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1

Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Secondary to a Motor Vehicle Accident: A Single-Subject Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are fairly common occurrences in all developed countries. Although only a small percentage of total MVAs result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the high base rate in the population has resulted in the estimation that MVAs are the leading cause of PTSD in the United States. Occupations that require…

Galovski, Tara E.; Resick, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

2

Neural Correlates of Posttraumatic Growth After Severe Motor Vehicle Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal brain asymmetry has been associated with emotion- and motivation-related constructs. The authors examined the relationship between frontal brain asymmetry and subjective perception of posttraumatic growth (PTG) after severe motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Eighty-two survivors of MVAs completed self-report measures of PTG, trait and state affect, and diagnostic interviews assessing clinical status, and underwent measurement of resting electroencephalographic activity. As

Sirko Rabe; Tanja Zöllner; Andreas Maercker; Anke Karl

2006-01-01

3

Physiological Responsiveness of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors with Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to replicate past research that has shown differences in physiological responsiveness among survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and those survivors who do not develop this disorder. Such physiological differences have been found specifically with heart rate (HR) reactivity. This study also attempts to account for differences among those survivors with PTSD

Connie H. Veazey; Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Todd C. Buckley

2004-01-01

4

Frequency of radiculopathies in motor vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

This retrospective study compared the frequency of electrodiagnostically confirmed cervical and lumbar radiculopathies in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) population to that of a non-MVA population in 24,651 consecutive initial electrodiagnostic reports. The frequency of cervical radiculopathy was slightly but significantly increased in 8% of the MVA compared to 6% of the non-MVA patients. The frequency of plexopathy was significantly increased in the MVA (3%) compared to the non-MVA patients (2%). The frequency of lumbar radiculopathy was not significantly increased (12% for both groups). Nineteen percent of the MVA patients and 18% of the non-MVA patients had cervical and/or lumbar radiculopathy. This shows that the frequency of cervical and lumbar radiculopathies is low after MVAs. MVA appears to cause a small but significant increase in the frequency of cervical radiculopathy and plexopathy. PMID:19260059

Braddom, Randall L; Spitz, Lawrence; Rivner, Michael H

2009-04-01

5

Psychotropic drugs and risk of motor vehicle accidents: a population-based case-control study  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine comprehensively the relationship between exposure to four classes of psychotropic drugs including antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines (BZDs) and Z-drugs, and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Method The authors conducted a matched case-control study of 5183 subjects with MVAs and 31 093 matched controls, identified from the claims records of outpatient service visits during the period from 2000 to 2009. Inclusion criteria were defined as subjects aged equal to or more than 18 years and involved in MVAs. Conditional logistic regressions with covariates adjustment (including urbanity, psychiatric and non-psychiatric outpatient visits and Charlson comorbidity score) were applied to examine the effect of four classes of psychotropic drugs on MVAs. Results Significant increased risk of MVAs was found in subjects taking antidepressants within 1 month (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 2.22), 1 week (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.29, 2.26), and 1 day (AOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.26, 2.29) before MVAs occurred. Similar results were observed in subjects taking benzodiazepines (BZDs) (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.38, 1.75 for 1 month; AOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43, 1.88 for 1 week, and AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.39, 1.88 for 1 day) and Z-drugs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.14, 1.76 for 1 month, AOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06, 1.75 for 1 week, AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03, 1.75 for 1 day), but not antipsychotics. Moreover, significant dose effects of antidepressants (equal to or more than 0.6–1.0 DDD), BZDs (equal to or more than 0.1–0.5 DDD) and Z-drugs (more than 1 DDD) were observed, respectively, on the risk of experiencing an MVA. Conclusion Taken together, subjects taking antidepressants, BZDs and Z-drugs, separately, should be particularly cautioned for their increasing risk of MVAs. PMID:22971090

Chang, Chia-Ming; Wu, Erin Chia-Hsuan; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Chau, Yeuk-Lun; Wu, Chi-Shin; Lin, Keh-Ming; Tsai, Hui-Ju

2013-01-01

6

Benzodiazepine use and motor vehicle accidents. Systematic review of reported association.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between benzodiazepine (BZD) use and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched from 1980 to 1997 using the key words traffic accidents or motor vehicle accidents and benzodiazepines (and alternative terms and outcomes) in English, German, French, or Italian. STUDY SELECTION: Case-control studies of BZDs and MVAs; police or emergency studies of BZD use among travelers; driving tests with subjects taking BZDs. Outcomes were impaired driving, accidents; mortality; postaccident medical attention, emergency ward care, or hospitalization. Quality criteria were whether all driving BZD users and non-users had an equal chance of entering the study; whether medication dosage and timing were ascertained; whether all kilometres driven by BZD users and non-users were studied; whether all types of accidents were ascertained; and whether medical conditions were controlled for. SYNTHESIS: In case-control studies, the odds ratios for mortality and emergency medical treatment ranged from 1.45 to 2.4 in relation to time of use and quantity of drug taken. In police and emergency ward studies, BZD use was a factor in 1% to 65% of accidents (usually 5% to 10%). In two studies where subjects had blood alcohol concentrations less than the legal limit, BZDs were found in 43% and 65% of subjects. In one study with controls, 5% of drivers and 2% of controls in accidents had used BZDs. CONCLUSIONS: Case-control studies suggest using BZDs approximately doubles the risk of motor vehicle accidents. The risk for drivers older than 65 of being involved in reported motor vehicle collisions is higher when they take longer-acting and larger quantities of BZDs. PMID:9585853

Thomas, R. E.

1998-01-01

7

[The driver's illness as a cause of traffic accidents].  

PubMed

Fatal motor vehicle accidents (fMVAs) as well as accidents involving pedestrians or bicyclists in Uusimaa county in 2008 were reviewed. Of the fMVAs, acute disease attacks while driving caused 26.5% (9/34) of the drivers' deaths. This equalled with the number of alcohol-related fatal accidents. Heart attack was the main cause (7/9 disease attacks). Three bicyclists (3/14; 21%) died for health reasons; two for ventricular fibrillation and one for alcohol intoxication probably combined with cardiac arrhythmia. Diseases served also as background causes for fMVAs. Education of health care personnel on medical conditions and driving should be improved. PMID:21755806

Tervo, Timo; Jaakkola, Timo; Sulander, Pekka; Holopainen, Juha; Neira, Waldir; Parkkari, Kalle

2011-01-01

8

Diagnosis and Treatment of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy to Prevent Motor Vehicle Accidents: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

PubMed Central

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in cirrhosis is associated with impaired driving skills and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Detection and treatment of MHE has the potential to reduce costs and morbidity associated with MVAs. Methods We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the benefits of different strategies of MHE diagnosis and treatment for reducing MVA-related societal costs. The analyses compared five MHE management strategies: (1) presumptive treatment of all cirrhotics; (2) diagnosis by neuropsychological exam (NPE) with treatment; (3) diagnosis by standard psychometric tests (SPT) with treatment; (4) diagnosis by rapid screening using inhibitory control test (ICT) with treatment; and (5) no MHE diagnosis or treatment (status quo). Treatments considered were lactulose or rifaximin, which were assumed to reduce the MVA rate to the level of similarly-aged non-cirrhotics with benefit adjusted for treatment compliance. A Markov model followed a simulated cohort of 1000 cirrhotics without overt HE(OHE), from entry into treatment, through MHE development, and later, OHE, when they exited the modeled cohort. Follow-up was for 5 years and included biannual MHE testing. The societal cost of a single MVA was estimated at $42,100. Results All 4 strategies with lactulose were cost-saving compared to the status quo. Diagnosis with ICT and lactulose was the most cost-effective approach (cost/MVA prevented: $24,454 ICT; $25,470 SPT; $30,469 presumptive treatment and $33,742 NPE). Net program savings over 5 years ranged from $1.7 to 3.6 million depending on the strategy. Rifaximin therapy was not cost-saving at current prices but would become so at a monthly cost <$353. Conclusion Detection of MHE, especially using the ICT, and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce societal costs by preventing MVAs. PMID:22135042

Bajaj, Jasmohan S.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Sanyal, Arun J.; Heuman, Douglas M.

2011-01-01

9

All-terrain vehicle accidents in Maine.  

PubMed

All-terrain vehicles (ATV) are designed for off-road vocational or recreational use. Their popularity has increased steadily, but only recently has information accumulated concerning morbidity and mortality associated with the use of these vehicles. The 221 ATV accidents reported in Maine during 1985 are reviewed to more fully characterize the trauma associated with ATV accidents. These data are compared with reports from other geographical areas and recommendations made regarding ATV use. PMID:3351997

Margolis, J L

1988-03-01

10

Cervical spine injuries from motor vehicle accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to delineate the critical regions of the human cervical spine and determine the mechanisms of injury in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). The clinical data were gathered from patient records. Results indicated that while neck injuries in MVA are complex and can occur at any level of the cervical spine, the craniocervical junction (among fatalities)

N. Yoganandan; D. J. Maiman; F. A. Pintar

1989-01-01

11

Autonomous vehicle development: No accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Insight Racing team in Cary, North Carolina, began turning a bright-blue Lotus Elise into a driverless vehicle that could compete in a robotic car race. The mission of DARPApsilas ldquoGrand Challengerdquo, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, part of the U.S. Department of Defense, is to develop technology with military applications. When, in 2001, Congress mandated that at least

Heather Wax

2008-01-01

12

Motor Vehicle Accident Eye Injuries in Northern Israel  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate the occurrence and types of motor vehicle accident eye trauma in north Israel. Methods: The records between the years 2007–2011 of the Ophthalmology Emergency Room of one medical center were searched. Eye injuries due to motor vehicle accidents were classified according to type, severity of injury and demographic data of patients. Results: Nearly five percents of ER presentations were due to motor vehicle accidents. Most motor vehicle accident-related eye injuries were mild. Conclusion: Efforts should be taken to prevention and to minimize the severity of motor vehicle accident-related eye injuries. PMID:24747538

Yulish, Michael; Pikkel, Joseph

2014-01-01

13

Who develops PTSD from motor vehicle accidents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within 1 to 4 months of their motor vehicle accident (MVA), we assessed 158 MVA victims who sought medical attention as a result of the MVA. Using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS: Blake, Weathers, Nagy, Kaloupek, Klauminzer, Charney & Keane, 1990. National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Boston, MA)., we found that 62 (39%) met DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987.

Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Ann E. Taylor; Warren R. Loos; Catherine A. Forneris; James Jaccard

1996-01-01

14

A field evaluation of real-life motor vehicle accidents: presence of unrestrained objects and their association with distribution and severity of patient injuries.  

PubMed

Moving objects may pose an added threat to car occupants in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). However, to our knowledge, there have only been two case studies published on the subject. For the present study, accident reports and photo documentation from MVAs were collected on-scene by dedicated paramedics. Emergency medical service personnel on-scene were interviewed as necessary. Potentially harmful unrestrained objects in the involved motor vehicles (MVs) were identified and categorised by type, weight and hardness. Seatback offset by unrestrained objects was noted. The patient injury distribution (Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) body regions) and severity (AIS severity scores and New Injury Severity Score (NISS) scores) were retrospectively determined from hospital and autopsy records, and their potential relationship to unrestrained objects was explored. A total of 190 accidents involving 338 MVs and 618 individuals were included. In total, 327 individuals (53%) were injured, and 61 (10%) died. 37 of 61 were not autopsied. The mean NISS was 17 (median 8, interquartile range (IQR) 1-27). Unrestrained objects were reported for 133 motor vehicles (39%) involving 293 individuals. 35% of the unrestrained objects found in the passenger compartment weighed >2 kg. In the boot, 32% of objects weighed >20 kg. Seatback offset associated with unrestrained objects was found for 45 individuals (15%). Unrestrained objects originally located in the boot (heavy luggage, groceries and tyres were the most frequently reported) had moved into the passenger compartment on impact in 27 cases, 24 of which were associated with seatback offset. An in-depth analysis was performed on 24 patients whose injuries were highly likely to be associated with unrestrained objects, as indicated by accident reports and medical documentation. Nineteen (79%) were involved in frontal collisions, and 12 (50%) died on-scene. The mean NISS was 51.7 (median 51, IQR 27-75) in the 17 (71%) patients with seatback offset and 37.2 (median 41, IQR 22.5-50) in the 7 (29%) without seatback offset. Seatback offset was associated with more severe head and thoracic injuries and an increased incidence of abdominal and pelvic injuries. Patients injured by unrestrained objects while sitting in unharmed car seats predominantly suffered head, cervical spine and thoracic injuries. Our results indicate a need for public information campaigns. The development of car backseats that can better sustain hits from heavy objects in the cargo boot is an important area for the motor vehicle production industry to explore. PMID:22269539

Staff, Trine; Eken, Torsten; Hansen, Trond Boye; Steen, Petter Andreas; Søvik, Signe

2012-03-01

15

Cooperative Collision Warning Based Highway Vehicle Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway safety is always an important issue for automobile industry, so many researches have been conducted to prevent from or reduce the accidents. Cooperative Collision Warning (CCW), which provides an active safety mechanism for vehicles on highways, is implemented by exchanging static and dynamic vehicle parameters with neighboring vehicles through inter-vehicle wireless communications. Received information is not only used for

Chung-ping Young; Bao Rong Chang; Jian-Jr Lin; Ren-yang Fang

2008-01-01

16

Launch vehicle accident assessment for Mars Exploration Rover missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the methodology used in the launch and space vehicle portion of the nuclear risk assessment for the two Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, which includes the assessment of accident scenarios and associated probabilities.

Yau, M.; Reinhart, L.; Guarro, S.

2002-01-01

17

The Impact of In-Vehicle Cell-Phone Use on Accidents or Near-Accidents among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With in-vehicle use of cell phones rapidly increasing, the safety of young drivers, who represent 14% of licensed drivers but 26% of drivers involved in fatal crashes, may be disproportionately threatened. The authors used a questionnaire to examine the association between in-vehicle cell-phone use and accidents or near-accidents among 1,291…

Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

2004-01-01

18

Self-Evaluative Appraisals of Coping Capability and Posttraumatic Distress Following Motor Vehicle Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the importance of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions and change in perceptions of CSE for recovery from motor vehicle accident (MVA) trauma. Data were collected 7 days following the accident (Time 1; n = 163), 1 month after the accident (Time 2; n = 91), and 3 months after the accident (Time 3; n = 70). Early changes

Charles C. Benight; Roman Cieslak; Ivan R. Molton; Lesley E. Johnson

2008-01-01

19

Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Family Practitioner's Role in Their Management  

PubMed Central

The modern epidemic of motor vehicle accidents claims more lives, creates more morbidity and causes more property damage every successive year. Prevention is a responsibility of every family practitioner as he prescribes and counsels in his office. He has a limited role at an accident scene, but here he supports the patient and may assist personnel of ambulance, police or fire services. In the receiving hospital emergency room the priorities of emergency care, investigations and the indications for transfer of the patient to another facility are discussed. If the victim dies, the relatives' mourning is helped by organ donation and the initiative of the family practitioner in these circumstances may help many people. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:21293698

Knight, Peter R.; Thomas, Edward J.

1980-01-01

20

Demographic and clinical characteristics of motor vehicle accident victims in the community general health outpatient clinic: a comparison of PTSD and non-PTSD subjects.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are the leading cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the general population, often with enduring symptomatology. This study details epidemiological and clinical features that characterize PTSD among MVA victims living in a nonhospitalized community setting long after the MVA event, and includes exploration of premorbid and peritraumatic factors. MVA victims (n=60; 23 males, 37 females) identified from the registry of a community general health outpatient clinic during a 7-year period were administered an extensive structured battery of epidemiological, diagnostic and clinical ratings. Results indicated that 30 subjects (50%; 12 males, 18 females) had MVA-related PTSD (MVAR-PTSD). Among those with PTSD, 16 individuals exhibited PTSD in partial remission, and six, in full remission. There were no significant demographic or occupational function differences between PTSD and non-PTSD groups. The most common comorbid conditions with MVAR-PTSD were social phobia (20%), generalized anxiety disorder (7.8%) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.5%). Previous MVA's were not predictive of PTSD. Subjects with MVAR-PTSD scored worse on the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale, Part 2 (CAPS-2), Impact of Event Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Impulsivity Scale, and Toronto Alexithymia Rating Scale. Study observations indicate a relatively high rate of PTSD following an MVA in a community-based sample. The relatively high rate of partially remitted MVAR-PTSD (N=16) underscores the importance of subsyndromal forms of illness. Alexithymia may be an adaptive method of coping with event stress. The development of PTSD appears not to be associated with the severity of MVA-related physical injury. PMID:17001628

Kupchik, Marina; Strous, Rael D; Erez, Rina; Gonen, Noach; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch

2007-01-01

21

The Impact of In-Vehicle CellPhone Use on Accidents or Near-Accidents Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

With in-vehicle use of cell phones rapidly increasing, the safety of young drivers, who represent 14% of licensed drivers but 26% of drivers involved in fatal crashes, may be disproportionately threatened. The authors used a questionnaire to examine the association between in-vehicle cell-phone use and accidents or near-accidents among 1,291 conveniently recruited college students in 4 states. Of the 1,185

Dong-Chul Seo; Mohammad R. Torabi

2004-01-01

22

Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

23

Using Medical Records in Non-Motor-Vehicle Pedestrian Accident Identification and Countermeasure Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using emergency room and emergency medical service records in quantifying rural non- motor-vehicle pedestrian accidents and in developing countermeasures to reduce injuries resulting from such accidents. A literature review indicated that although non-motor-vehicle pedestrian accidents are a significant injury problem in the United States, there does not appear to be an

Ronald Eck; E. DARIN SIMPSON

1996-01-01

24

Severity detection of traffic accidents at intersections based on vehicle motion analysis and multiphase linear regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new approach to describe traffic scene including vehicle collisions and vehicle anomalies at intersections by video processing and motion statistic techniques. The research mainly targets on extracting abnormal event characteristics at intersections and learning normal traffic flow by trajectory clustering techniques. Detecting and analyzing accident events are done by observing partial vehicle trajectories and motion characteristics.

