vehicles).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature and extent of accidents with heavy vehicles: trucks and buses, is studied. Two earlier reports describe how heavy vehicles function in traffic, and present global data on accidents with heavy vehicles in the Netherlands, Europe and the United S...

J. P. M. Tromp

1989-01-01

17

Self-Evaluative Appraisals of Coping Capability and Posttraumatic Distress following Motor Vehicle Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the importance of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions and change in perceptions of CSE for recovery from motor vehicle accident (MVA) trauma. Data were collected 7 days following the accident (Time 1; n = 163), 1 month after the accident (Time 2; n = 91), and 3 months after the accident (Time 3; n = 70). Early changes in CSE…

Benight, Charles C.; Cieslak, Roman; Molton, Ivan R.; Johnson, Lesley E.

2008-01-01

18

Collision of marine vehicles in Bangladesh: a study on accident characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the marine vehicle accident characteristics in the inland waterways of Bangladesh, with particular emphasis on collision type accidents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Accident data were collected from different sources such as the daily newspapers, reports of Department of Shipping (DOS) and Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA). The accidents are analysed according to different variables

Zobair Ibn Awal; M. Rafiqul Islam

2010-01-01

19

Investigation of head injuries by reconstructions of real-world vehicle-versus-adult-pedestrian accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sizeable proportion of adult pedestrians involved in vehicle-versus-pedestrian accidents suffer head injuries, some of which can lead to lifelong disability or even death. To understand head injury mechanisms, in-depth accident analyses and accident reconstructions were conducted. A total of 120 adult pedestrian accident cases from the GIDAS (German in-depth accident study) database were analyzed, from which 10 were selected

Jianfeng Yao; Jikuang Yang; Dietmar Otte

2008-01-01

20

[An experimental study on driver identification of passenger car in vehicle to vehicle accidents].  

PubMed

A series of full-scale vehicle-to-vehicle oblique collision experiments was carried out for providing general data to clarify the question of seating positions. In all test, two unrestrained anthropometric dummies (Hybrid II) were seated on front seats in passenger cars as occupants. The bullet car collided against the target car running with 25 km/h, at 50 km/h, at impact angles of 120 degrees and 150 degrees. Five impact configurations between occupant regions and interior of vehicle were evaluated: head-face/windshield, head-face/A-pillar, chest-abdomen/instrument panel, upper body/inside door and lower extremities/instruments panel. Comparative occupant injuries and vehicle response data were obtained from electronic instrumentation, high-speed movie films and visual observations. No characteristic driver injuries was observed in oblique collision experiments. The crush characteristics of the vehicle interiors and occupant behavior had significant effect in determining the actual injury once contact occurred. The differences of injuries in occupants occurred depend on impact configurations of vehicles. Therefore, on the driver identification, it is important to clarify kinematics of occupants during the impact by an analytical reconstruction. The data and information can be used to determine who was driving in actual traffic accidents for the forensic medicine expert. PMID:2266610

Ueyama, M

1990-08-01

21

Fetal intracranial injuries following motor vehicle accidents with airbag deployment.  

PubMed

The effects of airbag deployment in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) on the fetus are poorly understood. A 22-year-old woman at 24 weeks of gestation collided with a telephone pole while driving. She was restrained and an airbag deployed. Although she had no major injuries, she experienced decreased fetal movements. Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring revealed loss of variability without any evidence of abruptio placentae, and 4 days later, the variability spontaneously recovered. Two weeks after the MVA, ultrasonography showed unilateral ventricular dilatation suggestive of fetal brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed subdural hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic lesions, interpreted as indirect (hypoxic-ischemic) and direct (hemorrhagic) intracranial injuries. After MVA with airbag deployment, FHR monitoring can show a transient loss of variability, which may precede the appearance of fetal brain injury. PMID:24118367

Matsushita, Hiroshi; Harada, Atsuko; Sato, Takashi; Kurabayashi, Takumi

2014-02-01

22

Maxillofacial Fractures of Pedestrians Injured in a Motor Vehicle Accident  

PubMed Central

Maxillofacial fractures of pedestrians injured in a motor vehicle accident were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were 38 males and 26 females, and their age was distributed almost evenly from 1 to 91 years old (average 45.9?±?24.8 years old). Motor vehicle collisions were with an automobile in 46 patients (71.9%), a motorcycle in 17 (26.6%), and a train in 1 (1.6%). The midface was involved in 32 patients (50.0%), the mandible in 19 (29.7%), and both the mandible and the midface in 13 (20.3%). Fractures were frequently observed in the zygoma and alveolus in the midface and in the condyle, symphysis, and body in the mandible. The facial injury severity scale (FISS) rating ranged from 1 to 9 (average 2.30?±?1.79). Injuries to other sites of the body occurred in 29 patients (45.3%). Observation was most frequently chosen in 26 patients (40.6%), followed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in 18 (28.1%), and maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in 8 (12.5%). The FISS rating was higher in patients treated with ORIF and MMF. Injuries to other sites of the body were observed at a higher rate in patients who collided with an automobile and were also treated by ORIF.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Ueyama, Yoshihiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kirita, Tadaaki

2013-01-01

23

Accident Avoidance Test Report-Nissan and Toyota Experimental Safety Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESVs) manufactured by Nissan and Toyota of Japan were tested to evaluate the accident avoidance performance of each vehicle. The report contains a brief description of each vehicle and of each test performed as well as th...

P. Boulay T. Macaulay

1975-01-01

24

Motor vehicle accident fatalities trends, Puerto Rico 2000-2007.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle accident fatalities (MVAF) are an important cause of death that affects millions of people worldwide. Using the Puerto Rico Institute of Forensic Science database, this study accessed the mortality trends of MVAF in Puerto Rico from 2000 to 2007. Descriptive statistics, age-adjusted mortality rates, geographical analysis, and annual percentage change were calculated. An annual mean of 559 MVAF occurred during the study period. The overall MVAF mortality rate declined from 2000 to 2007 (16.6 and 12.4 per 100,000 population, respectively)-mortality rates annually decreased 3%. Most MVAF (80.2%) occurred in men, showing a risk four times higher than women (23.6 and 5.4 deaths per 100,000 populations, respectively). Drivers aged 20-24 years and pedestrians older than 75 years had the highest risk of death. This study emphasizes the need of public health efforts to focus on the prevention of MVAF in the most affected groups. PMID:21827468

Lopez-Charneco, Magdalena; Conte-Miller, Maria S; Davila-Toro, Francisco; García-Rivera, Enid J; Zavala, Diego E; Torres, Yisel; Orengo, Jose F Rodriguez

2011-09-01

25

Injury severities of truck drivers in single- and multi-vehicle accidents on rural highways.  

PubMed

In adverse driving conditions, such as inclement weather and/or complex terrain, trucks are often involved in single-vehicle (SV) accidents in addition to multi-vehicle (MV) accidents. Ten-year accident data involving trucks on rural highway from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) is studied to investigate the difference in driver-injury severity between SV and MV accidents by using mixed logit models. Injury severity from SV and MV accidents involving trucks on rural highways is modeled separately and their respective critical risk factors such as driver, vehicle, temporal, roadway, environmental and accident characteristics are evaluated. It is found that there exists substantial difference between the impacts from a variety of variables on the driver-injury severity in MV and SV accidents. By conducting the injury severity study for MV and SV accidents involving trucks separately, some new or more comprehensive observations, which have not been covered in the existing studies can be made. Estimation findings indicate that the snow road surface and light traffic indicators will be better modeled as random parameters in SV and MV models respectively. As a result, the complex interactions of various variables and the nature of truck-driver injury are able to be disclosed in a better way. Based on the improved understanding on the injury severity of truck drivers from truck-involved accidents, it is expected that more rational and effective injury prevention strategy may be developed for truck drivers under different driving conditions in the future. PMID:21658494

Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren

2011-09-01

26

The effect on accidents of technical inspections of heavy vehicles in Norway.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of the effects on accidents of technical inspections of heavy vehicles (trucks and buses) in Norway. Multiple regression analysis is applied in order to estimate the effects of technical inspections, controlling for annual trend in accident rate, the number of new drivers and annual economic growth. It is found that abolishing inspections may result in an increase of 5-10% in the number of heavy vehicles involved in injury accidents; increasing the number of inspections by 100% is associated with a similar reduction in the number of accidents. These results are not statistically significant and highly uncertain. The study clearly illustrates many of the difficulties often encountered in non-experimental accident research. PMID:12371780

Elvik, Rune

2002-11-01

27

Biomechanical analysis of occupant kinematics in rollover motor vehicle accidents: dynamic spit test.  

PubMed

A better understanding of occupant kinematics in rollover accidents helps to advance biomechanical knowledge and to enhance the safety features of motor vehicles. While many rollover accident simulation studies have adopted the static approach to delineate the occupant kinematics in rollover accidents, very few studies have attempted the dynamic approach. The present work was designed to study the biomechanics of restrained occupants during rollover accidents using the steady-state dynamic spit test and to address the importance of keeping the lap belt fastened. Experimental tests were conducted using an anthropometric 50% Hybrid III dummy in a vehicle. The vehicle was rotated at 180 degrees/second and the dummy was restrained using a standard three-point restraint system. The lap belt of the dummy was fastened either by using the cinching latch plate or by locking the retractor. Three configurations of shoulder belt harness were simulated: shoulder belt loose on chest with cinch plate, shoulder belt under the left arm and shoulder belt behind the chest. In all tests, the dummy stayed within the confinement of the vehicle indicating that the securely fastened lap belt holds the dummy with dynamic movement of 3 1/2" to 4". The results show that occupant movement in rollover accidents is least affected by various shoulder harness positions with a securely fastened lap belt. The present study forms a first step in delineating the biomechanics of occupants in rollover accidents. PMID:15850090

Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Clarke, Richard; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve

2005-01-01

28

A Comprehensive Review of Rollover Accidents Involving Vehicles Equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems  

PubMed Central

This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present.

Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E.; Scheibe, Robert R.; Eyges, Vitaly E.

2008-01-01

29

Motor vehicle accidents (1973-6) in a cohort of Montreal drivers.  

PubMed

In 1973-4 nearly 10 000 Montreal drivers, interviewed by telephone, provided information about medical and associated factors and about driving habits, in particular annual mileage. Records of accidents suffered by these drivers in the Province of Quebec over 39 months (1973-6) were also collected. The 7634 current drivers, with appropriate permits, and all of whose data passed reliability edits, were placed into nine sets-that is, three classes: women; men with the usual permit; and men with a chauffeur's permit to drive taxis, heavy vehicles, etc; further subdivided into three age groups. Accident rates depended on mileage, but after allowance for differences in mileage, accident rates still varied with sex, type of permit, and age. No association of the risk of accidents and a medical or related factor was consistent over all nine sets of drivers. Of the 7634 drivers, 347 had had at least one accident causing injury or death in the 39 months from 1 January 1973. These "cases" were compared with 347 "referents," closely matched for sex, type of permit, age, and reported mileage, but without accident causing injury or death. Cases included higher proportion who worked irregular shifts, who were overweight, and who reported smoking while driving. Relative to the chance of a referent suffering any accident in the 39-month period, a case had at least double the risk of having an accident in addition to the index accident. PMID:7119657

Liddell, F D

1982-06-01

30

Biochemical and Structural Basis for Inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase, mvaS, by Hymeglusin  

SciTech Connect

Hymeglusin (1233A, F244, L-659-699) is established as a specific {beta}-lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS). Inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. In contrast, the effects of hymeglusin on bacterial HMG-CoA synthase, mvaS, have been minimally characterized. Hymeglusin blocks growth of Enterococcus faecalis. After removal of the inhibitor from culture media, a growth curve inflection point at 3.1 h is observed (vs 0.7 h for the uninhibited control). Upon hymeglusin inactivation of purified E. faecalis mvaS, the thioester adduct is more stable than that measured for human HMGCS. Hydroxylamine cleaves the thioester adduct; substantial enzyme activity is restored at a rate that is 8-fold faster for human HMGCS than for mvaS. Structural results explain these differences in enzyme-inhibitor thioester adduct stability and solvent accessibility. The E. faecalis mvaS-hymeglusin cocrystal structure (1.95 {angstrom}) reveals virtually complete occlusion of the bound inhibitor in a narrow tunnel that is largely sequestered from bulk solvent. In contrast, eukaryotic (Brassica juncea) HMGCS binds hymeglusin in a more solvent-exposed cavity.

Skaff, D. Andrew; Ramyar, Kasra X.; McWhorter, William J.; Barta, Michael L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Miziorko, Henry M. (UMKC)

2012-07-25

31

Psychometric Properties of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI): A Replication With Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and discriminative validity of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI; E. B. Foa, A. Ehlers, D. M. Clark, D. F. Tolin, & S. M. Orsillo, 1999) in a sample of 112 individuals who had experienced a serious motor vehicle accident. Results…

Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.; Palyo, Sarah A.; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Miller, Luana M.; Colder, Craig R.

2004-01-01

32

Monitoring Prevention of Single Vehicle Run-Off-the-Road Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal objective of this study was to monitor existing sections of rural, multi-lane, divided highways in Texas that have received shoulder treatments designed to mitigate single vehicle run-off-the-road (SVROR) accidents. The purpose of the presen...

P. Nicodemus W. K. Wray

1996-01-01

33

Patterns and Consequences of Inadequate Sleep in College Students: Substance Use and Motor Vehicle Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students.

Daniel J. Taylor; Adam D. Bramoweth

2010-01-01

34

Estimating vehicle roadside encroachment frequency using accident prediction models  

SciTech Connect

The existing data to support the development of roadside encroachment- based accident models are extremely limited and largely outdated. Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration and Transportation Research Board, several roadside safety projects have attempted to address this issue by providing rather comprehensive data collection plans and conducting pilot data collection efforts. It is clear from the results of these studies that the required field data collection efforts will be expensive. Furthermore, the validity of any field collected encroachment data may be questionable because of the technical difficulty to distinguish intentional from unintentional encroachments. This paper proposes an alternative method for estimating the basic roadside encroachment data without actually field collecting them. The method is developed by exploring the probabilistic relationships between a roadside encroachment event and a run-off-the-road event With some mild assumptions, the method is capable of providing a wide range of basic encroachment data from conventional accident prediction models. To illustrate the concept and use of such a method, some basic encroachment data are estimated for rural two-lane undivided roads. In addition, the estimated encroachment data are compared with the existing collected data. The illustration shows that the method described in this paper can be a viable approach to estimating basic encroachment data without actually collecting them which can be very costly.

Miaou, S.-P.

1996-07-01

35

Accident or Suicide? Single-Vehicle Car Accidents and the Intent Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief case studies of single-vehicle car crashes are used to explore the relationship between this method of death and the intent to commit suicide. The author attempts to determine what criteria can be used to determine whether suicide was the intent, and how death by automobile crash can be determined a suicide. (JPS)

Peck, Dennis L.; Warner, Kenneth

1995-01-01

36

Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

2011-01-01

37

Upper airway occlusion by soil--an unusual cause of death in vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

Upper airway obstruction by soil is a rare cause of death in motor vehicle accidents. Four cases were found in a search of the records of the Forensic Science Centre in Adelaide, South Australia over a twenty-year period from January 1982 to December 2001. Case 1: A 68-year-old male driver died from sand inhalation after he was trapped in his vehicle following an accident. His mouth and upper airway were packed with sand. Case 2: A 33-year-old male pedestrian died from smothering after he had been knocked over and had his head pressed face down into sandy soil by a vehicle wheel. Case 3: A 12-year-old male passenger died from soil inhalation after the vehicle in which he was travelling rolled over and filled with soil. His mouth and upper airway were packed with soil. In these cases the victims had been trapped with the face covered in fine, or loose, soil or sand. In Case 4 a 41-year-old male passenger was ejected from a vehicle. He died from blunt chest trauma exacerbated by occlusion of the mouth and nose by soil. Careful scene descriptions are required in the assessment of such cases, in addition to evaluation of the relative contribution of injuries and asphyxia to the fatal episode. PMID:16083692

Hanson, K A; Gilbert, J D; James, R A; Byard, R W

2002-06-01

38

Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.  

PubMed

All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues. PMID:20159086

Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

2010-03-01

39

Promilekjoring Med Tunge Kjoretoy Omfang, Ulykkesrisiko og Mulige Tiltak. (Drink Driving with Heavy Vehicles. Prevalence, Accident Risk and Possible Countermeasures).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project described in this report consists of the following parts: (1) Prevalence of drink-driving among drivers of heavy vehicles; (2) Accident risk related to drink-driving with heavy vehicles; (3) Possibilities of reducing drink-driving with heavy v...

A. Erke T. Assum

2009-01-01

40

Biomechanical analysis of protective countermeasures in underride motor vehicle accidents - biomed 2009.  

PubMed

Traffic safety has been significantly improved over the past several decades reducing injury and fatality rates. However, there is a paucity of research effort to address the safety issues in underride accidents, specifically the side underride crashes. It is well known that the compromise of occupant space in the vehicle leads to a higher probability of serious or fatal injuries. A better understanding of occupant protection and mechanism of injuries involved in side underride accidents assists in the advancement of safety measures. The present work evaluates the injury potential to occupants during side underride crashes using the car-to-trailer crash methodology. Four crash tests were conducted into the side of a stationary trailer fitted with the side underride guard system (SURG). The SURG used in these tests is 25% lighter than the previous design. A 5th percentile hybrid III female dummy was placed in the driver seat and restrained with the three-point lap and shoulder harness. The anthropometric dummy was instrumented with a head triaxial accelerometer, a chest triaxal accelerometer, a load cell to measure neck force and moment, and a load cell to measure the femur force. The vehicle acceleration was measured using a traxial accelerometer in the rear center tunnel. High speed, standard video and still photos were taken. In all tests, the intrusion was limited to the front structure of the vehicle without any significant compromise to the occupant space. Results indicate that the resultant head and chest accelerations, head injury criterion (HIC), neck force and moment, and femur force were well below the injury tolerance. The present findings support the hypothesis that the SURG not only limits or eliminates the intrusion into the occupant space but also results in biomechanical injury values well below the tolerance limit in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:19369745

Kumar, Sri; Enz, Bruce; Ponder, Perry L; Anderson, Bob

2009-01-01

41

Psychological changes and the resolution of acute neck pain after a motor vehicle accident.  

PubMed

This study examines the changes in self-perception during resolution of an acutely painful neck injury sustained in a motor vehicle accident. We tested predictions from self-discrepancy theory and a model of self-pain enmeshment. Measures of discrepancy between the current (actual) self and both the ideal and feared-for self were predicted to remain stable over a 21-day recovery period whereas a measure of enmeshment was predicted to decrease as pain resolved. We also examined the relationship between daily ratings of achievement in several domains and participants perceived ideal performance. Sixty patients with possible acute neck injury recruited within 1 month after a motor vehicle accident gave consent and data were obtained from 42 participants. Standard questionnaire measures of pain, disability, fear of movement, pain catastrophizing and self-discrepancies, self-pain enmeshment and data from diaries (measures of pain, mood, self-discrepancies, pain catastrophizing and fear of movement) were obtained. In general the relationships between the measures of self-discrepancy and enmeshment and mood were in accord with both theoretical predictions and previous observations. Resolution of pain was associated with a reduction in enmeshment but not to change in self-discrepancy. Multilevel analyses of the diary data showed that concordance between actual and ideal performance increased over the 21 days of data collection. These data provide preliminary support for aspects of self-discrepancy theory and the self-pain enmeshment model. PMID:20801064

Vangronsveld, Karoline L; Morley, Stephen; Peters, Madelon L; Vlaeyen, Johan W; Goossens, Mariëlle E

2011-03-01

42

Alcohol intoxication increases morbidity in drivers involved in motor vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

We prospectively examined the correlation of alcohol intoxication with injury severity, morbidity, and mortality in drivers involved in motor vehicle accidents in a prospective cohort study. The study enrolled 923 injured patients, of whom 421 were legally intoxicated (blood alcohol concentration [BAC] > or = 50 mg/dL) and 502 were not intoxicated (BAC < 50 mg/dL). The intoxicated drivers had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS), lower Glasgow Coma Score, lower systolic blood pressure; higher rate in old age, male sex, greater rate of habitual drinking, greater lack of use of safety gear, and greater accident-related morbidity. After logistic regression analysis, alcohol intoxication was not associated with severe injury (ISS > or = 9); however, alcohol intoxication analyzed either as a preinjury or postinjury risk factor, was one of the predictors for morbidity. Severe head injury was the only predictor of mortality. In conclusion, although alcohol intoxication is not associated with an increased incidence of severe injury or mortality in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes, it is one of the significant predictors for morbidity after injury. PMID:12671806

Shih, Hsin-Chin; Hu, Sheng-Chuan; Yang, Chih-Chieh; Ko, Tun-Jen; Wu, Jer-Kan; Lee, Chen-Hsen

2003-03-01

43

The impact of severity of physical injury and perception of life threat in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 98 victims of recent (1 to 4 months post-accident) motor vehicle accidents who sought medical attention as a result of the accident, we obtained data on the extent of physical injury using blind ratings with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), as well as victims reports of their perceptions of how much danger they perceived at the time of the

Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Neil Mitnick; Ann E. Taylor; Warren R. Loos; Todd C. Buckley

1995-01-01

44

Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors  

PubMed Central

Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of advantages, including provision of a natural support group, the ability to reach more patients, and greater cost efficiency. In this article, we describe the development of a group CBT for PTSD in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA). Issues unique to the group treatment format are discussed, along with special considerations such as strategies to reduce the potential for triggering reexperiencing symptoms during group sessions. A case example is presented, along with discussion of group process issues. Although still in the early stages, this group CBT may offer promise as an effective treatment of MVA-related PTSD.

Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

2006-01-01

45

Statistical adjustment for misclassification of seat belt and alcohol use in the analysis of motor vehicle accident data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of seat belts and alcohol is often misreported in police motor vehicle accident reports for a number of reasons. To avoid penalties, occupants often over report seat belt use and under report alcohol use. Police officers sometimes fail to account for evidence such as presence of belt burn, condition of belts, odor of alcohol, crash patterns, etc. Biased

Haifeng Guo; Kent M. Eskridge; Daniel Christensen; Ming Qu; Thomas Safranek

2007-01-01

46

An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

47

Orthopedic Considerations in the Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Accident Polytrauma Patient  

PubMed Central

Pedestrian versus motor vehicle accidents (PVMVAs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Past models of PVMVAs assume lower-extremity vehicle contact as the initiating event, with a subsequent predicted injury sequence consisting of a lower extremity injury followed by injury to the body, head, and upper extremities. The term “fatal triad” was first coined by Farley, which described concomitant injuries to the skull, pelvis, and extremity fractures. Over the years, this once well-accepted model of injury has been under scrutiny by numerous orthopedic researchers, and it has lost credibility. This case presentation glaring reveals that the patient incurred which is referred to as the “fatal triad”, in contrast to the commonly circulated thoughts of biodynamic mechanisms of PVMVA fractures. More research in this arena is warranted. This lack of information contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with such devastating injuries. The overlying theme displayed in the data analyzed in this paper demonstrates the vital importance of the orthopedic surgeon in the management of the PVMVA patient. No matter the particular mechanism of injury, occurrence, or agreed-upon treatment protocol, the role of the orthopedic physician is instrumental to the wellbeing of the PVMVA trauma patient.

Samona, Jason; Colen, Robert

2012-01-01

48

Differences in male and female injury severities in sport-utility vehicle, minivan, pickup and passenger car accidents.  

PubMed

This research explores differences in injury severity between male and female drivers in single and two-vehicle accidents involving passenger cars, pickups, sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), and minivans. Separate multivariate multinomial logit models of injury severity are estimated for male and female drivers. The models predict the probability of four injury severity outcomes: no injury (property damage only), possible injury, evident injury, and fatal/disabling injury. The models are conditioned on driver gender and the number and type of vehicles involved in the accident. The conditional structure avoids bias caused by men and women's different reporting rates, choices of vehicle type, and their different rates of participation as drivers, which would affect a joint model of all crashes. We found variables that have opposite effects for the genders, such as striking a barrier or a guardrail, and crashing while starting a vehicle. The results suggest there are important behavioral and physiological differences between male and female drivers that must be explored further and addressed in vehicle and roadway design. PMID:14642869

Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Mannering, Fred L

2004-03-01

49

Do Cognitive Models Help in Predicting the Severity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Phobia, and Depression after Motor Vehicle Accidents? A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months…

Ehring, Thomas; Ehlers, Anke; Glucksman, Edward

2008-01-01

50

Brain Injury Prediction for Vulnerable Road Users in Vehicle Accidents Using Mathematical Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The objective was to analyze the brain tissue responses and predict head-brain injuries. Accident reconstructions were carried\\u000a out by using MBS and FE models based on real-life accident investigation. Thirty cases of VRUs accidents were selected from\\u000a IVAC and GIDAS databases for simulation study. The brain injury parameters were calculated in terms of coup\\/countercoup pressure,\\u000a von Mises and maximum shear

Y. Chen; Y. Peng; F. Li; J. K. Yang; D. Otte

51

The relationship among highway geometrics, traffic-related elements and motor-vehicle accident frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research provides a demonstration of a statistical model of accident frequency that can eventually be used as part of a proactive program to allocate safety-related highway improvement funds. Negative binomial regressions of annual accident frequency on sections of principal arterials in Washington State were estimated using data from two years (1992 and 1993). In all, 31306 observations were used

John Milton; Fred Mannering

1998-01-01

52

An exploratory multinomial logit analysis of single-vehicle motorcycle accident severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous research on motorcycle accident severity has focused on univariate relationships between severity and an explanatory variable of interest (e.g., helmet use). The potential ambiguity and bias that univariate analyses create in identifying the causality of severity has generated the need for multivariate analyses in which the effects of all factors that influence accident severity are considered. This paper

Venkataraman Shankar; Fred Mannering

1996-01-01

53

Launch Vehicle Fire Accident Preliminary Analysis of a Liquid-Metal Cooled Thermionic Nuclear Reactor: TOPAZ-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, launch vehicle propellant fire accident analysis of TOPAZ-II reactor has been done by a thermionic reactor core analytic code-TATRHG(A) developed by author. When a rocket explodes on a launch pad, its payload-TOPAZ-II can be subjected to a severe thermal environment from the resulting fireball. The extreme temperatures associated with propellant fires can create a destructive environment in or near the fireball. Different kind of propellants - liquid propellant and solid propellant which will lead to different fire temperature are considered. Preliminary analysis shows that the solid propellant fires can melt the whole toxic beryllium radial reflector.

Hu, G.; Zhao, S.; Ruan, K.

2012-01-01

54

All-terrain vehicle accidents at a level II trauma center in Indiana: an 8-year retrospective review.  

PubMed

This study profiles the all-terrain vehicle (ATV) accident victims who were admitted at a level II trauma center. We retrospectively reviewed the trauma registry data for 111 patients who were admitted to the Parkview Hospital Level II Trauma Center following ATV crashes between January 1996 and June 2003. Forty-four percent of the patients were < or =16 years of age, and the average age overall was 22.49 years. Most of the 111 victims were men, and only 18.9% of those injured were wearing helmets. Although they only make up 14% of the driver population, children <16 years of age account for almost 40% of all ATV-related injuries and >35% of all ATV-related deaths in the United States. Helmets can reduce the risk of head injury, but only 21 states have helmet laws. Safety legislation should be adopted and would likely save lives and prevent injuries. PMID:20099434

Vegeler, Reid C; Young, William F

2009-01-01

55

Decreasing Adhesions and Avoiding Further Surgery in a Pediatric Patient Involved in a Severe Pedestrian Versus Motor Vehicle Accident  

PubMed Central

In this case study, we report the use of manual physical therapy in a pediatric patient experiencing complications from a life-threatening motor vehicle accident that necessitated 19 surgeries over the course of 12 months. Post-surgical adhesions decreased the patient’s quality of life. He developed multiple medical conditions including recurrent partial bowel obstructions and an ascending testicle. In an effort to avoid further surgery for bowel obstruction and the ascending testicle, the patient was effectively treated with a manual physical therapy regimen focused on decreasing adhesions. The therapy allowed return to an improved quality of life, significant decrease in subjective reports of pain and dysfunction, and apparent decreases in adhesive processes without further surgery, which are important goals for all patients, but especially for pediatric patients.