O. Ako?z; M. E. Karsligil

2010-01-01

25

Biochemical and Structural Basis for Inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase, mvaS, by Hymeglusin  

SciTech Connect

Hymeglusin (1233A, F244, L-659-699) is established as a specific {beta}-lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS). Inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. In contrast, the effects of hymeglusin on bacterial HMG-CoA synthase, mvaS, have been minimally characterized. Hymeglusin blocks growth of Enterococcus faecalis. After removal of the inhibitor from culture media, a growth curve inflection point at 3.1 h is observed (vs 0.7 h for the uninhibited control). Upon hymeglusin inactivation of purified E. faecalis mvaS, the thioester adduct is more stable than that measured for human HMGCS. Hydroxylamine cleaves the thioester adduct; substantial enzyme activity is restored at a rate that is 8-fold faster for human HMGCS than for mvaS. Structural results explain these differences in enzyme-inhibitor thioester adduct stability and solvent accessibility. The E. faecalis mvaS-hymeglusin cocrystal structure (1.95 {angstrom}) reveals virtually complete occlusion of the bound inhibitor in a narrow tunnel that is largely sequestered from bulk solvent. In contrast, eukaryotic (Brassica juncea) HMGCS binds hymeglusin in a more solvent-exposed cavity.

Skaff, D. Andrew; Ramyar, Kasra X.; McWhorter, William J.; Barta, Michael L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Miziorko, Henry M. (UMKC)

2012-07-25

26

The Biochemical and Structural Basis for Inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis HMG-CoA Synthase, mvaS, by Hymeglusin†  

PubMed Central

Hymeglusin (1233A; F244; L-659-699) is established as a specific beta lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS). Inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. In contrast, hymeglusin’s effects on bacterial HMG-CoA synthase, mvaS, have been minimally characterized. Hymeglusin blocks growth of Enterococcus faecalis. After removal of inhibitor from culture media, a growth curve inflection point at 3.1 hr is observed (versus 0.7 hr for uninhibited control). Upon hymeglusin inactivation of purified E. faecalis mvaS, the thioester adduct is more stable than that measured for human HMGCS. Hydroxylamine cleaves the thioester adduct; substantial enzyme activity is restored at a rate that is 8-fold faster for human HMGCS than for mvaS. Structural results explain these differences in enzyme-inhibitor thioester adduct stability/solvent accessibility. The E. faecalis mvaS-hymeglusin co-crystal structure (1.95 Å) reveals virtually complete occlusion of bound inhibitor in a narrow tunnel that is largely occluded from bulk solvent. In contrast, eukaryotic (Brassica juncea) HMGCS binds hymeglusin in a more solvent exposed cavity. PMID:22510038

Skaff, D. Andrew; Ramyar, Kasra X.; McWhorter, William J.; Barta, Michael L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Miziorko, Henry M.

2012-01-01

27

Biomechanical analysis of occupant kinematics in rollover motor vehicle accidents: dynamic spit test.  

PubMed

A better understanding of occupant kinematics in rollover accidents helps to advance biomechanical knowledge and to enhance the safety features of motor vehicles. While many rollover accident simulation studies have adopted the static approach to delineate the occupant kinematics in rollover accidents, very few studies have attempted the dynamic approach. The present work was designed to study the biomechanics of restrained occupants during rollover accidents using the steady-state dynamic spit test and to address the importance of keeping the lap belt fastened. Experimental tests were conducted using an anthropometric 50% Hybrid III dummy in a vehicle. The vehicle was rotated at 180 degrees/second and the dummy was restrained using a standard three-point restraint system. The lap belt of the dummy was fastened either by using the cinching latch plate or by locking the retractor. Three configurations of shoulder belt harness were simulated: shoulder belt loose on chest with cinch plate, shoulder belt under the left arm and shoulder belt behind the chest. In all tests, the dummy stayed within the confinement of the vehicle indicating that the securely fastened lap belt holds the dummy with dynamic movement of 3 1/2" to 4". The results show that occupant movement in rollover accidents is least affected by various shoulder harness positions with a securely fastened lap belt. The present study forms a first step in delineating the biomechanics of occupants in rollover accidents. PMID:15850090

Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Clarke, Richard; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve

2005-01-01

28

Psychometric Properties of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI): A Replication With Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and discriminative validity of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI; E. B. Foa, A. Ehlers, D. M. Clark, D. F. Tolin, & S. M. Orsillo, 1999) in a sample of 112 individuals who had experienced a serious motor vehicle accident. Results generally supported the 3-factor structure of the PTCI:

J. Gayle Beck; Scott F. Coffey; Sarah A. Palyo; Berglind Gudmundsdottir; Luana M. Miller; Craig R. Colder

2004-01-01

29

Psychometric Properties of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI): A Replication With Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and discriminative validity of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI; E. B. Foa, A. Ehlers, D. M. Clark, D. F. Tolin, & S. M. Orsillo, 1999) in a sample of 112 individuals who had experienced a serious motor vehicle accident. Results…

Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.; Palyo, Sarah A.; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Miller, Luana M.; Colder, Craig R.

2004-01-01

30

Patterns and consequences of inadequate sleep in college students: substance use and motor vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students. PMID:20472221

Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D

2010-06-01

31

Date of Accident: _____/_____/________ Day of Week: __________________ Hour: _____:______ AM / PM TIME VEHICLE ACCIDENT REPORT  

E-print Network

MAKE TYPE (SEDAN, TRUCK) LICENSE PLATE: YEAR STATE PLATE NUMBER DRIVER'S FULL NAME:TOTALINVOLVED_____ Vehicle #1- University Equipment # _________ YEAR MAKE TYPE (SEDAN, TRUCK) LICENSE PLATE: YEAR STATE PLATE NUMBER DRIVER'S FULL NAME: __________________________________ AGE: ________ MALE / FEMALE LICENSE

Farritor, Shane

32

Estimating vehicle roadside encroachment frequency using accident prediction models  

SciTech Connect

The existing data to support the development of roadside encroachment- based accident models are extremely limited and largely outdated. Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration and Transportation Research Board, several roadside safety projects have attempted to address this issue by providing rather comprehensive data collection plans and conducting pilot data collection efforts. It is clear from the results of these studies that the required field data collection efforts will be expensive. Furthermore, the validity of any field collected encroachment data may be questionable because of the technical difficulty to distinguish intentional from unintentional encroachments. This paper proposes an alternative method for estimating the basic roadside encroachment data without actually field collecting them. The method is developed by exploring the probabilistic relationships between a roadside encroachment event and a run-off-the-road event With some mild assumptions, the method is capable of providing a wide range of basic encroachment data from conventional accident prediction models. To illustrate the concept and use of such a method, some basic encroachment data are estimated for rural two-lane undivided roads. In addition, the estimated encroachment data are compared with the existing collected data. The illustration shows that the method described in this paper can be a viable approach to estimating basic encroachment data without actually collecting them which can be very costly.

Miaou, S.-P.

1996-07-01

33

Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents in China.  

PubMed

The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting that equal social security level among urban and rural people should be set up. In addition, establishing a comprehensive liability distribution system for non-urban areas and roadways will be conducive to both pedestrians' and drivers' voluntary compliance with traffic rules. PMID:25238293

Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun

2014-12-01

34

Accident or Suicide? Single-Vehicle Car Accidents and the Intent Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief case studies of single-vehicle car crashes are used to explore the relationship between this method of death and the intent to commit suicide. The author attempts to determine what criteria can be used to determine whether suicide was the intent, and how death by automobile crash can be determined a suicide. (JPS)

Peck, Dennis L.; Warner, Kenneth

1995-01-01

35

Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

2011-01-01

36

Emergency Medical Care and Care Systems in California—Motor Vehicle Accidents  

PubMed Central

Emergency Medical Care and Emergency Medical Care Systems are defined. The need for a distinction between the two is given. Motor vehicle accidents in 58 California counties are analyzed. The status of hospitals serving traffic trauma in California is given with respect to quality of care. The location of California hospitals with respect to the percent of motor vehicle trauma is shown. The importance of time lapse in emergency medical care systems and the reasons for time lapse errors is explored. The need for data processing and systems analysis in California emergency medical care systems is pointed out. PMID:5059664

Duffey, Kenneth E.

1972-01-01

37

Non-union (type II) odontoid fracture: A case report of a motor vehicle accident  

PubMed Central

A case report is presented of a young man injured in a motor vehicle accident who subsequently suffered neck and shoulder pain with no radiation. The pain, aggravated by motion and relieved by neck massage, had persisted for five months. Investigation by plain film radiographs, prior to treatment suggested an odontoid fracture. Tomographic radiographs revealed a type II non-union odontoid fracture. Spinal manipulation was contraindicated and this patient went on to surgical stabilization. A type II odontoid fracture non-union should be ruled out in any patient presenting with a history of a motor vehicle accident with head trauma, before manipulation is considered. ImagesFigure 2aFigure 2bFigure 2cFigure 3aFigure 3bFigure 3cFigure 4aFigure 4bFigure 5aFigure 5b

Kitchen, RG

1986-01-01

38

48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

(a) The Contractor shall report promptly to the Administrative Contracting Officer all pertinent facts relating to each accident involving an aircraft, missile, or space launch vehicle being manufactured, modified, repaired, or overhauled in connection with this...

2012-10-01

39

48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) The Contractor shall report promptly to the Administrative Contracting Officer all pertinent facts relating to each accident involving an aircraft, missile, or space launch vehicle being manufactured, modified, repaired, or overhauled in connection with this...

2010-10-01

40

48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(a) The Contractor shall report promptly to the Administrative Contracting Officer all pertinent facts relating to each accident involving an aircraft, missile, or space launch vehicle being manufactured, modified, repaired, or overhauled in connection with this...

2013-10-01

41

48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

(a) The Contractor shall report promptly to the Administrative Contracting Officer all pertinent facts relating to each accident involving an aircraft, missile, or space launch vehicle being manufactured, modified, repaired, or overhauled in connection with this...

2014-10-01

42

The impact of severity of physical injury and perception of life threat in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 98 victims of recent (1 to 4 months post-accident) motor vehicle accidents who sought medical attention as a result of the accident, we obtained data on the extent of physical injury using blind ratings with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), as well as victims reports of their perceptions of how much danger they perceived at the time of the

Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Neil Mitnick; Ann E. Taylor; Warren R. Loos; Todd C. Buckley

1995-01-01

43

Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors  

PubMed Central

Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of advantages, including provision of a natural support group, the ability to reach more patients, and greater cost efficiency. In this article, we describe the development of a group CBT for PTSD in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA). Issues unique to the group treatment format are discussed, along with special considerations such as strategies to reduce the potential for triggering reexperiencing symptoms during group sessions. A case example is presented, along with discussion of group process issues. Although still in the early stages, this group CBT may offer promise as an effective treatment of MVA-related PTSD. PMID:16525513

Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

2006-01-01

44

Coping Strategies in Daily Life as Protective and Risk Factors for Post Traumatic Stress in Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of a general coping style in the development and maintainance of PTSD-like symptoms, we investigated 44 survivors of severe motor vehicle accidents. Coping was assessed using a German instrument. We also included personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion, peritraumatic and cognitive factors that are linked to both PTSD and coping in daily life. Stepwise regressions

Denise Dörfel; Sirko Rabe; Anke Karl

2008-01-01

45

An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

46

The prevalence of drugs in motor vehicle accidents and traffic violations in Shanghai and neighboring cities.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive drug use among motor vehicle drivers in Shanghai and its neighboring cities. We selected 10,002 drivers involved in a traffic accident or violation between 2007 and 2008 in Shanghai, Suzhou and Wuxi. We checked for the presence of psychoactive drugs from blood samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Of the 10,002 drivers, 10.5% tested positive for drugs (excluding alcohol). Cold medicines were the most frequently detected drugs including chlorpheniramine (4.78%), pseudoephedrine (2.15%) and paracetamol (1.32%). The use of multiple cold medicines was common. Illegal drugs such as methamphetamine (0.15%), ketamine (0.03%) and MDMA (0.01%) were also detected. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs among drivers involved in traffic accidents or violations in Shanghai and its neighboring cities was lower compared to previous reports in Europe. Furthermore, cannabis--which has been reported to be the most widely used psychoactive drug after alcohol--was not commonly encountered among Shanghai drivers. PMID:20728679

Zhuo, Xianyi; Cang, Yong; Yan, Hui; Bu, Jun; Shen, Baohua

2010-11-01

47

Launch Vehicle Fire Accident Preliminary Analysis of a Liquid-Metal Cooled Thermionic Nuclear Reactor: TOPAZ-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, launch vehicle propellant fire accident analysis of TOPAZ-II reactor has been done by a thermionic reactor core analytic code-TATRHG(A) developed by author. When a rocket explodes on a launch pad, its payload-TOPAZ-II can be subjected to a severe thermal environment from the resulting fireball. The extreme temperatures associated with propellant fires can create a destructive environment in or near the fireball. Different kind of propellants - liquid propellant and solid propellant which will lead to different fire temperature are considered. Preliminary analysis shows that the solid propellant fires can melt the whole toxic beryllium radial reflector.

Hu, G.; Zhao, S.; Ruan, K.

2012-01-01

48

An engineering study of rural motor vehicle accidents in Brazos County, Texas  

E-print Network

'fective enforcement of the stock law was a definite causative factor in accidents. 37 RIKOIB I', NDA TIONS Before analysing the compiled data, rough oalculations indicate that six months was spent by the author in studying the accident reports. It was natural... The confidential reports of accidents occurrins in Brazos County during a six year period from 1950 1955 were obtained from Patrol:nan 0. L, Luther of the Department of Public Safety. Observation of the data indicated that the study should be confined...

Schleider, Robert Herman

1957-01-01

49

Mechanical failures as a contributing cause to motor vehicle accidents — South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decades motor vehicles became the primary mode of transportation in developing countries. At the same time an improvement in automotive engineering and manufacturing as well as the phenomena of urbanisation have resulted in more vehicles spending more time on the road at higher speeds. Invariably this leads to driving scenarios where safety critical manoeuvres have to be

Ockert van Schoor; Johannes L van Niekerk; B Grobbelaar

2001-01-01

50

Effects of varying scoring rules of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of varying the scoring rules for the CAPS (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) on the diagnosis of PTSD in a sample of 100 victims of recent motor vehicle accidents. This was done by assessing, for each scoring rule, the rate of categorical diagnosis and the effect on group mean scores on measures of subjective distress and role

Edward B. Blanchard; Edward J. Hickling; Ann E. Taylor; Catherine A. Forneris; Warren Loos; James Jaccard

1995-01-01

51

A review on the temporal pattern of deer-vehicle accidents: impact of seasonal, diurnal and lunar effects in cervids.  

PubMed

The increasing number of deer-vehicle-accidents (DVAs) and the resulting economic costs have promoted numerous studies on behavioural and environmental factors which may contribute to the quantity, spatiotemporal distribution and characteristics of DVAs. Contrary to the spatial pattern of DVAs, data of their temporal pattern is scarce and difficult to obtain because of insufficient accuracy in available datasets, missing standardization in data aquisition, legal terms and low reporting rates to authorities. Literature of deer-traffic collisions on roads and railways is reviewed to examine current understanding of DVA temporal trends. Seasonal, diurnal and lunar peak accident periods are identified for deer, although seasonal pattern are not consistent among and within species or regions and data on effects of lunar cycles on DVAs is almost non-existent. Cluster analysis of seasonal DVA data shows nine distinct clusters of different seasonal DVA pattern for cervid species within the reviewed literature. Studies analyzing the relationship between time-related traffic predictors and DVAs yield mixed results. Despite the seasonal dissimilarity, diurnal DVA pattern are comparatively constant in deer, resulting in pronounced DVA peaks during the hours of dusk and dawn frequently described as bimodal crepuscular pattern. Behavioural aspects in activity seem to have the highest impact in DVAs temporal trends. Differences and variations are related to habitat-, climatic- and traffic characteristics as well as effects of predation, hunting and disturbance. Knowledge of detailed temporal DVA pattern is essential for prevention management as well as for the application and evaluation of mitigation measures. PMID:24549035

Steiner, Wolfgang; Leisch, Friedrich; Hackländer, Klaus

2014-05-01

52

Medical conditions and the severity of commercial motor vehicle drivers' road accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we studied the association between commercial motor vehicle drivers' medical conditions and crash severity. Some aspects of medical condition were considered. To our knowledge, no study has everisolated this association. The severity of a crash was measured by the total number of victims (injured and dead). We estimated nonlinear regression models (specifically, Poisson and negative binomial) which

Claire Laberge-Nadeau; Georges Dionne; Urs Maag; Denise Desjardins; Charles Vanasse; Jean-Marie Ékoé

1996-01-01

53

A multimodal examination of emotional responding to a trauma-relevant film among traumatic motor vehicle accident survivors.  