Rice, Amanda D.; Wakefield, Leslie B.; Patterson, Kimberley; Reed, Evette D'Avy; Wurn, Belinda F.; King, C. Richard; Wurn, Lawrence J.

2014-01-01

56

CFD SIMULATION OF DIFFUSION OF HYDROGEN LEAKAGE CAUSED BY FUEL CELL VEHICLE ACCIDENT IN TUNNEL, UNDERGROUND PARKING LOT AND MULTISTORY PARKING GARAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are expected to come into widespread use in the near future. It is therefore important to predict whether risks from hydrogen leaked caused by accident in semi-enclosed area can be avoided. In this study, CFD simulation was carried out for hydrogen leakage in typical tunnels, underground parking lot, and multistory parking garage. Simulation scenarios were as

Shinji Mukai; Jinji Suzuki; Hiroyuki Mitsuishi; Kenshun Oyakawa; Shogo Watanabe

57

Effects of varying scoring rules of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of varying the scoring rules for the CAPS (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) on the diagnosis of PTSD in a sample of 100 victims of recent motor vehicle accidents. This was done by assessing, for each scoring rule, the rate of categorical diagnosis and the effect on group mean scores on measures of subjective distress and role

Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Ann E. Taylor; Catherine A. Forneris; Warren Loos; James Jaccard

1995-01-01

58

Markov switching negative binomial models: an application to vehicle accident frequencies.  

PubMed

In this paper, two-state Markov switching models are proposed to study accident frequencies. These models assume that there are two unobserved states of roadway safety, and that roadway entities (roadway segments) can switch between these states over time. The states are distinct, in the sense that in the different states accident frequencies are generated by separate counting processes (by separate Poisson or negative binomial processes). To demonstrate the applicability of the approach presented herein, two-state Markov switching negative binomial models are estimated using five-year accident frequencies on Indiana interstate highway segments. Bayesian inference methods and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations are used for model estimation. The estimated Markov switching models result in a superior statistical fit relative to the standard (single-state) negative binomial model. It is found that the more frequent state is safer and it is correlated with better weather conditions. The less frequent state is found to be less safe and to be correlated with adverse weather conditions. PMID:19245878

Malyshkina, Nataliya V; Mannering, Fred L; Tarko, Andrew P

2009-03-01

59

Factbook on U.S. Pedestrian Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three sets of accident data files have been analyzed to obtain a greater understanding of the personal, situational, and vehicle-related factors involved in pedestrian accidents. These include all fatal pedestrian accidents contained in the Fatal Accident...

A. C. Wolfe J. O'Day

1981-01-01

60

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET  

Cancer.gov

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET Please read all instructions carefully. INSTRUCTIONS: You are responsible for reporting vehicle defects and accidents immediately. DESTINATION VEHICLE TAG NO. NAME OF ALL DRIVERS: PHONE NO TYPE OF VEHICLE SIGNATURE

61

Traumatic injuries in pregnant women: a case of motor vehicle accident for "Ground Round" discussion  

PubMed Central

Abstract: The main objective for introducing this case study is to create a platform from which the importance of road traffic related injuries and traumas can be emphasized and discussed within and across various fields of investigation. The long term goal is to entice public campaign around unmet needs for higher road safety measures to reduce primary, secondary, and tertiary risks of injuries and traumas. Case: A 28-year-old pregnant woman with a 16-week gestational age fetus was involved in a road car crash resulting in multiple traumas. Evaluation and treatment was initiated in the local Urgent Care Unit and continued in the emergency department and operation room. Patient underwent the following procedures: laparotomy, diverting colostomy, terminating pregnancy, right calcaneal traction and long leg splint, as well as multiple irrigation-debridements. Finally, the wound was left open and the patient was admitted to Intensive Care Unit. We hope that the introduction of this case for a "Ground Round" discussion will stir up a comprehensive discussion regarding the injury and trauma related preventive measures as well as treatment approaches in cases involving pregnant women in car accidents, and will bring about a holistic overview of this issue by the experts in various fields.

Ahmadi, Alireza; Fakheri, Taravat; Amini-Saman, Javad; Amanollahi, Omid; Mordi, Mahmoudreza; Almasi Nasrabadi, Maryam; Gholipour, Yousef; Dehghani, Reza; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2011-01-01

62

The impact of event scale-revised: psychometric properties in a sample of motor vehicle accident survivors.  

PubMed

This study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminative validity of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R, [Weiss, D. S. & Marmar, C. R. (1997). The Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In: J. P. Wilson & T. M. Keane (Eds.). Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 399-411). New York: Guilford Press]) in a sample of 182 individuals who had experienced a serious motor vehicle accident. Results supported the three-factor structure of the IES-R, Intrusion, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal, with adequate internal consistency noted for each subscale. Support was obtained for the concurrent and discriminative validity, as well as the absence of social desirability effects. Although some differences were noted between the IES-R Avoidance subscale and diagnostically based measures of this cluster of symptoms, these differences do not necessarily signify measurement problems with the IES-R. The IES-R seems to be a solid measure of post-trauma phenomena that can augment related assessment approaches in clinical and research settings. PMID:17369016

Beck, J Gayle; Grant, Demond M; Read, Jennifer P; Clapp, Joshua D; Coffey, Scott F; Miller, Luana M; Palyo, Sarah A

2008-01-01

63

The Impact of Social Support on the Relationship between Trauma History and PTSD Symptoms in Motor Vehicle Accident Victims  

PubMed Central

The present study examined how different types of social support differentially moderated the relationship between trauma history characteristics and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Two hundred thirty-five MVA victims self-reported levels of social support and trauma history, and were evaluated for PTSS 6- and 12-months post-MVA. Results indicated that after controlling for gender, injury severity and income, number of prior trauma types and subjective responses to prior traumatization predicted subsequent PTSS (ps < .05). Appraisal social support was a significant moderator of the total number of types of trauma (appraisal: 6-months ? = ?.16, p < .05; 12-months ? = ?.17, p < .05) and subjective physical injury during the prior trauma (appraisal: 6-months ? = ?.14, p < .05; 12-months ? = ?.19, p < .05) in predicting PTSS. Results underscore the importance of examining both trauma history and social support as multi-dimensional constructs and suggest merit to addressing social support in trauma victims with a prior trauma history.

Gabert-Quillen, Crystal A.; Irish, Leah A.; Sledjeski, Eve; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Delahanty, Douglas L.

2012-01-01

64

A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the efficacy of four EMDR sessions in comparison to a six-week wait-list control condition in the treatment of 27 children (aged 6 to 12 years) suffering from persistent PTSD symptoms after a motor vehicle accident. An effect for EMDR was identified on primary outcome and process measures including the Child Post-Traumatic Stress — Reaction Index, clinician

Michael Kemp; Peter Drummond; Brett McDermott

2010-01-01

65

Functional health status in subjects after a motor vehicle accident, with emphasis on whiplash associated disorders: design of a descriptive, prospective inception cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The clinical consequences of whiplash injuries resulting from a motor vehicle accident (MVA) are poorly understood. Thereby, there is general lack of research on the development of disability in patients with acute and chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The objective is to describe the design of an inception cohort study with a 1-year follow-up to determine risk factors for

Maarten A Schmitt; Nico LU van Meeteren; Anton de Wijer; Paul JM Helders; Yolanda Van der Graaf

2008-01-01

66

Investigation of large transit vehicle accidents and establishing appropriate protection for wheelchair riders.  

PubMed

Securing wheelchairs and restraining wheelchair riders on buses is difficult for many wheelchair riders and transit providers. This study examined injury-producing events aboard large transit buses in general in an attempt to better understand the potential risks and required protection for wheelchair users. The study found that few injuries and fatalities occur on large transit buses. Examination of the relatively few injury-producing events advanced the understanding of these events in terms of acceleration/deceleration magnitude and direction. Low acceleration/deceleration, or low-g, events such as those involving abrupt braking or turning occur frequently and are associated with approximately half of onboard passenger injuries. Unfortunately, the actual frequency of high-g events was not determined. Most of the injurious events involved the bus rapidly decelerating because of frontal impacts with another vehicle or roadside object. Further study is needed to determine the magnitude and frequency of high-g events. This information is necessary to determine the level of protection commensurate with real-world risk necessary for wheelchair riders in the transit bus environment and may ultimately facilitate the development of easier-to-use safety systems that secure and restrain wheelchairs and their riders. PMID:18566928

Shaw, Greg

2008-01-01

67

National Transportation Safety Board Highway Accident Report: Multiple Vehicle Collision on Interstate 95, Fairfield, Connecticut, on January 17, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On Interstate 95 (I-95) near Fairfield, Connecticut, two consecutive accidents occurred within 11 minutes in the early morning hours of January 17, 2003. At the time of the accidents, light snow was falling, the roads were wet and icy, and snow covered th...

2005-01-01

68

Multicentric study of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of persons injured in motor vehicle accidents in Medell?n, Colombia, 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Traffic accidents (TA) cause 1.23 million deaths each year worldwide while between 20 and 50 million persons are injured each year. In 2011 in Medellin, Colombia, there were 307 traffic deaths and 23.835 injured with 411 accidents for each 10.000 vehicles. Objective: The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, as well as the quality of life and disability outcomes for those injured in traffic accidents in Medellin. Methods: This prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study collected data from 834 patients that were classified with the New Injury Severity Score (NISS) , the WHO-DAS-II (Disability Assessment) Scale and the SF-36 Health Survey. Results: Three-fourths (75.8%) of the patients were male. Eighty-one percent (81.0%) of patients were involved in motorcycle accidents, with 45.6% suffering moderate trauma, and 32.6% experiencing severe trauma. Of the patients with severe trauma, 8.5% were not wearing helmets. Half of the sample (49.7%) injured their extremities. The WHODAS-II domains most affected were: Activities outside the home (62.0%), Housework (54.3%) and Moving in one's environment (45.2%). Quality of life areas affected were: Physical role (20.3%), Body pain (37.3%), Emotional role (44.1%), Physical functioning (52.6%). Conclusions: Patients with more severe injuries had higher levels of disability and a worse quality of life. Motorcycles made up a large proportion of traffic accidents in this city and mitigation strategies to reduce this public health problem should particularly focus on this high-risk group.

Garcia, Hector Ivan; Cano, Blanca Cecilia; Arango, Juan Carlos; Alcaraz, Olga Lucia

2013-01-01

69

Measuring Pedestrian Volumes and Conflicts. Volume 2. Accident Prediction Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report presents the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the study conducted to model pedestrian/vehicle accidents. A group-type analysis approach for the prediction of pedestrian/vehicle accidents using pedestrian/vehicle conflicts and...

S. E. Davis H. D. Robertson L. E. King R. Mingo J. R. Washington

1987-01-01

70

Mr. Joseph Cuadrado is an Associate in Exponent's Vehicle Engineering practice. He is experienced and has received specialized training in the areas of accident reconstruction and crash simulations, and supports a variety of full-scale vehicle tests performed at Exponent's Test and Engineering Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr. Cuadrado's education, training, and experience include technical accident investigation and reconstruction, vehicle dynamics, computer-aided-drafting (CAD) software, 3-D vehicle dynamics and collision simulation programs, as well as MADYMO and finite element modeling. His support has extended to the Technology Development practice Tire Rapid Entanglement and Arresting Device (TREAD) program. Mr. Cuadrado extensively contributed to the design, testing, and manufacturing of

Joseph Cuadrado

71

Do Vehicle Recalls Reduce the Number of Accidents? The Case of the U.S. Car Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has increased sharply in the last two decades, and the numbers of units involved are often counted in the millions. In 2010 alone, over 20 million vehicles were recalled in the United States, and the massive recalls of full model lines by Toyota have brought this issue to the front pages around the…

Bae, Yong-Kyun; Benitez-Silva, Hugo

2011-01-01

72

32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pertaining to accidents investigated by military police that resulted in a fatality, personal injury, or estimated damage to Government vehicles... (ii) The accident involves no personal injury. (iii) The accident involves only...

2013-07-01

73

Knee injuries in motor vehicle collisions: a study of the National Accident Sampling System database for the years 1979-1995.  

PubMed

A detailed study of knee injuries recorded in the 1979-1995 National Accident Sampling System database maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration was conducted. Injuries to other body regions were also considered in order to illustrate the relative frequency of knee injuries. This study demonstrated that knee injuries constitute approximately 10% of all injuries recorded every year. However, the majority of these injuries were of low severity (i.e. contusions, abrasions, lacerations) with an abbreviated injury score (AIS) of 1. Most knee injuries occurred following a frontal collision with no intrusion. The study also indicated most knee fractures occur in crashes where the vehicle velocity differences (deltaVs) were less than 45 kmph, with some occurring at deltaVs as low as 10 kmph. Serious non-fracture knee injuries (i.e. ligament tears) rated AIS 2 accounted for 20 out of every 1000 injuries and predominantly occurred at deltaVs below 25 kmph. In this study it was noted that women were more likely to experience a knee contusion than men. This study further suggests that knee impact scenarios have remained relatively constant over the years as the knee injury rates showed little variation. The rate of lap and shoulder belt use was lower in occupants who experienced a knee injury vs. the rate in the overall database and airbags were present in only a small number of cases. As this study largely included only vehicles without airbags it provides a good baseline for analysis of the influence of the airbag on knee injury trends in the future. PMID:10994605

Atkinson, T; Atkinson, P

2000-11-01

74

Evaluation of aortic injury in driver fatalities occurring in motor vehicle accidents in the State of Maryland for 2003 and 2004.  

PubMed

Incorporating epidemiological and pathologic factors, a retrospective analysis of aortic injury and driving fatalities was conducted. To better understand the mechanism of injury, data were compiled for decedent demographics, autopsy and toxicology findings, and accident circumstances, with emphasis on directional impact. Review of the autopsy files of the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in the State of Maryland in 2003 and 2004, identified 150 cases of aortic injury recorded in 537 autopsied drivers. Aortic lacerations occurred in 96% of the cases with aortic injury, two thirds of which were complete or near complete transections. A large percentage of cases involved a side impact collision. Consistent with extant research on frontal and lateral impacts, the majority of aortic injuries occurred at the ligamentum arteriosum. Also, the mechanism of aortic injury seems to be similar for side and frontal impact collisions, involving a combination of rapid deceleration forces along with chest and/or upper abdominal compression. This study emphasizes the importance of side impact collisions as a cause of aortic injury. Aortic lacerations have a high mortality rate and better motor vehicle design may prevent this type of injury. PMID:18520477

Ripple, Mary G; Grant, Jami R; Mealey, Joan; Fowler, David R

2008-06-01

75

An Examination of PTSD Symptoms as a Mediator of the Relationship between Trauma History Characteristics and Physical Health following a Motor Vehicle Accident  

PubMed Central

Background It has been suggested that a history of trauma exposure is associated with increased vulnerability to the physical health consequences of subsequent trauma exposure, and that posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) may serve as a key pathway in this vulnerability. However, few studies have modeled these relationships using mediation, and most have failed to consider whether specific characteristics of the prior trauma exposure have a differential impact on physical and mental health outcomes. Methods The present study examined 180 victims of a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA) who reported prior exposure to traumatic events. PTSS were assessed by clinical interview 6 weeks post-MVA, and physical health was assessed 6 months post-MVA. Using structural equation modeling, the present study examined the extent to which event (age at first trauma, number and types of trauma) and response (perceptions of life threat, physical injury and distress) characteristics of prior trauma were related to physical health outcomes following a serious MVA, and whether these relationships were mediated by PTSS. Results Results revealed that both event and response characteristics of prior trauma history were associated with poorer physical health, and that PTSS served as a mechanism through which response characteristics, but not event characteristics, led to poorer physical health. Conclusions These results highlight the enduring impact of trauma exposure on physical health outcomes, and underscore the importance of considering multiple mechanisms through which different aspects of prior trauma exposure may impact physical health.

Irish, Leah A.; Gabert-Quillen, Crystal A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Pacella, Maria L.; Sledjeski, Eve M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

2014-01-01

76

Accident investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft accident investigations are discussed with emphasis on those accidents that involved weather as a contributing factor. The organization of the accident investigation board for air carrier accidents is described along with the hearings, and formal report preparation. Statistical summaries of the investigations of general aviation accidents are provided.

Brunstein, A. I.

1979-01-01

77

Estimation of vehicle lateral tire-road forces: a comparison between extended and unscented Kalman filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research has shown that most of road accidents occur as a result of driver errors. A close examination of accident data reveals that losing the vehicle control is responsible for a huge proportion of car accidents. Preventing such kind of accidents using vehicle control systems, requires certain input data concerning vehicle dynamic parameters and vehicle road interaction. Unfortunately, some

Moustapha Doumiati; Alessandro Victorino; Ali Charara; Daniel Lechner

2009-01-01

78

Physics in Accident Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes physics formulas which can be used by law enforcement officials to determine the possible velocity of vehicles involved in traffic accidents. These include, among others, the slide to stop-level road, slide to stop-sloping roadway, and slide to stop-two different surfaces formulas. (JN)

Brake, Mary L.

1981-01-01

79

National Transportation Safety Board Highway Accident Report: Truck-Tractor Semitrailer Rear-End Collision Into Passenger Vehicles On Interstate 44 Near Miami, Oklahoma, on June 26, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 1:19 p.m. on June 26, 2009, a multivehicle accident occurred on Interstate 44 (I-44) near Miami, Oklahoma, shortly after a minor accident in the vicinity had resulted in a traffic queue. A truck driver operating a Volvo truck-tractor in combination ...

2010-01-01

80

Light-Duty Vehicles in Tripped-Rollover Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

one year, rollover impacts accounted for 9 percent of multiple-vehicle accident fatalities while rollovers accounted for 51 percent of single-vehicle accident fatalities. Light-duty vehicles include passenger cars, pickup trucks, vans, and sport-utility vehicles. Although much attention has been given to the study of vehicle rollover stability and to rollover-accident avoidance, research has yet to conclusively uncover an individual vehicle characteristic

Kenneth L. d'Entremont; Gary M. Hutter; Ralph L. Barnett; S. Carl Uzgiris; John P. Bederka; Jr. Richard Gullickson; Diane Moshman; James T. O'Donnell; William D. Sheridan; Audrone M. Stake; Lucinda Fuller; Shelley Hamilton; Brian D. King; Jeffery W. Abendshien; Leslie A. Savage; James T. Semrau; Theodore Liber; Dolores Gildin; Dennis B. Brickman; Michael A. Dilich; Christopher W. Ferrone; Claudine P. Giebs; Suzanne A. Glowiak; John M. Goebelbecker; Crispin Hales; Dror Kopernik; Woodrow Nelson; R. Kevin Smith; Harry R. Smith; William G. Switalski; Andrew H. Tudor; James R. Wingfield; Betty Bellows; Marna Forbes; Maureen Gilligan; Jan A. King; Norene Kramer; Florence Lasky; Neil Miller; Denise Prokudowicz; Jackie Schwartz; Peter Warner; Steven Witt; Glenn Werner; Mary A. Misiewicz; Charles D'Eccliss; Alison Newberry; Anthony Provenzano; Robin Stone; Christina Timmins; Lynn Wallace-Mills; Thomas E. Zabinski

1995-01-01

81

Collision Investigation Report - Task 1. UCLA Motor Vehicle Safety Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Accident configuration; Occupant kinematics, Dodge driver; Occupant kinematics, right front occupant; Copies of pictures printed from accident slides; Police report; (Traffic accident report, vehicle analysis forms, autopsy report).

1968-01-01

82

Analyzing the fall-down accident and researching the computer simulation reconstruction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about authenticating the accident when vehicle goes off the mountain road. Fine calculation and computer simulation for the accident reason has been done on the base of related cases and vehicle dynamics theory. The \\

Weifeng Zhang; Lang Wei; Chuanshuai Fan; Wangfang Yuan

2011-01-01

83

Accident prediction model for railway-highway interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable past research has explored relationships between vehicle accidents and geometric design and operation of road sections, but relatively little research has examined factors that contribute to accidents at railway-highway crossings. Between 1998 and 2002 in Korea, about 95% of railway accidents occurred at highway-rail grade crossings, resulting in 402 accidents, of which about 20% resulted in fatalities. These statistics

Jutaek Oh; Simon P. Washington; Doohee Nam

2006-01-01

84

Accident investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has attributed wind shear as a cause or contributing factor in 15 accidents involving transport-categroy airplanes since 1970. Nine of these were nonfatal; but the other six accounted for 440 lives. Five of the fatal accidents and seven of the nonfatal accidents involved encounters with convective downbursts or microbursts. Of other accidents, two which were nonfatal were encounters with a frontal system shear, and one which was fatal was the result of a terrain induced wind shear. These accidents are discussed with reference to helping the aircraft to avoid the wind shear or if impossible to help the pilot to get through the wind shear.

Laynor, William G. Bud

1987-01-01

85

41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and...

2013-07-01

86

[Risk factors in traffic accidents].  

PubMed

Traffic accidents, which influence to every age group people, are an important public health. This study to determine which condition it has happened more, which days, months and years it has happened, what things have caused to happen traffic accidents. The study was made in Erciyes University Medical School Emergency Department. 31,550 patients applied to emergency department in a period of twelve months in 1998. 7098 (22%) cases of these were traffic accidents. It has done on 710 patients who have been brought to emergency by traffic accidents, and 10% systematic sampling of 7098 people. 504 (71%) of patients were male, 206 (29%) of them were female, the average age was 26.0 (min-max: 1-85). It was observed that traffic accidents occurred during peak times 1200-1800 p.m. The number of traffic accidents was higher during the weekends and in may and June than other times. All the accidents occurred in the same way both within and outside urban area. But the drivers hit the pedestrians more in the urban area. Although it has been seen 'the cars' in the accidents the most. The most mortality has been occurred in bus, minibus and motorbike accidents. The first treatment place of the casualties of 80.5% was at university emergency department. 619 all of the casualties who were admitted the university emergency department was simple injured. They all left the hospital with cure. 52 of casualties lost their life. As a result, some risk factors increase incidence of traffic accidents. Considering these risk factors in taking measures is of great importance in prevention of traffic accidents. Morbidity and mortality are affected by place where accidents occur, time of accident, properties of motor vehicles, and quality of medical care performed following the incident. PMID:11813478

Sözüer, M; Yildirim, C; Senol, V; Unalan, D; Naçar, M; Günay, O

2000-10-01

87

Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived fro...

G. R. Hatterick J. R. Bathurst

1976-01-01

88

Modular Telerobot Control System for Accident Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that...

R. J. Anderson D. L. Shirey

1999-01-01

89

The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate.  

PubMed

Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N=171) to various geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N=88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance of speed and traffic volume for traffic accidents with more than one partner involved. The 48 single cyclist accidents were significantly related to the traffic volume of cyclists only. Due to our limited number of observations, the models should be regarded as indicative. PMID:16997267

Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

2007-03-01

90

The Physics of Traffic Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

Knight, Peter

1975-01-01

91

The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists)

Tove Hels; Ivanka Orozova-Bekkevold

2007-01-01

92

Highchair accidents.  

PubMed

In order to establish guidelines for highchair accident prevention we investigated causes, mode and complications of highchair accidents by the following methods: The charts of 103 children attending our Accident & Emergency department for highchair related injuries were studied retrospectively. Questionnaires were sent to the parents to obtain detailed information about the mode of accident. They were also asked to suggest preventive measures. In addition, a random sample survey was performed with 163 families inquiring about the rate of highchair use and the incidence of highchair related accidents. Of the 103 infants, 15.5% had sustained a skull fracture, 13.6% a brain concussion, 2.0% limb fractures and 68.9% a simple contusion of the head or lacerations to the scalp or face. The questionnaires were fully completed by 61.2% of parents. Every second family reported that their infant had tried to stand up in the highchair before falling off (only one child had been wearing a restraint). In a further 14.3% of accidents the highchair tipped over. Eighty-seven percent of parents would appreciate a pre-installation of restraints, 54.0% requested more informative instructions for users, and 33.3% asked for products with better stability. The random sample survey revealed a highchair use rate of 92%; 18% of families used highchairs equipped with restraints, and 6% reported highchair accidents sustained by their children. We conclude that most highchair accidents occur when unrestrained infants try to stand up. Pre-installed child restraints, better manuals for users and increased highchair stability should be recommended as promising accident prevention strategies. PMID:10229045

Mayr, J M; Seebacher, U; Schimpl, G; Fiala, F

1999-03-01

93

The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.  

PubMed

The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

2013-04-01

94

The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted.

Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

2014-01-01

95

Nuclear accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

A malfunctioning valve at the Three Mile Island power plant in Pennsylvania was the prelude to the worst nuclear accident in U.S. history. Despite assurances that radiation leaked from the plant posed no immediate threat, the population around the plant dwindled as unforced weekend evacuations grew common. Radiation at the power plant site reached 30 mrem\\/hr on March 30. While

T. Mathews; S. Agrest; G. Borger; M. Lord; W. D. Marbach; W. J. Cook; M. Sheils

1979-01-01

96

Virtual sensors, application to vehicle tire-road normal forces for road safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal concerns in road safety are understanding and preventing risky situations. A close examination of accident data reveals that losing the vehicle control is responsible for a huge proportion of car accidents. Improving vehicle stabilization is possible when vehicle parameters are known. Unfortunately, some parameters like tire-road forces, which have a major impact on vehicle dynamics, are difficult to

Moustapha Doumiati; Alessandro Victorino; Ali Charara; Daniel Lechner

2009-01-01

97

Onboard Real-Time Estimation of Vehicle Lateral Tire–Road Forces and Sideslip Angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal concerns in driving safety with stan- dard vehicles or cybercars are understanding and preventing risky situations. A close examination of accident data reveals that los- ing control of the vehicle is the main reason for most car acci- dents. To help to prevent such accidents, vehicle-control systems may be used, which require certain input data concerning vehicle- dynamic

Moustapha Doumiati; Alessandro Correa Victorino; Ali Charara; Daniel Lechner

2011-01-01

98

Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with the opportunity to investigate 'What if?' questions relating to causal factors. The system addressed both the vehicle and the human elements of performance. Significant integration of engineering principles and human factors probability data enhance the outcomes assessment. The pictorial display provides a near real- time image of the vehicle as supported by the engineering data, rather than the more traditional approach of line graphs and interpolative tables. This enables the investigator to consider far more data at a given time than in the past. Interaction between the workstation and the investigator is through a menu system derived from data tables and displayed as ICON symbology. Relational database operations and a user toolbox round out the system. Presentation of this system will provide a fundamental understanding of the capabilities of the system, and an actual air carrier accident will be examined briefly.

Blanchard, James W.

1992-06-01

99

Statistical analysis of accident severity on rural freeways.  

PubMed

The growing concern about the possible safety-related impacts of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has focused attention on the need to develop new statistical approaches to predict accident severity. This paper presents a nested logit formulation as a means for determining accident severity given that an accident has occurred. Four levels of severity are considered: (1) property damage only, (2) possible injury, (3) evident injury, and (4) disabling injury or fatality. Using 5-year accident data from a 61 km section of rural interstate in Washington State (which has been selected as an ITS demonstration site), we estimate a nested logit model of accident severity. The estimation results provide valuable evidence on the effect that environmental conditions, highway design, accident type, driver characteristics and vehicle attributes have on accident severity. Our findings show that the nested logit formulation is a promising approach to evaluate the impact that ITS or other safety-related countermeasures may have on accident severities. PMID:8799444

Shankar, V; Mannering, F; Barfield, W

1996-05-01

100

41 CFR 101-39.401 - Reporting of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION...VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents...The manager of the GSA IFMS fleet management center issuing the...

2013-07-01

101

Radiation accidents.  

PubMed

It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

Saenger, E L

1986-09-01

102

Cellular phones and traffic accidents: An epidemiological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using epidemiological case-control design and logistic regression techniques, this study examined the association of cellular phone use in motor vehicles and traffic accident risk. The amount of time per month spent talking on a cellular phone and 18 other driver inattention factors were examined. Data were obtained from: 1.(1) a case group of 100 randomly selected drivers involved in accidents

John M. Violanti; James R. Marshall

1996-01-01

103

Development of a collaborative vehicle collision avoidance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced systems for driver assistance in combination with new preventive safety systems offer great potential for collision avoidance, reducing accident severity and increasing occupant protection. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a system targeting to vehicle collision avoidance in emergency situations. The proposed system provides the nearby vehicles with information about possible accident involvement. The main feature of

Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; George I. Patoulidis; Ioannis N. Vandikas; Constantinos Parisses; Nikos Asimopoulos

2010-01-01

104

Fatal traffic injuries among pedestrians, bicyclists and motor vehicle occupants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate characteristic injuries of pedestrians and bicyclists (unprotected) compared to motor vehicle occupants’ (protected) in fatal traffic accidents. Cases of 664 fatal traffic accidents (371 pedestrians, 45 bicyclists, and 248 motor vehicle occupants) were collected from 1999 to 2001 using the database of the Forensic Institute in Budapest. Autopsy reports were analyzed. Location

K. Tör?; M. Hubay; P. Sótonyi; E. Keller

2005-01-01

105

IVVI: Intelligent vehicle based on visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human errors are the cause of most traffic accidents, with drivers' inattention and wrong driving decisions being the two main sources. These errors can be reduced, but not completely eliminated. That is why Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can reduce the number, danger and severity of traffic accidents. Several ADAS, which nowadays are being researched for Intelligent vehicles, are based

José María Armingol; Arturo De La Escalera; Cristina Hilario; Juan Manuel Collado; Juan Pablo Carrasco; Marco Javier Flores; José Manuel Pastor; F. José Rodríguez

2007-01-01

106

Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response  

SciTech Connect

The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

2000-06-06

107

Consequences of road traffic accidents for different types of road user  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to describe the immediate and later physical, social and psychological consequences of a road traffic accident for vehicle occupants, motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians amongst consecutive hospital attenders at an Accident and Emergency Department. Physical and accident details were collated from hospital records. Subjects completed questionnaires at hospital attendance, 3 months, 1 and 3 years.There were 1148 respondents

Richard Mayou; Bridget Bryant

2003-01-01

108

A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data

Panagiotis Ch. Anastasopoulos; Fred L. Mannering; Venky N. Shankar; John E. Haddock

109

The prevalence of driveway back-over injuries in the era of sports utility vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSmall children are vulnerable to serious accidents when a motor vehicle is placed in motion in a driveway. We describe a series of such accidents, consider the predisposing factors, and analyze the outcomes.

Stephen J. Fenton; Eric R. Scaife; Rebecka L. Meyers; Kris W. Hansen; Sean D. Firth

2005-01-01

110

Do motor vehicle airbags increase risk of ocular injuries in adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis study was undertaken to evaluate the risk of eye injury in motor vehicle accidents in which airbags deploy. An attempt was made to assess the possible associations between eye injuries and eyewear in these accidents.

Kirsti S Lehto; Pekka O Sulander; Timo M. T Tervo

2003-01-01

111

Seriousness of traffic accidents during work and commuting.  

PubMed

This study examined the seriousness of traffic accidents that happen-either on work errands or during commuting. The article was based on three independently gathered data sets, of which two were based on compensation claims to the insurance companies (N=2,050 and N=17,108) and one on the interviews of victims (N=328). The traffic accidents at work led to a major injury or death more often than the commuting accidents. On the other hand, the work-related traffic accidents were less serious than the leisure-time traffic accidents. One explanation could be that heavy vehicles used during the working hours protected the drivers of these vehicles. PMID:14604035

Salminen, Simo

2003-08-01

112

[FTIR-based vehicles paint comparison].  

PubMed

In order to determine a range on vehicle types by the vehicle paints left on the accident site, 940 infrared spectra of vehicle paint from 287 vehicle samples were collected, and then the infrared spectrum database on vehicle body paint was established. The vehicle paints comparison was implemented by characteristic peaks method and correlation coefficient method, and the comparison tests on different vehicle scrap paints were carried out. The test results show that the key of vehicle paint comparison is the spectrum of topcoat layer and the coating layer for the integrated scrap paint, and spectrum should be searched after layer separating for partial scrap paint. For aging paint, topcoat layer spectrum should be main emphasis and the range of suspect vehicle should be extended. PMID:23697113

Chen, Tao; Long, Xian-Jun; Wei, Lang; Gong, Biao; Li, Chun-Ming

2013-02-01

113

Design of pedestrian friendly vehicle bumper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car-pedestrian accidents take thousands of lives worldwide annually. Therefore, pedestrian protection is an important issue\\u000a in traffic safety. How to consider a pedestrian friendliness vehicle and then propose pedestrian protection methods are urgent\\u000a works for minimizing pedestrian injury. For designing a pedestrian friendly vehicle bumper, this study adopts the European\\u000a Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee\\/ Working Group 17 (EEVC\\/WG17) regulations of legform

Tso-Liang Teng; Van-Luc Ngo; Trong-Hai Nguyen

2010-01-01

114

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

M. J. Riezenman

1992-01-01

115

Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300[degrees]F and 1800[degrees]F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

1992-07-01

116

Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300{degrees}F and 1800{degrees}F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

1992-07-01

117

ITER reference accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference accidents are selected to envelope possible accident sequences to confirm the adequacy of ITER's safety design. Analyses of ITER reference accidents were carried out starting from postulated initiating events (PIE) to all consequential failures including environmental releases, if any. In case of plasma control malfunctioning, up to 3.3GW of fusion power can be reached transiently, however, no radiological consequence

H.-W. Bartels; A. Poucet; G. Cambi; C. Gordon; M. Gaeta; W. Gulden; T. Honda; M. Iseli; H. Jahn; J. Koonce; O. Kveton; B. Merrill; N. Mitchell; R. L. Moore; D. Petti; S. Polkinghorne; M. T. Porfiri; J. Raeder; G. Saji; E. Stubbe; S. J. Piet; L. Topilski; N. Uckan; W. VanHove

1998-01-01

118

Nuclear criticality accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criticality occurs when a sufficient quantity of fissionable material is accumulated, and it results in the liberation of nuclear energy. All process accidents have involved plutonium or highly enriched uranium, as have most of the critical experiment accidents. Slightly enriched uranium systems require much larger quantities of material to achieve criticality. An appreciation of criticality accidents should be based on

1991-01-01

119

Learning in accident reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidents of street car and motor coach operators show a reduction as on-the-job learning takes place. For 60 street car motormen and 34 motor coach operators, most of the improvements in reduction in the number of accidents was accomplished by the sixth or seventh month of employment. By the end of the seventeenth month the accident rate was reduced more

Edwin E. Ghiselli; Clarence W. Brown

1947-01-01

120

Accident prediction models for urban roads.  

PubMed

This paper describes some of the main findings from two separate studies on accident prediction models for urban junctions and urban road links described in [Uheldsmodel for bygader-Del1: Modeller for 3-og 4-benede kryds. Notat 22, The Danish Road Directorate, 1995; Uheldsmodel for bygader- Del2: Modeller for straekninger. Notat 59, The Danish Road Directorate, 1998] (Greibe and Hemdorff, 1995, 1988). The main objective for the studies was to establish simple, practicable accident models that can predict the expected number of accidents at urban junctions and road links as accurately as possible. The models can be used to identify factors affecting road safety and in relation to 'black spot' identification and network safety analysis undertaken by local road authorities. The accident prediction models are based on data from 1036 junctions and 142 km road links in urban areas. Generalised linear modelling techniques were used to relate accident frequencies to explanatory variables. The estimated accident prediction models for road links were capable of describing more than 60% of the systematic variation ('percentage-explained' value) while the models for junctions had lower values. This indicates that modelling accidents for road links is less complicated than for junctions, probably due to a more uniform accident pattern and a simpler traffic flow exposure or due to lack of adequate explanatory variables for junctions. Explanatory variables describing road design and road geometry proved to be significant for road link models but less important in junction models. The most powerful variable for all models was motor vehicle traffic flow. PMID:12504148

Greibe, Poul

2003-03-01

121

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication: Fair Transmit Power Control for Safety-Critical Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct radio-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication can help prevent accidents by providing accurate and up-to-date local status and hazard information to the driver. In this paper, we assume that two types of messages are used for traffic safety-related communication: 1) Periodic messages (ldquobeaconsrdquo) that are sent by all vehicles to inform their neighbors about their current status (i.e., position) and 2) event-driven

Marc Torrent-Moreno; Jens Mittag; Paolo Santi; Hannes Hartenstein

2009-01-01

122

Intelligent speed adaptation: accident savings and cost-benefit analysis.  

PubMed

The UK External Vehicle Speed Control (EVSC) project has made a prediction of the accident savings with intelligent speed adaptation (ISA), and estimated the costs and benefits of national implementation. The best prediction of accident reduction was that the fitting on all vehicles of a simple mandatory system, with which it would be impossible for vehicles to exceed the speed limit, would save 20% of injury accidents and 37% of fatal accidents. A more complex version of the mandatory system, including a capability to respond to current network and weather conditions, would result in a reduction of 36% in injury accidents and 59% in fatal accidents. The implementation path recommended by the project would lead to compulsory usage in 2019. The cost-benefit analysis carried out showed that the benefit-cost ratios for this implementation strategy were in a range from 7.9 to 15.4, i.e. the payback for the system could be up to 15 times the cost of implementing and running it. PMID:15784194

Carsten, O M J; Tate, F N

2005-05-01

123

Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This TOP provides standardized tests recommended for evaluating hybrid vehicles. Because of the development of hybrid propulsion techniques for military wheeled and tracked vehicles new testing procedures to assess the automotive and safety design of thes...

2008-01-01

124

Safe Operation of Commercial Vehicles. Module SH-18. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student module on safe operation of commercial vehicles is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses causes of vehicle accidents, economic reasons for accident control, and considerations for preventive maintenance. Following the introduction, 11 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

125

An analysis of motorcycle injury and vehicle damage severity using ordered probit models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Motorcycles constitute about 19% of all motorized vehicles in Singapore and are generally overrepresented in traffic accidents, accounting for 40% of total fatalities. Method: In this paper, an ordered probit model is used to examine factors that affect the injury severity of motorcycle accidents and the severity of damage to the vehicle for those crashes. Nine years of motorcycle

Mohammed A. Quddus; Robert B. Noland; Hoong Chor Chin

2002-01-01

126

Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection  

SciTech Connect

A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy's Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

1992-01-01

127

Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection  

SciTech Connect

A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy`s Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

1992-11-01

128

Economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan during the year of 1996 and to derive unit accident costs for various accident severity levels. The related data were acquired from different sources, including traffic police records, insurance companies, private hospitals and medical centers. In this study, a framework for applying unit casualty class costs, unit property damage cost, as well as police activities and insurance administration costs to accidents of various severity levels was suggested. The loss-of-output, the loss quality of life, the community and family losses, the temporary and permanent losses, and hospitalization and medical treatment costs were estimated in computing the unit cost for fatalities or injuries of different casualty classes. The vehicle repair cost, detention period cost, and public and private costs were accounted for in estimating the unit cost of property damages. The results indicate that the 1996 traffic accidents cost the country about JD 103 million ($US 146.3 million). PMID:10384228

al-Masaeid, H R; al-Mashakbeh, A A; Qudah, A M

1999-07-01

129

Accident prediction model for railway-highway interfaces.  

PubMed

Considerable past research has explored relationships between vehicle accidents and geometric design and operation of road sections, but relatively little research has examined factors that contribute to accidents at railway-highway crossings. Between 1998 and 2002 in Korea, about 95% of railway accidents occurred at highway-rail grade crossings, resulting in 402 accidents, of which about 20% resulted in fatalities. These statistics suggest that efforts to reduce crashes at these locations may significantly reduce crash costs. The objective of this paper is to examine factors associated with railroad crossing crashes. Various statistical models are used to examine the relationships between crossing accidents and features of crossings. The paper also compares accident models developed in the United States and the safety effects of crossing elements obtained using Korea data. Crashes were observed to increase with total traffic volume and average daily train volumes. The proximity of crossings to commercial areas and the distance of the train detector from crossings are associated with larger numbers of accidents, as is the time duration between the activation of warning signals and gates. The unique contributions of the paper are the application of the gamma probability model to deal with underdispersion and the insights obtained regarding railroad crossing related vehicle crashes. PMID:16297846

Oh, Jutaek; Washington, Simon P; Nam, Doohee

2006-03-01

130

Nuclear criticality accidents.  

PubMed

Criticality occurs when a sufficient quantity of fissionable material is accumulated, and it results in the liberation of nuclear energy. All process accidents have involved plutonium or highly enriched uranium, as have most of the critical experiment accidents. Slightly enriched uranium systems require much larger quantities of material to achieve criticality. An appreciation of criticality accidents should be based on an understanding of factors that influence criticality, which are discussed in this article. PMID:1962246

Smith, D R

1991-01-01

131

Laser accidents: Being Prepared  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

Barat, K

2003-01-24

132

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. U. C. 1289D. Fire Without Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a multidisciplinary investigation of an accident, involving a 1970 Dodge Polara 4-door hardtop with power brakes, steering and air conditioning, weighing 4000 lbs. This was a new rental vehicle. Arcing in the instrument panel apparently caus...

1970-01-01

133

Incentive systems for accident-free and violation-free driving in the general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive model of driver behaviour and accident causation shows four central variables: (a) perceptual skills relative to accident risk, (b) judgemental (decisional) skills relevant to risk-reducing and risk-enhancing actions, (c) psychomotor control skills related to vehicle handling and (d) the target level of risk, that is the degree of risk the driver wishes to accept. It can be shown

GERALD J. S. WILDE; PAUL A. MURDOCH

1982-01-01

134

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

135

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

1986-04-15

136

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

137

The Tokaimura Nuclear Accident  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1999 accident at the Tokaimura nuclear fuel processing plant near Tokyo is the context for a student discussion on nuclear power and the consequences of a nuclear accident. The case covers issues ranging from chemical process safety to risk management

Ryan, Michael E.

2001-09-01

138

Civil aircraft accident investigation.  

PubMed

This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

Haines, Daniel

2013-01-01

139

[Traffic accidents in a metropolitan area in Brazil, 1991-2000].  

PubMed

A time series study described the trend in motor vehicle accidents from 1991 to 2000, using data from the State Transit Department in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Rates were calculated for total motor vehicle accidents, number of casualties, and standardized mortality based on population and number of vehicles, comparing two periods (1991-1994 and 1995-2000), before and after the adoption of safety measures including compulsory seat belt use and the new National Transit Code (NTC). Vehicle accident and casualty rates were high and showed little variation during the study period. The mortality rate decreased from 25.7/100,000 inhabitants in 1995 to 18.1/100,000 in 1998 and remained stable thereafter. The only significant difference (p < 0.001) was in the mean motor vehicle accident mortality rate before and after the intervention. The case fatality rate decreased from 10.7% (1995) to 7% (2000). Although still representing a major public health problem in this important metropolitan area, the decrease in motor vehicle accident mortality was possibly due to interventions in 1995 and expanded NTC measures in 1998. Greater efforts to change driver and pedestrian behavior could further decrease the high number of accidents and related mortality. PMID:18278283

Oliveira, Zenaide Calazans de; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade; Costa, Maria da Conceição N

2008-02-01

140

[Children's accidents in rural environment: study of 324 cases].  

PubMed

The child's accidents constitute a problem of public health. The purpose of our work is to study the epidemiological factors and peculiarities of the accident at the child in a farming locality (locality of Jbeniana). The survey is made to the service of Emergencies of the Regional hospital of Jbeniana on one year (of May 2000 to April 2001). 324 cases of accidents at children of lower or equal age to 14 years have been counted. Our set is constituted of 246 boys (76%) and 78 girls (24%). In 1/3 of cases age is included between 2 and 5 years, in_of cases between 6 and 10 years. The domestic accident represents the most frequent circumstance (72% of cases), follow-up of circulation accidents (12.9%), falls represents the most frequent domestic accident mechanism (38%). In 57% of circulation accidents, the child is a passenger or driver of two-wheeled vehicle. Lesion balance shows that in 47.2% of cases the child presents superficial lesions. A badly adapted environment is found in 31.4% of cases. A failing of the setting is noted in 44% of cases. The prevention to be efficient should take into account of the inherent measurements to the accident (environment, cultural and psychological factors). PMID:12708173

Ghribi, F; Ouali, F; Bouchaala, H

2003-02-01

141

[Accidents and injuries at work].  

PubMed

In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims. PMID:24863704

Standke, W

2014-06-01

142

The Causes of Auto Accidents of Adolescent Drivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the literature relating to motor vehicle accidents of adolescent drivers has shown consistently, year after year, that death and injury rates are disproportionately higher in young persons, and particularly high among males aged 15-24 years. A...

J. R. Gallagher R. C. Moore

1968-01-01

143

Driver Behavior and Situation Aware Brake Assistance for Intelligent Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the development of Human-Centric Intelligent Driver Assistance Systems. Rear-end collisions account for a large portion of traffic accidents. To help mitigate this problem, predictive braking systems and adaptive cruise control systems have been developed. However, these types of systems usually rely solely on the vehicle and vehicle surround sensors, either ignoring the human component of driving

Joel C. McCall; Mohan M. Trivedi

2007-01-01

144

49 CFR 177.843 - Contamination of vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicle. These vehicles must be kept closed at all times other than loading and unloading. (c) In case of fire, accident, breakage, or unusual delay involving shipments of Class 7 (radioactive) material, see §§ 171.15, 171.16 and 177.854 of...

2010-10-01

145

On-road vehicle detection using optical sensors: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the most promising applications of computer vision, vision-based vehicle detection for driver assistance has received considerable attention over the last 15 years. There are at least three reasons for the blooming research in this field: first, the startling losses both in human lives and finance caused by vehicle accidents; second, the availability of feasible technologies accumulated within

Zehang Sun; George Bebis; Ronald Miller

2004-01-01

146

Persistence of airline accidents.  

PubMed

This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

2010-10-01

147

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. 7017. Mv/Ran off Roadway, Rollover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a multidisciplinary investigation of a single-vehicle accident in which a law enforcement officer was pursuing a suspect vehicle at a high rate of speed and the officer's car ran off the roadway and overturned. The driver was wearing lap and...

J. R. Cromack J. L. Wright L. Richardson

1970-01-01

148

Accident resistant transport container  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

Andersen, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, James K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1980-01-01

149

Criticality accident alarm system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identif...

R. E. Malenfant

1991-01-01

150

Accidents en radiothérapie : un historique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiotherapy accidents are exceedingly rare. However, they may have major negative consequences : for health (and sometimes life) of victims as well as for the trust that patients put in radiotherapy and radiation oncologists. Each accident must be pointed out, analysed and reported, in order to allow preventive actions, avoiding repetitive accidents. Through examples of majors accidents occurred all over the

J. M Cosset; P Gourmelon

2002-01-01

151

A Study of Lane Detection Algorithm for Personal Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the word “Personal vehicle”, we mean a simple and lightweight vehicle expected to emerge as personal ground transportation devices. The motorcycle, electric wheelchair, motor-powered bicycle, etc. are examples of the personal vehicle and have been developed as the useful for transportation for a personal use. Recently, a new types of intelligent personal vehicle called the Segway has been developed which is controlled and stabilized by using on-board intelligent multiple sensors. The demand for needs for such personal vehicles are increasing, 1) to enhance human mobility, 2) to support mobility for elderly person, 3) reduction of environmental burdens. Since rapidly growing personal vehicles' market, a number of accidents caused by human error is also increasing. The accidents are caused by it's drive ability. To enhance or support drive ability as well as to prevent accidents, intelligent assistance is necessary. One of most important elemental functions for personal vehicle is robust lane detection. In this paper, we develop a robust lane detection method for personal vehicle at outdoor environments. The proposed lane detection method employing a 360 degree omni directional camera and unique robust image processing algorithm. In order to detect lanes, combination of template matching technique and Hough transform are employed. The validity of proposed lane detection algorithm is confirmed by actual developed vehicle at various type of sunshined outdoor conditions.

Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro; Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke

152

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

153

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

154

Introduction of Child Safety Seat Legislation in Virginia: Types and Levels of Community Response and Effects on Automobile Accident Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1983 Virginia legislated child safety seat use for children under four years of age riding in motor vehicles. This project explored two major issues: legislative impact on changes in accident statistics for the year immediately following legislation, a...

R. B. Montague

1984-01-01

155

Maritime accident investigation methodologies.  

PubMed

Whenever a naval disaster occurs, a public outcry is heard to a full investigation into the causes of the event. Although the maritime industry has an outstanding reputation in accident investigation, such investigations are hardly conducted in inland shipping or leisure craft sailing. Due to a number of serious accidents in the maritime sector and increasing interest by public and media, the philosophy of independent investigations has gained interest at a policy making level in the European Union and with international NGO's, such as the International Maritime Organization IMO. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the application of this methodology in all segments of shipping. The paper elaborates a conceptual model, principle processes and available techniques as a common orientation to safety-focused investigations. Accident investigation reports of Dutch investigative agencies are benchmarked to this model assessing the potential of the approach to all segments of shipping. It shows the applicability to minor as well as major accidents and the importance of independence. Systemic deficiencies at all levels in safety of shipping are identified and a generic applicability is demonstrated. It is concluded that independent accident investigation provides a powerful diagnostic tool for reducing the peril of drowning. PMID:14664367

Stoop, J A

2003-12-01

156

[Accidents affecting potato harvesters].  

PubMed

During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer. PMID:8212405

Hansen, J U

1993-09-27

157

Criticality accident alarm system  

SciTech Connect

The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

Malenfant, R.E.

1991-01-01

158

The effect of road and environmental characteristics on pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana.  

PubMed

The number of pedestrians who have died as a result of being hit by vehicles has increased in recent years, in addition to vehicle passenger deaths. Many pedestrians who were involved in road traffic accident died as a result of the driver leaving the pedestrian who was struck unattended at the scene of the accident. This paper seeks to determine the effect of road and environmental characteristics on pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. Using pedestrian accident data extracted from the National Road Traffic Accident Database at the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ghana, a binary logit model was employed in the analysis. The results from the estimated model indicate that fatal accidents, unclear weather, nighttime conditions, and straight and flat road sections without medians and junctions significantly increase the likelihood that the vehicle driver will leave the scene after hitting a pedestrian. Thus, integrating median separation and speed humps into road design and construction and installing street lights will help to curb the problem of pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. PMID:23357033

Aidoo, Eric Nimako; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Ackaah, Williams

2013-04-01

159

Adaptive channel access protocol for asynchronous inter-vehicle communication network using spread spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-vehicle communication (IVC) systems, where vehicles exchange information with each other, can decrease traffic accidents and promote smoother driving. To realize such systems, decentralized (i.e., base-station-less) network management is required because of the independent movement of vehicles. However, it is very difficult to achieve decentralized synchronization among unspecified vehicles. Therefore we propose an adaptive channel access protocol for an asynchronous

Mina Maeda; Masao Nakagawa

1997-01-01

160

Accidents and Aging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elderly people incur a high rate of accidental injuries and fatalities (a death rate more than twice that of the population at large). Empirical evidence to substantiate the seriousness of product-related accidents for people over age 55 was analyzed. Thi...

S. J. Czaja, K. Hammond, C. C. Drury

1982-01-01

161

Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: All over the world motorcycle accident are one of the major causes of road death and injury. This study aimed to determine the pattern of Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Mashhad-Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 to analyze the epidemiological pattern of the motorcycle accident in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Three hundred fifty cases of motorcycle accidents were included. Data gathering tool was a standard questionnaire. The compiled data were analyzed using SPSS11 and ?2 test. The significance level was considered 0.05 in all statistical tests. Results: In the time span of the study, 350 cases of motorcycle accident occurred, most of which happened at 8pm to 12pm. In 119 cases, the motorcyclist was the blameful rider. Generally, 84.2% of the motorcycle riders did not have safety helmets. About two third of blameful motorcycle riders (63.1%) were less than 25 years old. The major cause of the accidents (55.1%) was due to neglecting the Yield Right of Way. Motorcycle riders endanger pedestrian, other drivers, passengers and their own life. Conclusion: Paying attention to cultural and instructional issues of correct motorcycle riding and performing appropriate monitoring in traffic and transportation system such as honoring our and others safety and setting limitations on using this vehicle by the youth is of great importance.

Vafaee-Najar, A; Esmaeili, H; Ibrahimipour, H; Dehnavieh, R; Nozadi, M Seyyed

2010-01-01

162

Determinants of Ship Accident Seaworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates determinants of the seaworthiness of ships involved in accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual tanker, container and bulk ship (U.S. and foreign) accidents investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard. Ordered probit estimation results suggest that ship accident seaworthiness: 1) increases with ship size; 2) is greater if the ship is classified by the American Bureau of Shipping

Wayne K Talley

1999-01-01

163

Prevention of nervous system trauma from travel in motor vehicles.  

PubMed

Brain and spinal cord injuries are a frequent cause of death and long-term disability in motor vehicle accidents. Helmet use reduces death and head injury severity in motorcycle accidents. Proper use of child restraints can prevent death from falls and vehicle crashes. Auto lap and shoulder restraints, when in use, reduce death from accidents and falls from cars. Passive protections, such as air bags, vehicle design for crashworthiness, and automatic seatbelt systems are less available for economic reasons. Voluntary use of available devices is the remaining viable option. One-to-one education may help promote use of protective devices. The greatest impact lies in legislative requirements for self-protection. It is ethically justifiable to require use of devices such as child restraints, seatbelts, and motorcycle helmets to prevent death and disability. PMID:3845964

Lipe, H P

1985-04-01

164

Factors Associated with Fatal Traffic Accidents in Tirana, Albania: Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the prevalence of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana, Albania, and describe their determinants. Methods This cross-sectional study included all road traffic accidents recorded by the Traffic Police Department of Tirana district for the period 2000-2005. A structured questionnaire included information about the type of traffic accident (fatal vs non-fatal event), year of event, age and sex of the responsible party, reason of accident, location and time of event, and the type of vehicle involved. Multivariable-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of fatal road traffic accidents. Results Overall, there were 1578 recorded road traffic accidents in Tirana district during 2000-2005. Of these, 272 (17%) were fatal. Multivariable-adjusted models showed that younger age (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 2.28-6.91), high speed (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.62-3.98), and especially alcohol consumption (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 3.54-10.66) were strong and significant predictors of fatal accidents. Fatal accidents were more prevalent on intercity roads (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 3.11-5.82) and involved especially vans and trucks (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 2.34-7.24). Conclusion Young age, high speed, and alcohol are predictors of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana district. These findings can serve as a basis for health care professionals and policymakers to create preventive measures for traffic accidents.

Qirjako, Gentiana; Burazeri, Genc; Hysa, Bajram; Roshi, Enver

2008-01-01

165

Identification and Development of Countermeasures for Bicyclist/Motor-Vehicle Problem Types. Volume 3. Model Regulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed re-analysis of previously collected bicycle/motor-vehicle accident data was undertaken to define potential countermeasures. Countermeasure development was then undertaken in the areas of Training (see Volume I), Public Education (see Volume II)...

R. D. Blomberg W. A. Leaf A. Hale M. L. Farrell K. D. Cross

1982-01-01

166

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

167

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

168

Vehicle barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable\\/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate

Hirsh

1991-01-01

169

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

170

Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

2003-01-01

171

Laser accidents: occurrence and response.  

PubMed

The goal of the laser safety officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular, one that causes an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses "in-house commercial" discuss laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. Many do not address appropriate actions to be taken if such an accident occurs. This article reviews a sampling of laser accidents that have occurred and provides a quick overview of the appropriate steps to take when a laser accident occurs. PMID:12751200

Barat, Ken

2003-05-01

172

Fatal distraction: a case series of fatal fall-asleep road accidents and their medicolegal outcomes.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with an increased risk of sleep-related motor vehicle accidents. Seven recent legal cases of fatal motor vehicle accidents on NSW roads are presented, where the driver who caused the accident was suffering from an unrecognised or under-treated sleep disorder. The legal outcomes in these cases were variable: some of the drivers have been acquitted and others have been jailed. All remained licensed to drive immediately after their accidents. In some of the cases, the driver was cleared of any culpable driving offence because of a defence of sleepiness or a sleep attack without warning ("Jiminez defence"). This appears at odds with current medical research and legal opinion in other countries. More research is needed to understand the relation between sleep disorders and awareness of sleepiness. Medical practitioners need to be aware of current advice and guidelines with respect to obstructive sleep apnoea and driving. PMID:12697012

Desai, Anup V; Ellis, Elizabeth; Wheatley, John R; Grunstein, Ronald R

2003-04-21

173

Analysis on tank truck accidents involved in road hazardous materials transportation in china.  