PubMed

The Facial Action Coding System (Ekman & Friesen) has shown promise as a behavioral measure of emotional experience. The current study examined the degree of (de)synchrony between self-reported and facial expressions of fear, disgust, and sadness in response to a traumatic event-relevant film among individuals who had experienced a traumatic motor vehicle accident. Given high rates of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms, the potential impacts of both PTSS and depressive symptoms on emotional responding were examined. Results demonstrated synchrony between self-reported and facial expressions of disgust and sadness; however, no association between measures of fear was observed. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were associated with greater fear responding and PTSS were associated only with self-reported fear. Together, results support the importance of examining discrete negative emotions, rather than broad valence categories, when examining fear-based responding in traumatic event-exposed populations. Additional research examining the psychometric properties of the Facial Action Coding System as a measure of discrete emotional experiences among traumatic event-exposed individuals is needed to advance multimodal assessment approaches that yield incremental information for understanding emotional responding in this population. PMID:25139384

Bujarski, Sarah J; Craig, James T; Zielinski, Melissa J; Badour, Christal L; Feldner, Matthew T

2015-04-01

54

Do Vehicle Recalls Reduce the Number of Accidents? The Case of the U.S. Car Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has increased sharply in the last two decades, and the numbers of units involved are often counted in the millions. In 2010 alone, over 20 million vehicles were recalled in the United States, and the massive recalls of full model lines by Toyota have brought this issue to the front pages around the…

Bae, Yong-Kyun; Benitez-Silva, Hugo

2011-01-01

55

A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the efficacy of four EMDR sessions in comparison to a six-week wait-list control condition in the treatment of 27 children (aged 6 to 12 years) suffering from persistent PTSD symptoms after a motor vehicle accident. An effect for EMDR was identified on primary outcome and process measures including the Child Post-Traumatic Stress-Reaction Index, clinician rated diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Subjective Units of Disturbance and Validity of Cognition scales. All participants initially met two or more PTSD criteria. After EMDR treatment, this decreased to 25% in the EMDR group but remained at 100% in the wait-list group. Parent ratings of their child's PTSD symptoms showed no improvement, nor did a range of non-trauma child self-report and parent-reported symptoms. Treatment gains were maintained at three and 12 month follow-up. These findings support the use of EMDR for treating symptoms of PTSD in children, although further replication and comparison studies are required. PMID:19923161

Kemp, Michael; Drummond, Peter; McDermott, Brett

2010-01-01

56

What factors are associated with the maintenance of PTSD after a motor vehicle accident? The role of sex differences in a help-seeking population.  

PubMed

To investigate potential sex differences in factors that are associated with chronic PTSD, data from 223 participants were examined using logistic regression analyses. Each participant had been involved in a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA), which had occurred at least 6 months earlier (range 6mos-37 years). Although men and women did not differ in the rate of diagnosed PTSD, four variables were found to interact significantly with sex in the prediction of chronic PTSD: peritraumatic experiences of helplessness, danger, and the certainty that one would die during the MVA and lack of employment. Follow up analyses indicated that although the peritraumatic experience variables were statistically significant, no notable differences emerged in the odds ratios of men and of women. In contrast, men who were unemployed were 9.94 times more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD, relative to men who were employed, while unemployed women were 2.85 times more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD, relative to women who were employed. Results are discussed in light of the role of functional limitations and their impact on the maintenance of PTSD in men and women. PMID:16546118

Beck, J Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A; Canna, Mark A; Blanchard, Edward B; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind

2006-09-01

57

Character of rural highway accident and safety policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural highway traffic accident data collected by survey of 9 counties in 3 different provinces in China are studied. The studies show there are six special characters of rural highway traffic accidents. In rural highway the vehicle type is more complex and the large proportion of vehicle is unlicensed. Most accidents happened in 2 and 3 class road in rural

Chuanjiao Sun; Jiangang Gao

2011-01-01

58

76 FR 76481 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Vehicle 1 overturned and Vehicle 2 was struck from behind by Vehicle 3. The accident occurred...There were no other vehicles traveling in the area of Vehicle 1 when it left the...accident scene. The driver and passenger in...

2011-12-07

59

34.02.99.M2.01 Post-Accident Testing Instructions Page 1 of 3 STANDARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

regulations after an accident, if the accident involves a fatality, or if the driver receives a citation under as a result of the accident, requiring the vehicle to be transported away from the scene by a tow truck of the motor vehicle accident or within thirty (30) days of the accident. 2. The driver must provide a urine

60

Commercial driver accident research survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRoad traffic incidents (RTIs) are on the rise in Pakistan with a disproportionately higher number of accidents involving commercial vehicles.ObjectivesTo estimate the prevalence of driver related causes potentially contributing to the occurrence of RTIs involving commercial vehicles in Pakistan, including driving behaviours, fatigue, sleep inadequacy, substance abuse and other risky practices while driving.MethodsA cross sectional survey in Rawalpindi using Time

M U Mir; J Razzak; K Ahmad

2010-01-01

61

Nuclear accidents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Accidents at nuclear power plants can be especially devastating to people and the environment. This article, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Tokaimura. Students explore the incidents by examining possible causes, environmental impacts, and effects on life.

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

62

Slow-moving vehicles in Swedish traffic.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving slow-moving vehicles and to suggest ways of preventing such accidents. We analyzed accident data from a 5-year period (1992-1996) involving all types of farm vehicles as well as horses and horse-drawn vehicles. During each year of the period under investigation, slow-moving vehicles were involved in more than 250 traffic accidents on Swedish roads, and an average of 10 people were killed, 66 sustained serious injuries, and 192 sustained slight injuries. This was about 1.3% of all persons injured in traffic accidents in Sweden. The deaths and injuries mostly involved car drivers and passengers. Tractor drivers and unprotected road users (people walking or traveling by motorcycle, moped, or bicycle) also sustained serious injuries and deaths. Vehicles overtaking slow-moving vehicles from behind were the most common type of accident (30%), followed by turning accidents (27%), accidents at crossroads (26%), and with oncoming vehicles (17%). To strengthen the suggestions for improvement, a questionnaire was sent out to driving school teachers in Sweden. Subjects were asked about their experiences with farm vehicles on the roads and their suggestions for ways to increase traffic safety. Based on the accident data and the questionnaire responses, we developed several suggestions for reducing road accidents, including measures for making farm vehicles more visible, improvement of the training provided at driving schools, and information campaigns directed at drivers of farm vehicles and other road users. Further in-depth research is needed to analyze road accidents involving slow-moving vehicles and to test different intervention measures. PMID:15216651

Pinzke, S; Lundqvist, P

2004-05-01

63

49 CFR 382.303 - Post-accident testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...receives medical treatment away from the scene of the accident; or (ii) One or...vehicle to be transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other motor vehicle...receives medical treatment away from the scene of the accident; or (ii) One or...

2010-10-01

64

Vehicle dynamics control and controller allocation for rollover prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle rollover accidents are a particularly dangerous form of road accident. Commercial vehicles are especially prone to rollover accidents due to their high centres of gravity. A nonlinear control strategy is presented which guarantees asymptotic tracking of a yaw rate reference while bounding the roll angle, thus preventing rollover. A new computationally-efficient control allocation strategy is used to map controller

Brad Schofield; T. Hagglund; A. Rantzer

2006-01-01

65

Nuclear accidents.  

PubMed

A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela. PMID:7072574

Mobley, J A

1982-05-01

66

Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents. PMID:23200441

Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

2013-01-01

67

75 FR 51953 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...lightweight vehicles, which pose...property on the ground. Therefore...reporting of unmanned aircraft accidents...powered ultralight vehicle, as described...equates to a vehicle about the size...Investigation, defines unmanned aircraft accident...associated with the ground control...

2010-08-24

68

Supplemental national crash severity study accident reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accident data was collected that allows determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger compartment during the collision. In some 52 percent of the accidents contained in the pre-April 1978 National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) data file, these velocity changes were established with the CRASH computer program. A substantial number of the remaining cases were reconstructable with other methods. Procedures were developed to estimate velocity changes in two car accidents in which the damage to 484 additional accidents from the pre-April 1978 NCSS file were reconstructed to the point of having velocity change estimates for the vehicles involved.

Segal, D. J.; McGrath, M. T.; Balasubramanian, N.

1980-09-01

69

The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

2014-01-01

70

Modeling, analysis, and measurement of passenger vehicle stability  

E-print Network

Vehicle rollover represents a significant percentage of single-vehicle accidents and accounts for over 9,000 fatalities and over 200,000 non-fatal injuries each year. Previous automotive research has studied ways for ...

Peters, Steven C. (Steven Conrad)

2006-01-01

71

Teens, Young Adults Most Likely to Go to ER After Car Accidents  

MedlinePLUS

... MedlinePlus Pages Emergency Medical Services Health Disparities Motor Vehicle Safety FRIDAY, Jan. 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- In ... hospital ER with injuries suffered in a motor vehicle accident. Race was another factor that raised the ...

72

[Fatal accidents at train intersections in Denmark].  

PubMed

Material was collected concerning fatal level-crossing accidents in Denmark during the period 1.1.1980 to 31.12.1987. The epidemiological and traumatic circumstances are illustrated. A total of 51 fatal level-crossing accidents occurred which corresponds to 1% of all the annual traffic deaths in Denmark. The majority of the accidents occurred in good weather conditions and between 12 noon and 3.59 pm. Single-person accidents constituted 75%. The majority of the persons killed belonged to the local population and were familiar with the local conditions. The majority of the accidents were the local conditions. The majority of the accidents were due to poor visual conditions and lack of attention. In level-crossings with a keeper, the commonest causes were blinding by the sun and fog. The majority of the accidents occurred in level-crossings marked by light and sound signals. The risk for accidents in these crossings is six times as great as in crossings with half barriers. Private cars were most frequently involved and the persons killed in these died of head and cerebral injuries because the train buffers hit them at head height. Derailing of the trains was only seen on three occasions where the obstructing vehicles were heavy lorries. The fact that more derailings did not occur must be due to the low rate of the trains in the railway sidings where the majority of accidents occurred. A few proposals are made for prophylactic measures. PMID:2296808

Kejlaa, G

1990-01-01

73

VEHICLE DYNAMICS CONTROL WITH ROLLOVER PREVENTION FOR ARTICULATED HEAVY TRUCKS  

E-print Network

VEHICLE DYNAMICS CONTROL WITH ROLLOVER PREVENTION FOR ARTICULATED HEAVY TRUCKS Daniel D. Eisele potential to reduce or prevent the occurrence of these types of accidents. The Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC. The Vehicle Dynamics Control system (VDC) actively brakes individual wheels to directly influence vehicle yaw

Peng, Huei

74

Cellular phones and traffic accidents: An epidemiological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using epidemiological case-control design and logistic regression techniques, this study examined the association of cellular phone use in motor vehicles and traffic accident risk. The amount of time per month spent talking on a cellular phone and 18 other driver inattention factors were examined. Data were obtained from: 1.(1) a case group of 100 randomly selected drivers involved in accidents

John M. Violanti; James R. Marshall

1996-01-01

75

Road traffic accidents in Kenya: an epidemiological appraisal.  

PubMed

A descriptive analysis of road traffic accident (RTA) and injury data in Kenya was done using routine accident reports, official statistical abstracts, published and unpublished surveys. The characteristics of injury-producing accidents examined included trends, distribution patterns, risk factors, types of vehicles involved, and road-users injured or killed. The numbers killed increased by 578%, while non-fatal casualties rose by 506% between 1962 and 1992. Fatality rate per 10,000 vehicles increased from 50.7 to 64.2, while fatality per 100,000 population ranged between 7.3 and 8.6. 66% of the accidents occurred during daytime. 60% of the reported RTAs occurred on rural roads and had a higher case fatality rate (CFR) of 16% compared to those occurring in urban areas (11%). Human factors were responsible for 85% of all causes. Vehicle-pedestrian collisions were most severe and had the highest CFR of 24%, while only 12% of injuries resulting from vehicle-vehicle accidents were fatal. Utility vehicles, 'matatus' and buses were involved in 62% of the injury producing accidents. Of all traffic fatalities reported, pedestrians comprised 42%, passengers 38%, drivers 12%, and cyclists 8%. The high pedestrian and passenger deaths imply the need to investigate the underlying risk factors, operational and policy issues involved in the transport system, and to develop and implement appropriate responsive road safety interventions. PMID:7555886

Odero, W

1995-05-01

76

Fatal traffic accidents among trailer truck drivers and accident causes as viewed by other truck drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causality factors, the responsibility of the driver and driver fatigue-related factors were studied in fatal two-vehicle accidents where a trailer truck driver was involved during the period of 1991–1997 (n=337). In addition, 251 long-haul truck drivers were surveyed in order to study their views regarding contributing factors in accidents involving trucks and the development of possible countermeasure against driver fatigue.

Helinä Häkkänen; Heikki Summala

2001-01-01

77

Development of a collaborative vehicle collision avoidance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced systems for driver assistance in combination with new preventive safety systems offer great potential for collision avoidance, reducing accident severity and increasing occupant protection. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a system targeting to vehicle collision avoidance in emergency situations. The proposed system provides the nearby vehicles with information about possible accident involvement. The main feature of

Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; George I. Patoulidis; Ioannis N. Vandikas; Constantinos Parisses; Nikos Asimopoulos

2010-01-01

78

Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response  

SciTech Connect

The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

2000-06-06

79

Sleep Apnea: Traffic and Occupational Accidents – Individual Risks, Socioeconomic and Legal Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with a high risk for motor vehicle accidents, probably the highest of all risks due to medical conditions. Treatment of sleep apnea with nasal continuous positive airway pressure appears to reduce the risk of traffic accidents to the one of the general population. The risk for accidents may also be increased in untreated patients

Daniel Rodenstein

2009-01-01

80

3D Laser Scanning for Road Safety and Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of traffic reconstruction is to recreate motor vehicle collision scenes in order to analyze the dynamics of the collision events, to provide evidence in court cases and allow the manufacturers to evaluate the vehicle's design. However, at the scene of the accident it is not known exactly the amount of information that will be required at the

Vassilios PAGOUNIS; Maria TSAKIRI; Spriridon PALASKAS; Barbara BIZA

81

CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS  

SciTech Connect

Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

2007-05-23

82

Situation Assessment of an Autonomous Emergency Brake for Arbitrary Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collision Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomous emergency brake (AEB) is an active safety function for vehicles which aims to reduce the severity of a collision. An AEB performs a full brake when an accident becomes unavoidable. Even if this system cannot, in general, avoid the accident, it reduces the energy of the crash impact and is therefore referred to as a collision mitigation system.

Nico Kaempchen; Bruno Schiele; Klaus Dietmayer

2009-01-01

83

Smart Vehicle System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to overcome the accidental problem happens in the night, while the driver is drunk or feels sleepy. This system controls the speed of the vehicle at steep turns. It is designed, to provide the information to the driver, whether the next turn is right/left, is there any traffic jam or land sliding in the coming way. It also assists during heavy rains and mist conditions. It may be implemented by using computer or by using a dedicated microcontroller. If we have a group of vehicles connected with the system then we can locate them by using the cameras, at different places. Information regarding any vehicle can be transmitted anywhere using Internet provided at the monitoring system, so as to prevent accidents or provide information during any calamity.

Pahadiya, Pallavi; Gupta, Rajni

2010-11-01

84

Personnel emergency carrier vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

Owens, Lester J. (inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (inventor)

1987-01-01

85

Simulation study of traffic car accidents in single-lane highway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we numerically study the probability Pac of the occurrence of car accidents in the extended Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model in the case of mixture of fast (Vmax1=5) and slow vehicles (Vmax2=1) by taking also to the risky overtaking of fast vehicles. In comparison with previous existing models, we find that accidents can occur in the free traffic phase and/or congested one depending on the overtaking rate of fast vehicles. The effect of evacuation of damaged vehicles from the road with probabilities Pevf and Pevs of fast and slow vehicles respectively on the traffic flow behavior is also computed.

Bentaleb, Khalid; Lakouari, Noureddine; Marzoug, Rachid; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

2014-11-01

86

Nuclear Power Plant Accidents  

MedlinePLUS

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENTS Nuclear power plants have safety and security procedures in place and are closely monitored by the ... a plume). What are the main dangers of nuclear power plant accidents? Radioactive materials in the plume from the nuclear ...

87

Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

1999-01-01

88

[Accidents of fulguration].  

PubMed

Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous investigations. PMID:1008283

Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

1976-01-01

89

Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

2014-12-01

90

Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection  

SciTech Connect

A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy`s Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

1992-11-01

91

Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection  

SciTech Connect

A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy's Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

1992-01-01

92

Nuclear criticality accidents.  

PubMed

Criticality occurs when a sufficient quantity of fissionable material is accumulated, and it results in the liberation of nuclear energy. All process accidents have involved plutonium or highly enriched uranium, as have most of the critical experiment accidents. Slightly enriched uranium systems require much larger quantities of material to achieve criticality. An appreciation of criticality accidents should be based on an understanding of factors that influence criticality, which are discussed in this article. PMID:1962246

Smith, D R

1991-01-01

93

Laser accidents: Being Prepared  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

Barat, K

2003-01-24

94

Terrain-Aware Rollover Prediction for Ground Vehicles Using the Zero-Moment Point Method  

E-print Network

Lapapong and Sean N. Brennan*, Member, IEEE Abstract-- Rollover accidents are one of the leading causes of death in highway accidents due to their very high fatality rate. A key challenge in preventing rollover], motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in the United State when causes of death

Brennan, Sean

95

Experimental Validation of Terrain-Aware Rollover Prediction for Ground Vehicles Using the Zero-Moment  

E-print Network

of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University 318 Leonhard Building, University Park.edu, and sbrennan@psu.edu Rollover accidents are one of the leading causes of death in highway accidents due of Health and Human Services [1], motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in the United

Brennan, Sean

96

Traffic Accident involvement rates by driver age and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger-vehicle travel data from the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey were combined with crash data from the 1990 Fatal Accident Reporting System and the 1990 General Estimates System to produce crash involvement rates per vehicle-mile of travel. Elevated rates were observed for drivers aged 16–19 and 75 and over. The oldest drivers had the highest fatal involvement rate, while the

Dawn L. Massie; Kenneth L. Campbell; Allan F. Williams

1995-01-01

97

An accident-severity analysis for a uniform-spacing headway policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future automatic highway systems should operate at high capacities (?3600 vehicles\\/lane\\/h) over a range of highway speeds (13-26.8 m\\/s). Under such conditions it would be impossible to eliminate accidents. Here, a methodology to ascertain the severity of one especially critical accident, multivehicle collisions resulting from the emergency braking of a platoon of automatically controlled, closely spaced vehicles, is presented. This

J. Glimm; ROBERT E. FENTON

1980-01-01

98

Incentive systems for accident-free and violation-free driving in the general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive model of driver behaviour and accident causation shows four central variables: (a) perceptual skills relative to accident risk, (b) judgemental (decisional) skills relevant to risk-reducing and risk-enhancing actions, (c) psychomotor control skills related to vehicle handling and (d) the target level of risk, that is the degree of risk the driver wishes to accept. It can be shown

GERALD J. S. WILDE; PAUL A. MURDOCH

1982-01-01

99

LES ACCIDENTS DE DECOMPRESSION  

E-print Network

LES ACCIDENTS DE DECOMPRESSION LES EFFETS DE L'IMMERSION SUR LE PLONGEUR LES ACCIDENTS DE DECOMPRESSION LE TRAITEMENT IMMEDIAT : POURQUOI ? CONCLUSION #12;EFFETS DE L'IMMERSION SUR LE PLONGEUR : 1- SUR DECOMPRESSION : 1- LES LOIS PHYSIQUES : RAPPELS 2- LA MALADIE DE DECOMPRESSION 3- LES FORMES CLINIQUES DES ADD

Jacquet, Stéphan

100

Civil aircraft accident investigation.  

PubMed

This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

Haines, Daniel

2013-01-01

101

The Tokaimura Nuclear Accident  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1999 accident at the Tokaimura nuclear fuel processing plant near Tokyo is the context for a student discussion on nuclear power and the consequences of a nuclear accident. The case covers issues ranging from chemical process safety to risk management

Michael E. Ryan

2001-09-01

102

Simulation study of traffic accidents on a three-lane highway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsuitable driving behaviors often lead to the occurrence of traffic accidents. To reduce accidents and to prolong human life, simulated investigations are highly desirable to evaluate the effect of traffic safety in terms of number of traffic accidents. In this paper, a three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to analyze the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents on highway. We define appropriate driving rules for the forward moving and lane changing of the vehicles. Three types of vehicle accidents are designed to investigate the relationships between different driving behaviors and traffic accidents. We simulate four road driving strategies, and compute the traffic flow, velocity, lane-changing frequency and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents for different road driving strategies. According to the simulation and analysis, it is shown that the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents can be reduced by using the specified road driving strategies. Additionally, we found that the occurrence of traffic accidents can be avoided when the slow vehicles are suitably constrained to move on a three-lane highway.

Chang, Jau-Yang; Lai, Wun-Cing

2015-07-01

103

Persistence of airline accidents.  

PubMed

This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

2010-10-01

104

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

105

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

1986-04-15

106

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

107

On-Road Vehicle Detection Using Optical Sensors: A Review  

E-print Network

lives and finance caused by vehicle accidents; second, the availability of feasible technologies on a low-end PC in realtime. This paper provides a critical survey of recent vision-based on-road vehicle static such as in traffic/driveway monitoring systems). I. INTRODUCTION Every minute, on average

Bebis, George

108

Driver Behavior and Situation Aware Brake Assistance for Intelligent Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the development of Human-Centric Intelligent Driver Assistance Systems. Rear-end collisions account for a large portion of traffic accidents. To help mitigate this problem, predictive braking systems and adaptive cruise control systems have been developed. However, these types of systems usually rely solely on the vehicle and vehicle surround sensors, either ignoring the human component of driving

Joel C. McCall; Mohan M. Trivedi

2007-01-01

109

Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program  

SciTech Connect

The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

NONE

1996-12-01

110

Accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study examines the accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of motorcyclists who are at higher fatality risk and subsequently be the targeted group for the fatality-reduction countermeasures. A total of 412 motorcycle crash victims with serious or fatal injuries were analysed. The results showed that the injured motorcyclists were predominant young, novice riders of less than 3 years licensure and male. A fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a larger engine capacity motorcycle, collision with a heavy vehicle, head on collision, and collision at a non-junction road. In contrast, a non-fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a small engine capacity motorcycle, collision with another motorcycle or passenger car, junction accidents, and side or rear collisions. PMID:11072490

Pang, T Y; Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Ahmad, M M; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

2000-03-01

111

FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included....

112

Accidents Involving Handicapped Drivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents a brief overview of the history of driving by the handicapped, surveys the literature on the record of handicapped drivers and accidents, and relates a New York State study on the subject. (PHR)

Negri, D. Barry; Ibison, Richard A.

1979-01-01

113

Accident resistant transport container  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

Andersen, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, James K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1980-01-01

114

NO NAME:Accident reporting and Auto Insurance.doc July 15, 2014  

E-print Network

NO NAME:Accident reporting and Auto Insurance.doc July 15, 2014 STATEMENT OF RESOURCES TO ADDRESS/comprehensive insurance for North Carolina Motor Fleet Management Division motor vehicles assigned to the University University business and have no bearing on private or unauthorized use of these vehicles. C. Automobile

Kelly, Scott David

115

Accident management information needs  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-04-01

116

Real time lane detection for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing safety and reducing road accidents, thereby saving lives are one of great interest in the context of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Apparently, among the complex and challenging tasks of future road vehicles is road lane detection or road boundaries detection. It is based on lane detection (which includes the localization of the road, the determination of the relative

A. A. M. Assidiq; O. O. Khalifa; R. Islam; S. Khan

2008-01-01

117

The interaction of lightning with airborne vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the available information on the mechanisms of lightning-aircraft interactions based primarily on studies involving four different instrumented aircraft. Further, we present available statistics on lightning-related aircraft incidents as a function of aircraft altitude and of ambient temperature. Finally, we examine the most significant aircraft and launch vehicle accidents attributed to lightning.

M. A. Uman; V. A. Rakov

2003-01-01

118

Site and landscape conditions at white-tailed deer\\/vehicle collision locations in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle collisions with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) present several problems including danger to humans, vehicle damage, and deer mortality. Knowledge of factors influencing deer movements onto or across roads and highways may reduce deer\\/vehicle collisions on existing roads, and improve planning for future roads. We used remotely sensed data to determine characteristics associated with high accident areas. Topographic features

Rebecca A. Finder; John L. Roseberry; Alan Woolf

1999-01-01

119

Vehicle systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

1993-01-01

120

Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.  

PubMed

The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that the accuracy is much better than other methods. PMID:24448469

Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed

2014-04-01

121

Helicopter accident survivability.  

PubMed

Army Air Corps accident and fatality rates have now reached levels which compare favourably with data from other civilian and military sources. This improvement is the result of enhanced helicopter design and parallel progress in aircrew training. The introduction of new generations of turbine powered rotor craft has largely eliminated mechanical failure as the cause of accident. As a result 75% of Army Air Corps accidents are due to pilot error. This contribution is likely to increase in the future as the pilot's task is made more difficult by the incumberance of personal equipment. Methods whereby occupant protection and aircraft crashworthiness can be improved are reviewed and it is concluded that it would make sound economic sense to implement some of these well proven design features. PMID:6527344

Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

1984-10-01

122

Robotic vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

123

Robotic vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

124

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1997-02-11

125

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1998-08-11

126

Transportation Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... withstand damage. What are the main dangers of transportation accidents involving radiation? The main dangers of transportation ... the transport container. http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENTS If you believe you have been exposed, ...

127

Simulation study of car accidents at the intersection of two roads in the mixed traffic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using cellular automata (CA) Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model, we numerically study the probability Pac of the occurrence of car accidents at nonsignalized intersection when drivers do not respect the priority rules. We also investigated the impact of mixture lengths and velocities of vehicles on this probability. It is found that in the first case, where vehicles distinguished only by their lengths, the car accidents start to occur above a critical density ?c. Furthermore, the increase of the fraction of long vehicles (FL) delays the occurrence of car accidents (increasing ?c) and increases the risk of collisions when ? > ?c. In other side, the mixture of maximum velocities (with same length for all vehicles) leads to the appearance of accidents at the intersection even in the free flow regime. Moreover, the increase of the fraction of fast vehicles (Ff) reduces the accident probability (Pac). The influence of roads length is also studied. We found that the decrease of the roads length enhance the risk of collision.

Marzoug, R.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

2015-05-01

128

Solid Rocket Launch Vehicle Explosion Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical explosion data from full scale solid rocket launch vehicle accidents and tests were collected from all available literature from the 1950s to the present. In general data included peak blast overpressure, blast impulse, fragment size, fragment speed, and fragment dispersion. Most propellants were 1.1 explosives but a few were 1.3. Oftentimes the data from a single accident was disjointed and/or missing key aspects. Despite this fact, once the data as a whole was digitized, categorized, and plotted clear trends appeared. Particular emphasis was placed on tests or accidents that would be applicable to scenarios from which a crew might need to escape. Therefore, such tests where a large quantity of high explosive was used to initiate the solid rocket explosion were differentiated. Also, high speed ground impacts or tests used to simulate such were also culled. It was found that the explosions from all accidents and applicable tests could be described using only the pressurized gas energy stored in the chamber at the time of failure. Additionally, fragmentation trends were produced. Only one accident mentioned the elusive "small" propellant fragments, but upon further analysis it was found that these were most likely produced as secondary fragments when larger primary fragments impacted the ground. Finally, a brief discussion of how this data is used in a new launch vehicle explosion model for improving crew/payload survival is presented.

Richardson, E. H.; Blackwood, J. M.; Hays, M. J.; Skinner, T.

2014-01-01

129

Hypothetical Reactor Accident Study  

E-print Network

for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the tesident population as given in a Typical BWR and in a typical PWR. Comparison with WASH-1400 by C F . Højerup 202 APPENDIX 3. Calculation

130

Challenger accident after launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photographs of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident January 28, 1986 were taken by a 70mm tracking camera at UCS 15 south of Pad 39B, at 11:39:16.795 EST and 11:39:19.261 EST. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo numbers are 108-KSC-86PC-149 and 151

1986-01-01

131

Challenger accident after launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident January 28, 1986 was taken by a 70mm tracking camera at UCS 15 south of Pad 39B, at 11:39:40.061 est. Notice the smoke trails caused by flying debris. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-86PC-155.

1986-01-01

132

Challenger accident after launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photographs of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident January 28, 1986 was taken by a 70mm tracking camera at UCS 15 south of Pad 39B, at 11:39:28.161 EST and 11:39:29.094. Notice the smoke trails caused by flying debris (10177). The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo numbers are 108-KSC-86PC-152 and 153.

1986-01-01

133

Challenger accident after launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident January 28, 1986 was taken by a 70mm tracking camera at UCS 15 south of Pad 39B, at 11:39:40.861 est. Notice the smoke trails caused by flying debris. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-86PC-156.

1986-01-01

134

Challenger accident after launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident January 28, 1986 was taken by a 70mm tracking camera at UCS 15 south of Pad 39B, at 11:39:29.927 est. Notice the smoke trails caused by flying debris. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-86PC-154.

1986-01-01

135

Challenger accident after launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident January 28, 1986 was taken by a 70mm tracking camera at UCS 15 south of Pad 39B, at 11:39:16.061 est. One of the solid rocket boosters can be seen at the top of the view. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-86PC-147.

1986-01-01

136

Stress, violations and accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of stress among Western Australian car and truck drivers were investigated using an extended version of the Driver Behaviour Inventory (DBI) developed by Gulian et a\\/(1989). The associations between reported stress and drivers' accident or violation records were also examined. The DBI was mailed to two groups each of 500 truck drivers with 'high' or 'low' traffic violation involvements

L. R. Hartley; J. El Hassani

1994-01-01

137

[Drugs and occupational accident].  

PubMed

In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship. PMID:8852068

Bratzke, H; Albers, C

1996-02-01

138

The intriguing effects of ecstasy (MDMA) on cognitive function in mice subjected to a minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The use of ecstasy (MDMA) among young adults has dramatically increased over the years. Since MDMA may impair the users' driving\\u000a ability, the risk of being involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) is notably increased. Minimal traumatic brain injury\\u000a (mTBI) a common consequence of MVAs—produces short- and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To investigate the effects of an

Shahaf Edut; Vardit Rubovitch; Shaul Schreiber; Chaim G. Pick

2011-01-01

139

Factors Associated with Fatal Traffic Accidents in Tirana, Albania: Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the prevalence of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana, Albania, and describe their determinants. Methods This cross-sectional study included all road traffic accidents recorded by the Traffic Police Department of Tirana district for the period 2000-2005. A structured questionnaire included information about the type of traffic accident (fatal vs non-fatal event), year of event, age and sex of the responsible party, reason of accident, location and time of event, and the type of vehicle involved. Multivariable-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of fatal road traffic accidents. Results Overall, there were 1578 recorded road traffic accidents in Tirana district during 2000-2005. Of these, 272 (17%) were fatal. Multivariable-adjusted models showed that younger age (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 2.28-6.91), high speed (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.62-3.98), and especially alcohol consumption (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 3.54-10.66) were strong and significant predictors of fatal accidents. Fatal accidents were more prevalent on intercity roads (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 3.11-5.82) and involved especially vans and trucks (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 2.34-7.24). Conclusion Young age, high speed, and alcohol are predictors of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana district. These findings can serve as a basis for health care professionals and policymakers to create preventive measures for traffic accidents. PMID:19090597

Qirjako, Gentiana; Burazeri, Genc; Hysa, Bajram; Roshi, Enver

2008-01-01

140

Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

2003-01-01

141

Aircraft accidents : method of analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The revised report includes the chart for the analysis of aircraft accidents, combining consideration of the immediate causes, underlying causes, and results of accidents, as prepared by the special committee, with a number of the definitions clarified. A brief statement of the organization and work of the special committee and of the Committee on Aircraft Accidents; and statistical tables giving a comparison of the types of accidents and causes of accidents in the military services on the one hand and in civil aviation on the other, together with explanations of some of the important differences noted in these tables.

1931-01-01

142

[Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].  