PubMed

Objective: Due to the sheer size and capacity of the tanker and the properties of cargo transported in the tank, hazmat tanker accidents are more disastrous than other types of vehicle accidents. The aim of this study was to provide a current survey on the situation of accidents involving tankers transporting hazardous materials in China. Methods: Detailed descriptions of 708 tanker accidents associated with hazmat transportation in China from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to identify causes, location, types, time of occurrence, hazard class for materials involved, consequences, and the corresponding probability. Results: Hazmat tanker accidents mainly occurred in eastern (38.1%) and southwest China (12.3%). The most frequent hazmat tanker accidents involved classes 2, 3, and 8. The predominant accident types were rollover (29.10%), run-off-the-road (16.67%), and rear-end collisions (13.28%), with a high likelihood of a large spill occurring. About 55.93% of the accidents occurred on freeways and class 1 roads, with the spill percentage reaching 75.00% and the proportion of spills that occurred in the total accidents amounting to 77.82%, of which 61.72% are considered large spills. The month with the highest accident probability was July (12.29%), and most crashes occurred during the early morning (4:00-6:00 a.m.) and midday (10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) hours, 19.63% versus 16.10%. Human-related errors (73.8%) and vehicle-related defects (19.6%) were the primary reasons for hazmat tanker crashes. The most common outcomes of a hazmat tanker accident was a spill without further events (55.51%), followed by a release with fire (7.77%), and release with an explosion (2.54%). Conclusions: The safety situation of China's hazmat tanker transportation is grim. Such accidents not only have high spill percentages and consistently large spills but they can also cause serious consequences, such as fires and explosions. Improving the training of drivers and the quality of vehicles, deploying roll stability aids, enhancing vehicle inspection and maintenance, and developing good delivery schedules may all be considered effective measures for mitigating hazmat tanker accidents, especially severe crashes. PMID:24380669

Shen, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ying; Li, Xiaonan; Xie, Chenjiang; Wang, Lihua

2014-10-01

174

The intriguing effects of ecstasy (MDMA) on cognitive function in mice subjected to a minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The use of ecstasy (MDMA) among young adults has dramatically increased over the years. Since MDMA may impair the users' driving\\u000a ability, the risk of being involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) is notably increased. Minimal traumatic brain injury\\u000a (mTBI) a common consequence of MVAs—produces short- and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To investigate the effects of an

Shahaf Edut; Vardit Rubovitch; Shaul Schreiber; Chaim G. Pick

2011-01-01

175

Economic costs of motor vehicle crashes involving teenaged drivers in Kentucky, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To analyze data from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) involving teenaged drivers in Kentucky for 1994, and derive cost estimates of these crashes. METHODS: Crash data were obtained from the Kentucky Traffic Accident Facts 1994 Report and the Kentucky Accident Reporting System. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Crash-Cost program was used to generate cost estimates for Kentucky data. RESULTS:

L. A. Goldstein; C. W. Spurlock; P. S. Kidd

1997-01-01

176

Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

177

Two-lane traffic simulations with a blockage induced by an accident car  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a highway traffic model with a blockage induced by an accident car is proposed, in which both symmetric lane changing rules and asymmetric lane changing rules are adopted. The fundamental diagrams and spatial-temporal profiles are presented after the numerical simulation and the jam transition is studied. It is shown that the accident car not only causes a local jam behind the accident car, but also causes vehicles to cluster in the bypass lane. The asymmetric lane changing rules are more advantageous in reducing the local jam than the symmetric lane changing rules when the accident car is in the right lane, and the symmetric lane changing rules are superior when the accident car is in the left lane. Furthermore the curves of lane-changing frequency against the total density are given. It is found that the vehicles will change lane more frequently when traffic is inhomogeneous with different types of vehicle or with an accident car.

Zhu, H. B.; Lei, L.; Dai, S. Q.

2009-07-01

178

The effects of road traffic accidents on driving behaviour.  

PubMed

Questionnaires about the effects of accidents on subsequent driving behaviour were sent to 869 people admitted consecutively to a general hospital as a result of involvement in road traffic accidents 4-6 years previously. There were 418 (48 per cent) replies, 67 per cent of delivered questionnaires. One-fifth of the motorcyclists had stopped using a motorcycle. Nearly one-half the motorcyclists and vehicle drivers reported that they now drove more slowly and that they were more cautious. A considerable proportion of replies described emotional distress, avoidance and limitation of activities. Lack of confidence in driving was common immediately after the accident. After 4-6 years, one-third of respondents reported that they still suffered specific anxiety about the place of the accident and about situations similar to the accident. Many people were anxious about being passengers. The findings have implications for road safety, for the recognition and management of a common, and often disabling, clinical problem, and for the assessment of disabilities in medical reports for compensation proceedings. PMID:1806495

Mayou, R; Simkin, S; Threlfall, J

1991-09-01

179

On-road assessment of in-vehicle driving workload for older drivers: Design guidelines for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been recent interest in intelligent vehicle technologies, such as advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) or\\u000a in-vehicle information systems (IVISs), that offer a significant enhancement of safety and convenience to drivers and passengers.\\u000a However, the use of ADAS- and IVIS-based information devices may increase driver distraction and workload, which in turn can\\u000a increase the chance of traffic accidents. The

M. H. Kim; J. Son

2011-01-01

180

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle for self-propelled travel over the ground and for increased efficiency while executing an inherently unstable maneuver such as turning, the vehicle comprising: a. a chassis having a forward end including; i. a body, and ii. wheel means for supporting the body above the ground; b. a drive unit having a forward end and a rearward end and including: i. a pair of laterally spaced steerable wheels for contacting the ground, the steerable wheels having a normal axis of rotation and; ii. power means for imparting rotation to at least one of the pair of steerable wheels; and c. coupling means for securing the drive unit to the chassis and for substantially equalizing the contribution of each of the pair of steerable wheels in directing and propelling the vehicle, the coupling means including; i. connection means pivotally joining the drive unit to the chassis forwardly of the body; ii. a first strut laterally spaced from the connection means and extending between the chassis and the drive unit; iii. a second strut laterally spaced from the connection means in a direction opposite from the lateral spacing of the first strut and extending between the chassis and the drive unit. Each of the strut has a first end movably affixed to the chassis and a second end movably affixed to the drive unit, the second end of each of the struts being affixed to the drive unit at a location spaced above and forward of the normal axis of rotation of the pair of steerable wheels.

Roe, D.A.; Harp, T.D.

1987-03-10

181

Contributive factors to aviation accidents.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents. PMID:21344127

Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

2011-04-01

182

Vehicle barrier  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01

183

Injuries associated with cycle rickshaws accidents  

PubMed Central

Context: Cycle rickshaw is an important means of transportation in Urban India. Pedestrians, rickshaw users, rickshaw pullers, two wheeled vehicle users and cyclists are among the most vulnerable road user groups in terms of injuries and fatalities resulting from road traffic accidents in India. Our objectives were to study characteristics of crashes and nature of injuries associated with cycle rickshaw. Patients and Methods: Between August 2008 to July 2009, a hospital based observational study was done of patients who presented to King George medical college trauma center with injury sustained due to cycle rickshaw in emergency department. Age, time of trauma, mode of trauma, contributing factors and type of injury were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient was 32.1. Seventeen patients were rickshaw pullers and the rest were occupants of the rickshaw. Overloading with more than two passengers was found in 24 cases (28.5%). Most common cause of injury was collision with a moving vehicle (56 patients, %) followed by fall from rickshaw. The most common contributing factor was the overloading of rickshaw. On arrival to the hospital, the mean Injury severity score (ISS) was 3.5 ± 2.2 and the mean Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was 13.4 ± 4.3. Nine patients were admitted to ICU (Intensive care unit). The median ICU stay was 4 (1-24 days). Six of the ICU admitted patients had head injury. Conclusion: Rickshaw pullers and occupants are vulnerable to road traffic accidents. Urgent preventive measures targeted towards this group are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries involving rickshaws. The need for improved understanding of the risk characteristics of cycle rickshaw is emphasized.

Meena, Sanjay; Barwar, Nilesh; Rastogi, Devarshi; Sharma, Vineet

2014-01-01

184

Perceived safety and biomechanical stress to the lower limbs when stepping down from fire fighting vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries related to emergency vehicles represent 19% of compensated work accidents for fire fighters, 37% of which occur while stepping down from their vehicles. This study compared the impact forces, the use of upper limbs and the perception of danger of fire fighters as they step down from five different locations on fire trucks. The results show that stepping down

Denis Giguère; Denis Marchand

2005-01-01

185

Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation

Julie A. Adams

186

Unsafe Driving by High School Seniors: National Trends from 1976 to 2001 in Tickets and Accidents after Use of Alcohol, Marijuana and Other Illegal Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study reports trends among high school seniors in number of tickets or warnings received, number of vehicle accidents, and number of these events occurring after use of alcohol, marijuana, or other illegal drugs. Despite decline in the number of accidents and tickets received after drinking or drug use, aggressive policies are still needed to…

O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

2003-01-01

187

Comparison on driving behavior between manned and unmanned ground vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to enhance the traffic road safety, applying the artificial intelligence theory and the technology in road traffic control system, that is intelligent driving vehicle, may effectively decrease traffic accidents, which are caused by drivers' neglect, fatigue and so on. This article is based on cognitive science to analyze driving behaviors. First, we estimated the Information Processing Model of

Xin Gao; Gang Dong; Li Gao

2011-01-01

188

Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle\\/Personnel Launch System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a

Jerry W. Craig

1993-01-01

189

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is considered to be one of the most promising, and by far the most environmentally friendly, fuels to replace diesel and petrol in the future. However, public knowledge about hydrogen must increase if hydrogen is going to be accepted as a common vehicle fuel. The safety aspects must be thoroughly and objectively addressed as a single accident very well

Mårten Niklasson; David Gårsjö; Anders Folkesson; Per Alvfors; Eva Sunnerstedt; Joakim Hägvall

190

First Responders and Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

2005-11-01

191

Deterministic accident analysis for RBMK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of an European Commission sponsored activity, an assessment of the deterministic safety technology of the ‘post-Chernobyl modernized’ Reactor Bolshoy Moshchnosty Kipyashiy (RBMK) has been completed. The accident analysis, limited to the area of Design Basis Accident, constituted the key subject for the study; events not including the primary circuit were not considered, as well as events originated

F. D’Auria; B. Gabaraev; S. Soloviev; O. Novoselsky; A. Moskalev; E. Uspuras; G. M. Galassi; C. Parisi; A. Petrov; V. Radkevich; L. Parafilo; D. Kryuchkov

2008-01-01

192

TMI2 accident evaluation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report establishes the basis and scope of work for the Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 (TMI-2) Accident Evaluation Program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The current understanding of the TMI-2 accident is reviewed, with emphasis on the end-state distribution of important radioisotopes and the progression of core damage leading to gross core failure and fuel migration

E. L. Tolman; J. M. Broughton; R. K. McCardell; S. Langer; R. R. Hobbins; W. F. Domenico; P. R. Davis

1986-01-01

193

German aircraft accident statistics, 1930  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

Weitzmann, Ludwig

1932-01-01

194

49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The...S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49...inspection in the NTSB's public reference room and/or on the...

2010-10-01

195

22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be expected to report the accident to the Foreign Service...Aeronautics Administration, any accident occurring to a scheduled...and have on file for ready reference, the address and telephone...promptly to the Department accidents to any United...

2009-04-01

196

22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be expected to report the accident to the Foreign Service...Aeronautics Administration, any accident occurring to a scheduled...and have on file for ready reference, the address and telephone...promptly to the Department accidents to any United...

2010-04-01

197

49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The...S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49...inspection in the NTSB's public reference room and/or on the...

2009-10-01

198

Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents  

SciTech Connect

The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

McClure, J. D.

1981-07-01

199

Hybrid Vehicle Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest in nonpetroleum fueled ground vehicles led Stafford to develop the computer code, Electric Vehicle Simulation (EVSIM). EVSIM was designed to predict the performance of current electric vehicles or to be used in the design of electric/hybrid vehic...

D. B. Founds

1983-01-01

200

Identification and Development of Countermeasures for Bicyclist/Motor-Vehicle Problem Types. Volume 1. Methods and Training Program Descriptions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed re-analysis of previously collected bicycle/motor-vehicle accident data was conducted to define potential countermeasures. Countermeasure development was then undertaken in the areas of Training (this Volume), Public Education (see Volume II) a...

R. D. Blomberg W. A. Leaf A. Hale M. L. Farrell K. D. Cross

1982-01-01

201

Identification and Development of Countermeasures for Bicyclist/Motor-Vehicle Problem Types. Volume 2. Public Information and Education Messages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed re-analysis of previously collected bicycle/motor-vehicle accident data was conducted to define potential countermeasures. Countermeasure development was then undertaken in the areas of Public Education (this Volume), Training (see Volume I) an...

R. D. Blomberg W. A. Leaf A. Hale M. L. Farrell K. D. Cross

1982-01-01

202

Forestry Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

1982-01-01

203

Reusable Space Vehicle Baseline Conceptual Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modeling efforts for future space operation vehicles at the United States Air Force Research Labs Air Vehicles Directorate have been focused towards the in flight mission. To better serve the research and development effort, a simulation of the ground ope...

D. R. Maynard P. Pettit

2004-01-01

204

[Traffic accidents in alcoholic intoxication].  

PubMed

A study of group comprising all road accidents caused by drivers of private cars who were under the influence of alcohol (BAC > = 0.3 g/kg; X = 1.56 +/- 0.62 g/kg) that occurred in a defined area over the span of one calendar year (n = 625) was compared with a randomly selected control group of 718 road accidents in which the drivers had not been under the influence of alcohol. The drivers in the study group were marginally younger than the ones in the control group. However, there was no evidence of an alcohol related increase in the risk of an accident associated with younger age. The sex ratio in the study group corresponded to that, generally found amongst people driving under the influence of alcohol. In the study group there was no evidence of a restricted manner and extent of car use, based on the distances between the sites of the accidents and the offenders' homes. However, the proportion of accidents occurring out of towns was greater in the study group. Alcohol associated accidents occurred more frequently in the evenings and at night, which reflects habitual drinking patterns. Therefore these accidents occurred mainly in darkness and twilight. Surprisingly, unfavorable weather conditions such as rain or ice did not lead to an increase in accidents due to alcohol. In fact, in the study group, proportionally fewer accidents occurred on icy roads. Both injury to persons and damage to property were more severe in the study group. While no relationship between accident severity and blood alcohol concentration could be proven within the study group, the risk of death or severe injury was 3 to 4 times greater in this group than in the control group. PMID:8679133

Erath, D; Haffner, H T

1996-03-01

205

[Occupational accidents in temporary work].  

PubMed

In 2000 in Italy about 470,000 workers found jobs provided by Temporary Work Agencies, i.e., more than twice the number in 1999. Temporary Work is an expanding phenomenon since it well suits the flexibility requirements of business: 77% of Temporary Work is in the manufacturing industry, involving mostly unskilled workers. The young age, low level of qualification, poor training, and lack of knowledge of the working environment are factors that can favour occupational accidents. There are studies that relate the frequency of labour accidents to the level of training and job experience. There are no data in the literature about occupational accidents during temporary work. Our study concerns sixteen temporary work Agencies that employed more than 250,000 manual workers in 2000. From the occupational accident registers of these agencies, we analysed all accidents concerning manual workers employed during 2000, with reference to: the number of accidents with up to three days prognosis, age, sex, nationality, prognosis pattern and cause. The agencies supplied data regarding the number of hours worked during 2000. We considered 5259 accidents: the overall frequency index (FI) was 92.1, with a considerable difference between the three main agencies (87.5) and the others. The mean age accident was 27.8 years, mean duration of sick leave 13.7 days, and the main causes were work tools (51.5%); 76% of the accidents concerned unskilled manual workers. The above indexes are definitely higher than those provided by INAIL (italian compulsory insurances) for the metalworking (38.1), construction (47.7) and mining (58.8) sectors during 1997. There is evidence that temporary work is related to an increased risk of occupational accidents. Further studies are required to confirm this evidence. PMID:11676190

Nola, A; Cattaneo, G; Maiocchi, A; Gariboldi, C; Rocchi, R; Cavallaro, S; Loreto, B; Lanfredini, L; Bassino, P

2001-01-01

206

[The radiation accident].  

PubMed

The reactor accident of Chernobyl in April 1986 has shown us all the dangers which are inherent ever in the peaceful use of atomic energy. The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation are dependent on biological effectiveness, on dose, on duration of exposure and on the age of the exposed person (the younger the graver). Acute ionizing radiation of the whole body leads to radiation disease or radiation syndrome of different stages of severity according to dosage. If the patient survives other consequences of ionizing radiation may arise: non-stochastic effects such as cataracts, keloid formation, fibrosis of the lungs and infertility) and stochastic effects (oncogenesis and mutagenesis). The sensitivity to ionizing radiation is especially high in childhood because of the high velocity of cell metabolism and cell growth, the large body-surface area and because their repair mechanism following radiation damage is not yet. PMID:3188527

Stögmann, W

1988-08-26

207

Transport aircraft accident dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

Cominsky, A.

1982-01-01

208

Model based vehicle detection for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are being researched nowadays for Intelligent Vehicles has to deal -with the detection and tracking of other vehicles. It will have many applications: Platooning, Stop&go, Blind angle perception, Manoeuvres supervisor. In this paper, a system based on computer vision is presented. A geometric model of the vehicle is defined where its energy function

J. M. Collado; C. Hilario; J. M. Armingol

2004-01-01

209

A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.  

PubMed

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments. PMID:22269550

Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

2012-03-01

210

An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

1998-11-01

211

A comparative study of six data sources' ability for estimating interstate motor carrier VMT (vehicle miles of travel)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Federal Government agencies require estimates of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) by interstate commercial trucks. These estimates are essential in determining accident exposure and accident rates for these trucks, and in determining highway investment needs and the allocation of highway costs. VMT estimates are currently based on various nationwide transportation surveys and\\/or data sources using various estimation procedures do

P. S. Hu; T. Wright; Shaw-Pin. Miaou

1989-01-01

212

Vehicle occupant injury severity on highways: an empirical investigation.  

PubMed

Accident severity analysis is important to both researchers and practitioners because of its implications in accident cost estimation, external cost estimation and road safety. Although much research has been done to explore the factors influencing crash-injury severity, few studies have investigated the association between severity and traffic characteristics collected real-time during the time the accident occurred. We apply a random parameters ordered probit model to explore the influence of speed and traffic volume on the injury level sustained by vehicle occupants involved in accidents on the A4-A86 junction in the Paris region. Results indicate that increased traffic volume has a consistently positive effect on severity, while speed has a differential effect on severity depending on flow conditions. PMID:20728609

Christoforou, Zoi; Cohen, Simon; Karlaftis, Matthew G

2010-11-01

213

A review of criticality accidents  

SciTech Connect

Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

Stratton, W R; Smith, D R

1989-03-01

214

Industrial accidents triggered by flood events: analysis of past accidents.  

PubMed

Industrial accidents triggered by natural events (NaTech accidents) are a significant category of industrial accidents. Several specific elements that characterize NaTech events still need to be investigated. In particular, the damage mode of equipment and the specific final scenarios that may take place in NaTech accidents are key elements for the assessment of hazard and risk due to these events. In the present study, data on 272 NaTech events triggered by floods were retrieved from some of the major industrial accident databases. Data on final scenarios highlighted the presence of specific events, as those due to substances reacting with water, and the importance of scenarios involving consequences for the environment. This is mainly due to the contamination of floodwater with the hazardous substances released. The analysis of process equipment damage modes allowed the identification of the expected release extents due to different water impact types during floods. The results obtained were used to generate substance-specific event trees for the quantitative assessment of the consequences of accidents triggered by floods. PMID:19913354

Cozzani, Valerio; Campedel, Michela; Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth

2010-03-15

215

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

1979-01-01

216

Remote Vehicle Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A remote control system is disclosed for use with vehicles having radios. A first vehicle has a controller attached to the radio for use in sending signals to a second vehicle. The second, remotely controlled, vehicle has a receiver connected to the vehic...

J. J. Schmitz

1992-01-01

217

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

Information Center

2013-04-08

218

Remote vehicle controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remote control system is disclosed for use with vehicles having radios. A first vehicle has a controller attached to the radio for use in sending signals to a second vehicle. The second, remotely controlled, vehicle has a receiver connected to the vehicle radio which receives commands from the first radio to effect the desired motion and action of the second vehicle. The receiver and controller have circuitry which allows them to be reprogrammed to function on various military vehicles and also be attached to the different radio systems in use by the U.S. Military.

Schmitz, John J.

1992-06-01

219

49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3 ...accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. (a) Demands for material...investigations, or its computerized accident database(s) shall be submitted, in...

2013-10-01

220

Aircraft accidents : method of analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

1929-01-01

221

TMI-2 accident evaluation program  

SciTech Connect

This report establishes the basis and scope of work for the Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 (TMI-2) Accident Evaluation Program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The current understanding of the TMI-2 accident is reviewed, with emphasis on the end-state distribution of important radioisotopes and the progression of core damage leading to gross core failure and fuel migration into the lower plenum regions of the reactor vessel. Unresolved technical issues related to core damage progression and fission product behavior in hypothesized reactor accidents are identified. The role of TMI-2 accident research in addressing these unresolved issues is developed and discussed. Data needs from TMI-2 and supporting analysis requirements to interpret the data are identified that will improve our understanding of the important physical processes and parameters controlling core damage progression and the resulting fission product behavior. 48 refs.

Tolman, E.L.; Broughton, J.M.; McCardell, R.K.; Langer, S.; Hobbins, R.R.; Domenico, W.F.; Davis, P.R.

1986-02-01

222

Speed, speed limits and road traffic accidents under free flow conditions.  

PubMed

The relationship between various measures of traffic speed, under free flow conditions, and accident rate is investigated for two groups of sites, one in the Tyne and Wear county of the UK and the other in Bahrain. The effect of speed limits on traffic speed is estimated for both groups of sites. In Bahrain, there is statistically significant evidence of an association between mean speed and accident rate. In Tyne and Wear the statistical evidence is weaker, and points to a stronger relationship between accidents and the variability of traffic speeds. In both areas, there is an apparent decrease in accident rate if the percentage of heavy vehicles increases, with the speed distribution held constant. In both areas the effect of speed limits is to reduce the mean speed of traffic by at least one quarter. Higher speeds are associated with longer trips. PMID:10084631

Aljanahi, A A; Rhodes, A H; Metcalfe, A V

1999-01-01

223

The TMI2 accident evaluation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of

D. J. Osetek; J. M. Broughton; R. R. Hobbins

1989-01-01

224

Spine Immobilizer for Accident Victims  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed conformal bladder filled with tiny spheres called "microballoons," enables spine of accident victim to be rapidly immobilized and restrained and permit victim to be safely removed from accident scene in extremely short time after help arrives. Microballoons expand to form rigid mass when pressure within bladder is less than ambient. Bladder strapped to victim is also strapped to rescue chair. Void between bladder and chair is filled with cloth wedges.

Vykukal, H. C.; Lampson, K.

1983-01-01

225

Recent PCB accidents in Finland.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accidents were recorded during a 1-year period in Finland. They comprised leaks, fires or explosions of capacitors. Some of the explosions and fires gave rise to high concentrations of PCBs in air and of PCBs and tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs), including 2,3,7,8-TCDF, on surfaces. One large explosion is described in detail, and biomedical data and findings of this case are compared with those of smaller accidents in Finland.

Elo, O; Vuojolahti, P; Janhunen, H; Rantanen, J

1985-01-01

226

A multivariate tobit analysis of highway accident-injury-severity rates.  

PubMed

Relatively recent research has illustrated the potential that tobit regression has in studying factors that affect vehicle accident rates (accidents per distance traveled) on specific roadway segments. Tobit regression has been used because accident rates on specific roadway segments are continuous data that are left-censored at zero (they are censored because accidents may not be observed on all roadway segments during the period over which data are collected). This censoring may arise from a number of sources, one of which being the possibility that less severe crashes may be under-reported and thus may be less likely to appear in crash databases. Traditional tobit-regression analyses have dealt with the overall accident rate (all crashes regardless of injury severity), so the issue of censoring by the severity of crashes has not been addressed. However, a tobit-regression approach that considers accident rates by injury-severity level, such as the rate of no-injury, possible injury and injury accidents per distance traveled (as opposed to all accidents regardless of injury-severity), can potentially provide new insights, and address the possibility that censoring may vary by crash-injury severity. Using five-year data from highways in Washington State, this paper estimates a multivariate tobit model of accident-injury-severity rates that addresses the possibility of differential censoring across injury-severity levels, while also accounting for the possible contemporaneous error correlation resulting from commonly shared unobserved characteristics across roadway segments. The empirical results show that the multivariate tobit model outperforms its univariate counterpart, is practically equivalent to the multivariate negative binomial model, and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident-injury-severity rates on specific roadway segments. PMID:22269492

Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E; Mannering, Fred L

2012-03-01

227

Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a pressurized water reactor. The specific plant analyzed is the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, which is a Westinghouse-designed system that has been decommissioned.

Hakobyan, Aram P.

228

Analysis of traffic accidents on rural highways using Latent Class Clustering and Bayesian Networks.  

PubMed

One of the principal objectives of traffic accident analyses is to identify key factors that affect the severity of an accident. However, with the presence of heterogeneity in the raw data used, the analysis of traffic accidents becomes difficult. In this paper, Latent Class Cluster (LCC) is used as a preliminary tool for segmentation of 3229 accidents on rural highways in Granada (Spain) between 2005 and 2008. Next, Bayesian Networks (BNs) are used to identify the main factors involved in accident severity for both, the entire database (EDB) and the clusters previously obtained by LCC. The results of these cluster-based analyses are compared with the results of a full-data analysis. The results show that the combined use of both techniques is very interesting as it reveals further information that would not have been obtained without prior segmentation of the data. BN inference is used to obtain the variables that best identify accidents with killed or seriously injured. Accident type and sight distance have been identify in all the cases analysed; other variables such as time, occupant involved or age are identified in EDB and only in one cluster; whereas variables vehicles involved, number of injuries, atmospheric factors, pavement markings and pavement width are identified only in one cluster. PMID:23182777

de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Mujalli, Randa; Calvo, Francisco J

2013-03-01

229

Road Traffic Accident Patterns: A Conceptual Grouping Approach to Evaluate Crash Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the work is to highlight road traffic accident patterns in the context of interrelations between road characteristics and a traffic safety threat. The actual data concerning multi-vehicle accidents without pedestrians on non-urban roads in a chosen region of Poland was the subject of the research. The roadway and roadside data at the accident site have been combined with the crash data that define the roadway hazard, i.e. driver's behaviour, type and accident severity. The data were subject to multivariate segmentation by means of such conceptual grouping techniques as the K-means clustering algorithm and competitive artificial neural networks. The Ward's method was used as a supporting tool in establishing the final number of accident profiles. Six distinct accident patterns have been recognised, quantified and labelled, where the first, second and third one are typical of rural areas, the fourth and fifth - of built-up areas, and the last one - of intersections. The analysis indicates that apart from threat factors, the following road related features play an important role in road accident profiling tasks: area type and area development level, roadway surface condition, intersection indicator, shoulder type, and also to some extent: lighting conditions, shoulders' width, and horizontal curve radius.

Nowakowska, Marzena

2012-03-01

230

Predicting cycling accident risk in Brussels: a spatial case-control approach.  

PubMed

This paper aims at predicting cycling accident risk for an entire network and identifying how road infrastructure influences cycling safety in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium). A spatial Bayesian modelling approach is proposed using a binary dependent variable (accident, no accident at location i) constructed from a case-control strategy. Control sites are sampled along the 'bikeable' road network in function of the potential bicycle traffic transiting in each ward. Risk factors are limited to infrastructure, traffic and environmental characteristics. Results suggest that a high risk is statistically associated with the presence of on-road tram tracks, bridges without cycling facility, complex intersections, proximity to shopping centres or garages, and busy van and truck traffic. Cycle facilities built at intersections and parked vehicles located next to separated cycle facilities are also associated with an increased risk, whereas contraflow cycling is associated with a reduced risk. The cycling accident risk is far from being negligible in points where there is actually no reported cycling accident but where they are yet expected to occur. Hence, mapping predicted accident risks provides planners and policy makers with a useful tool for accurately locating places with a high potential risk even before accidents actually happen. This also provides comprehensible information for orienting cyclists to the safest routes in Brussels. PMID:23962661

Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Thomas, Isabelle; Int Panis, Luc

2014-01-01

231

Motor vehicle seat belt restraint system analysis during rollover.  

PubMed

The multi-planar and multiple impact long duration accident sequence of a real world rollover results in multidirectional vehicle acceleration pulses and multiplanar occupant motions not typically seen in a planar crash sequence. Various researchers have documented that, while contemporary production emergency locking seatbelt retractors (ELRs) have been found to be extremely effective in the planar crashes in which they are extensively evaluated, when subjected to multi-planar acceleration environments their response may be different than expected. Specifically, accelerations in the vertical plane have been shown to substantially affect the timeliness of the retractors inertial sensor moving out of its neutral position and locking the seat belt. An analysis of the vehicle occupant motions relative to the acceleration pulses sensed at the retractor location indicates a time phase shift that, under certain circumstances, can result in unexpected seat belt spool out and occupant excursions in these multi-planar, multiple impact crash sequences. This paper will review the various previous studies focusing on the retractors response to these multidirectional, including vertical, acceleration environments and review statistical studies based upon U.S. government collected data indicating a significant difference in belt usage rates in rollover accidents as compared to all other planar accident modes. A significant number of real world accident case studies will be reviewed wherein the performance of ELR equipped seatbelt systems spooled out. Finally, the typical occupant injury and the associated mechanism due to belt spool out in real world accidents will be delineated. PMID:12724900

Meyer, Steven E; Hock, Davis; Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2003-01-01

232

Simulation Study of Traffic Accidents in Bidirectional Traffic Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions for the occurrence of bidirectional collisions are developed based on the Simon-Gutowitz bidirectional traffic model. Three types of dangerous situations can occur in this model. We analyze those corresponding to head-on collision; rear-end collision and lane-changing collision. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the probability of the occurrence of these collisions for different values of the oncoming cars' density. It is found that the risk of collisions is important when the density of cars in one lane is small and that of the other lane is high enough. The influence of different proportions of heavy vehicles is also studied. We found that heavy vehicles cause an important reduction of traffic flow on the home lane and provoke an increase of the risk of car accidents.

Moussa, Najem

233

Evaluation of Pedestrian Subsystem Test Method Using Legform and Upper Legform Impactors for Assessment of High-Bumper Vehicle Aggressiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accidents involving sports utility vehicles (SUVs), injuries to pedestrian leg, knee ligaments, and femur are likely to occur. Therefore, the European Enhanced Vehicle Safety Committee proposed two subsystem test methods for evaluation of SUV bumper aggressiveness. Such evaluation can be conducted by means of either a legform impactor (evaluation of risk of knee and tibia injury), or an upper

YASUHIRO MATSUI

2004-01-01

234

76 FR 52043 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...election agencies for verification. The election agencies forward this information to their State Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA), who inputs the data into the American Association of MVAs, a central consolidation system that routes the voter data...

2011-08-19

235

Vehicle detection based on the use of shadow region and edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive and advanced driver assistance systems have attracted a great deal of attention lately. In these systems, effective and reliable vehicle detection is important because such systems can reduce the number of accidents and save human' lives. This paper describes an approach to detecting a forward vehicle using a camera mounted on the moving vehicle. In this paper, we describe two methods to detect a vehicle on the road. First, by using the vehicle's shadow, we can obtain the general location of the vehicular candidate. Second, we can identify the strong vertical edges at the left and right position of a vehicle. By combining the shadows and the edge, we can detect the vehicle's location. But other regions may also be detected, such as car windows, reflections, and illumination by the sun. In order to remove these other factors, defined as noises, we need to use a filter. After using the filter, we can calculate the exact location of the vehicle. Additionally, by using connected component labeling, we can obtain coordinates and establish the vehicle's location. Connected component labeling find all connected components in an image and assigns a unique label to all points in the same component. These methods are very useful for vehicle detection and the development of the driving assistance systems, and they can protect drivers' safety from having an accident.

Jeong, Sangheon; Kang, Seongkoo; Kim, Joongkyu

2013-07-01

236

The TMI-2 accident evaluation program  

SciTech Connect

The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of the event. TMI-2 accident research is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide the basis for more accurate calculations of source terms for postulated severe accidents. Research objectives supporting this goal include developing a comprehensive and consistent understanding of the mechanisms that controlled the progression of core damage and subsequent fission product behavior during the TMI-2 accident, and applying that understanding to the resolution of important severe accident safety issues. Developing a best-estimate scenario of the core melt progression during the accident is the focal point of the research and involves analytical work to interpret and integrate: (1) data recorded during the accident from plant instrumentation, (2) the post-accident state of the core, (3) results of the examination of material from the damaged core, and (4) related severe-accident research results. This paper summarizes the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program that is being conducted for the USDOE and briefly describes the important results that have been achieved. The Program is divided into four parts: Sample Acquisition and Plant Examination, Accident Scenario, Standard Problem Exercise, and Information and Industry Coordination.

Osetek, D.J.; Broughton, J.M.; Hobbins, R.R.

1989-01-01

237

A CANDU Severe Accident Analysis  

SciTech Connect

As interest in severe accident studies has increased in the last years, we have developed a set of simple models to analyze severe accidents for CANDU reactors that should be integrated in the EU codes. The CANDU600 reactor uses natural uranium fuel and heavy water (D2O) as both moderator and coolant, with the moderator and coolant in separate systems. We chose to analyze accident development for a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator cooling and the loss of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 10000 deg C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the residual heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) will be uncovered, then will disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. After all the quantity of moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield tank water, which normally surrounds the calandria vessel. The phenomena described above are modelled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. The results are encouraging. (authors)

Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru [Institute for Nuclear Research, 1, Compului Str., Mioveni, PO Box 78, 0300 Pitesti (Romania); Prisecaru, Ilie [University Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)

2006-07-01

238

Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran: a community-based survey.  

PubMed

Objective: To identify the main characteristics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in Iran from March 2009 to June 2010. We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents. Data were recorded from the forensic medicine registry consisting of demographic and accident-related information. Demographic information consisted of name, age, sex, status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger) and educational level. Results: Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the forensic medicine archives, 542 (23.1%) gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents. Mean age of these victims was (31.4+/-6.5) years, and the male to female ratio was 28. Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims, and overall they tended to have a low level of education. Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years), and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied. This situation may be related to the victims' low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement. PMID:22863339

Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Foroutan, Ali; Sarikhani, Yaser; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Hedjazi, Arya; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Moafian, Ghasem; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Peymani, Payam; Ahmadi, Seyed Mehdi; Dehghankhalili, Maryam; Joulaei, Hassan; Lankarani, Kamran B

2012-01-01

239

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation....

H. D. Kim

2010-01-01

240

Vehicle Electronics and Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vehicle Electronics and Architecture (VEA) focus area is responsible for developing the essential support structure needed to accommodate the numerous advanced technologies prevalent in today's ground vehicles. We develop the software and data network...

C. Mocnik

2011-01-01

241

Motor Vehicle NOx Inventories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, presents a comparison of three methods of computing vehicle miles traveled (VMT) breakdown by vehicle class for urban areas. The report describes the three approaches--Nationwide Urban, National Emissions Data System (NEDS), and Localized--an...

A. J. Brochu D. S. Rothman

1985-01-01

242

Air Vehicle Path Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation explores optimal path planning for air vehicles. An air vehicle exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. An ana...

J. M. Hebert

2001-01-01

243

[Analysis of deaths caused by rail-vehicles in the materials collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002].  

PubMed

The analysis focused on cases of death following accidents involving rail-vehicles, in which autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002. Sixty-five individuals died in train accidents (80%), 16 people (20%) were victims of tram accidents (20%). Males constituted 86% of the material, while females accounted for 14%. The highest number of rail-vehicle accidents was observed in 1992. The most common reason of death was multiorgan injury. In the subgroup of tram accidents, the authors noted no injuries of the highest severity, such as limb amputations, amputations or crushing of the head, or fragmentation or rupturing of the trunk. On the other hand, in railroad accidents, the percentage of the above injuries was 26%, 44% and 24.5%, respectively. The most severe injuries were noted in the group of people hit by a train while in prone position. PMID:17131763

Bloch-Bogus?awska, Elzbieta; Engelgardt, Piotr; Wolska, Ewa; Paradowska, Agnieszka

2006-01-01

244

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers design for autonomous intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers are proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles in both non-tight and tight vehicle following manoeuvres. A nonlinear vehicle model is used for designing the controllers. The proposed vehicle following controller is designed based on a constant time headway policy; whereas, the proposed entrainment controller is designed based on a k-factor headway policy. The proposed vehicle following

C. C. Chien; P. Ioannou; M. C. Lai

1994-01-01

245

Investigation of the Challenger Accident  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (hereafter referred to as the Rogers Commission) and the work of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in investigating the causes of the accident were reviewed. In addition to reviewing the five volumes of the Rogers Commission, the entire direct on-line Rogers Commission data base, which included full-text and document retrieval capability was also reviewed. The findings and recommendations contained also include materials submitted for the record, staff investigations, interviews, and trips.

1986-01-01

246

Recent Developments in Vehicle Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent developments in vehicle dynamics are discussed. Vehicle suspension systems, applications of multi-body dynamics problems in vehicle dynamics, rear steer, and special aspects of commercial vehicle dynamics are discussed.

J. Bernard M. Vanderploeg J. Shannan

1987-01-01

247

Nitrosamines in Vehicle Interiors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers in the nitrosamine field were contacted on their views of the TEA analyzer and ThermoSorb/N Air Samplers for nitrosamine analysis. Gas samples were taken from vehicle interiors to determine the effects of vehicle type, vehicle age, mode of ope...

L. R. Smith

1981-01-01

248

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the vehicle navigation problem for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with six degrees of freedom. We approach this problem using an error state formulation of the Kalman filter. Integration of the vehicle's high-rate inertial measurement unit's (IMU's) accelerometers and gyros allow time propagation while other sensors provide measurement corrections. The low-rate aiding sensors include a Doppler velocity

Paul A. Miller; Jay A. Farrell; Yuanyuan Zhao; Vladimir Djapic

2010-01-01

249

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01

250

Urban vehicle research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project's main goal of high energy efficiency in a four-passenger vehicle was approached from two directions. (1) Try a hybrid electric drive system with the stationary internal combustion engine powered by locally produced alcohol and compare its convenience and efficiency to contemporary vehicles. (2) Build a light, aerodynamically clean vehicle body to package all the components plus four adults

1984-01-01

251

Commercial road vehicle noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the characteristics of the noise emitted by commercial vehicles has been made. The most important single parameter determining the noise of a modern diesel-engined vehicle is the engine speed. All of the other parameters such as load, road speed, etc., have only a secondary effect. The sources of noise on the vehicle are reviewed and it is

P. E. Waters

1974-01-01

252

Energy 101: Electric Vehicles  

ScienceCinema

This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

None

2013-05-29

253

The adaptive suspension vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a description of the Adaptive Suspension Vehicle. The vehicle uses a legged, rather than a wheeled or tracked, locomotion principle, and is intended to demonstrate the feasibility of systems of this type for transportation in very rough terrain conditions. The vehicle is presently under test, with installation and validation of software modules for different operational conditions scheduled

Kenneth J. Waldron; Robert B. McGhee

1986-01-01

254

Tow vehicle depth verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

NRL demonstrated extraction of accurate single beam and multibeam bathymetry from a towed vehicle designed to locate mines in the water column. However, biases were encountered in measuring the static pressure depth of the moving vehicle. Water depth is calculated by simply adding tow vehicle depth, measured by a pressure sensor, to the multibeam ranges from the seafloor, measured acoustically

M. M. Harris; W. E. Avera; L. D. Bibee

2002-01-01

255

Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Five  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume V of the Report contains appendices that were not cited in VolumeI. These consist of documents produced by NASA and other organizations, which were provided to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board in support of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia The contents include:. Appendix G.1 Requirements and Procedures for Certification of Flight Readiness; Appendix G.2 Appendix R, Space Shuttle Program Contingency Action Plan; Appendix G.3 CAIB Charter, with Revisions; Appendix G.4 Group 1 Matrix Brief on Maintenance, Material, and Management; Appendix G.5 Vehicle Data Mapping(VDM) Team Final Report, Jun 13, 2003; Appendix G.6 SRB Working Group Presentation to CAIB; Appendix G. 7 Starfire Team Final Report, Jun 3, 2003; Appendix G.8 Using the Data and Observations from Flight STS-107, Executive Summary; Appendix G.9 Contracts, Incentives, and Safety/Technical Excellence; Appendix G.10 Detailed Summaries: Rogers Commission Report, ASAP Report, SIAT Report; Appendix G.11 Foam Application and Production Chart; Appendix G.12 Crew Survivability Report; and Appendix G.12 Aero/Aerothermal/ Thermal/Structures Team FinalReport, August 6, 2003.

Gehmann, H. W.; Barry, J. L.; Deal, D. W.; Hallock, J. N.; Hess, K. W.

2003-01-01

256

Fatal bicycle accidents in children: a plea for prevention.  

PubMed

We reviewed the coroner's records of all fatal bicycle accidents occurring in children (aged 0 to 15 years) in Ontario (pediatric population, 2,007,230) between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1989. The injuries sustained were documented and scored with anatomical injury scores (Abbreviated Injury Score 1985 and Injury Severity Score) and categorized as unsurvivable or survivable. The causes and circumstances were documented from police accident reports. Eighty-one deaths resulted from bicycle accidents, an annual mortality rate of 1.44 deaths per 100,000 children per year. In 74 (91%) of these cases the injuries were deemed unsurvivable, 89% of which were head injuries. Seventy-eight (96%) of the deaths resulted from collisions with motor vehicles. No victim was wearing a helmet at the time of injury. In 70% of the deaths, the cyclist was considered to have caused the collision, either because of a violation of a road traffic law or poor road sense. These findings suggest that more emphasis should be placed on primary and secondary injury prevention by such methods as bicycle safety education for children and the promotion of bike helmet use. In addition, in view of the high incidence of unsurvivable head injury, the introduction of legislation requiring the use of protective helmets should be considered. PMID:8437084

Spence, L J; Dykes, E H; Bohn, D J; Wesson, D E

1993-02-01

257

[Driver identification of the motorcycle in motorcycle/car accidents].  

PubMed

A series of motorcycle/car collision experiments and in-depth investigations involving motorcycle/car accidents with two riders were carried out in order to study the difference in behavior and injuries between the driver and the passenger of the motorcycle during a collision, and to provide general data for identifying their seat positions on the motorcycle in traffic accidents. In all the tests, two Hybrid II dummies were seated on the double seats of the motorcycle as riders. The motorcycle collided against the front door, front end or rear door of the passenger car at a speed of 50 km/h, at impact angles of 60 degrees, 90 degrees or 120 degrees. The speeds of the passenger car were tested at 0 km/h or 25 km/h. With different speeds of vehicles and different impact angles, the difference in rider behavior between the driver and the passenger was distinctly verified by analysis of high speed films. It is possible to distinguish the driver's injuries from the passenger's. The abrasion and/or contusions in the chest, face and groin area were severe for the drivers, but less serious for the passengers. The typical injuries of the driver can be expected in terms of the rider behavior during collision from 25 ms to about 150 ms after starting contact. The data and information can be used to clarify the question of who was driving in accident reconstruction. PMID:2266609

Ueyama, M

1990-08-01

258

Visual Fitness of Public Vehicle Drivers in Southeast of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Although visual impairment of drivers is a very important risk factor for car accident, a few published papers have explored this issue in Iran. This study aims to evaluate the visual fitness of public vehicle drivers in Kerman province, southeast of Iran. Methods: A total of 4,003 public vehicle drivers were examined by one ophthalmologist for visual fitness in Kerman province between January 2009 and June 2010. Data are presented as Mean±SD or percentage, and with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pearson Chi-square and McNemmar tests along with crude odds ratio (OR) were used to compare vision deficit between groups. Results: Almost 361 drivers (9.0%; 95% CI: 8.1-9.9) had insufficient vision to drive public vehicles before the refractive errors (RE) correction and this number, was reduced to 68 drivers (1.7%; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1) after the correction. A number of them including 200 drivers (5.0%; 95% CI: 4.3-5.7) had insufficient vision to drive personal vehicles before the correction and this was reduced to 30 thereafter (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.5-1.0). We also found out that the vision status got worse with aging, and RE was the most prevalent cause of sight defects. Conclusion: It seems that visual fitness of public vehicle drivers is a point of real concerns which might somewhat explain the high rate of car accidents in Iran.

Sharifi, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Daneshtalab, Elham; Daneshtalab, Ali

2013-01-01

259

Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

1999-08-01

260

Type Airman Certification as Related to Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of 1964 aircraft accidents, using type of airman certificate as a measure of pilot proficiency, is presented. Data show that student pilots generally have a better accident record than any other of the certification groups. Analysis confirmed ...

E. J. Veregge

1967-01-01

261

Vehicle/engine integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

1984-04-01

262

Car ADR/EDR recorders - uncertainty of vehicle's speed and trajectory determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the basic tasks of the accident reconstruction is to define values of parameters of participants of the accident before its actual occurrence. The assessment of correct behaviours is made and the court decides whether the accident participants are guilty or innocent. Therefore, the credibility of specific values is essential. The use of socalled accident recorders - EDR/ADR type of devices, as an alternative compared to classical methods for accidents reconstruction - has become more common over the past years. The paper includes basic notions related to his type of devices, describes potential sources of uncertainty of the car motion reconstruction results obtained on the basis of their records. The examples presented confirm their usefulness, however, they also indicate possible significant errors in the motion parameters assessment if simplified devices are used (where vehicle body lean movements in motion are not analysed).

Guzek, Marek

2010-01-01

263

Aircraft Accidents by Older Persons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1965 there were 450,494 certificated general aviation pilots in the United States, of which 9,826 were over sixty years old. Within this group there were 108 accidents, 17 of which were fatal. Statistical analysis (chi square) revealed that these o...

S. R. Mohler R. H. S. Bedell A. Ross E. J. Veregge

1967-01-01

264

Notes on Road Accident Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Research Laboratory has organised courses in traffic and safety for the benefit of police officers and highway engineerings for a number of years. The notes for one of the lectures, dealing with accident statistics form the basis of the report. I...

H. D. Johnson F. Garwood

1971-01-01

265

Road Accident Facts 1984, Ireland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives detailed classifications of accidents on Irish Roads reported to the Garda Siochana in 1984. Some comment is also given on the interpretation of the classifications. In a number of the more detailed tables which are included in the report...

1984-01-01

266

Road Accident Tabulation Language (Rattle).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A suite of programs has been written for ICL System 4 computers to enable tabular reports from the annual road accident statistics files to be extracted with a minimum of effort. Requests for analysis are written in the form of simple language statements ...

P. Harris

1971-01-01

267

Assessment of Severe Accident Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter deals with the Risk Assessment Task within CETP. This task addressed the comparative assessment of accidents\\u000a risks associated with the various electricity supply options. The full account of the work carried out within this task is\\u000a provided in the technical report (Hirschberg et al., 2003a).

Stefan Hirschberg; Peter Burgherr; Gerard Spiekerman; Erik Cazzoli; Jirina Vitazek; Lulian Cheng

268

A highway accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991  

SciTech Connect

In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. The purpose of this report is to document the mechanical circumstances of the severe accident, confirm the nature and quantity of the radioactive materials involved, and assess the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The report consists of five major sections. The first section describes the circumstances and conditions of the accident and the finding of facts. The second describes the containers, the unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies, and the tie down arrangement used for the trailer. The third describes the damage sustained during the accident to the tractor, trailer, containers, and unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. The fourth evaluates the accident environment and its effects on the containers and their contents. The final section gives conclusions derived from the analysis and fact finding investigation. During this severe accident, only minor injuries occurred, and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-06-01

269

Ares Launch Vehicles Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2005, the Ares Projects have been building the nation s next generation of crew and cargo launch vehicles. As part of the Constellation Program, the Ares vehicles will enable astronauts in the Orion crew exploration vehicle and Altair lunar lander to reach the Moon and beyond. These vehicles draw upon hardware and experienced developed over 50 years of exploration, while also incorporating technology and management practices from today. Ares is concentrating on building the Ares I crew launch vehicle to ensure America s continued ability to send crews to the International Space Station. Progress has been made on design, fabrication, and testing for the first stage, upper stage, upper stage engine, and integrated vehicle. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ares launch vehicles architecture, milestone progress, and top project risks.

Vanhooser, Teresa

2009-01-01

270

Learning from Accident Analysis: The Dynamics Leading Up to a Rafting Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of a case study of a whitewater rafting accident reveals that such accidents tend to result from multiple actions. Many events leading up to such accidents include procedural and process factors, suggesting that hard-skills technical training is an insufficient approach to accident prevention. Contains 26 references. (SAS)

Hovelynck, Johan

1998-01-01

271

Development of a new chemical process-industry accident database to assist in past accident analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past accident analysis (PAA) is one of the most potent and oft-used exercises for gaining insights into the reasons why accidents occur in chemical process industry (CPI) and the damage they cause. PAA provides invaluable ‘wisdom of hindsight’ with which strategies to prevent accidents or cushion the impact of inevitable accidents can be developed.A number of databases maintain record of

S. M. Tauseef; Tasneem Abbasi; S. A. Abbasi

2011-01-01

272

A model of fishing vessel accident probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Commercial fishing is one of the least safe occupations. Method: The researchers develop a fishing vessel accident probability model for fishing areas off the northeastern United States using logit regression and daily data from 1981 to 1993. Results: The results indicate that fishing vessel accident probability declined over the study period. Higher wind speed is associated with greater accident

Di Jin; Hauke L. Kite-Powell; Eric Thunberg; Andrew R. Solow; Wayne K. Talley

2002-01-01

273

NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

Patlach, Robert

2010-01-01

274

Study of severe accident mitigation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been performed as part of the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) to investigate the feasibility and costs of installing various systems designed to mitigate the effects of severe accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). The primary function of the systems is to maintain the integrity of the reactor containment in the event of a severe accident

R. Cherdack; C. Hess; K. Lee; D. Miller

1987-01-01

275

Profile of an Accident Flying Squad  

PubMed Central

An analysis of 184 accident flying squad calls and of 280 patients injured in road accidents and treated by a flying squad based on an accident department inclusive from 1967 to 1971 has shown that such a service can provide an efficient system without disrupting the routine work of the hospital.

Little, Keith

1972-01-01

276

Road Accident Recording Systems in Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a review of present road accident recording system in the SADCC-countries and recommends a new, improved road accident recording system. It is recommended to report each individual accident to a central unit which prepares and compiles...

T. Vaaje

1987-01-01

277

School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

McMichael, Judith

278

A behavioral comparison between motorcyclists and a matched group of non-motorcycling car drivers: factors influencing accident risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motorcyclists and a matched group of non-motorcycling car drivers were assessed on behavioral measures known to relate to accident involvement. Using a range of laboratory measures, we found that motorcyclists chose faster speeds than the car drivers, overtook more, and pulled into smaller gaps in traffic, though they did not travel any closer to the vehicle in front. The speed

Mark S. Horswill; Shaun Helman

2003-01-01

279

Accident-Related Risk Behaviors Associated with Motivations for Motorcycle Use in Iran: A Country with Very High Traffic Deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Injuries caused by motor vehicle accidents in Middle East countries are among the highest in the world. Several successful interventions preventing road traffic injuries in developed countries have been practiced; however, these interventions have not been tailored to the cultural, behavioral, and environmental milieu of low- and middle-income countries. Scientifically based efforts to understand risk factors for traffic injury

Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh; Shamsaddin Niknami; Mohsen Bazargan; Eesa Mohammadi; Ali Montazeri; Fazlollah Ahmadi; Fazlollah Ghofranipour

2009-01-01

280

Analysis of Road Traffic Accident Rate in the Slovak Republic and Possibilities of Its Reduction through Telematic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a worldwide trend of increasing number of vehicles being newly introduced on an annual basis. On the road, there are great numbers of drivers with low discipline, aggressive driving habits and non-compliance with basic principles of responsible traffic behavior. As a consequence, the number of traffic accidents is rising, and so do their repercussions.

Kalašová, Alica; Krchová, Zuzana

281

Update: Motor vehicle-related deaths, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 1999-2012.  

PubMed

From 1999 to 2012, there were 4,479 motor vehicle accident (MVA)-related deaths among members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Of these, the single most common underlying cause of death was motorcycle accidents (n=1,134; 25.6%). Among active component service members during the 14-year surveillance period, the annual number (n=355) and rate (25.1 per 100,000 person-years[p-yrs]) of MVA-related deaths peaked in 2004. Since then, a steady downward trend followed and the 2012 number (n=184) and rate (13.2 per 100,000 p-yrs) were the lowest of the entire period. For members of the reserve component, the annual number of deaths peaked in 2005 (n=86), but the number in 2012 (n=22) was the lowest of the period. In 2012, the number (n=90) and rate of deaths (6.5 per 100,000 p-yrs) related to motorcycle accidents among active component service members almost equaled the number (n=94) and rate of deaths (6.7 per 100,000 p-yrs) from all other types of motor vehicle accidents combined. During the entire period, numbers of fatal motor vehicle accidents tended to be higher in the warmer months of the year. After 2009, motor vehicle accidents were no longer the leading, non-war- related cause of death among U.S. service members. PMID:24299263

2013-11-01

282

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A

Gene P. Menees; Chul Park

1993-01-01

283

The Vehicle Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

Kuschel, Jonas

284

Single pilot IFR accident data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft accident data recorded by the National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSR) for 1964-1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation (GA) single pilot instrument flight rule (SPIFR) environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964-1975 provided a basis for comparison. This effort was generally limited to SPIFR pilot error landing phase accidents but includes some SPIFR takeoff and enroute accident analysis as well as some dual pilot IFR accident analysis for comparison. Analysis was performed for 554 accidents of which 39% (216) occurred during the years 1976-1979.

Harris, D. F.

1983-01-01

285

Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China.  

PubMed

A large number of pedestrian fatalities were reported in China since the 1990s, however the exposure of pedestrians in public traffic has never been measured quantitatively using in-depth accident data. This study aimed to investigate the association between the impact speed and risk of pedestrian casualties in passenger vehicle collisions based on real-world accident cases in China. The cases were selected from a database of in-depth investigation of vehicle accidents in Changsha-IVAC. The sampling criteria were defined as (1) the accident was a frontal impact that occurred between 2003 and 2009; (2) the pedestrian age was above 14; (3) the injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was 1+; (4) the accident involved passenger cars, SUVs, or MPVs; and (5) the vehicle impact speed can be determined. The selected IVAC data set, which included 104 pedestrian accident cases, was weighted based on the national traffic accident data. The logistical regression models of the risks for pedestrian fatalities and AIS 3+ injuries were developed in terms of vehicle impact speed using the unweighted and weighted data sets. A multiple logistic regression model on the risk of pedestrian AIS 3+ injury was developed considering the age and impact speed as two variables. It was found that the risk of pedestrian fatality is 26% at 50 km/h, 50% at 58 km/h, and 82% at 70 km/h. At an impact speed of 80 km/h, the pedestrian rarely survives. The weighted risk curves indicated that the risks of pedestrian fatality and injury in China were higher than that in other high-income countries, whereas the risks of pedestrian casualty was lower than in these countries 30 years ago. The findings could have a contribution to better understanding of the exposures of pedestrians in urban traffic in China, and provide background knowledge for the development of strategies for pedestrian protection. PMID:20441804

Kong, Chunyu; Yang, Jikuang

2010-07-01

286

Automatic vehicle location system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

Hansen, G. R., Jr. (inventor)

1973-01-01

287

Vehicle underbody fairing  

DOEpatents

A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA) [Pacifica, CA; Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; McCallen, Rose (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

2010-11-09

288

A Javat universal vehicle router for routing unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider vehicle routing problems in the context of the Air Force operational problem of routing unmanned aerial vehicles from base locations to various reconnaissance sites. The unmanned aerial vehicle routing problem requires consideration of heterogeneous vehicles, vehicle endurance limits, time windows, and time walls for some of the sites requiring coverage, site priorities, and asymmetric travel distances. We propose

R. W. Hardera

289

Application of cross-ratio in traffic accident reconstruction.  