PubMed

Multiple injuries are frequently observed over the whole body of traffic victims in medico-legal autopsy cases. The assessment of a traffic casualty must include not only the victim but also the vehicle and the circumstances of the accident. Only consideration of all available data permits a better assessment of the mechanism of the crash and causation of injuries. J. M. Thevenet drove the first car carried from France to Japan on February 6, 1898. On October 28th, 1905, the first death by a road traffic accident occurred in Osaka. We performed a retrospective analysis of 279 traffic fatalities examined by medico-legal autopsy in Niigata that occurred over a twenty-two-year period from 1980 to 2001. All persons who had an ICD-10 code were grouped by 153 pedestrians, 43 pedal cyclists, 20 motorcycle riders, 45 car occupants, 11 occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 4 occupants of heavy transport vehicles and 3 others. The average of ISS (injury scale score) is 40.7 in pedestrians, 26.7 in pedal cyclists, 32.4 in motorcycle riders, 25.1 in car occupants, 16.5 in occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 24.0 in heavy transport vehicles and 69.0 in others. Rib fractures were observed in 170 cases (60.9%) and the frequency of other injuries was shown in Table 2. Criminal Punishment for drivers involved in 261 traffic accidents amounted to 35 sentences of imprisonment (13.4%), 46 suspension of execution of sentence (17.6%) and 60 sentence of fine (23.0%). Forty prone pedestrians run over by cars showed high ethanol levels in their blood. It was necessary to identify the driver of a vehicle in twelve car accidents and simulation with a computer is very useful. The average of ISS was 34.0 in ten drivers and 22.0 in fourteen fellow passengers. Four sudden natural deaths of drivers at the wheel, eight cases of death immediately after and from one day to five months after road traffic accidents, nine suicides and one intentional accident are excluded from traffic death. Both a medico legal and scientific compensation approach to automobile accident is now necessary. PMID:12415831

Yamanouchi, Haruo

2002-09-01

143

Autonomous vehicles  

SciTech Connect

There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

1996-08-01

144

Analyzing spatial-temporal patterns of motor vehicle crashes using GIS: a case study in Dallas  

E-print Network

This paper uses GIS to analyze the characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of motor vehicle crashes. These characteristics include that traffic accidents are most likely to occur in the afternoon "rush hour" (4:00 - 6:00PM...

Lu, Bing

2003-01-01

145

[A study of risk factors and the epidemiology of accidents in the child population].  

PubMed

The medical social and economic consequences of motor vehicle accidents in the infant population represent a major problem in public health. The present study was conceived as a descriptive epidemiological survey carried out retrospectively over a six-year period on the basis of case records. Potential risk factors related to accidents were: sex, social origin, age group, calendar month, day of the week, circumstances of the accident, parental supervision, location of the injury. In order to get a clearer image of how injuries are produced in traffic accidents, the collision of vehicles and pedestrians was studied in terms of bio-mechanics with special emphasis on the specific impact forces affecting pedestrians. PMID:2799625

Ursoniu, C; Vlaicu, D; Doroftei, S; Brindeu, L; Ursoniu, S

1989-01-01

146

Hybrid Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site takes you to the very informative essay at Motor Trend's site on its car of the year, the Toyota Prius (1). The next site is from the Union of Concerned Scientists. This great resource, called Clean Vehicles, offers all sorts of info about vehicles for the future (2). The Department of Energy's Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program page (3 ) offers lots of good information about the technology surrounding the cars as well as information on how you can get a tax break if you buy one. In fairness to both Honda (4 ) (Note: Honda also makes the Insight) and Toyota (5 ) these two sites take you to their webpages devoted to their two comparable hybrid cars, the Honda Civic Hybrid and the Toyota Prius. The last site takes you to a recent story on NPR about the future of hybrid technology and hybrid SUVs (6 )

147

Risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity in China.  

PubMed

With the recent economic boom in China, vehicle volume and the number of traffic accident fatalities have become the highest in the world. Meanwhile, traffic accidents have become the leading cause of death in China. Systematically analyzing road safety data from different perspectives and applying empirical methods/implementing proper measures to reduce the fatality rate will be an urgent and challenging task for China in the coming years. In this study, we analyze the traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report, are the only officially available and reliable source of traffic accident data (with a sample size>7000 per year). In particular, we focus on two outcome measures: traffic violations and accident severity. Human, vehicle, road and environmental risk factors are considered. First, the results establish the role of traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. An immediate implication is: if the traffic violation rate could be reduced or controlled successfully, then the rate of serious injuries and fatalities would be reduced accordingly. Second, specific risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity are determined. Accordingly, to reduce traffic accident incidence and fatality rates, measures such as traffic regulations and legislation-targeting different vehicle types/driver groups with respect to the various human, vehicle and environment risk factors-are needed. Such measures could include road safety programs for targeted driver groups, focused enforcement of traffic regulations and road/transport facility improvements. Data analysis results arising from this study will shed lights on the development of similar (adjusted) measures to reduce traffic violations and/or accident fatalities and injuries, and to promote road safety in other regions. PMID:23743298

Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Chen, Guanghan

2013-10-01

148

Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: A case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case–control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003–2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N=68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005–2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples

Hallvard Gjerde; Per T. Normann; Asbjørg S. Christophersen; Sven Ove Samuelsen; Jørg Mørland

2011-01-01

149

A STUDY OF HUMAN KINEMATIC RESPONSE TO LOW SPEED 'REAR END' IMPACT S INVOLVING VEHICLES OF LARGELY DIFFERING MASSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-to-vehicle front-to-rear end low speed collisions are a common type of accident configuration. Research has been conducted, especially in the United States of America, to investigate and to try to quantify the relationship between occupant movement and vehicle impact speed. The authors of this paper have been involved in research into \\

Brian Henderson; Phil Hoyes

150

Accident prevention manual  

SciTech Connect

Among our many common needs and goals are the safety and well-being of our families, ourselves, our fellow employees, and the continuing success of our organization. To these ends--minimizing human suffering and economic waste--the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Accident Prevention Program and this Accident Prevention Manual (APM) are dedicated. The BPA Accident Prevention Program is revised as necessary to ensure compliance with relevant Federal safety and health standards. The mandatory rules herein express minimum requirements for dealing with the principal hazards inherent in daily work activities. These and other written requirements, which neither can nor should provide complete coverage of all work situations, must be continually reinforced through the sound and mature safety judgments of all workers on each assigned task. The APM is divided into two distinct sections: (1) Rules, and (2) Switching and Clearance Procedure (Operating Bulletin No. 2). For added awareness, the life-or-death Safety Rules are captioned in red; both in the index and throughout the text.

Not Available

1996-06-01

151

Design and Implementation of Embedded Data Acquisition System for Mobile Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a FPGA based novel embedded automobile data acquisition system, which records vehicle's, environment's and driver's operation information intuitively. The data acquisition system is useful in the fields of traffic accident analyze and accident responsibility confirmation. The core of system is Altera's Nios II processor in FPGA. According to the trigger conditions set by users, the processor controls

Li Nan; Zhou Zhou; Li Qingjiang; Yin Qinghong; Sun Zhaolin; Xu Xin; Xu Hui

2010-01-01

152

Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is possibly an overlooked diagnosis of victims suffering from traffic accidents sustaining serious to severe injuries. This paper investigates the incidence of PTSD after traffic accidents in Germany. Data from an accident research unit were analyzed in regard to collision details, and preclinical and clinical data. Preclinical data included details on crash circumstances and estimated injury severity as well as data on victims' conditions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, breath rate). Clinical data included initial assessment in the emergency department, radiographic diagnoses, and basic life parameters comparable to the preclinical data as well as follow-up data on the daily ward. Data were collected in the German-In-Depth Accident Research study, and included gender, type of accident (e.g. type of vehicle, road conditions, rural or urban area), mental disorder, and AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) head score. AIS represent a scoring system to measure the injury severity of traffic accident victims. A total 258 out of 32807 data sets were included in this analysis. Data on accident and victims was collected on scene by specialized teams following established algorithms. Besides higher AIS Head scores for male motorcyclists compared to all other subgroups, no significant correlation was found between the mean maximum AIS score and the occurrence of PTSD. Furthermore, there was no correlation between higher AIS head scores, gender, or involvement in road traffic accidents and PTSD. In our study the overall incidence of PTSD after road traffic accidents was very low (0.78% in a total of 32.807 collected data sets) when compared to other published studies. The reason for this very low incidence of PTSD in our patient sample could be seen in an underestimation of the psychophysiological impact of traffic accidents on patients. Patients suffering from direct experiences of traumatic events such as a traffic accident and presenting with signs of clinically significant distress or impairment in social interactions should be treated in a team approach including not only trauma surgeons and surgical skilled staff but also psychophysiological experienced physicians. PMID:25345235

Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Petri, Maximilian; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

2014-01-01

153

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

154

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

Box, W.D.

1996-03-12

155

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

156

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

157

Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

2015-07-01

158

The effect of road characteristics on motorcycle accident in Batu east Java Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe of transportation on road is global problem with not only transportation problem, but also social teritory problem in sosial life. WHO pay attention to safe transportation on road to decide healthy day in the world 2004 with caption: Road Safety is no Accident. WHO is clariafy that road accident level in the world have to reach 1.2 mellion victim death and over 30 mellion injuries every year. As much 85% sacrifice death are accident in develop state, where vehicle number only 32% from vehicle number in the world. That becouse as the objective is to decide influence road charakteristics geometrics for motorcycle accident in Batu East Java Indonesia. Using some statistical analysis it is found that the best-fit motorcycle accident model is: Acc = 0,009F0,703exp(-0,334SW-0,361G+0.077S) Where: Acc = number of accident, F = Flow, pcu/hr, SW = shoulder width (m), S = speed, km/hr, G = Gradient (0,1) The model shows that the affecting factors are flow, shoulder width and speed, therefore local government should improve some related factor (flow, shoulder width, Gradient and speed) that can reduce the number of motorcycle accident at crossing road in Batu.

Abusini, Sobri

2013-09-01

159

Nonresponse analysis and adjustment in a mail survey on car accidents.  

PubMed

Statistical accident data plays an important role for traffic safety development involving the road system, vehicle design, and driver education. Vehicle manufacturers use data from accident mail surveys as an integral part of the product development process. Low response rates has, however, lead to concerns on whether estimates from a mail survey can be trusted as a source for making strategic decisions. The main objective of this paper was to investigate nonresponse bias in a mail survey addressing driver behaviour in accident situations. Insurance data, available for both respondents and nonrespondents were used to analyze, as well as adjust for nonresponse. Response propensity was investigated by using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. The survey data was then weighted by using inverse propensity weights. Two specific examples of survey estimates are addressed, namely driver vigilance and driver's distraction just before the accident. The results from this paper reveal that driver age and accident type were the most influential variables for nonresponse weighting. Driver gender and size of town where the driver resides also had some influence, but not for all survey variables investigated. The main conclusion of this paper is that nonresponse weighting can increase confidence in accident data collected by a mail survey, especially when response rates are low. Weighting has a moderate influence on this survey, but a larger influence may be expected if applied on a more diverse driver population. The development of auxiliary data collection can further improve accident mail survey methodology in future. PMID:22664706

Tivesten, Emma; Jonsson, Sofia; Jakobsson, Lotta; Norin, Hans

2012-09-01

160

Injuries associated with cycle rickshaws accidents  

PubMed Central

Context: Cycle rickshaw is an important means of transportation in Urban India. Pedestrians, rickshaw users, rickshaw pullers, two wheeled vehicle users and cyclists are among the most vulnerable road user groups in terms of injuries and fatalities resulting from road traffic accidents in India. Our objectives were to study characteristics of crashes and nature of injuries associated with cycle rickshaw. Patients and Methods: Between August 2008 to July 2009, a hospital based observational study was done of patients who presented to King George medical college trauma center with injury sustained due to cycle rickshaw in emergency department. Age, time of trauma, mode of trauma, contributing factors and type of injury were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient was 32.1. Seventeen patients were rickshaw pullers and the rest were occupants of the rickshaw. Overloading with more than two passengers was found in 24 cases (28.5%). Most common cause of injury was collision with a moving vehicle (56 patients, %) followed by fall from rickshaw. The most common contributing factor was the overloading of rickshaw. On arrival to the hospital, the mean Injury severity score (ISS) was 3.5 ± 2.2 and the mean Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was 13.4 ± 4.3. Nine patients were admitted to ICU (Intensive care unit). The median ICU stay was 4 (1-24 days). Six of the ICU admitted patients had head injury. Conclusion: Rickshaw pullers and occupants are vulnerable to road traffic accidents. Urgent preventive measures targeted towards this group are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries involving rickshaws. The need for improved understanding of the risk characteristics of cycle rickshaw is emphasized. PMID:24812450

Meena, Sanjay; Barwar, Nilesh; Rastogi, Devarshi; Sharma, Vineet

2014-01-01

161

A study of head–brain injuries in car-to-pedestrian crashes with reconstructions using in-depth accident data in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work was to study the dynamic responses and head–brain injuries in car-to-pedestrian collisions via accident reconstructions. Six pedestrian accident cases were used in the reconstructions using mathematical models of the pedestrians and passenger vehicles. The cases were selected from an in-depth analysis of accident data collected through on-the-spot and retrospective investigations and documented in a

F. Li; J. K. Yang

2010-01-01

162

Application of 3D documentation and geometric reconstruction methods in traffic accident analysis: With high resolution surface scanning, radiological MSCT\\/MRI scanning and real data based animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of traffic accidents is daily routine in forensic medicine. An important question in the analysis of the victims of traffic accidents, for example in collisions between motor vehicles and pedestrians or cyclists, is the situation of the impact.Apart from forensic medical examinations (external examination and autopsy), three-dimensional technologies and methods are gaining importance in forensic investigations. Besides the

Ursula Buck; Silvio Naether; Marcel Braun; Stephan Bolliger; Hans Friederich; Christian Jackowski; Emin Aghayev; Andreas Christe; Peter Vock; Richard Dirnhofer; Michael J. Thali

2007-01-01

163

Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents  

SciTech Connect

The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

McClure, J. D.

1981-07-01

164

48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836.513 Section 836.513 ...Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts...

2010-10-01

165

Estimating the Risk of Collisions between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections  

E-print Network

intersections in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. This data set contains BMV accident data, bicycle flow data, motorEstimating the Risk of Collisions between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections-2700 Abstract. Collisions between bicycles and motor vehicles have caused severe life and property losses

Washington at Seattle, University of

166

First Responders and Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

2005-11-01

167

Cernavoda CANDU severe accident evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers present the activities dedicated to Romania Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant first CANDU Unit severe accident evaluation. This activity is part of more general PSA assessment activities. CANDU specific safety features are calandria moderator and calandria vault water capabilities to remove the residual heat in the case of severe accidents, when the conventional heat sinks are no more available.

Gheorghe Negutt; Adrian Marin

1997-01-01

168

EDMS 894435 INTERNAL ACCIDENT REPORT  

E-print Network

.Lettry/AB-ATB ............................................................................................................................................................................. Information on the above accident 1 Description of the accident (summary of facts & circumstances) As foreseen in the overall schedule of the experiment, the emptying of the mercury inventory from the experimental equipment in an overflow. This overflow allowed mercury spillage into the surrounding retention containers and partly

McDonald, Kirk

169

Industrial accidents triggered by lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at

Elisabetta Renni; Elisabeth Krausmann; Valerio Cozzani

2010-01-01

170

German aircraft accident statistics, 1930  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

Weitzmann, Ludwig

1932-01-01

171

Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.  

PubMed

Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. PMID:20817399

Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

2010-12-15

172

Cosmeceutical vehicles.  

PubMed

Consumers will pay a premium for high-performance skin and hair care products. The demand exists, and in return for the high cost, consumers expect the product to perform as claimed and to meet aesthetic standards beyond many products found in the mass market. To be successful in this highly competitive market, products must function as claimed or consumers will not repurchase. Effective contemporary high-end products must be properly formulated in nonirritating vehicles that consumers will perceive as elegant. PMID:19695476

Epstein, Howard

2009-01-01

173

Design of an urban driverless ground vehicle Rodrigo Benenson  

E-print Network

of a driverless car for populated urban environments. We propose a system that explicitly map the static obstacles of driverless cars is expected to enhance the traffic circulation in the cities, reduce the number of accidentsDesign of an urban driverless ground vehicle Rodrigo Benenson INRIA Rocquencourt / Mines Paris

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

Analysis of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian accidents in China.  