PubMed

Nowadays, video recording devices such as CCTV, digital cameras, mobile phones and car video recorders are ubiquitous. It becomes more and more frequent that traffic accident scenarios are captured by such video recording devices in one form or another. The present study focuses on the direct extraction of vehicle speeds from video footages by cross-ratio, a well known invariant under specific conditions in projective geometry. The minimum requirements for an accurate and direct determination of vehicle speed by cross-ratio are 2 image frames of the video footage containing the subject vehicle which by and large moves along a straight path from one frame to the other and the time lapsed between the 2 image frames are known. With the aid of a calibrated Doppler radar, a control study has been carried out to validate the method and determine the baseline uncertainty. The validated method has been applied to a small number of real world cases and the results are promising. Experimental results indicate that it is possible to extend its application in speed determination by a car camera. PMID:24447447

Wong, T W; Tao, C H; Cheng, Y K; Wong, K H; Tam, C N

2014-02-01

290

Preliminary Analysis of Aircraft Loss of Control Accidents: Worst Case Precursor Combinations and Temporal Sequencing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft loss of control (LOC) is a leading cause of fatal accidents across all transport airplane and operational classes, and can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of conditions and uncertainties, including multiple hazards, and their validation must provide a means of assessing system effectiveness and coverage of these hazards. This requires the definition of a comprehensive set of LOC test scenarios based on accident and incident data as well as future risks. This paper defines a comprehensive set of accidents and incidents over a recent 15 year period, and presents preliminary analysis results to identify worst-case combinations of causal and contributing factors (i.e., accident precursors) and how they sequence in time. Such analyses can provide insight in developing effective solutions for LOC, and form the basis for developing test scenarios that can be used in evaluating them. Preliminary findings based on the results of this paper indicate that system failures or malfunctions, crew actions or inactions, vehicle impairment conditions, and vehicle upsets contributed the most to accidents and fatalities, followed by inclement weather or atmospheric disturbances and poor visibility. Follow-on research will include finalizing the analysis through a team consensus process, defining future risks, and developing a comprehensive set of test scenarios with correlation to the accidents, incidents, and future risks. Since enhanced engineering simulations are required for batch and piloted evaluations under realistic LOC precursor conditions, these test scenarios can also serve as a high-level requirement for defining the engineering simulation enhancements needed for generating them.

Belcastro, Christine M.; Groff, Loren; Newman, Richard L.; Foster, John V.; Crider, Dennis H.; Klyde, David H.; Huston, A. McCall

2014-01-01

291

Biomechanical injury evaluation of laminated side door windows and sunroof during rollover accidents.  

PubMed

Significantly more fatalities and serious injuries occur due to ejection in roll over accidents. The present study was conducted to determine the occupant retention and head-neck injury potential aspects of laminated glass in side door windows and sunroofs during roll over accidents. The test protocol for this study was based on National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies for advanced glazing. The impact study of 18 kg with head-neck form was conducted on laminated glass of side doors and sunroofs from production vehicles. The drop speed was varied from 11 to 16 kph. The Hybrid III 50% male dummy head-neck form was impacted on the approximately center of the glass portion of the windows. The head injury criteria, head resultant acceleration, and neck loads and moments were quantified. A series of drop tests were conducted on roll down side windows with laminated glass. The head-neck biomechanical parameters were well below the critical value injury tolerance limits. Results indicated that the glass contained the dummy assembly and the head-neck biomechanical parameters were below the critical value injury tolerance limits in simulated rollover accidents. The present study demonstrates that head-neck injury is unlikely due to laminated glass side windows and sunroof laminated glass used in production vehicles during rollover accidents and that the dummy is contained by the laminated glazing. PMID:12724901

Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Carlin, Fred; Friedman, Keith; Meyer, Steve

2003-01-01

292

Accident/Mishap Investigation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

2007-01-01

293

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

294

Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

1983-01-01

295

Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System  

PubMed Central

A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility.

Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

2014-01-01

296

Sensor systems for vehicle environment perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System.  

PubMed

A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

2014-01-01

297

Overview of Electrified Vehicle Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains a chart describing the components of electrified vehicle systems based on the vehicle drive system. Vehicle drive systems in the chart include conventional internal combustion engine, start/stop, mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), medium HEV, full HEV, plug-in series HEV, and battery electric vehicle. The chart is provided in both .jpg and .ppt (PowerPoint) formats.

Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT)

298

Development of an in-vehicle intersection collision countermeasure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intersection collisions constitute approximately twenty-six percent of all accidents in the United States. Because of their complexity, and demands on the perceptual and decision making abilities of the driver, intersections present an increased risk of collisions between automobiles. This situation provides an opportunity to apply advanced sensor and processing capabilities to prevent these collisions. A program to determine the characteristics of intersection collisions and identify potential countermeasures will be described. This program, sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, utilized accident data to develop a taxonomy of intersection crashes. This taxonomy was used to develop a concept for an intersection collision avoidance countermeasure. The concept utilizes in-vehicle position, dynamic status, and millimeter wave radar system and an in-vehicle computer system to provide inputs to an intersection collision avoidance algorithm. Detection of potential violation of traffic control device, or proceeding into the intersection with inadequate gap will lead to the presentation of a warning to the driver. These warnings are presented to the driver primarily via a head-up display and haptic feedback. Roadside to vehicle communication provides information regarding phased traffic signal information. Active control of the vehicle's brake and steering systems are described. Progress in the development of the systems will be presented along with the schedule of future activities.

Pierowicz, John A.

1997-02-01

299

Lifting Body Flight Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

Barret, Chris

1998-01-01

300

Performance modeling of launch vehicle imaging telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation plan for the "return-to-flight" of the space shuttle after the spectacular Columbia disaster upon re-entering the earth's atmosphere on February 1, 2003 included significant upgrades to the Ground Camera Ascent Imagery assets at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The accident was due to damage incurred when a piece if insulating foam debris from the external fuel tank struck the left wing during take-off. The Ground Camera Ascent Imagery Project encompasses a wide variety of launch vehicle tracking telescopes and cameras at the Eastern Range. Most of these launch vehicle imaging telescopes are manually tracked and fitted with video and 35 mm film cameras, and many of them are fixed-focus (i.e., focused at the hyperfocal distance for the duration of the launch). In this paper we describe a systems engineering analysis approach for obtaining performance predictions of these aging launch vehicle imaging telescopes. Recommendations for a continuing maintenance and refurbishment program that closes the loop around the KSC photo-interpreter are included.

Harvey, James E.; Krywonos, Andrey; Houston, Joseph B., Jr.

2005-09-01

301

Collision avoidance timing analysis of DSRC-based vehicles.  

PubMed

Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) has been used in prototyped vehicles to test vehicle-to-vehicle communication for collision avoidance. However, there is little study on how collision avoidance software should behave to best mitigate accident collisions. In this paper, we analyse the timing of events and how they influence software-based collision avoidance strategies. We have found that the warning strategies for collision avoidance are constrained by the timing of events such as DSRC communication latency, detection range, road condition, driver reaction and deceleration rate. With these events, we define two collision avoidance timings: critical time to avoid collision and preferred time to avoid collision, and they dictate the design of software-based collision avoidance systems. PMID:19887159

Tang, Antony; Yip, Alice

2010-01-01

302

Accident risk and driver behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of risk compensation and risk homeostasis are often used to describe or to explain drivers' tendencies to react to traffic system changes whether in roads, vehicles, weather conditions or in their own skills. However, it is important to distinguish between the general phenomenon and mechanisms underlying it. This paper first points out that to understand the basic mechanisms

Heikki Summala

1996-01-01

303

Vehicle with magnetic engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle is described comprising a vehicle frame fitted with axles and wheels rotatably carried by the axles; an engine block mounted on the frame; a plurality of magnetic cylinders provided in the engine block and a plurality of magnetic pistons disposed in the magnetic cylinders, respectively, in reciprocating relationship, the magnetic cylinders having a first magnetic polarity in one

Wortham

1993-01-01

304

Nuclear air cushion vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

Anderson, J. L.

1973-01-01

305

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

306

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

307

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

308

Suspension for Tracked Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A patent is described for a tracked vehicle suspension containing a transverse balance beam spring-supported by means of flat rubber elastic elements. The beam is hinged at the middle to the chassis of the vehicle and the ends rest on the track carriers. ...

V. V. Emelyanenko R. V. Efimova N. A. Litvinov E. R. Melman

1969-01-01

309

Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

Exceptional Parent, 1983

1983-01-01

310

Conestoga launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major applications for commercial and government markets have developed recently which will make use of small satellites. A launch vehicle designed specifically for small satellites brings many attendant benefits. Space Services Incorporated has developed the Conestoga family of launch vehicles to meet the needs of five major markets: low orbiting communication satellites, positioning satellites, earth sensing satellites, space manufacturing

Mark H. Daniels; James E. Davidson

1988-01-01

311

Advanced vehicle technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a summary of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assessment of advanced electric and hybrid vehicles for potential development by the early 1990s is summarized. The primary objective is to recommend subsystem research priorities based on a comparison of alternatives as part of complete vehicle systems with equivalent performance. The assessment includes evaluations of candidate technologies as well as

K. S. Hardy; V. P. Roan

1985-01-01

312

Cutting Attachment for Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A debris cutting system for attachment to a vehicle. The system includes a nose shaped projection that extends horizontally in the forward direction from the forward moving end of the vehicle. The projection includes a front blade mount subsystem, a pair ...

D. H. Kendall

2008-01-01

313

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

314

Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. T...

K. Y. Pettersen

1996-01-01

315

EMPIRICAL MODEL OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

An empirical model that characterizes the relationship between equilibrium vehicle emission distributions and malfunction, repair, and replacement rates by splitting vehicles into two emission categories has been developed. ross emitters and clean vehicles are defined by the magn...

316

Dust Mitigation Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

Cardiff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

317

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-01-01

318

Measurement of vehicle trajectories using 3D laser radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement system using 3-D imaging laser radars and real-time image processing to quantitatively measure and characterize inter-vehicular motion (i.e., the vehicle motion environment, VME) in real-world traffic settings is being developed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) under a subcontract with the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), who has a cooperative agreement with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The system will be deployed at the roadside to acquire data on vehicle centroid and heading trajectories that will be used to study vehicle dynamics and accident causation. This effort is a direct response to the recognized need for a fundamental understanding of the vehicle motion environment to aid in the development of automotive active safety technologies for Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) applications. This paper presents overviews of the national initiative for crash avoidance research, the role of the VME Program and the vehicle motion environment measurement system (i.e., VME-MS). Simulation studies were conducted in support of the image and data processing algorithm development. The motivation for and the implementation, capabilities and results of these simulation studies are presented.

Gilbert, R. Kent; Gerber, Garth L.; Pont, William F.; Reiley, Michael F.; de Sonia, Robert D.

1995-01-01

319

[The injury pattern in polytrauma. Value of information regarding accident process in clinical acute management].  

PubMed

To investigate the correlation between the mechanism of an accident and the resulting injury pattern we reviewed the data of 195 prospectively documented multiply traumatized patients. Information on the accident was based on descriptions given by eye witnesses, police and the emergency medical staff. Only moderate to severe lesions (AIS > or = 3; Abbreviated Injury Scale Version 1990) of each body region were analyzed. The mean injury severity (ISS) for all these patients was 39.5 (18-75); the lethality was 34%. Different types of accidents led to various injury patterns. We found a high incidence of lesions of the head in frontal (F) motor vehicle crashes (MVC) nonbelted (76%), of the chest in lateral (L) MVCs (80%), of the abdomen in F MVCs belted and in LMVCs (60%), of the pelvis after suicidal fall (SF; 69%) and of the lower extremities in motorcycle accidents (90%), SFs (69%) and collisions with a train (67%). Severe lesions of the spine were frequently seen after accidental falls (41%), SFs (30%) and F MVCs belted (25%). There was a very substantial difference in the injury pattern after suicidal jump (26% head, 69% pelvis, 65% lower extremity lesions). and accidental fall (54% head, 19% pelvis, 23% lower extremity lesions). As a result of the correlation with specific injury patterns, the preceding mechanism of accident should be exactly documented and considered by the physician during the early phase of resuscitation. PMID:9005574

Ruchholtz, S; Nast-Kolb, D; Waydhas, C; Schweiberer, L

1996-09-01

320

Defining a common set of indicators to monitor road accidents in the European Union  

PubMed Central

Background currently road accidents are mostly monitored through mortality and injury rates. This paper reports the methodology and the results of a project set forth by the European Union (EU) and coordinated by the WHO aimed at identifying and evaluating a core set of indicators to monitor the causal chain of road accident health effects. The project is part of the ECOEHIS (Development of Environment and Health Indicators for European Union Countries). Methods a group of experts (WG), identified 14 indicators after a review of the information collected at the EU level, each of them representing a specific aspect of the DPSEEA (Driving, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action) model applied and adapted to the road accidents. Each indicator was scored according to a list of 16 criteria chosen by the WG. Those found to have a high score were analysed to determine if they were compatible with EU legislation and then tested in the feasibility study. Results 11 of the 14 indicators found to be relevant and compatible with the criteria of selection were proposed for the feasibility study. Mortality, injury, road accident rate, age of vehicle fleet, and distance travelled are the indicators recommended for immediate implementation. Conclusion after overcoming the limitations that emerged (absence of a common definition of death by road accident and injury severity, underestimation of injuries, differences in information quality) this core set of indicators will allow Member States to carry out effective internal/external comparisons over time.

Farchi, Sara; Molino, Nunzio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Borgia, Piero; Krzyzanowski, Michael; Dalbokova, Dafina; Kim, Rokho

2006-01-01

321

The evaluation of road-rail crossing safety with limited accident statistics.  

PubMed

Safety evaluation is an essential issue in ranking road-rail crossings as candidates for grade-separation. Many small countries like Israel do not possess sufficient data to generate statistical models similar to the US DOT accident prediction formula or others. At the same time, it is desirable to provide estimates stemming from local conditions. For these, available Israeli accident data were artificially enlarged using the unification of accident statistics and information from crossings functioning over a six-year period. A hazard index serves as a basic evaluation tool. The datasets on accidents and crossings are split according to several crossing characteristics (category of warning device, volume of vehicle traffic, volume of train traffic, visibility conditions); the obtained values are combined to supply safety estimates for crossing types defined by these characteristics. The validity of model performance is explored. For Israeli conditions the model provides for a safety evaluation of 168 crossing types. This presents a sufficient base from which to estimate the accident potential of any local crossing when the need for its grade separation is discussed. PMID:9088356

Gitelman, V; Hakkert, A S

1997-03-01

322

MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze the first 174 minutes of the TMI-2 accident. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison of the code predictions to the available data shows that MELCOR is capable of modeling the key events of the TMI-2 accident and reasonable agreement with the available data is obtained. In particular, the core degradation and hydrogen generation models agree with best-estimate information available for this phase of the accident. While the code uses simplified modeling, all important characteristics of the reactor system and the accident phenomena could be modeled. This exercise demonstrates that MELCOR is applicable to severe accident analysis. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Boucheron, E.A.; Kelly, J.E.

1988-01-01

323

Sleep Disorders as a Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions  

PubMed Central

Studies have shown that a large proportion of traffic accidents around the world are related to inadequate or disordered sleep. Recent surveys have linked driver fatigue to 16% to 20% of serious highway accidents in the UK, Australia, and Brazil. Fatigue as a result of sleep disorders (especially obstructive sleep apnea), excessive workload and lack of physical and mental rest, have been shown to be major contributing factors in motor vehicle accidents. A number of behavioral, physiological, and psychometric tests are being used increasingly to evaluate the impact of fatigue on driver performance. These include the oculography, polysomnography, actigraphy, the maintenance of wakefulness test, and others. Various strategies have been proposed for preventing or reducing the impact of fatigue on motor vehicle accidents. These have included: Educational programs emphasizing the importance of restorative sleep and the need for drivers to recognize the presence of fatigue symptoms, and to determine when to stop to sleep; The use of exercise to increase alertness and to promote restorative sleep; The use of substances or drugs to promote sleep or alertness (i.e. caffeine, modafinil, melatonin and others), as well as specific sleep disorders treatment; The use of CPAP therapy for reducing excessive sleepiness among drivers who have been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. The evidence cited in this review justifies the call for all efforts to be undertaken that may increase awareness of inadequate sleep as a cause of traffic accidents. It is strongly recommended that, for the purpose of promoting highway safety and saving lives, all disorders that cause excessive sleepiness should be investigated and monitored.

de Mello, Marco Tulio; Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Tufik, Sergio; Paiva, Teresa; Spence, David Warren; BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Verster, Joris C.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.

2013-01-01

324

Sleep disorders as a cause of motor vehicle collisions.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that a large proportion of traffic accidents around the world are related to inadequate or disordered sleep. Recent surveys have linked driver fatigue to 16% to 20% of serious highway accidents in the UK, Australia, and Brazil. Fatigue as a result of sleep disorders (especially obstructive sleep apnea), excessive workload and lack of physical and mental rest, have been shown to be major contributing factors in motor vehicle accidents. A number of behavioral, physiological, and psychometric tests are being used increasingly to evaluate the impact of fatigue on driver performance. These include the oculography, polysomnography, actigraphy, the maintenance of wakefulness test, and others. Various strategies have been proposed for preventing or reducing the impact of fatigue on motor vehicle accidents. These have included: Educational programs emphasizing the importance of restorative sleep and the need for drivers to recognize the presence of fatigue symptoms, and to determine when to stop to sleep; The use of exercise to increase alertness and to promote restorative sleep; The use of substances or drugs to promote sleep or alertness (i.e. caffeine, modafinil, melatonin and others), as well as specific sleep disorders treatment; The use of CPAP therapy for reducing excessive sleepiness among drivers who have been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. The evidence cited in this review justifies the call for all efforts to be undertaken that may increase awareness of inadequate sleep as a cause of traffic accidents. It is strongly recommended that, for the purpose of promoting highway safety and saving lives, all disorders that cause excessive sleepiness should be investigated and monitored. PMID:23626880

de Mello, Marco Túlio; Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Tufik, Sergio; Paiva, Teresa; Spence, David Warren; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Verster, Joris C; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R

2013-03-01

325

Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy after automobile accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 53-year-old woman was involved in a traffic accident while driving her car. She had chest oppressive sensation 6 h after the accident, and was admitted to our hospital.On admission, she had no external injury. She was fully conscious, and felt anxiety about the accident. Twelve-lead electrocardiogram showed mild ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, aVF and V2-5. Chest X-ray did

Satoshi Kurisu; Ichiro Inoue; Takuji Kawagoe; Masaharu Ishihara; Yuji Shimatani; Yasuharu Nakama; Keisuke Ohkawa; Tatsuya Maruhashi; Eisuke Kagawa; Kazuoki Dai; Toshiyuki Aokage

2007-01-01

326

Aircraft Accident Reports - Brief Format, U.S. Civil Aviation, Issue Number 2 of 1981 Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains selected aircraft accident reports, in brief format, occurring in U.S. civil aviation operations during calendar year 1981. The 299 General Aviation accidents contained in this publication represent a random selection. This public...

1982-01-01

327

Aircraft Accident Reports - Brief Format, U.S. Civil Aviation, Issue Number 4 of 1981 Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains selected aircraft accident reports, in brief format, occurring in U.S. civil aviation operations during calendar year 1981. The 297 General Aviation accidents contained in this publication represent a random selection. This public...

1982-01-01

328

Aircraft Accidents Reports, Brief Format, U.S. Civil Aviation Issue Number 13 of 1979 Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication contains selected aircraft accident reports, in brief format, occurring in U.S. civil aviation operations during calendar year 1979. The 300 General Aviation accidents contained in this publication represent a random selection. This publi...

1981-01-01

329

COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be conservatively applied to confined CSNF assemblies.

S.O. Bader

1999-10-18

330

Thermal hydraulic features of the TMI accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Mile island (TMI)-2 accident resulted in extensive core damage and recent data confirms that the reactor vessel was challenged from molten core materials. A hypothesized TMI accident scenario is presented that consistently explains the TMI data and is also consistent with research findings from independent severe fuel damage experiments. The TMI data will prove useful in confirming our understanding of severe core damage accidents under realistic reactor systems conditions. This understanding will aid in addressing safety and regulatory issues related to severe core damage accidents in light water reactors.

Tolman, B.

1985-10-01

331

The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.  

PubMed

The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. PMID:24473412

Jin, Di

2014-05-01

332

Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

1999-09-19

333

Biorhythmic Cycles and the Incidence of Industrial Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The biorhythm theory of accident explanation that has been increasingly popularized in the business press was empirically examined. Municipal employees involved in work-related vehicular accidents and in on-the-job accidents provided the data. Each accident was analyzed to determine whether or not the accident occurred on a biorhythmically…

Carvey, Davis W.; Nibler, Roger G.

1977-01-01

334

Electric vehicle activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data and information collected for the Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE&G) electric vehicle demonstration program were intended to support and enhance DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Site Operator Program. The DOE Site Operator Program is focused on the life cycle and reliability of Electric Vehicles (EV's). Of particular interest are vehicles currently available with features that are likely to be put into production or demonstrate new technology. PSE&G acquired eight GMC Electric G-Vans in 1991, and three TEVans in 1993, and conducted a program plan to test and assess the overall performance of these electric vehicles. To accomplish the objectives of DOE's Site Operator's test program, a manual data collection system was implemented. The manual data collection system has provided energy use and mileage data. From September 1991 to October 1994 PSE&G logged 69,368 miles on eleven test vehicles. PSE&G also demonstrated the EVs to diverse groups and associations at fifty seven various events. Included in the report are lessons learned concerning maintenance, operation, public reactions, and driver's acceptance of the electric vehicles.

Delmonaco, J. L.; Pandya, D. A.

1995-02-01

335

Electric vehicle almanac  

SciTech Connect

Electric Vehicle Almanac presents an overview of the current activity in electric vehicle development. Brief highlights are given for different types of vehicles--ranging from mini town cars to high tonnage industrial trucks--produced by 48 different EV developers around the world. Most of these vehicles are concept cars, prototypes and demonstration vehicles. However, a few are cars actually in modest-volume production in Europe. Extensively covered in the almanac are research and development activities for EV batteries. As widely attested, current battery state-of-the-art is--in terms of both energy storage capacity and instant power response--at least one order of magnitude shy of putting EVs in any sort of contention with internal combustion vehicles. Two sections are worth special mention. One is excerpted from an EV thermal management study by Arthur D. Little, a renowned consulting company. This study suggests that current technology exists to make EVs practical for cold weather driving, typical of the Northeastern US. The other highlights an examination by the US Environmental Protection Agency into the energy efficiencies and costs of EVs viz-a-viz internal combustion vehicles.

Brewer, D.E.

1995-12-31

336

Methane emissions from vehicles.  

PubMed

Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. We report results of a laboratory study of methane emissions using a standard driving cycle for 30 different cars and trucks (1995-1999 model years) from four different manufacturers. We recommend the use of an average emission factor for the U.S. on-road vehicle fleet of (g of CH/g of CO2) = (15 +/- 4) x 10(-5) and estimate that the global vehicle fleet emits 0.45 +/- 0.12 Tg of CH4 yr(-1) (0.34 +/- 0.09 Tg of C yr(-1)), which represents < 0.2% of anthropogenic CH4 emissions. This estimate includes the effects of vehicle aging, cold start, and hot running emissions. The contribution of CH4 emissions from vehicles to radiative forcing of climate change is 0.3-0.4% of that of CO2 emissions from vehicles. The environmental impact of CH4 emissions from vehicles is negligible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. PMID:15112800

Nam, E K; Jensen, T E; Wallington, T J

2004-04-01

337

Estimating rear-end accident probabilities at signalized intersections: a comparison study of intersections with and without green signal countdown devices.  

PubMed

Objective: Rear-end accidents are the most common accident type at signalized intersections, because the diversity of actions taken increases due to signal change. Green signal countdown devices (GSCDs), which have been widely installed in Asia, are thought to have the potential of improving capacity and reducing accidents, but some negative effects on intersection safety have been observed in practice; for example, an increase in rear-end accidents. Methods: A microscopic modeling approach was applied to estimate rear-end accident probability during the phase transition interval in the study. The rear-end accident probability is determined by the following probabilities: (1) a leading vehicle makes a "stop" decision, which was formulated by using a binary logistic model, and (2) the following vehicle fails to stop in the available stopping distance, which is closely related to the critical deceleration used by the leading vehicle. Based on the field observation carried out at 2 GSCD intersections and 2 NGSCD intersections (i.e., intersections without GSCD devices) along an arterial in Suzhou, the rear-end probabilities at GSCD and NGSCD intersections were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. Results: The results suggested that, on the one hand, GSCDs caused significantly negative safety effects during the flashing green interval, especially for vehicles in a zone ranging from 15 to 70 m; on the other hand, GSCD devices were helpful in reducing rear-end accidents during the yellow interval, especially in a zone from 0 to 50 m. Conclusions: GSCDs helped shorten indecision zones and reduce rear-end collisions near the stop line during the yellow interval, but they easily resulted in risky car following behavior and much higher rear-end collision probabilities at indecision zones during both flashing green and yellow intervals. GSCDs are recommended to be cautiously installed and education on safe driving behavior should be available. PMID:24867568

Ni, Ying; Li, Keping

2014-08-18

338

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

339

Assured crew return vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

Cerimele, Christopher J. (inventor); Ried, Robert C. (inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (inventor); Ross, Brian P. (inventor)

1991-01-01

340

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12

341

Introduction to Electrified Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation was delivered by Anthony Tisler from the Michigan Academy for Green Mobility Alliance (MAGMA) at the Utica Community Schoolsâ Professional Development Day for Teachers in the Industrial Arts/Engineering Pathway, held at the Instructional Resource Center in Sterling Heights, MI on April 15, 2014. The presentation provides information on electric vehicle architecture and components. It is a great tool for introducing students at the high school or college level to various battery electric vehicle (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) components, configurations, and operation.

Michigan Academy for Green Mobility Alliance (MAGMA)

342

Lunar Transfer Vehicle Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lunar transportation architectures exist for several different mission scenarios. Direct flights from Earth are possible, as the Apollo program clearly demonstrated. Alternatively, a space transfer vehicle could be constructed in space by using the Space ...

J. T. Keeley

1993-01-01

343

Electric Vehicles 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation was developed by a member of MITâs electric vehicle team and provides a basic overview of electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV and HEV) history, operation, challenges, and advantages. Discussed is EV/HEV history dating from 1830- 2010, the operation of EV/HEV systems (networking and sourcing of power throughout components), challenges (ranges, energy equivalence, consumer acceptance, charge time, grid integration, and cost), advantages (energy efficiency, fuel cost, and emissions), meeting challenges (convenient charging and improving technology), EV/HEV vehicles today (Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Roadster, and Fisker Karma), and MITâs electric vehicle team (projects, awards, and competitions). For more info on the MIT team visit http://web.mit.edu/evt/.

Technology, Massachusetts I.

344

Motor Vehicle Emission Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New gasoline-powered motor vehicle (light-duty and heavy-duty) emission factors, which supersede those in EPA Publication AP-42 (Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors) for carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, are presented based on ...

D. S. Kircher D. P. Armstrong

1973-01-01

345

Braking - Tracked Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provides a method of evaluating the brake systems of tracked vehicles. Covers brake holding ability, stopping distance, steering brake performance, wet and freezing effects, braking potential, service brake efficiency, fade and recovery tests, brake syste...

1977-01-01

346

Household Vehicles Energy Consumption  

EIA Publications

This report provides newly available national and regional data and analyzes the nation's energy use by light-duty vehicles. This release represents the analytical component of the report, with a data component having been released in early 2005.

Mark Schipper

2005-11-30

347

Expendable Launch Vehicle Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstr...

P. N. Fuller

1991-01-01

348

Vehicle Classification Systems Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several methods of classifying vehicles employing mechanical-electrical and television-video tape systems were field tested and evaluated to determine their state of development and possible future use in highway data collection activities. Mechanical-ele...

M. M. Alexander R. Threlkeld J. Williams

1975-01-01

349

Constellation Launch Vehicles Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the current status of the launch vehicles associated with the Constellation Program. These are the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of the Ares launch vehicles is included. The presentation stresses that the major criteria for the Ares I launcher is the safety of the crew, and the presentation reviews the various features that are designed to assure that aim. The Ares I vehicle is being built on a foundation of proven technologies, and the Ares V will give NASA unprecedented performance and payload volume that can enable a range of future missions. The CDs contain videos of scenes from various activities surrounding the design, construction and testing of the vehicles.