PubMed

To study the characteristics of fatal vehicle-pedestrian accidents in China?a team was established and passenger car-pedestrian crash cases occurring between 2006 and 2011 in Beijing and Chongqing, China were collected. A total of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian collisions were sampled and analyzed. The pedestrian injuries were scored according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The demographical distributions of fatal pedestrian accidents differed from other pedestrian accidents. Among the victims, no significant discrepancy in the distribution of ISS and AIS in head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities by pedestrian age was found, while pedestrian behaviors prior to the crashes may affect the ISS. The distributions of AIS in head, thorax, and abdomen among the fatalities did not show any association with impact speeds or vehicle types, whereas there was a strong relationship between the ISS and impact speeds. Whether pedestrians died in the accident field or not was not associated with the ISS or AIS. The present results may be useful for not only forensic experts but also vehicle safety researchers. More investigations regarding fatal pedestrian accidents need be conducted in great detail. PMID:25287805

Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Yang, Guangyu; Che, Xingping; Xie, Jingru; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhengguo

2014-10-01

175

Review of Global Menace of Road Accidents with Special Reference to Malaysia- A Social Perspective  

PubMed Central

Road accident is ‘a global tragedy’ with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23–34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families. PMID:23386795

Kareem, Abdul

2003-01-01

176

Road Traffic Accident: An Emerging Public Health Problem in Assam  

PubMed Central

Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study. PMID:23878423

Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Ahmed, Faruquddin

2013-01-01

177

Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation

Julie A. Adams

178

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for PTSD Symptoms after a Road Accident: An Uncontrolled Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examined whether Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) could be used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident. Six individuals reporting either full or severe subsyndromal PTSD completed 10 sessions of VRET, which was conducted using software designed to…

Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Winer, Eliot H.; Schwagler, Brad E.; Ang, Eu Jin

2007-01-01

179

Sleep debt, sleepiness and accidents among males in the general population and male professional drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men from the general population and male professional lorry and bus drivers were surveyed with regard to sleep habits and motor vehicle and other types of accidents. A random sample of 4000 men in the general population of Dalarna County in mid-Sweden were mailed a questionnaire and served as referents. A total of 1389 male professional lorry and bus drivers

Ned Carter; Jan Ulfberg; Birgitta Nyström; Christer Edling

2003-01-01

180

An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

1998-11-01

181

A Comprehensive Analysis of the X-15 Flight 3-65 Accident  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The November 15, 1967, loss of X-15 Flight 3-65-97 (hereafter referred to as Flight 3-65) was a unique incident in that it was the first and only aerospace flight accident involving loss of crew on a vehicle with an adaptive flight control system (AFCS). In addition, Flight 3-65 remains the only incidence of a single-pilot departure from controlled flight of a manned entry vehicle in a hypersonic flight regime. To mitigate risk to emerging aerospace systems, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) proposed a comprehensive review of this accident. The goal of the assessment was to resolve lingering questions regarding the failure modes of the aircraft systems (including the AFCS) and thoroughly analyze the interactions among the human agents and autonomous systems that contributed to the loss of the pilot and aircraft. This document contains the outcome of the accident review.

Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Orr, Jeb S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Statler, Irving C.

2014-01-01

182

Methodology for fitting and updating predictive accident models with trend.  

PubMed

Reliable predictive accident models (PAMs) (also referred to as Safety Performance Functions (SPFs)) have a variety of important uses in traffic safety research and practice. They are used to help identify sites in need of remedial treatment, in the design of transport schemes to assess safety implications, and to estimate the effectiveness of remedial treatments. The PAMs currently in use in the UK are now quite old; the data used in their development was gathered up to 30 years ago. Many changes have occurred over that period in road and vehicle design, in road safety campaigns and legislation, and the national accident rate has fallen substantially. It seems unlikely that these ageing models can be relied upon to provide accurate and reliable predictions of accident frequencies on the roads today. This paper addresses a number of methodological issues that arise in seeking practical and efficient ways to update PAMs, whether by re-calibration or by re-fitting. Models for accidents on rural single carriageway roads have been chosen to illustrate these issues, including the choice of distributional assumption for overdispersion, the choice of goodness of fit measures, questions of independence between observations in different years, and between links on the same scheme, the estimation of trends in the models, the uncertainty of predictions, as well as considerations about the most efficient and convenient ways to fit the required models. PMID:23612560

Connors, Richard D; Maher, Mike; Wood, Alan; Mountain, Linda; Ropkins, Karl

2013-07-01

183

[Prevention of bicycle accidents].  

PubMed

For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (>?60 years) are a minority (10?%) but represent a majority (50?%) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145?% more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500?W and a possible speed of 45?km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96?% of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5?‰ alcohol in their blood, 86?% more than 1.1?‰ and 59?% more than 1.7?‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2?% of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1?‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93?% of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35?% significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9?% on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher Verkehrssicherheitsrat as, e.g., "Helmets are cool". Also, spots in TV should be broadcasted like "The 7th sense" or "Traffic compass", which were warning car drivers many years ago of moments of danger but now they could be used to warn bicyclists of life-threatening situations in traffic. PMID:25874397

Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

2015-04-01

184

Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.  

PubMed

Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter. PMID:12748865

Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

2003-08-01

185

Training rail accident investigators in UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK a number of high severity rail accidents, combined with structural change in the rail industry led to the need for revised accident investigation procedures. The revised procedure addressed identified issues with accident investigation, but to ensure maximum benefit in terms of identification of underlying causes of accidents and the production of good recommendations, training for rail industry

Stephen Watson

2004-01-01

186

Speed, speed limits and road traffic accidents under free flow conditions.  

PubMed

The relationship between various measures of traffic speed, under free flow conditions, and accident rate is investigated for two groups of sites, one in the Tyne and Wear county of the UK and the other in Bahrain. The effect of speed limits on traffic speed is estimated for both groups of sites. In Bahrain, there is statistically significant evidence of an association between mean speed and accident rate. In Tyne and Wear the statistical evidence is weaker, and points to a stronger relationship between accidents and the variability of traffic speeds. In both areas, there is an apparent decrease in accident rate if the percentage of heavy vehicles increases, with the speed distribution held constant. In both areas the effect of speed limits is to reduce the mean speed of traffic by at least one quarter. Higher speeds are associated with longer trips. PMID:10084631

Aljanahi, A A; Rhodes, A H; Metcalfe, A V

1999-01-01

187

Aircraft accidents : method of analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

1929-01-01

188

Differences in rural and urban driver-injury severities in accidents involving large-trucks: An exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the differences between urban and rural driver injuries (both passenger-vehicle and large-truck driver injuries) in accidents that involve large trucks (in excess of 10,000 pounds). Using 4 years of California accident data, and considering four driver-injury severity categories (no injury, complaint of pain, visible injury, and severe\\/fatal injury), a multinomial logit analysis of the data was conducted.

Ahmad Khorashadi; Debbie Niemeier; Venky Shankar; Fred Mannering

2005-01-01

189

Columbia Accident Probe Widens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia Accident Investigation Board has identified about a dozen shuttle program safety concerns it will address in its final report, in addition to foam shedding from the Lockheed Martin external tank-believed by many board members to be the direct cause for the loss of Columbia and her crew. As new evidence narrows the location of Columbia's left-wing breach to a lower corner of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) Panel 8 and its adjoining T-seal, the board is broadening its penetration of other shuttle safety issues. As the board works in Houston, United Space Alliance technicians here at Kennedy last week sent the first six of 22 RCC panels from the orbiter Atlantis left wing to Vought Aircraft Industries Inc. in Dallas for extensive testing to assess their integrity. The move is a key step toward both returning the shuttle to flight with Atlantis and obtaining more data on RCC panels subjected to fewer flights, and less exposure to the weather, than the older panels used on Columbia.

Covault, Craig

2003-01-01

190

An Aircraft Accident Investigation: Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft accidents are usually complex, and hence their investigation requires expertise from several fields. The challenge\\u000a for an investigating team is to analyze the bits and pieces of information gathered in the course of the investigation through\\u000a background information, interrogation, and material evidence and stitch them into a descriptive picture to arrive at the possible\\u000a cause(s) of the accident. During

S. K. Bhaumik

2008-01-01

191

Spine Immobilizer for Accident Victims  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed conformal bladder filled with tiny spheres called "microballoons," enables spine of accident victim to be rapidly immobilized and restrained and permit victim to be safely removed from accident scene in extremely short time after help arrives. Microballoons expand to form rigid mass when pressure within bladder is less than ambient. Bladder strapped to victim is also strapped to rescue chair. Void between bladder and chair is filled with cloth wedges.

Vykukal, H. C.; Lampson, K.

1983-01-01

192

Causes of fatal childhood accidents involving head injury in northern region, 1979-86.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To examine the causes and circumstances surrounding fatal accidents involving head injuries in children in the Northern region. DESIGN--Retrospective review of the hospital case notes, necropsy reports, and records of the coroners' inquests. SETTING--Northern Regional Health Authority. PATIENTS--All 255 children aged less than 16 years who died with a head injury during 1979-86. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cause of injury and circumstances of accident according to reports of inquests; injury severity score; number of fatal accidents and mortality per 100,000 children in 10 groups of local authority wards ranked according to their score on the overall deprivation index; and distance of site of accident from child's home. RESULTS--Of the 255 children who died after a head injury, 136 (53%) children were playing at the time of the accident. 195 (76%) children sustained the head injury in road traffic accidents, 135 as pedestrians, 35 as cyclists, and 25 as passengers in a vehicle. In 120 accidents in child pedestrians the primary cause of accident was the unsafe behaviour of the child. 172 (67%) accidents occurred within one to two km of the child's home and 153 (63%) between 3 pm and 9 pm. The mortality was significantly related to social deprivation; excluding eight children injured while on holiday in the region, 15-fold decrease in mortality was recorded between the local authority wards that ranked highest on the overall deprivation index and those that ranked lowest (14.0/100,000 children, group 10 v 0.9/100,000, group 1 respectively, p less than 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS--The finding that most accidents occurred in children living in deprived areas who were playing unsupervised near their home suggests that childhood mortality might be appreciably reduced if children at play were protected from traffic, particularly in socially deprived areas. PMID:2261557

Sharples, P M; Storey, A; Aynsley-Green, A; Eyre, J A

1990-01-01

193

Predicting cycling accident risk in Brussels: a spatial case-control approach.  

PubMed

This paper aims at predicting cycling accident risk for an entire network and identifying how road infrastructure influences cycling safety in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium). A spatial Bayesian modelling approach is proposed using a binary dependent variable (accident, no accident at location i) constructed from a case-control strategy. Control sites are sampled along the 'bikeable' road network in function of the potential bicycle traffic transiting in each ward. Risk factors are limited to infrastructure, traffic and environmental characteristics. Results suggest that a high risk is statistically associated with the presence of on-road tram tracks, bridges without cycling facility, complex intersections, proximity to shopping centres or garages, and busy van and truck traffic. Cycle facilities built at intersections and parked vehicles located next to separated cycle facilities are also associated with an increased risk, whereas contraflow cycling is associated with a reduced risk. The cycling accident risk is far from being negligible in points where there is actually no reported cycling accident but where they are yet expected to occur. Hence, mapping predicted accident risks provides planners and policy makers with a useful tool for accurately locating places with a high potential risk even before accidents actually happen. This also provides comprehensible information for orienting cyclists to the safest routes in Brussels. PMID:23962661

Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Thomas, Isabelle; Int Panis, Luc

2014-01-01

194

Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and evaluate margin recovery strategies.

Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

2014-09-01

195

ACCIDENT TOLERANT FUEL ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and evaluate margin recovery strategies.

Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

2014-09-01

196

Green Vehicle Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is geared toward consumers to help them choose the most fuel-efficient and clean vehicles. Users can download vehicle lists, look up vehicle ratings, learn more about reducing vehicle pollution, and use the links section to find further information. This is a timely site for a period when Americans might well want to think about reducing their dependence on oil.

197

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data  

EIA Publications

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

2013-01-01

198

Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents  

PubMed Central

Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

2014-01-01

199

EIC Climate Change Technology Conference 2013 Electric Trolleybus System Proposed for Downtown St. John's for Private Vehicles  

E-print Network

significantly elevating atmospheric levels [3]. Particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, carbon #12;EIC warming, and traffic congestion and accidents. Vehicle prevalence could lead to oil depletion and result in rising oil prices. To reduce the negative effects of on-road vehicles, this paper is proposing

Coles, Cynthia

200

Vehicle detection based on the use of shadow region and edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive and advanced driver assistance systems have attracted a great deal of attention lately. In these systems, effective and reliable vehicle detection is important because such systems can reduce the number of accidents and save human' lives. This paper describes an approach to detecting a forward vehicle using a camera mounted on the moving vehicle. In this paper, we describe two methods to detect a vehicle on the road. First, by using the vehicle's shadow, we can obtain the general location of the vehicular candidate. Second, we can identify the strong vertical edges at the left and right position of a vehicle. By combining the shadows and the edge, we can detect the vehicle's location. But other regions may also be detected, such as car windows, reflections, and illumination by the sun. In order to remove these other factors, defined as noises, we need to use a filter. After using the filter, we can calculate the exact location of the vehicle. Additionally, by using connected component labeling, we can obtain coordinates and establish the vehicle's location. Connected component labeling find all connected components in an image and assigns a unique label to all points in the same component. These methods are very useful for vehicle detection and the development of the driving assistance systems, and they can protect drivers' safety from having an accident.

Jeong, Sangheon; Kang, Seongkoo; Kim, Joongkyu

2013-07-01

201

Alternate vehicles for engine/vehicle optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle main engine, full flow staged combustion, integrated modular engine concept, split expander, and expander bleed rocket engine cycles were studied for use on Single-Stage-to-Orbit fully reusable vehicles. The vehicle uses vertical take-off and horizontal landing and liquid hydrogen rockets for propulsion. The PROPSIZE computer code was modified for use on the available computers. Vehicle sizing was done after trajectory optimization for various engine designs. The various rocket engine cycles were compared and it was found that the full flow staged combustion cycle had the lowest vehicle dry mass. The split expander cycle could have advantages in safety and cooling which could make it the preferred choice in some cases. Comparison to previous work with two-stage heavy-lift vehicles showed that the same ranking of the cycles was found for both vehicle concepts.

Venkatasubramanyam, G.; Martin, James A.

1993-01-01

202

Motor Vehicle Trauma: An Unnecessary Disease  

PubMed Central

The motor vehicle accident kills and maims more of our young people than any other affliction. Yet prevention of injuries and deaths from MVA receives less emphasis in medical education, medical publications and collective political action than the problem merits. In daily practice, there are numerous opportunities for prevention counselling, alcoholic driver case finding, and critical assessment of the privilege of driving. Within their community, family physicians can have input into some preventive programs. At government level, physicians should increase their pressure for legislative action to reduce MVA injuries and deaths. PMID:21267343

Johnson, Douglas H.

1987-01-01

203

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

James Francfort

2003-11-01

204

Investigation of the Challenger Accident  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (hereafter referred to as the Rogers Commission) and the work of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in investigating the causes of the accident were reviewed. In addition to reviewing the five volumes of the Rogers Commission, the entire direct on-line Rogers Commission data base, which included full-text and document retrieval capability was also reviewed. The findings and recommendations contained also include materials submitted for the record, staff investigations, interviews, and trips.

1986-01-01

205

Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order

Aram P. Hakobyan

2006-01-01

206

Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Five  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume V of the Report contains appendices that were not cited in VolumeI. These consist of documents produced by NASA and other organizations, which were provided to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board in support of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia The contents include:. Appendix G.1 Requirements and Procedures for Certification of Flight Readiness; Appendix G.2 Appendix R, Space Shuttle Program Contingency Action Plan; Appendix G.3 CAIB Charter, with Revisions; Appendix G.4 Group 1 Matrix Brief on Maintenance, Material, and Management; Appendix G.5 Vehicle Data Mapping(VDM) Team Final Report, Jun 13, 2003; Appendix G.6 SRB Working Group Presentation to CAIB; Appendix G. 7 Starfire Team Final Report, Jun 3, 2003; Appendix G.8 Using the Data and Observations from Flight STS-107, Executive Summary; Appendix G.9 Contracts, Incentives, and Safety/Technical Excellence; Appendix G.10 Detailed Summaries: Rogers Commission Report, ASAP Report, SIAT Report; Appendix G.11 Foam Application and Production Chart; Appendix G.12 Crew Survivability Report; and Appendix G.12 Aero/Aerothermal/ Thermal/Structures Team FinalReport, August 6, 2003.

Gehmann, H. W.; Barry, J. L.; Deal, D. W.; Hallock, J. N.; Hess, K. W.

2003-01-01

207

Prevention of road accidents in Australia.  

PubMed

Since 1970, the Australian road fatality rate has been reduced by two-thirds. Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts reduced the vehicle occupant fatality rate by more than one-third. Drunk driving countermeasures have included the 0.05 g% legal limit and mandatory disqualification, random breath testing, compulsory blood alcohol tests on all road crash casualties and a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motor cyclists. Since 1977 there has been a steady reduction in the proportion of driver and motor cyclist fatalities and casualties with illegal blood alcohol concentrations. Helmet wearing is compulsory for motor cyclists. A one-third reduction in accidents with injury among learner and probationary motor cyclists followed legislation restricting them to machines of 260 cm3 maximum engine capacity. Safety helmet wearing has been recently popularized among pedal cyclists and legislation is anticipated which will make approved safety helmet wearing mandatory. A considerably smaller reduction in our road toll would have occurred if Australians had been unwilling to accept countermeasures opposed by civil libertarians. PMID:6571110

McDermott, F T

208

Auto Accidents: Reducing Frequency, Increasing Recovery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Careful hiring, monitoring, training, discipline, and safety policies will reduce school automobile and bus accidents. Guidelines are offered for accident reporting, claim handling, and dealing with insurance adjusters. (MLF)

Comeaux, Linda Atkins

1988-01-01

209

29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section...Barricades § 1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags. (a) General...locations.html. (h) Accident prevention tags. (1) Accident...

2010-07-01

210

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

1981-01-01

211

Driving Circumstances and Accidents Among Novice Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The study evaluated the accident risk of certain driving circumstances and driving motives among novice drivers.Methods. Self-reported exposure and accidents according to driving circumstances and driving motives were compared between young (n = 6,847) and middle-aged (n = 942) male and female novice drivers. For young drivers, self-reported accidents were further compared to fatal accidents (n = 645) in

S. Laapotti; E. Keskinen; M. Hatakka; K. Hernetkoski; A. Katila; M. Peräaho; I. Salo

2006-01-01

212

Time Slows Down during Accidents  

PubMed Central

The experienced speed of the passage of time is not constant as time can seem to fly or slow down depending on the circumstances we are in. Anecdotally accidents and other frightening events are extreme examples of the latter; people who have survived accidents often report altered phenomenology including how everything appeared to happen in slow motion. While the experienced phenomenology has been investigated, there are no explanations about how one can have these experiences. Instead, the only recently discussed explanation suggests that the anecdotal phenomenology is due to memory effects and hence not really experienced during the accidents. The purpose of this article is (i) to reintroduce the currently forgotten comprehensively altered phenomenology that some people experience during the accidents, (ii) to explain why the recent experiments fail to address the issue at hand, and (iii) to suggest a new framework to explain what happens when people report having experiences of time slowing down in these cases. According to the suggested framework, our cognitive processes become rapidly enhanced. As a result, the relation between the temporal properties of events in the external world and in internal states becomes distorted with the consequence of external world appearing to slow down. That is, the presented solution is a realist one in a sense that it maintains that sometimes people really do have experiences of time slowing down. PMID:22754544

Arstila, Valtteri

2012-01-01

213

The Inoculation Accident at Mulkowal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I SHOULD like to Direct the attention of your readers to this matter. The evidence regarding the unfortunate Mulkowal accident, as given in the Lancet and the British Medical Journal for February 2, and in the Journal of Tropical Medicine for February 1, shows that on October 30, 1902, nineteen persons were inoculated from a single bottle of Haffkine's prophylactic

Ronald Ross

1907-01-01

214

NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

Patlach, Robert

2010-01-01

215

48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal...Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall...the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and...

2010-10-01

216

Social networking in vehicles  

E-print Network

In-vehicle, location-aware, socially aware telematic systems, known as Flossers, stand to revolutionize vehicles, and how their drivers interact with their physical and social worlds. With Flossers, users can broadcast and ...

Liang, Philip Angus

2006-01-01

217

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01

218

Green Vehicle Guide  

MedlinePLUS

What is a Green Vehicle? What you drive, how you drive, and what fuel you use can impact both the environment and your pocketbook. Learn ... and increases emissions? See More » Search for SmartWay Vehicles Find the cleanest, most fuel efficient vehicle that ...

219

Electric Vehicle Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

Moore, Pam

2011-01-01

220

Energy 101: Electric Vehicles  

ScienceCinema

This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

None

2013-05-29

221

Atmospheric entry of nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental/inadvertent termination of operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entries of the radioactive components into earth's atmosphere resulting from an accident or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal-rockets are investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the trans-Mars-injection maneuver due to simultaneous multiple failures of its component systems. The three different accident/abort modes considered are the following: (1) a constant-rate angular pitching motion of the vehicle, (2) a constant-acceleration angular pitching motion of the vehicle, and (3) the rocket engine breaks away from the rest of the vehicle with a finite relative (dispersion) velocity. The speeds and angles of the atmospheric entries are calculated for each mode for different values of the time of the accident, pitching rate, acceleration, and dispersion velocity. For the most severe entry speeds and flight-path angles, the stagnation-point pressures, heat transfer rates, thickness, and mass per unit area of the heat shields necessary to protect the radioactive components from disintegrating, deceleration g-loads, and high ground-impact velocities are calculated. The study points out that the high g-loads and high ground-impact velocities are the most serious problems that must be addressed.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul; Tauber, Michael E.

1992-01-01

222

Single pilot IFR accident data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft accident data recorded by the National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSR) for 1964-1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation (GA) single pilot instrument flight rule (SPIFR) environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964-1975 provided a basis for comparison. This effort was generally limited to SPIFR pilot error landing phase accidents but includes some SPIFR takeoff and enroute accident analysis as well as some dual pilot IFR accident analysis for comparison. Analysis was performed for 554 accidents of which 39% (216) occurred during the years 1976-1979.

Harris, D. F.

1983-01-01

223

Characterization of pedestrian accidents and an examination of infrastructure measures to improve pedestrian safety in Israel.  

PubMed

The high share of pedestrian fatalities in Israel provided the impetus for this study which looked for infrastructure solutions to improve pedestrian safety. First, a detailed analysis of pedestrian accidents in 2006-2007, with an emphasis on the infrastructure characteristics involved, was performed; it found that 75% of the fatalities and 95% of the injuries occurred in urban areas, the majority of cases occurring on road sections (not at junctions). About 80% of the accidents took place when a pedestrian crossed the road, the majority of them at non-crosswalk locations or at non-signalized crosswalks. International comparisons showed that the characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Israel were similar to the average pedestrian accident in Europe in terms of accident location, time, and the demographic characteristics of the victims. A typology of pedestrian fatalities in Israel was built for the years 2003-2006; it demonstrated a high share of accidents at these locations: in Jewish or mixed-population towns-not at pedestrian crossings on urban street sections, and both at pedestrian crossings and not at pedestrian crossings at urban junctions; in Arab towns; and on dual-carriageway rural roads. Second, based on a literature study, a summary of about 60 pedestrian-safety-related measures was developed. Third, to diagnose the infrastructure characteristics and deficiencies associated with pedestrian accidents, detailed field studies were carried out at 95 urban locations. A major finding revealed that more than 80% of the sites with a high concentration of pedestrian-vehicle accidents in Israel were situated on arterial multi-lane streets belonging to city centers, where on a micro-level there were no indications of major deficiencies in the basic design elements of most sites. Finally, cross-checking of the safety problems identified and the infrastructure solutions available provided lists of measures recommended for application at various types of sites. It was concluded that in order to generate a significant change in the state of pedestrian injury in Israel, a move from spot treatment to a systemic treatment of the problem is required. A systemic inquiry and the transformation of the urban road network should be performed in order to diminish the areas of vehicle-pedestrian conflicts and to significantly reduce vehicle speeds in areas of pedestrian presence and activity. PMID:22062338

Gitelman, Victoria; Balasha, Doron; Carmel, Roby; Hendel, Limor; Pesahov, Fany

2012-01-01

224

A theory-based preventive intervention program for bereaved parents whose children have died in accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting theoretical propositions regarding what type of support is most effective at what time during bereavement guided the development and initial testing of a preventive intervention program for bereaved parents. Parents whose adolescent or young adult children died within 4 days following a vehicle-related accident were assigned to early (2–6 months postloss) or later (7–13 months postloss) transition groups in

Shirley A. Murphy; Karen Aroian; Robert Baugher

1989-01-01

225

Preliminary Analysis of Aircraft Loss of Control Accidents: Worst Case Precursor Combinations and Temporal Sequencing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft loss of control (LOC) is a leading cause of fatal accidents across all transport airplane and operational classes, and can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of conditions and uncertainties, including multiple hazards, and their validation must provide a means of assessing system effectiveness and coverage of these hazards. This requires the definition of a comprehensive set of LOC test scenarios based on accident and incident data as well as future risks. This paper defines a comprehensive set of accidents and incidents over a recent 15 year period, and presents preliminary analysis results to identify worst-case combinations of causal and contributing factors (i.e., accident precursors) and how they sequence in time. Such analyses can provide insight in developing effective solutions for LOC, and form the basis for developing test scenarios that can be used in evaluating them. Preliminary findings based on the results of this paper indicate that system failures or malfunctions, crew actions or inactions, vehicle impairment conditions, and vehicle upsets contributed the most to accidents and fatalities, followed by inclement weather or atmospheric disturbances and poor visibility. Follow-on research will include finalizing the analysis through a team consensus process, defining future risks, and developing a comprehensive set of test scenarios with correlation to the accidents, incidents, and future risks. Since enhanced engineering simulations are required for batch and piloted evaluations under realistic LOC precursor conditions, these test scenarios can also serve as a high-level requirement for defining the engineering simulation enhancements needed for generating them.

Belcastro, Christine M.; Groff, Loren; Newman, Richard L.; Foster, John V.; Crider, Dennis H.; Klyde, David H.; Huston, A. McCall

2014-01-01

226

Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented. PMID:8936950

Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C

1996-10-01

227

Biomechanical injury evaluation of laminated side door windows and sunroof during rollover accidents.  

PubMed

Significantly more fatalities and serious injuries occur due to ejection in roll over accidents. The present study was conducted to determine the occupant retention and head-neck injury potential aspects of laminated glass in side door windows and sunroofs during roll over accidents. The test protocol for this study was based on National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies for advanced glazing. The impact study of 18 kg with head-neck form was conducted on laminated glass of side doors and sunroofs from production vehicles. The drop speed was varied from 11 to 16 kph. The Hybrid III 50% male dummy head-neck form was impacted on the approximately center of the glass portion of the windows. The head injury criteria, head resultant acceleration, and neck loads and moments were quantified. A series of drop tests were conducted on roll down side windows with laminated glass. The head-neck biomechanical parameters were well below the critical value injury tolerance limits. Results indicated that the glass contained the dummy assembly and the head-neck biomechanical parameters were below the critical value injury tolerance limits in simulated rollover accidents. The present study demonstrates that head-neck injury is unlikely due to laminated glass side windows and sunroof laminated glass used in production vehicles during rollover accidents and that the dummy is contained by the laminated glazing. PMID:12724901

Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Carlin, Fred; Friedman, Keith; Meyer, Steve

2003-01-01

228

Accident/Mishap Investigation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

2007-01-01

229

Application of cross-ratio in traffic accident reconstruction.  

PubMed

Nowadays, video recording devices such as CCTV, digital cameras, mobile phones and car video recorders are ubiquitous. It becomes more and more frequent that traffic accident scenarios are captured by such video recording devices in one form or another. The present study focuses on the direct extraction of vehicle speeds from video footages by cross-ratio, a well known invariant under specific conditions in projective geometry. The minimum requirements for an accurate and direct determination of vehicle speed by cross-ratio are 2 image frames of the video footage containing the subject vehicle which by and large moves along a straight path from one frame to the other and the time lapsed between the 2 image frames are known. With the aid of a calibrated Doppler radar, a control study has been carried out to validate the method and determine the baseline uncertainty. The validated method has been applied to a small number of real world cases and the results are promising. Experimental results indicate that it is possible to extend its application in speed determination by a car camera. PMID:24447447

Wong, T W; Tao, C H; Cheng, Y K; Wong, K H; Tam, C N

2014-02-01

230

Building Spacecraft & Launch Vehicles! Space Vehicle Design!  

E-print Network

Astronautics, 1958" ·! Energy budgets" ·! MALLAR, MORAD, ARP, MALLIR" ·! Safety and reliability of LOR Braun's acquiescence for LOR" Joe Shea" ·! Evolution of Saturn launch vehicles" ·! Development of rocket

Stengel, Robert F.

231

The Vehicle Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

Kuschel, Jonas

232

Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System  

PubMed Central

A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

2014-01-01

233

Sensor systems for vehicle environment perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System.  

PubMed

A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

2014-01-01

234

Electric vehicle parametric analysis  

SciTech Connect

During the period from 1990 to 1995, the automobile manufacturers of Europe, America, and Japan have been responsive to the need to re-evaluate the battery electric vehicle (EV) an a zero emission vehicle, and have released key design specifications and vehicle performance characteristics for more than thirty electric vehicles displayed at the: 55th IAA International Motor Show in Frankfurt, NAIAS`95 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, and the 30th International Motor Show in Tokyo. This paper includes a comparative parametric correlation analysis of these key design parameters which include: vehicle test mass, tire coefficients, overall aerodynamic drag and skin friction drag coefficients, equivalent flat plate frontal area, length to hydraulic diameter ratio, peak tractive force, peak traction motor power, and battery energy storage capacity. The conclusions show that the automobile manufacturers have achieved dramatic improvements in many of these key design parameters, and as a result the battery electric vehicle now promises to have a brighter future.

Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

235

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort

2004-06-01

236

Automatic vehicle location system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

Hansen, G. R., Jr. (inventor)

1973-01-01

237

Vehicle underbody fairing  

DOEpatents

A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA); McCallen, Rose (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09

238

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

239

Railway vehicle body structures  

SciTech Connect

The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

Not Available

1985-01-01

240

Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

1983-01-01

241

M.A. Figliozzi Page 2 ANALYSIS OF URBAN COMMERCIAL VEHICLE TOURS: EFFICIENCY,  

E-print Network

, geometric design, and prevalent traffic conditions (TRB, 2000). A similar statement can be said about the relatively higher impact of commercial vehicles on such urban issues as noise, pollution, accidents literature or in most urban freight models. A recent and comprehensive survey of urban freight modeling

242

White-tailed Deer Habitat Use and Movements Integrated with Factors Influencing Vehicle  

E-print Network

-vehicle collisions (DVCs) · Danger to humans ­ > 1 million accidents ­ > $1 billion worth of property damage ­ > 200 Highland Rim physiographic province · Infrared Camera Survey 2010: 20 deer/mile2 Study Area 1. Monitor it didn't make it ­ Transportation factors · traffic volume · traffic speed · road density · lack

Gray, Matthew

243

Beer Taxes, the Legal Drinking Age, and Youth Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a time series of state cross sections for the period from 1975 through 1981, we find that motor vehicle accident mortality rates of youths ages 15 through 17, 18 through 20, and 21 through 24 are negatively related to the real beer excise tax. We also find that the death rate of 18 through 20 year olds is

Henry Saffer; Michael Grossman

1987-01-01

244

Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

2010-01-01

245

Performance modeling of launch vehicle imaging telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation plan for the "return-to-flight" of the space shuttle after the spectacular Columbia disaster upon re-entering the earth's atmosphere on February 1, 2003 included significant upgrades to the Ground Camera Ascent Imagery assets at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The accident was due to damage incurred when a piece if insulating foam debris from the external fuel tank struck the left wing during take-off. The Ground Camera Ascent Imagery Project encompasses a wide variety of launch vehicle tracking telescopes and cameras at the Eastern Range. Most of these launch vehicle imaging telescopes are manually tracked and fitted with video and 35 mm film cameras, and many of them are fixed-focus (i.e., focused at the hyperfocal distance for the duration of the launch). In this paper we describe a systems engineering analysis approach for obtaining performance predictions of these aging launch vehicle imaging telescopes. Recommendations for a continuing maintenance and refurbishment program that closes the loop around the KSC photo-interpreter are included.

Harvey, James E.; Krywonos, Andrey; Houston, Joseph B., Jr.

2005-09-01

246

Overview of Electrified Vehicle Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains a chart describing the components of electrified vehicle systems based on the vehicle drive system. Vehicle drive systems in the chart include conventional internal combustion engine, start/stop, mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), medium HEV, full HEV, plug-in series HEV, and battery electric vehicle. The chart is provided in both .jpg and .ppt (PowerPoint) formats.

Center for Advanced Automotive Technology (CAAT)

247

HTGR severe accident sequence analysis  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.

1982-01-01

248

A Modular Telerobot Control System for Accident Response  

SciTech Connect

The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements eight different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

Anderson, Robert J.; Shirey, David L.

1999-07-20

249

ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS  

E-print Network

- 1 - ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS S. Brennan & A. Alleyne published sets of Vehicle Dynamics reveals a normal distribution about a line through - space. The normal

Brennan, Sean

250

Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective

Michael K. Lindell; Ronald W. Perry

1990-01-01

251

Sleep Disorders as a Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions  

PubMed Central

Studies have shown that a large proportion of traffic accidents around the world are related to inadequate or disordered sleep. Recent surveys have linked driver fatigue to 16% to 20% of serious highway accidents in the UK, Australia, and Brazil. Fatigue as a result of sleep disorders (especially obstructive sleep apnea), excessive workload and lack of physical and mental rest, have been shown to be major contributing factors in motor vehicle accidents. A number of behavioral, physiological, and psychometric tests are being used increasingly to evaluate the impact of fatigue on driver performance. These include the oculography, polysomnography, actigraphy, the maintenance of wakefulness test, and others. Various strategies have been proposed for preventing or reducing the impact of fatigue on motor vehicle accidents. These have included: Educational programs emphasizing the importance of restorative sleep and the need for drivers to recognize the presence of fatigue symptoms, and to determine when to stop to sleep; The use of exercise to increase alertness and to promote restorative sleep; The use of substances or drugs to promote sleep or alertness (i.e. caffeine, modafinil, melatonin and others), as well as specific sleep disorders treatment; The use of CPAP therapy for reducing excessive sleepiness among drivers who have been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. The evidence cited in this review justifies the call for all efforts to be undertaken that may increase awareness of inadequate sleep as a cause of traffic accidents. It is strongly recommended that, for the purpose of promoting highway safety and saving lives, all disorders that cause excessive sleepiness should be investigated and monitored. PMID:23626880

de Mello, Marco Túlio; Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Tufik, Sergio; Paiva, Teresa; Spence, David Warren; BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Verster, Joris C.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.