Cook, Steve; Fragola, Joseph R.; Priskos, Alex; Davis, Danny; Kaynard, Mike; Hutt, John; Davis, Stephan; Creech, Steve

2009-01-01

350

Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

1993-01-01

351

Motorcycle Accidents Claiming Fewer American Lives  

MedlinePLUS

... Tuesday, May 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Motor Vehicle Safety TUESDAY, May 6, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Motorcyclist ... six times more rider/passenger deaths per registered vehicle than cars, the report noted. It also said ...

352

Analysis of fatal road traffic accidents in a coastal township of South India.  

PubMed

Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are important causes of mortality and morbidity due to the increasing number of vehicles, changes in lifestyle and the risk behaviours among general population. With the aim of exploring various epidemiological characteristics of RTAs, this retrospective analysis of medico-legal autopsies was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009 in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal in Karnataka, South India. The information was collected from post-mortem registers and inquest documents received from the investigating police officers. The collected information was analysed using SPSS version 11.0. Out of the 879 autopsies conducted during the study period, 39% were due to RTAs. Among the victims, 89.8% were males and 10.2% were females. The mean age of victims was 38.7 years, which was slightly higher in females compared to males. Most of the male victims belonged to the age group 20-29 years. The head injuries were responsible for nearly 3/4th of deaths followed by abdominal injuries (6.7%). The mean duration of survival following road traffic accident was 6-7 days. Occupants of motorized two wheelers (43%) and pedestrians (33%) were the most common victims of RTAs followed by occupants of light motor vehicles (LMVs). The most common offending agents in road traffic accidents were heavy motor vehicles (35.2%) followed by light motor vehicles (31.7%). In view of the above finding, it is apt to conclude that RTAs are important public health hazards and should be addressed through strengthening of emergency healthcare, stricter enforcement of traffic laws and health education. PMID:23084306

Kanchan, Tanuj; Kulkarni, Vaman; Bakkannavar, Shankar M; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B

2012-11-01

353

Handle With Care: 10 Common School Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidents, mishaps, injuries can happen in any classroom, cafeteria, gym, hallway, playground and the teacher is probably the first adult to arrive on the scene. These guidelines on how to respond to 10 common school accidents explain what steps to take. (Author/RK)

Bryer, Judith E.

1978-01-01

354

Electrical accidents in mining (1980-85)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has compiled data on the major causes of fatal and nonfatal electrical accidents relating to mining, and their associated costs, for the 1980-85 period. Specific electrical problem areas were identified, allowing future research to be focused on reducing the number of electrical accidents and injuries are provided. The four mining sectors for which data were

Oyler

1990-01-01

355

MELCOR analyses for accident progression issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of calculations performed with MELCOR and HECTR in support of the NUREG-1150 study are presented in this report. The analyses examined a wide range of issues. The analyses included integral calculations covering an entire accident sequence, as well as calculations that addressed specific issues that could affect several accident sequences. The results of the analyses for Grand Gulf, Peach

S. E. Dingman; C. J. Shaffer; A. C. Payne; M. K. Carmel

1991-01-01

356

MELCOR analysis of the TMI2 accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and

Boucheron

1990-01-01

357

MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the usefulness of reactor accident consequence assessments for providing guidance for planning and decision making is limited by the poor definition of uncertainties in predicted results. The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System has been structured to facilitate performing uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. MACCS incorporates improved modeling capabilities in the treatment of variable or long duration releases, deposition modeling, dosimetry,

D. J. Alpert; D. I. Chanin; J. C. Helton; R. M. Ostmeyer; L. T. Ritchie

1985-01-01

358

Light-water reactor accident classification  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art.

Washburn, B.W.

1980-02-01

359

A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

2006-01-01

360

Childhood accidents, family size and birth order  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between accidents and number of children in the household was assessed in 10,394 children surveyed at ages 5 and 10 years. The analyses suggest that living in a household with 3 or more children during the presschool period increases a child's risk of experiencing accidents that result in hospitalization; and that living in a household with 4 or

Polly E. Bijur; Jean Golding; Matthew Kurzon

1988-01-01

361

Accident risks in nuclear-power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of estimates of nuclear-power plant safety based on probabilistic safety analyses and discusses the means used to decrease core damage factors, large release frequency and cancer deaths due to nuclear accidents. Estimates made for new nuclear power plants show that these risks are negligibly small. The radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident are discussed and

A. Strupczewski

2003-01-01

362

Analysis of accidents during instrument approaches.  

PubMed

General aviation and air taxi approach phase accidents, which occurred during Visual and Instrument Flight Rules (VFR and IFR, respectively) over the last 25 years, were analyzed. The data suggest that there is a 204% higher risk during the approach and landing phase of VFR flights, than during similar IFR operations (14.82 vs. 7.27 accidents/100,000 approaches). Alarmingly, the night single pilot IFR (SPIFR) accident rate is almost 8 times the rate of day IFR, 35.43 vs. 4.47 accidents/100,000 approaches, and two and a half times that of day VFR approaches, 35.43 vs. 14.82 accidents/100,000 approaches. Surprisingly, the overall SPIFR accident rates are not much higher than dual-pilot IFR (DPIFR), 7.27 vs. 6.48 accidents/100,000 approaches. The generally static ratio of the statistics for SPIFR/DPIFR accident rates may be accounted for by little or no change in general aviation cockpit technology during the last 25 years, and because IFR operational flight task management training has not kept pace. PMID:1610333

Bennett, C T; Schwirzke, M

1992-04-01

363

Injury reduction by the airbag in accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today an increasing number of automobiles are being equipped with additional passive safety devices: driver and passenger airbags. To examine the efficiency of the airbag in real road traffic accidents, a collective study was conducted from 181 traumatology centres throughout Germany. The inquiry was answered by 81 per cent of the medical centres contacted. From the evaluation of 122 accident

E. H. Kuner; W. Schlickewei; D. Oltmanns

1996-01-01

364

Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

Caples, Linda Griffin

1992-01-01

365

Understanding the TMI2 accident: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) on March 28, 1979 has had a profound impact on the nuclear power industry despite the fact that the health consequences to the public were insignificant. There is considerable benefit to the nuclear power industry in understanding the progression of this severe core damage accident and its relationship to the very

R. R. Hobbins; J. M. Broughton; C. M. Allison

1986-01-01

366

Use of Accident Experience in Developing Criteria for Teleoperator Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1961 SL-1 reactor accident in Idaho and the Recuplex accident at Hanford are reviewed to identify problems common to emergency situations, lessons learned from accidents, criteria for emergency equipment, and recommendations for using robotics to solv...

E. J. Vallario J. M. Selby

1985-01-01

367

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing...possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

2009-01-01

368

22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17 ...ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons...

2009-04-01

369

22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17 ...ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons...

2010-04-01

370

14 CFR 420.59 - Launch site accident investigation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Launch site accident investigation plan. 420.59 Section 420...59 Launch site accident investigation plan. (a) General. A licensee...implement a launch site accident investigation plan that contains the...

2009-01-01

371

14 CFR 420.59 - Launch site accident investigation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Launch site accident investigation plan. 420.59 Section 420...59 Launch site accident investigation plan. (a) General. A licensee...implement a launch site accident investigation plan that contains the...

2010-01-01

372

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is concerned with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). A UAV\\u000a is a remotely piloted or self-piloted aircraft that can carry a payload\\u000a of cameras, sensors, communications, and electronic warfare equipment. A UAV may carry also a weapon, in which case it is\\u000a called an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV). UCAV\\u000a s are effective attack weapons. Typical missions of UAVs

Alan Washburn; Moshe Kress

373

Industrial Vehicle Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is\\u000a an NP-hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded\\u000a as one of the great successes of OR. Vehicle routing decision support tools provide substantial savings in society every day,

Geir Hasle; Oddvar Kloster

374

Launch Vehicle Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

2005-01-01

375

Vehicle dynamics modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this research was to develop a computer based mathematical model of motor vehicle dynamics. Mainly the tire, suspension and chassis behaviour have been modelled in detail. Other components like engine and drive train are modeled in a very simplified manner. The model provides steer, throttle and brake controls as the means to drive the vehicle.\\u000aDriving instructions can

Satyen Vyas

2008-01-01

376

Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies could provide an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. This analysis, however, does not take credit for the additional barrier and establishes only the total release fractions for bare unconfined intact commercial SNF assemblies, which may be conservatively applied to confined intact commercial I SNF assemblies.

J. Schulz

2004-11-05

377

Space robot simulator vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

1985-01-01

378

Fire vehicle hardening  

SciTech Connect

After attack, the wartime fire fighter faces a harsh environment in which he must operate to perform his mission. Debris, unexploded bombs, and munitions pose hazards that must be overcome. Without modification to the fire-fighting vehicles, there is little assurance that the fire fighter would even be able to reach the locations necessary for performing his mission. Adding armor to the vehicle to protect both the operator and the vehicle from these hazards is the proposed solution. Through a study performed by the BDM Corporation under a subcontract to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., the recommended types, thicknesses, and locations of material necessary to allow the P-19 crash-rescue fire vehicle to survive, with 95% probability, 100 random events using the NATO Standard Fragment Threat Criteria was determined. Using this information, a preliminary design for a prototype hardening kit for the P-19 was developed. In conjunction with this effort, a P-19 was modified by installing attachment points, and mock-up armor was fabricated and fitted to the vehicle to refine the design. The kit design consisted of (1) various mild steel panels that varied in thickness from 0.125 to 0.375 in., (2) Lexan panels for areas that had to be transparent, (3) flexible Kevlar 49 for areas requiring flexibility, and (4) foam-filled tires. The factors considered in the design were the effects on the vehicle, fragment-stopping ability, weight, cost, ability to fabricate, and ease of installation. 40 figs.

Horner, L.G.

1988-11-01

379

The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a description of The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal. The Information Portal was created by the Idaho National Laboratory as part of joint NRC and DOE project to assess the severe accident modeling capability of the MELCOR analysis code. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal was created to collect, store, retrieve and validate information and data for use in reconstructing the Fukushima Daiichi accident. In addition to supporting the MELCOR simulations, the Portal will be the main DOE repository for all data, studies and reports related to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. The data is stored in a secured (password protected and encrypted) repository that is searchable and accessible to researchers at diverse locations.

Shawn St. Germain; Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan

2012-11-01

380

Ethnic differences in accident rates at work.  

PubMed Central

The accidents at work of 4482 employees in a car engine machining and assembly plant in south east England were studied retrospectively over a 12 month period. The study population was composed of Asian (22%), white (66%), and West Indian employees (12%). The crude accident rates differed among the groups, the means being Asians 1.58, white 1.23, and West Indians 1.28. There was, however, no consistent ethnic difference after adjustment for other factors such as age, type of job, and duration of service. Accident rates were higher in those employees who were younger, newly employed, and in production jobs. The findings of this research imply that accident prevention programmes should be directed to those factors known to relate to accidents and not to any specific ethnic group.

Baker, C C

1987-01-01

381

Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

382

Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

1981-01-01

383

49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section... PRODUCTION OF RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 837.3...investigation dockets, and accident database data. (a) Demands for...or its computerized accident database(s) shall be...

2010-10-01

384

49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section... PRODUCTION OF RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 837.3...investigation dockets, and accident database data. (a) Demands for...or its computerized accident database(s) shall be...

2009-10-01

385

A General Vehicle Routing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study a rich vehicle routing problem incorporating various complexities found in real-life applications. The General Vehicle Routing Problem (GVRP) is a combined load acceptance and generalised vehicle routing problem. Among the real-life requirements are time window restrictions, a heterogeneous vehicle fleet with different travel times, travel costs and capacity, multi-dimensional capacity constraints, order\\/vehicle compatibility constraints, orders

Asvin Goel; Volker Gruhn

2008-01-01

386

[Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents].  

PubMed

Radioactive iodine isotopes may be released to air to a varying degree during accidents with nuclear reactors. Iodine tablets, taken before or shortly after such release, protect against intake of radioactive iodine isotopes, but not against other radionuclides. Iodine prophylaxis can be a relevant countermeasure in Norway and will be implemented according to recommendations from the Crisis Committee for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. The Chernobyl accident confirmed that the risk for radiogenic thyroid cancer is much higher for foetuses and children and adolescents under 18 years. An epidemiological study showed that intake of iodine tablets could reduce the risk for thyroid cancer by a factor of three. For children, the WHO has therefore recommended a 10 mGy avertable dose to the thyroid. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority acknowledge the WHO guidelines and advise that the first priority of all emergency preparedness planning for potential releases that can cause dispersion of radioactive iodine, should be given to the protection of pregnant and breast-feeding women, newborns and children under 18 years. Iodine tablets should be taken immediately (preferably not later than a few hours) in situations where inhalation of radioactive iodine may occur. It should be underlined that iodine prophylaxis is one of several emergency countermeasures; other measures are sheltering and evacuation. The latter two countermeasures will protect not only from intake of radioactive iodine, but also against other radionuclides that may be released. Based on the present risk assessment in Norway, iodine tablets have been distributed to the counties north of Salten. In addition, there is an emergency stockpile of iodine tablets in Oslo. PMID:17205086

Jaworska, Alicja

2007-01-01

387

What can the drivers' own description from combined sources provide in an analysis of driver distraction and low vigilance in accident situations?  

PubMed

Accident data play an important role in vehicle safety development. Accident data sources are generally limited in terms of how much information is provided on driver states and behaviour prior to an accident. However, the precise limitations vary between databases, due to differences in analysis focus and data collection procedures between organisations. If information about a specific accident can be retrieved from more than one data source it should be possible to combine the available information sets to facilitate data from one source to compensate for limitations in the other(s). To investigate the viability of such compensation, this study identified a set of accidents recorded in two different data sources. The first data source investigated was an accident mail survey and the second data source insurance claims documents consisting predominantly of insurance claims completed by the involved road users. An analysis of survey variables was compared to a case analysis including word data derived from the same survey and filed insurance claims documents. For each accident, the added value of having access to more than one source of information was assessed. To limit the scope of this study, three particular topics were investigated: available information on low vigilance (e.g., being drowsy, ill); secondary task distraction (e.g., talking with passengers, mobile phone use); and distraction related to the driving task (e.g., looking for approaching vehicles). Results suggest that for low vigilance and secondary task distraction, a combination of the mail survey and insurance claims documents provide more reliable and detailed pre-crash information than survey variables alone. However, driving related distraction appears to be more difficult to capture. In order to gain a better understanding of the above issues and how frequently they occur in accidents, the data sources and analysis methods suggested here may be combined with other investigation methods such as in-depth accident investigations and pre-crash data recordings. PMID:23314359

Tivesten, Emma; Wiberg, Henrik

2013-03-01

388

[A study on fall accident].  

PubMed

The study was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996 at the one general hospital in Seoul. The total subjects of this study were 412 patients who have the experience of fall accident, among them 31 was who have fallen during hospitalization and 381 was who visited emergency room and out patient clinic. The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics, risk factors and results of fall accident and to suggest the nursing strategies for prevention of fall. Data were collected by reviewing the medical records and interviewing with the fallers and their family members. For data analysis spss/pc+ program was utilized for descriptive statistics, adjusted standardized X2-test. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Total subjects were 412 fallers, of which 245 (59.5%) were men and 167 (40.5%) were women. Age were 0-14 years 79 (19.2%), 15-44 years 125 (30.4%), 45-64 years 104 (25.2%), over 65 years 104 (25.2%). 2) There was significant association between age and the sexes (X2 = 39.17, P = 0.00). 3) There was significant association between age and history of falls (X2 = 44.41, P = .00). And history of falls in the elderly was significantly associated with falls. 4) There was significant association with age and medical diagnosis (X2 = 140.66, P = .00), chief medical diagnosis were hypertension (34), diabetes mellitus (22), arthritis (11), stroke (8), fracture (7), pulmonary tuberculosis (6), dementia (5) and cataract (5). 5) There was significant association between age and intrinsic factors: cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, insomnia, emotional problems, urinary difficulty, visual impairments, hearing impairments, use of drugs (sedatives, antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, antidepressants) (P < 0.05). But there was no significant association between age and dizziness (X2 = 2.87, P = .41). 6) 15.3% of total fallers were drunken state when they were fallen. 7) Environmental factors of fall accident were unusual posture (50.9%), slips (35.2%), trips (9.5%) and collision (4.4%). 8) Most of falls occurred during the day time, peak frequencies of falls occurred from 1 pm to 6 pm and 7 am to 12 am. 9) The places of fall accident were roads (22.6%), house-stairs (16.7%), rooms, floors, kitchen (11.2%), the roof-top, veranda, windows (10.9%), hospital (7.5%), ice or snowy ways (5.8%), bathroom (4.9%), playground, park (4.9%), subway-stairs (4.4%) and public-bathrooms (2.2%). 10) Activities at the time of fall accident were walking (37.6%), turning around or reaching for something (20.9%), going up or down stairs (19.2%), exercise, working (17.4%), up or down from a bed (2.7%), using wheelchair or walking aids, standing up or down from a chair (2.2%) and standing still (2.2%). 11) Anatomical locations of injuries by falls were head, face, neck (31.3%), lower extremities (29.9%), upper extremities (20.6%), spine, thorax, abdomen or pelvic contents (11.4%) and unspecified (2.9%). 12) Types of injures were fracture (47.6%), bruises (13.8%), laceration (13.3%), sprains (9.0%), headache (6.6%), abrasions (2.9%), intracranial hemorhage (2.4%) and burns (0.5%). 13) 41.5% of the fallers were hospitalized and average of hospitalization was 22.3 days. 14) The six fallers (1.46%) died from fall injuries. The two fallers died from intracranial hemorhage and the four fallers died of secondary infection; pneumonia (2), sepsis (1) and cellulitis (1). It is suggested that 1) Further study is needed with larger sample size to identify the fall risk factors. 2) After the fall accident, comprehensive nursing care and regular physical exercise should be emphasized for the elderly person. 3) Safety education and safety facilities of the public place and home is necessary for fall prevention. PMID:10437605

Lee, H S; Kim, M J

1997-01-01

389

Behavioural accident avoidance science: understanding response in collision incipient conditions.  

PubMed

Road traffic accidents are the single greatest cause of fatality in the workplace and the primary cause of all accidental death in the US to the age of 78. However, behavioural analysis of response in the final seconds and milliseconds before collision has been a most difficult proposition since the quantitative recording of such events has largely been beyond cost feasibility for road transportation. Here, a new and innovative research strategy is reported that permits just such a form of investigation to be conducted in a safe and effective manner. Specifically, a linked simulation environment has been constructed in which drivers are physically located in two adjacent, full-vehicle simulators acting within a shared single virtual driving world. As reported here for the first time, this innovative technology creates situations that provide avoidance responses paralleling those observed in real-world conditions. Within this shared virtual world 46 participants (25 female, 21 male) were tested who met in two ambiguous traffic situations: an intersection and a hill scenario. At the intersection the two drivers approached each other at an angle of 135 degrees and buildings placed at the intersection blocked the view of both drivers from early detection of the opposing vehicle. The second condition represented a 'wrong' way conflict. Each driver proceeded along a three-lane highway from opposite directions. A hill impeded the oncoming view of each driver who only saw the conflicting vehicle briefly as it crested the brow of the hill. Driver avoidance responses of steering wheel, brake, and accelerator activation were recorded to the nearest millisecond. Qualitative results were obtained through a post-experience questionnaire in which participants were asked about their driving habits, simulator experience and their particular response to the experimental events which they had encountered. The results indicated that: (1) situations have been created which provided avoidance responses as they have been recorded in real-world circumstances, (2) the recorded avoidance responses depended directly upon viewing times, and (3) the very short viewing times in this experiment resulted in a single avoidance action, largely represented by a random choice of swerve to either right or left. The present results lead us to posit that in order to be able to design accident avoidance mechanism that respond appropriately in the diverse situations encountered, there is a need to pay particular attention to mutual viewing times for drivers. The general implications for a behavioural science of collision-avoidance are evaluated in light of the present findings. PMID:12933076

Hancock, P A; de Ridder, S N

2003-10-10

390

Micro-simulation of vehicle conflicts involving right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections based on cellular automata.  

PubMed

At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies. PMID:24275720

Chai, C; Wong, Y D

2014-02-01

391

An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

1975-01-01

392

Childhood accidents: epidemiology, trends, and prevention.  

PubMed Central

Accidents are the most common cause of death in children over one year of age. Prevention remains a high priority. We have reviewed the current epidemiology of childhood accidents and their prevention, and made recommendations for the future. In 1992, 559 children died in United Kingdom as a result of an accidents--240 from road traffic accidents and 100 from burns and scalds. Every year 50 children drown. Accidents cause significant disability to children. Many children, up to one in four of the population in urban areas, attend accident and emergency departments, and 5-10% of these are admitted to hospital. Accident risk factors include low social class, psychosocial stress, an unsafe environment, and child developmental disorders. Research has shown that prevention is best achieved by making the child's environment safer, often through legislation. Insufficient resources have been put into both research into childhood injuries and preventive work in communities. Collaboration between health authorities, NHS trusts, local authorities and community networks is vital if success is to be achieved. A national safety agenda for children would focus the attention that this problem deserves.

Kemp, A; Sibert, J

1997-01-01

393

Methylotroph cloning vehicle  

DOEpatents

A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

Hanson, Richard S. (Deephaven, MN); Allen, Larry N. (Excelsior, MN)

1989-04-25

394

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

Kim, Hyun Dae

2010-01-01

395

Issues of in-vehicle ITS information management  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents issues associated with the introduction into road vehicles of multiple information sources related to the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Also, an argument is made for an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) to manage messages from the associated Intelligent Transportation System Services, as well as other information to be presented to the driver. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and all the information sources, including both input from and information display to the driver. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, collision avoidance warning systems, yellow pages, can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. However, introduction of an IVIS raises a number of issues which relate to things such as proprietary messages, message prioritization across devices from different manufacturers, and safe access to the vehicle manufacturer`s proprietary data bus. These issues are the focus of this paper. Sections 1 and 2 of this paper present short summarizes of the efforts in a variety of areas related to in-vehicle information systems. In the first two sections, a summary of two Department of Transportation (DOT) initiatives is followed by a description of US standards development efforts. Next is a brief consideration of institutional, jurisdictional and legal issues associated with in-vehicle systems and the accompanying infrastructure. Section 3 of the paper is devoted to systems integration and driver interface engineering issues.

Spelt, P.F.

1997-12-01

396

MADYMO simulation of children in cycle accidents: a novel approach in risk assessment.  

PubMed

Head injuries are a significant cause of death and injury to child cyclists both on and off the road. Current evaluations of the effectiveness of cycle helmets rely on simplified mechanical testing or the analysis of aggregated accident statistics. This paper presents a direct evaluation of helmet efficacy by using computational modelling to simulate a range of realistic accident scenarios, including loss of control, collision with static objects and vehicle impact. A 6-year-old cyclist was modelled (as a Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy), in addition to a typical children's bicycle and a vehicle using the MADYMO dynamics software package. Simulations were performed using ranges of cyclist position, cycle speed and vehicle speed with and without a helmet that meets current standards. Wearing a cycle helmet was found to reduce the probability of head injuries, reducing the average probability of fatality over the scenarios studied from 40% to 0.3%. Similarly, helmet wearing reduced the probability of neck injuries (average probability of fatality reduced from 11% to 1%). There was no evidence that helmet wearing increased the severity of brain or neck injuries caused by rotational accelerations; in fact these were slightly reduced. Similarly, there was no evidence that increased cycling speed, such as might result from helmet related risk compensation, increased the probability of head injury. PMID:23954681

McNally, D S; Rosenberg, N M

2013-10-01

397

General purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generator. Book 2: Accident analysis, appendices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose is to document the accident scenarios and failure probabilities defined by NASA for the Space Transportation System (the Shuttle Data Book NSTS-08116 and supporting documentation) and used in the Ulysses Mission Safety Status Report (SSR). NASA utilized a systematic approach to identify the credible accident scenarios that might pose a threat to the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). First, the Shuttle system was divided into the following seven elements: (1) Launch Support Equipment (LSE); (2) Payload; (3) Orbiter; (4) External Tank (ET); (5) Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB); (6) Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME); and (7) Range Safety System (RSS). Each element was further divided into its major components, and these components were then subdivided until all known failure modes were identified. The approach used to develop the different accident scenarios was to divide the mission into phases and subphases as necessary. The phases were keyed to specific events that resulted in significant changes in vehicle configuration and/or in the potential consequences to the RTG. After the phases were defined, the accident scenarios for each phase were analyzed by developing detailed fault trees for each of the seven major systems as applicable.

1990-01-01

398

1995 Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program results  

SciTech Connect

The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program involves the systematic review and evaluation of operational events that have occurred at light-water reactors to identify and categorize precursors to potential severe core damage accident sequences. The results of the ASP Program are published in an annual report. The most recent report, which contains the precursors for 1995, is NUREG/CR-4674, Volume 23, Precursors to Potential Severe Core Damage Accidents: 1995, A Status Report, published in April 1997. This article provides an overview of the ASP review and evaluation process and a summary of the results for 1995.

Muhlheim, M.D.; Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); O`Reilly, P.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-01-01

399

Warning: accident at Three Mile Island  

SciTech Connect

A reporter and an engineer reconstruct the events leading up to and following the March, 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island Reactor Number Two. They begin with the compromises and work pace required in designing, siting, and building a nuclear reactor and the warnings from incidents involving other reactors. The authors give a chronological report of the events and responses during the days following the accident. They view Three Mile Island as a warning that all the safety systems may not work in a future accident. 7 figures. (DCK)

Gray, M.; Rosen, I.

1982-01-01

400

Mine accident liabilities: a Pandora's box  

SciTech Connect

Mine accidents continue to occur despite countless thousands of man-hours devoted to their prevention by company safety professionals, operational personnel and federal and state regulators. They occur because mining is conducted in a hostile environment where there is little margin for error. This article discusses the potential liabilities following a mine accident, including employee or survivor claims, suits by non-employees affected by the accident, losses of production and mining equipment, exposure of the company to federal and state-imposed mine closure, and exposure of the company and its supervisory employees to civil or criminal penalties for violation of federal and state mining laws.

Biddle, T.M.

1985-10-01

401

Hypoglycaemia and accident risk in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with non-insulin antidiabetes drugs  

PubMed Central

Aims To assess associations between hypoglycaemia and risk of accidents resulting in hospital visits among people with type 2 diabetes receiving antidiabetes drugs without insulin. Methods People with type 2 diabetes who were not treated with insulin were identified from a US-based employer claims database (1998–2010). Following initiation of an antidiabetes drug, the occurrence of accidents resulting in hospital visits was compared between people with, and without, claims for hypoglycaemia using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, prior treatments and prior medical service use. Additional analyses were stratified by age 65 years or older. Results A total of N = 5582 people with claims for hypoglycaemia and N = 27 910 with no such claims were included. Accidents resulting in hospital visits occurred in 5.5 and 2.8% of people with, and without, hypoglycaemia, respectively. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, hypoglycaemia was associated with significantly increased hazards for any accident [hazard ratio (HR) 1.39, 95% CI 1.21–1.59, p < 0.001], accidental falls (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13–1.65, p < 0.001) and motor vehicle accidents (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.18–2.80, p = 0.007). In age-stratified analyses, hypoglycaemia was associated with greater hazards of driving-related accidents in people younger than age 65 and falls in people aged 65 or older. Conclusions In people with type 2 diabetes receiving antidiabetes drugs without insulin, hypoglycaemia was associated with a significantly higher risk of accidents resulting in hospital visits, including accidents related to driving and falls.

Signorovitch, J E; Macaulay, D; Diener, M; Yan, Y; Wu, E Q; Gruenberger, J-B; Frier, B M

2013-01-01

402

Globalization in road safety: explaining the downward trend in road accident rates in a single country (Israel).  

PubMed

A theoretical model is proposed in which road safety in a single country depends upon parochial considerations, such as police enforcement, and upon global considerations, such as international road safety technology. We show that there is a non-spurious relationship between the downward trend in the rate of road accidents in Israel and the road accident rate abroad. We suggest that this reflects the international propagation of road safety technology as it is embodied in motor vehicles and road design, rather than parochial road safety policy. Recent developments in the econometric analysis of time series are used to estimate the model using data for Israel. We make no direct attempt to explain the downward trend in the rate of road accidents outside Israel. PMID:10576678

Beenstock, M; Gafni, D

2000-01-01

403

The influence of economic incentives linked to road safety indicators on accidents: the case of toll concessions in Spain.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to evaluate whether the incentives incorporated in toll highway concession contracts in order to encourage private operators to adopt measures to reduce accidents are actually effective at improving safety. To this end, we implemented negative binomial regression models using information about highway characteristics and accident data from toll highway concessions in Spain from 2007 to 2009. Our results show that even though road safety is highly influenced by variables that are not managed by the contractor, such as the annual average daily traffic (AADT), the percentage of heavy vehicles on the highway, number of lanes, number of intersections and average speed; the implementation of these incentives has a positive influence on the reduction of accidents and injuries. Consequently, this measure seems to be an effective way of improving safety performance in road networks. PMID:23954687

Rangel, Thais; Vassallo, José Manuel; Herraiz, Israel

2013-10-01

404

Assured Crew Return Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

1991-01-01

405

An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

Evans, Joni K.

2007-01-01

406

Conestoga launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several major applications for commercial and government markets have developed recently which will make use of small satellites. A launch vehicle designed specifically for small satellites brings many attendant benefits. Space Services Incorporated has developed the Conestoga family of launch vehicles to meet the needs of five major markets: low orbiting communication satellites, positioning satellites, earth sensing satellites, space manufacturing prototypes, and scientific experiments. The Conestoga provides low cost, rapid schedules, one-stop shopping, flexible launch sites, multiple satellite deployments, insurability, reliability, and modularity.

Daniels, Mark H.; Davidson, James E.

407

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

408

Vehicle Dynamics and Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction estimation. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics.

Rajamani, Rajesh

409

Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009.  

PubMed

Several studies have investigated road traffic deaths, but few have compared by road user type. Iran, with an estimated 44 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in 2002 had higher road traffic deaths than any other country for which reliable estimates can be made. So, the present study was conducted on road death data and identified fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury as well as the influences of age and gender on deaths at accident scenes for all road user groups. Data used in this study are on fatal road accidents recorded by forensic medicine experts of the Khorasan Razavi province in Mashhad, the capital of the province, the second largest city and the largest place of pilgrimage, immigration and tourism in Iran. Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to identify the relation of death place with age and gender in 2495 fatal road accidents from 2006 to 2009. The t-test and analysis of variance were employed for continues variable, age, to compare males' and females' mean age for all road user categories. For two genders, all three groups of fatalities (pedestrian, motorcyclist and motor vehicle occupant) had a peak at the ages of 21-30. The youngest were male motorcyclists (mean age = 28). Old pedestrians were included in road deaths very much, too. Male/female overall ratio was 3.41 and the highest male/female ratio was related to motorcyclists (14). The overall ratio of head injury to other organ injuries (torso and underbody) was 2.51 and pedestrians had the largest amount of head injury (38.2%). Regarding death at accident scene, for all road users, gender did not have any significant relation with death at the scene (P-value > 0.1); on the contrary, age had significant relation (P-value < 0.05). Females were more vulnerable at accident scenes (male/female ratio at accident sense < 1). Pedestrians aged 21-30, motorcyclists 41-50 and motor vehicle occupants 31-40 died the most at accident scenes. Identifying the most endangered groups of road accident fatalities, which was conducted in this study, is invaluable for the appropriate design of prevention strategies and allocation of financial resources for each group of road user fatalities - since in developing nations, there are insufficient financial resources to traffic safety and we should consider superiorities, i.e. the most risky groups. Steps which may contribute to safety promotion for local conditions include suitable facilities for old pedestrians, a training course before obtaining motorcycle license for motorcyclists, informing young road users by provincial media about death risk of road users and improving management of the head-injured patients. Finally, suggestions for future researches were made. PMID:22681408

Zangooei Dovom, Hossein; Shafahi, Yousef; Zangooei Dovom, Mehdi

2013-01-01

410

Side Impact Fixed-Pole Crash Testing of the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Modified Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of car-to-fixed pole crash tests was performed. The test vehicles were 2-door Volkswagen Rabbits. Three crashes were performed to select a test condition which represented a serious-to-fatal chest injury producing highway accident. The fourth cra...

D. T. Willke M. W. Monk

1985-01-01

411

Development of a Collision Warning System for Adaptive Cruise Control Vehicles Using a Comparison Analysis of Recent Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new collision warning (CW) algorithm for rear-end collisions. Considering the large number of traffic accidents that result due to driver errors or situations that are unpredictable for the driver, many CW Algorithms were developed in the past years. However, these algorithms did not adequately take into account vehicles with an adaptive cruise control (ACC) System. This

Oncil Ararat; E. Kural; B. A. Guvenc

2006-01-01

412

Shuttle accident stalls science plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans to make 1986 a uniquely productive year for U.S. space science activities ended in one horrible moment with the January 28, 1986, explosion of the space shuttle Challenger. The joyless scene at Cape Canaveral, Fla., stood in sharp contrast to the overwhelming success of Voyager 2 in its encounter with Uranus 4 days earlier. (Scientific details of that encounter will follow in upcoming issues of Eos.)Of the 15 space shuttle flights planned for fiscal year 1986, beginning October 1, 1985, a total of seven were to have carried scientific payloads for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The remaining eight flights were evenly divided between missions for the U.S. Department of Defense and commercial missions for NASA's paying customers. The explosion caused NASA to put its entire space shuttle program on hold to allow time for engineers to find the cause of the accident and for NASA to implement corrective measures. As Eos went to press, NASA acting administrator William R. Graham had not yet released the names of those who would serve on the formal investigative panel. “I think everybody's agreed that it will take weeks to months to unravel,” said Alexander Dessler, director of the space science laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center near Huntsville, Ala. Dessler speculated that investigators would begin with a list of hundreds of possible causes for the explosion.

Katzoff, Judith A.

413

Structural assessment of accident loads  

SciTech Connect

Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-28

414

Loss of Coolant Accident Testing Round Robin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A loss of coolant accident (LOCA) round robin test program was conducted to evaluate experimental variations and experimental practices associated with the post quench ductility and breakaway oxidation testing techniques. A common set of high level parame...

B. Dunn D. Lutz D. J. Park E. Perez-Fero H. K. Yueh M. LeSaux R. J. Comstock Y. Yan Y. P. Lin

2013-01-01

415

Ethical considerations in accident and emergency research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the third paper on research in accident and emergency medicine. It discusses the ethical issues in emergency medicine with particular regard to informed consent and the privacy of subjects and patients.

P A Nee; R D Griffiths

2002-01-01

416

Aircraft Accidents Investigation and Prevention: Selected References.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The listing of references was compiled at the request of the Transportation Safety Institute, Aeronautical Center. It up-dates the Library's Bibliographic List No. 1 of aircraft accident references dated January, 1964. Indexes and bibliographic lists thro...

1971-01-01

417

MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Boucheron, E.A.

1990-01-01

418

Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Six.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the course of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board conducted a series of public hearings at Houston, Texas; Cape Canaveral, Florida; and Washington, DC. Testimony fro...

D. W. Deal G. S. Hubbard H. W. Gehmann J. L. Barry J. M. Logsdon J. N. Hallock K. W. Hess R. E. Tetrault S. A. Turcotte S. B. Wallace S. E. Widnall S. K. Ride

2003-01-01

419

Review of models applicable to accident aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

Glissmeyer, J.A.

1983-07-01

420

Historical Survey Of Flight-Testing Accidents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents study of flight-testing accidents, with emphasis on limitations imposed by human factors. Covers history of flight testing from early lighter-than-air craft (including balloons) to vertical take-off airplanes to space shuttle.

Anderson, Seth B.

1995-01-01

421

Severe Accident Testing of Electrical Penetration Assemblies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests of three different full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) were conducted to evaluate their behavior under severe accident conditions that were simulated using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable in...

D. B. Clauss

1989-01-01

422

Texas Skid Initiated Accident Reduction Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the conception, design and implementation of the Texas Skid Accident Reduction Program. The primary objective was to develop a system which would help each District identify highway segments that are over-represented in wet weather acc...

D. L. Ivey L. I. Griffin J. R. Lock D. L. Bullard

1992-01-01

423

Abnormal Glucose Levels Found in Transportation Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) is responsible for the certification of pilots with diabetic conditions. Therefore, it is essential for OAM to monitor pilots involved in fatal accidents for abnormal glucose levels, ...

D. V. Canfield A. K. Chaturvedi H. K. Boren S. J. H. Veronneau V. L. White

2000-01-01

424

Oranges and Peaches: Understanding Communication Accidents in the Reference Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarians often have communication "accidents" with reference questions as initially presented. This article presents linguistic analysis of query categories, including: simple failures of hearing, accidents involving pronunciation or homophones, accidents where users repeat earlier misinterpretations to librarians, and accidents where users…

Dewdney, Patricia; Michell, Gillian

1996-01-01

425

PNNL Results from 2010 CALIBAN Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports the results of the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on September 20-23, 2010. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique (CEA) Valduc Center near Dijon, France

Robin L. Hill; Matthew M. Conrady

2011-01-01

426

Accident proneness among street car motormen and motor coach operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident records of 59 trolley car motormen and 34 motor coach operators were studied over a period of 18 months. The correlation coefficients between various types of accidents are small. Therefore, the theory that accident proneness is a general trait of an individual is not substantiated since a high rate of accidents of one kind does not indicate necessarily

Clarence W. Brown; Edwin E. Ghiselli

1948-01-01

427

Technologies of Millimeter-Wave Road-Vehicle Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years interest in ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) technology has been growing, because it is thought that ITS can solve problems such as traffic jams and traffic accidents. Communication between roadside base stations and vehicles is a critical element of an ITS. In this paper, we describe the road-vehicle communication (RVC) system using ROF technology and software radio. These systems can realize multimode service and high speed data transmission. We developed RVC system using ROF technology which can transmit three kind of services (ETC, PHS, BS) simultaneously. The software radio with small size for mobile terminal is also developed. The overview of these systems is shown. In addition, activities of YRP (Yokosuka Research Park) ITS Joint Research Group are shown.

Sato, Katsuyoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kojima, Fumihide; Fujise, Masayuki

2001-12-01

428

Environmental measurements during the TMI-2 accident  

SciTech Connect

Although the environmental consequences of the TMI accident were relatively insignificant, it was a major test of the ability of the involved state and federal radiological agencies to make a coordinated environmental monitoring response. This was accomplished largely on an ad hoc basis under the leadership of DOE. With some fine tuning, it is the basis for today's integrated FRMAP monitoring plan, which would be put into operation should another major accident occur at a US nuclear facility.

Hull, A.P.

1988-01-01

429

Core loss during a severe accident (COLOSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core loss during a severe accident (COLOSS) project is a 3-year shared-cost action which started in February 2000. The project is concerned with the consequences that core degradation, occurring under severe accident conditions, may have on H2 production, melt generation and the source term. Unresolved in-vessel risk-relevant issues are studied, through a large number of experiments such as (a)

B Adroguer; P Chatelard; J. P Van Dorsselaere; C Duriez; N Cocuaud; L Bellenfant; D Bottomley; V Vrtilkova; K Mueller; W Hering; C Homann; W Krauss; A Miassoedov; M Steinbrück; J Stuckert; Z Hozer; G Bandini; J Birchley; T. v Berlepsch; M Buck; J. A. F Benitez; E Virtanen; S Marguet; G Azarian; H Plank; M Veshchunov; Y Zvonarev; A Goryachev

2003-01-01

430

Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents  

SciTech Connect

This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab.

Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

1987-01-01

431

Delay in ambulance dispatch to road accidents.  

PubMed

When a road accident occurs, the police communications officer, or 911 operator, generally receives the first call. If the caller reports injuries, the emergency medical services dispatcher is notified immediately; but if the caller is uncertain of injuries, the operator may wait. Most often an ambulance is not needed. However, in nearly 20% of fatal road accidents in Missouri, waiting for confirmation of need resulted in a delay of 5 minutes or more in the dispatch of an ambulance. PMID:1585968

Brodsky, H

1992-06-01

432

Inter-vehicle communication: technical issues on vehicle control application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual exchange of status data between vehicles in close proximity is the basis for safe vehicle operation. Application areas range from driver assistance\\/warning to fully autonomous driving. To enable this data exchange we need an intervehicle communication (IVC) system. Vehicles involved in mutual data exchange form a kind of local area network; however, the characteristics of this network are quite

M. Aoki; H. Fujii

1996-01-01

433

The effects of welfare vehicle asset rules on vehicle assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1996, households were typically ineligible for welfare if they had assets worth more than $1000, where $1500 from each vehicle's value was excluded from this determination. However, the 1996 welfare reform act began allowing states to increase their asset limits and vehicle exclusions. This may prompt low-income households to reallocate resources to or from vehicles. We examine the effects

Mark F. Owens; Charles L. Baum

2012-01-01

434

The effects of welfare vehicle asset rules on vehicle assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1996, households were typically ineligible for welfare if they had assets worth more than $1000, where $1500 from each vehicle's value was excluded from this determination. However, the 1996 welfare reform act began allowing states to increase their asset limits and vehicle exclusions. This may prompt low-income households to reallocate resources to or from vehicles. We examine the effects

Mark F. Owens; Charles L. Baum

2011-01-01

435

Vehicle dynamics and external disturbance estimation for vehicle path prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the onboard prediction of a motor vehicle's path to help enable a variety of emerging functions in autonomous vehicle control and active safety systems. It is shown in simulation that good accuracy of path prediction is achieved using numerical integration of a linearized two degree of freedom vehicle handling model. To improve performance, a steady-state Kalman filter

Chiu-Feng Lin; A. Galip Ulsoy; David J. LeBlanc

2000-01-01

436

Energy loss in vehicle to vehicle oblique impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the seventies, many methodologies have been developed for estimating from energy loss the delta V produced in a vehicle to vehicle impact. Normal energy loss, is calculated by a discrete number of residual crush measurements in the direction parallel to the vehicle's axis, using the stiffness coefficients. In the case of oblique impact, a correction factor is applied to

Dario Vangi

2009-01-01

437

Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.  

PubMed Central

The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise).

Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

1999-01-01

438

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric a...

S. Sluder R. Larsen M. Duoba

1996-01-01

439

Rail Vehicle Dynamics Model Validation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The validation of mathematical models of rail vehicle dynamics using test data poses a number of difficult problems, which are addressed in this report. Previous attempts to validate rail vehicle models are reviewed critically, and experience gained in va...

S. E. Shladover R. L. Hull

1981-01-01

440

TARDEC's Vehicle Electronics & Architecture Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VEA Vision Statement: VEA will be the first choice to technology and engineering expertise for vehicle electronics integration, research and application--today and tomorrow. VEA Mission Statement: VEA develops, integrates, and sustains the right vehicle e...

C. Ostrowski N. Williams

2010-01-01

441

Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

Braswell, Robert; And Others

442

Lunar transfer vehicle studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar transportation architectures exist for several different mission scenarios. Direct flights from Earth are possible, as the Apollo program clearly demonstrated. Alternatively, a space transfer vehicle could be constructed in space by using the Space Station as a base of operations, or multiple vehicles could be launched from Earth and dock in LEO without using a space station for support. Similarly, returning personnel could proceed directly to Earth or rendezvous at the Space Station for a ride back home on the Space Shuttle. Multiple design concepts exist which are compatible with these scenarios and which can support requirements of cargo, personnel, and mission objectives. Regardless of the ultimate mission selected, some technologies will certainly play a key role in the design and operation of advanced lunar transfer vehicles. Current technologies are capable of delivering astronauts to the lunar surface, but improvements are needed to affordably transfer the material and equipment that will be needed for establishing a lunar base. Materials and structures advances, in particular, will enable the development of more capable cryogenic fluid management and propulsion systems, improved structures, and more efficient vehicle assembly, servicing and processing.

Keeley, Joseph T.

1993-02-01

443

General Vehicle Dynamic Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two computer programs were developed to calculate the three-dimensional dynamics of a rigid high-speed ground-vehicle supported vertically and laterally by an arbitrary number of suspensions and excited by arbitrary inputs (acting on the suspensions or on...

I. L. Paul H. Sankaran J. J. Jackson

1966-01-01

444

Battery for vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

Uehara, M.

1984-04-24

445

Lunar Roving Vehicle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will construct a model of a lunar roving vehicle. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

446

Urban Vehicle Research Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project's main goal of high energy efficiency in a four-passenger vehicle was approached from two directions. (1) Try a hybrid electric drive system with the stationary internal combustion engine powered by locally produced alcohol and compare its con...

W. C. Carl

1984-01-01

447

Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided

Juan Carlos Gomez; Ephrahim Garcia

2011-01-01

448

Recreational Vehicle Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

Felice, Michael

449

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

2007-01-01

450

Platoons of underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have presented a decentralized control design methodology for regulating global functions of cooperating mobile systems. The application of relatively standard system-theoretic tools, leads to a novel broadcast-only communication structure. The feedback mechanism between vehicles is the measurement of the global variables and broadcast of their integrated values. More generally, the methods presented allow the designer to determine what explicit

Daniel J. Stilwell; Bradley E. Bishop

2000-01-01

451

Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

452

Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

453

Heavy Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

2000-04-11

454

Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

Conover, R. A.

1985-01-01

455

A study of bicyclist kinematics and injuries based on reconstruction of passenger car-bicycle accident in China.  

PubMed

Like pedestrians, bicyclists are vulnerable road users, representing a population with a high risk of fatal and severe injuries in traffic accidents as they are unprotected during vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to investigate the kinematics response of bicyclists and the correlation of the injury severity with vehicle impact speed. Twenty-four car-bicyclist cases with detailed information were selected for accident reconstruction using mathematical models, which was implemented in the MADYMO program. The dynamic response of bicyclists in the typical impact configuration and the correlation of head impact conditions were analyzed and discussed with respect to the head impact speed, time of head impact and impact angle of bicyclists to vehicle impact speed. Furthermore, the injury distribution of bicyclists and the risk of head injuries and fractures of lower limbs were investigated in terms of vehicle impact speed. The results indicate that wrap-around distance (WAD), head impact speed, time of head impact, head impact angle, and throw-out distance (TOD) of the bicyclists have a strong relationship with vehicle impact speed. The vehicle impact speed corresponding to a 50% probability of head AIS 2+ injuries, head AIS 3+ injuries, and lower limb fracture risk for bicyclists is 53.8km/h, 58.9km/h, and 41.2km/h, respectively. A higher vehicle impact speed produces a higher injury risk to bicyclist. The results could provide background knowledge for the establishment or modification of pedestrian regulations considering bicyclist protection as well as being helpful for developing safety measures and protection devices for bicyclists. PMID:24880929

Nie, Jin; Yang, Jikuang

2014-10-01

456

Sizing of scramjet vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current European project LAPCAT II has the ambitious goal to define a conceptual vehicle capable of achieving the antipodal range Brussels-Sydney (~18,000 km) in about 2 h at Mach number Ma = 8. At this high speed, the requirement of high lift to drag (L/D) ratio is critical to high performance, because of high skin friction and wave drag: in fact, as the Mach number increases, the L/D ratio decreases. The design of the vehicle architecture (shape and propulsion system) is, as a consequence, crucial to achieve a reasonably high L/D. In this work, critical parameters for the preliminary sizing of a hypersonic airbreathing airliner have been identified. In particular, for a given Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and mission requirements, a solution space of possible vehicle architectures at cruise have been obtained. In this work, the Gross Weight at Take-Off (TOGW) was deliberately discarded as a constraint, based on previous studies by Czysz and Vanderkerkhove [1]. Typically, limiting from the beginning, the TOGW leads to a vicious spiral where weight and propulsion system requirements keep growing, eventually denying convergence. In designing passenger airliners, in fact, it is the payload that is assumed fixed from the start, not the total weight. In order to screen the solutions found, requirements for taking-off (TO) and landing as well as the trajectory have been accounted for. A consistent solution has finally been obtained by imposing typical airliner constraints: emergency take-off and landing. These constraints enable singling out a realistic design from the broad family of vehicles capable of performing the given mission. This vehicle has been obtained by integrating not only aerodynamics, trajectory, and airliner constraints, but also by integrating the propulsion system, the trimming devices and by doing some adjustments to the conceptual vehicle shape (i. e., spatular nose). Thus, the final vehicle is the result of many iterations in the design space, until performance, trajectory, propulsion systems, and airport constraints are successfully met.

Ingenito, A.; Gulli, S.; Bruno, C.

2011-10-01

457

Electric and hybrid vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents innovative design concepts for electric vehicles and their components. Topics include: Hybrid/Electric Vehicle Design Options and Evaluations; Electric Drivetrain for the Hybrid Electric Bus; Variable Speed Compressor, HFC-134a Based Air Conditioning System for electric Vehicles; Performance Testing of the Extended-Range (Hybrid) Electric G Van; and Development of an Electric Concept Vehicle with a Super Quick Charging System.

Not Available

1992-01-01

458

Energy Minimizing Vehicle Routing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new cost function based on distance and load of the vehicle for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem.\\u000a The vehicle-routing problem with this new load-based cost objective is called the Energy Minimizing Vehicle Routing Problem\\u000a (EMVRP). Integer linear programming formulations with O(n\\u000a 2) binary variables and O(n\\u000a 2) constraints are developed for the collection and delivery cases,

Imdat Kara; Bahar Yetis Kara; M. Kadri Yetis

2007-01-01

459

Methylotroph cloning vehicle  

DOEpatents

A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

1989-04-25

460

Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

Gomez, Julian E.

2004-01-01

461

Detection and classification of vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents algorithms for vision-based detection and cl assification of vehicles in monocular image sequences of traffi c scenes recorded by a stationary camera. Processing is done at three levels: raw images, region level and vehicle level. Vehicle s are modeled as rectangular patches with certain dynamic behavior. The proposed method is based on the establishment of correspondences between

Surendra Gupte; Osama Masoud; Robert F. K. Martin; Nikolaos P. Papanikolopoulos

2002-01-01

462

Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

1977-01-01

463

An electrically assisted, hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an electrically assisted, hybrid electric vehicle. The mechanical and electrical system modifications required to convert a 1995 Dodge Neon Sedan are presented. Results of dynamic testing with regards to fuel economy, vehicle range, and emissions are presented to illustrate the benefits of operating the vehicle as an HEV

Scott Aylor; Micheal Parten; Tim Maxwell; Jesse Jones

1998-01-01

464

Fin Assembly for a Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fin assembly for effecting guidance of a vehicle through a fluid medium includes an electromagnet fixed in a portion of the vehicle, and a rigid shaft fixed to a hull portion of the vehicle and extending outwardly therefrom and in alignment with the ele...

C. P. Cho S. J. Olson

1996-01-01

465

Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create the spatial or temporal clustering of crash accidents. Since the 1990's, Geographical Informational Systems (GIS) became a very important tool for traffic and road safety management, allowing not only the spatial and multifactorial analysis, but also graphical and non-graphical outputs. The current paper presents an accessible GIS methodology to study the spatio-temporal pattern of injury related road accidents, to identify the high density accidents zones, to make a cluster analysis, to create multicriterial typologies, to identify spatial and temporal similarities and to explain them. In this purpose, a Geographical Information System was created, allowing a complex analysis that involves not only the events, but also a large set of interrelated and spatially linked attributes. The GIS includes the accidents as georeferenced point elements with a spatially linked attribute database: identification information (date, location details); accident type; main, secondary and aggravating causes; data about driver; vehicle information; consequences (damages, injured peoples and fatalities). Each attribute has its own number code that allows both the statistical analysis and the spatial interrogation. The database includes those road accidents that led to physical injuries and loss of human lives between 2007 and 2012 and the spatial analysis was realized using TNTmips 7.3 software facilities. Data aggregation and processing allowed creating the spatial pattern of injury related road accidents through Kernel density estimation at three different levels (national - Romania; county level - Iasi County; local level - Iasi town). Spider graphs were used to create the temporal pattern or road accidents at three levels (daily, weekly and monthly) directly related to their causes. Moreover the spatial and temporal database relates the natural hazards (glazed frost, fog, and blizzard) with the human made ones, giving the opportunity to evaluate the nature of uncertainties in risk assessment. At the end, this paper provides a clustering methodology based on several environmenta

Catalin Stanga, Iulian

2013-04-01

466

Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accident Cases from Western Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries.(1) Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83%) were young (15 to 30 years); from low i.e. 114 (31.66%) and mid i.e. 198 (55%) income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50%) and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%). Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P<0.01, ?2 - 8.03), recent or on-day conflicts (P<0.001, ?2 - 18.88) and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P<0.001, ?2 - 30.25). Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55%) and end i.e. 69 (19.16%) of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72%) and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%). Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 (65.85%) were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%). Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 %) cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16%) after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h) in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion: Most of the factors responsible for RTA and its fatal consequences are preventable. A comprehensive multipronged approach can mitigate most of them.

Mishra, Badrinarayan; Sinha (Mishra), Nidhi D; Sukhla, SK; Sinha, AK

2010-01-01

467

Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian agriculture.  

PubMed

The Indian farming employs 225 million workforce to cover 140 million hectares of total cultivated land. In spite of rapid farm mechanization (e.g., 149 million farm machinery), the vast resource-poor family farming has primary dependence on traditional methods (e.g., 520 million hand tools and 37 million animal-drawn implements are in operation). The work drudgery, the traumatic accidents and injuries are the major concerns to examine options for ergonomics intervention and betterment of work in crop production activities. This review summarizes human energy expenditure in crop production activities, to assess the job severity, tools and machinery, and formulate the basis to reorganize work and work methods. While the farm mechanization is more in the northern India, the accidents were more in the villages in southern India. On average of the four regions, the tractor incidents (overturning, falling from the tractor, etc.) were highest (27.7%), followed by thresher (14.6%), sprayer/duster (12.2%), sugarcane crusher (8.1%) and chaff cutter (7.8%) accidents. Most of the fatal accidents resulted from the powered machinery, with the annual fatality rate estimated as 22 per 100,000 farmers. The hand tools related injuries (8% of the total accidents) were non-fatal in nature. In spite of the enactment of legislation, the shortcomings in production and monitoring of the machinery in field use may be responsible for the high rate of accidents (e.g., 42 thresher accidents/1,000 mechanical threshers/year in southern India). Due to the lack of technical capability of the local artisans, adhering to safety and design standards is impractical to the implements fabricated in the rural areas. The analysis emphasizes that the effective safety and health management may be possible through legislative enabling of the local infra-structure, such as block development authority and primary health services, to permeate occupational health and safe work practices in the farming sector. PMID:15128164

Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali

2004-04-01

468

Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators.

Trujillo, J.M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-10-01

469

Validation of COSTA on Predicting Core Damage Accident Progression with the TMI2 Accident Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

COSTA (A Computerized Support System for the Emergency Technical Advisory Body in Japan) has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to provide national response capability during radiological accident emergencies. COSTA can be used to identify plant status and predict accident progression based on emergency data reported by the utility of an affected plant. To assess the capability

Tsutomu ISHIGAMI

1995-01-01

470

[An analysis of industrial accidents in the working field with a particular emphasis on repeated accidents].  

PubMed

The present study is based on an analysis of routinely submitted reports of occupational accidents experienced by the workers of industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Labor Standard Office during a 5-year period 1983 to 1987. Officially notified injuries serious enough to keep employees away from their job for work at least 4 days were utilized in this study. Data was classified so as to give an observed frequency distribution for workers having any specified number of accidents. Also, the accident rate which is an indicator of the risk of accident was compared among different occupations, between age groups and between the sexes. Results obtained are as follows; 1) For the combined total of 6,324 accident cases for 8 types of occupation (Construction, Transportation, Mining & Quarrying, Forestry, Food manufacture, Lumber & Woodcraft, Manufacturing industry and Other business), the number of those who had at least one accident was 6,098, of which 5,837 were injured only once, 208 twice, 21 three times and 2 four times. When occupation type was fixed, however, the number of workers having one, two, three and four times of accidents were 5,895, 182, 19 and 2, respectively. This suggests that some workers are likely to have experienced repeated accidents in more than one type of occupation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2131982

Wakisaka, I; Yanagihashi, T; Tomari, T; Sato, M

1990-03-01