2013-01-01

252

Distance perception of vehicle rear lights in fog.  

PubMed

Perceptual difficulty is one of the main explanations given for the behavioral modifications and high accident rate associated with driving in fog. The present study investigates how fog and the characteristics of vehicle rear lights affect distance perception. Two experiments in a fog chamber (meteorological visibility range of 5-15 m) were run under conditions simulating nighttime fog. The participants gave verbal estimates of the distance (8-28 m) of vehicles simulated by rear-light arrangements. The results revealed an average increase of 60% in the perceived distance of vehicles in fog as compared with normal visibility conditions. Distance overestimation was particularly pronounced when the vehicle had only 1 fog light instead of 2 and when the lights were close together. No effect of light height was observed. These results suggest that the perception of vehicle distance in nighttime fog could be significantly improved by the presence of 2 lights with maximal spacing. Actual or potential applications of this research include vehicle rear light design. PMID:11866199

Cavallo, V; Colomb, M; Doré, J

2001-01-01

253

[Multiple injuries in mass accidents].  

PubMed

The treatment starts with reanimation, managing the shock, followed by life-saving surgery on the central nervous system, chest, abdomen, large blood vessels and the uropoietic system. From the very beginning the therapy should be conducted on an intradisciplinary basis, first with the anaesthesiologist, later with other specialists as required. Once the patient's life has been saved, treatment of eyes, hands and systematic attention to extremities should follow. Shock has to be managed within 24 hours. Luxations of large joints should be reposed on the date of injury, open fractures closed, all fractures immobilized in favourable position. No extension should be applied in patients suffering from brain injuries; fractures of the femur should be fixed surgically by a second team in the course of the neurosurgical operation. A stomatologist's assistance makes general anaesthesia possible even with fractures of the jaw. In mass accidents the therapeutic plan for the polytraumatized should be fixed on the following day. A mass accident involving 35 injured treated within two and a half hours demonstrates this procedure in 7 polytraumatized persons. PMID:6741324

Wondrák, E

1984-01-01

254

Vehicle Dynamics and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction

Rajesh Rajamani

2006-01-01

255

Photon Propelled Space Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interplanetary trajectories of vehicles propelled by solar radiation pressure are analyzed, and are shown to be logarithmic spirals if thrust direction is constant with respect to the vehicle-sun line. The required thrust may be obtained with a solar sail. Sail size as a function of trip time to Mars is determined for solar thrust, oriented tangent to the trajectory.

D. C. Hock; F. N. Mcmillan; A. R. Tanguay

1960-01-01

256

Understanding Older Vehicle Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future adaptations in vehicle design should be linked in some parts to the age-related changes often faced by the older users. The aim of this research is to investigate the multiple age-related changes of Chinese older vehicle users in order to assist designers to better understand current and future older users' needs. Although qualitative interpretative approaches have rarely been applied

Chao Zhao; Vesna Popovic; Luis Ferreira; Xiaobo Lu

2008-01-01

257

Vehicle electronic control method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of electronically controlling a vehicle having a clutch controlled by a clutch actuator, a transmission for changing gear ratios by a transmission actuator and having a synchromesh mechanism provided at gear positions other than a reverse gear position, and an electronic control unit for controlling both actuators in accordance with the vehicle running conditions. The method

T. Hattori; M. Ishihara

1986-01-01

258

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

259

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

260

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

261

Nuclear air cushion vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

Anderson, J. L.

1973-01-01

262

Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

Roman, Harry T.

2014-01-01

263

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

264

LIGHT-DUTYVEHICLES Vehicle Technology  

E-print Network

LIGHT-DUTYVEHICLES Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment areas ­ light- duty vehicles, non-light-duty vehicles, fuels, and transportation demand ­ in the context

265

MKV Carrier Vehicle Sensor Calibration  

E-print Network

The Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) system, which is being developed by the US Missile Defense Agency (MDA), is a midcourse payload that includes a carrier vehicle and a number of small kill vehicles. During the mission, the ...

Plotnik, Aaron M.

266

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-01-01

267

Dust Mitigation Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

Cardiff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

268

49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section 840.3...BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a...

2011-10-01

269

49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section 840.3...BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a...

2013-10-01

270

49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section 840.3...BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a...

2010-10-01

271

49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section 840.3...BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a...

2014-10-01

272

49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section 840.3...BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a...

2012-10-01

273

43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as...

2011-10-01

274

43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as...

2014-10-01

275

43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as...

2013-10-01

276

43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as...

2010-10-01

277

43 CFR 15.13 - Report of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accidents. 15.13 Section 15.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.13 Report of accidents. Accidents involving injury to life or property shall be reported as...

2012-10-01

278

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

2012-01-01

279

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

2010-01-01

280

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

2014-01-01

281

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

2011-01-01

282

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

2013-01-01

283

BLANKET STUDENT ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS INSURANCE  

E-print Network

BLANKET STUDENT ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS INSURANCE Especially Designed for Students of your resources and benefits under the plan of insurance sponsored by your school. It is not a contract of insurance. Your coverage is governed by a policy of student accident and sickness insurance underwritten

Suzuki, Masatsugu

284

BLANKET STUDENT ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS INSURANCE  

E-print Network

BLANKET STUDENT ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS INSURANCE Especially Designed for the Dependents Abroad. This brochure is a summary of your benefits under the plan of insurance sponsored by your school. It is not a contract of insurance. Your coverage is governed by a policy of student accident and sickness insurance

Suzuki, Masatsugu

285

The hermeneutics of accidents and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engineering aspects of road safety have now become so sophisticated that road accidents have seemingly reached an asymptotic level. Unfortunately this level is well above zero, and the remaining accidents seem to be due not so much to faults in the environmental interface as to carelessness and perversity. Mechanistic models of man are not well equipped to deal with

DONALD H. TAYLOR

1981-01-01

286

Exact Location : Date of Accident : AM PM  

E-print Network

SSN Cell Phone Home Phone Work Phone Exact Location : Date of Accident : AM PM Date accident. Send this completed form to Carole Shaver, Human Resources Phone : 757-221-3160 or Name of Witness : Was safety equipment used? Describe nature of Injury and describe body part affected (to include right

Swaddle, John

287

A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

2006-01-01

288

A serious game for traffic accident investigators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to ‘learn by doing’ in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative learning environment,

Ahmed Binsubaih; Steve Maddock; Daniela Romano

2006-01-01

289

Commuting road traffic accidents in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors associated with commuting road traffic accidents (RTA) in Croatia. A total of 1138 persons hospitalised for various accidents were surveyed in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected from 23 hospitals from all parts of Croatia during March–May 2008. The questionnaire encompassed personal data, socioeconomic status, lifestyle determinants and health status

I Kolcic; A V Jovic; U Rodin; I Brkic Bilos; N Antoljak; O Polasek

2010-01-01

290

Aircraft accidents.method of analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is a revision of NACA-TR-357. It was prepared by the Committee on Aircraft Accidents. The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military.

1937-01-01

291

The economics of nuclear accident law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statutes restrict the application of common tort law to accidents at nuclear power plants in Canada, the U.S., and other countries. The statutes transfer to the operator of a nuclear plant liability that would otherwise be placed on input suppliers and in return limit the liability of the operator. This essay addresses the impact on safety incentives of nuclear accident

Michael Trebilcock; Ralph A. Winter

1997-01-01

292

An Investigation of the Therac-25 Accidents  

E-print Network

for life-critical systems comes from small firms, especially in the medical device industry; firms that fit in accidents. Some of the most widely cited software-related accidents in safety-critical systems involved. As Frank Houston of the US Food and Drug Admin- istration (FDA) said, "A significant amount of software

Yang, Junfeng

293

Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

Perrow, Charles

1981-01-01

294

Diffuse Neck Swelling after Car Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neck connects the head with the trunk, and is easily injuried due to trauma. Herein we reported a case with diffuse neck swelling after car accident. She suffered from progressive dyspnea and cyanosis 3 hours after the accident and needed airway main- tenance with tracheostomy. A plain lateral radi- ograph and computed tomography scan of the neck showed diffuse

HUAN-WU CHEN; SHENG-CHAU HUANG; HUAN-WEN CHEN; KOU-MOU HUANG

2005-01-01

295

Risk Advisor for Car Accidents Javier Larrosa  

E-print Network

Risk Advisor for Car Accidents Javier Larrosa LSI­UPC 1 Description of the Problem The purpose of this project is to design a Bayesian Network modeling the risk of having a car accident, when planing a trip. -- Distance of the trip. -- Road conditions. -- Weather -- Car age -- Car equipment -- Car type -- Driver

Larrosa, Javier

296

A possibility to identify the vehicle driver through complex forensic and criminalistic expertise--case report.  

PubMed

Traffic accidents can have more or less dramatic consequences that involve penal and civil responsibility with amplitude extending over long periods of time. In many cases, substitution of the driver with the passenger in order to avoid criminal responsibility is often remarked. The substitution takes place with the passenger's agreement or, in cases with dramatic consequences (coma or death), without his/her consent. These situations are encountered in civil cases regarding insurance fraud. In addition to forensic medical expertise, to aid the experts, mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the dynamics of vehicle passengers is a tool that completes the criminal expertise of traffic accidents. This paper presents the method of identification of the person driving the vehicle based on the computer simulation of vehicle occupants' dynamics. PMID:25581977

P?duraru, G; Knieling, A; Scripcaru, C; Iliescu, Diana Bulgaru

2014-01-01

297

TRAVEL ACCIDENT INSURANCE PLAN 01-01-2012 The Travel Accident Insurance Plan provides 24-hour Accident coverage while on Authorized  

E-print Network

1 TRAVEL ACCIDENT INSURANCE PLAN 01-01-2012 The Travel Accident Insurance Plan provides 24-hour. Please note that the Employer reserves the right to amend or terminate this Travel Accident Insurance Plan at any time and for any reason. WHO IS ELIGIBLE FOR THE TRAVEL ACCIDENT INSURANCE PLAN? Active

Johnson, Peter D.

298

The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a description of The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal. The Information Portal was created by the Idaho National Laboratory as part of joint NRC and DOE project to assess the severe accident modeling capability of the MELCOR analysis code. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal was created to collect, store, retrieve and validate information and data for use in reconstructing the Fukushima Daiichi accident. In addition to supporting the MELCOR simulations, the Portal will be the main DOE repository for all data, studies and reports related to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. The data is stored in a secured (password protected and encrypted) repository that is searchable and accessible to researchers at diverse locations.

Shawn St. Germain; Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan

2012-11-01

299

[Thromboembolic accident after mitral valve replacement].  

PubMed

Between January 1981 and December 2000, we report 112 cases of mitral valvular replacement with bileaflet prothesis. Saint Jude prosthesis was implanted in 71% of cases. With a mean follow-up of 110 months we report a thromboembolic accident in 7 cases (6.2%). The linear rate of thromboembolic accident is 0.69% A/P. This complication was concerned 5 women and 5 men. The mean age is 54 years (43-65 years). An embolic accident without prosthesis thrombosis is noted in 6 cases. We report only one case of prosthesis occlusive thrombosis with urgent chirurgical intervention. Par rapport au RVM, l'ATE est survenue dans uns délai moyen de 129 months (86-168 months). Left atrium size, embolic antecedent, and bad anticoagulation are the predicted factors of thromboembolic accidents in our study. Patient age and sex, atrial fibrillation, type of bileaflet prosthesis don't influence the occurrence of thromboembolic accident. PMID:15382464

Drissa, Habiba; Ben Salah, Faten; Ben Romdhane, Seddika; Zaouali, Romdhane Mohsen

2004-03-01

300

Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies could provide an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. This analysis, however, does not take credit for the additional barrier and establishes only the total release fractions for bare unconfined intact commercial SNF assemblies, which may be conservatively applied to confined intact commercial I SNF assemblies.

J. Schulz

2004-11-05

301

Methane emissions from vehicles.  

PubMed

Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. We report results of a laboratory study of methane emissions using a standard driving cycle for 30 different cars and trucks (1995-1999 model years) from four different manufacturers. We recommend the use of an average emission factor for the U.S. on-road vehicle fleet of (g of CH/g of CO2) = (15 +/- 4) x 10(-5) and estimate that the global vehicle fleet emits 0.45 +/- 0.12 Tg of CH4 yr(-1) (0.34 +/- 0.09 Tg of C yr(-1)), which represents < 0.2% of anthropogenic CH4 emissions. This estimate includes the effects of vehicle aging, cold start, and hot running emissions. The contribution of CH4 emissions from vehicles to radiative forcing of climate change is 0.3-0.4% of that of CO2 emissions from vehicles. The environmental impact of CH4 emissions from vehicles is negligible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. PMID:15112800

Nam, E K; Jensen, T E; Wallington, T J

2004-04-01

302

Post-accident radiation monitors  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center of the Electric Power Research Institute, technical information and specifications were obtained for commercially available radiological monitoring instrumentation designed for use as post-accident monitors. The information was collated and published in the NSAC Handbook of Postaccident Instrumentation (Kathren and Laughlin 1981), and included such data as range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and energy dependence of the detector, environmental and seismic limitations of the equipment, the testing program performed to evaluate the equipment, a list of references where the instrumentation is currently installed, and a list of features and accessories available with the monitoring systems. The information presented in this section reveals that, even though a number of vendors claim to be able to meet the guidance of Regulatory Guide 1.97 (USNRC 1980), few have actually conducted tests to verify that their equipment does indeed satisfy the guidance of this Regulatory Guide, and that some of the guidance may in fact be unrealistic.

Laughlin, G.J.; Kathren, R.L.

1982-01-01

303

What can the drivers' own description from combined sources provide in an analysis of driver distraction and low vigilance in accident situations?  

PubMed

Accident data play an important role in vehicle safety development. Accident data sources are generally limited in terms of how much information is provided on driver states and behaviour prior to an accident. However, the precise limitations vary between databases, due to differences in analysis focus and data collection procedures between organisations. If information about a specific accident can be retrieved from more than one data source it should be possible to combine the available information sets to facilitate data from one source to compensate for limitations in the other(s). To investigate the viability of such compensation, this study identified a set of accidents recorded in two different data sources. The first data source investigated was an accident mail survey and the second data source insurance claims documents consisting predominantly of insurance claims completed by the involved road users. An analysis of survey variables was compared to a case analysis including word data derived from the same survey and filed insurance claims documents. For each accident, the added value of having access to more than one source of information was assessed. To limit the scope of this study, three particular topics were investigated: available information on low vigilance (e.g., being drowsy, ill); secondary task distraction (e.g., talking with passengers, mobile phone use); and distraction related to the driving task (e.g., looking for approaching vehicles). Results suggest that for low vigilance and secondary task distraction, a combination of the mail survey and insurance claims documents provide more reliable and detailed pre-crash information than survey variables alone. However, driving related distraction appears to be more difficult to capture. In order to gain a better understanding of the above issues and how frequently they occur in accidents, the data sources and analysis methods suggested here may be combined with other investigation methods such as in-depth accident investigations and pre-crash data recordings. PMID:23314359

Tivesten, Emma; Wiberg, Henrik

2013-03-01

304

[Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents].  

PubMed

Radioactive iodine isotopes may be released to air to a varying degree during accidents with nuclear reactors. Iodine tablets, taken before or shortly after such release, protect against intake of radioactive iodine isotopes, but not against other radionuclides. Iodine prophylaxis can be a relevant countermeasure in Norway and will be implemented according to recommendations from the Crisis Committee for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. The Chernobyl accident confirmed that the risk for radiogenic thyroid cancer is much higher for foetuses and children and adolescents under 18 years. An epidemiological study showed that intake of iodine tablets could reduce the risk for thyroid cancer by a factor of three. For children, the WHO has therefore recommended a 10 mGy avertable dose to the thyroid. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority acknowledge the WHO guidelines and advise that the first priority of all emergency preparedness planning for potential releases that can cause dispersion of radioactive iodine, should be given to the protection of pregnant and breast-feeding women, newborns and children under 18 years. Iodine tablets should be taken immediately (preferably not later than a few hours) in situations where inhalation of radioactive iodine may occur. It should be underlined that iodine prophylaxis is one of several emergency countermeasures; other measures are sheltering and evacuation. The latter two countermeasures will protect not only from intake of radioactive iodine, but also against other radionuclides that may be released. Based on the present risk assessment in Norway, iodine tablets have been distributed to the counties north of Salten. In addition, there is an emergency stockpile of iodine tablets in Oslo. PMID:17205086

Jaworska, Alicja

2007-01-01

305

Assured crew return vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

Cerimele, Christopher J. (inventor); Ried, Robert C. (inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (inventor); Ross, Brian P. (inventor)

1991-01-01

306

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12

307

Introduction to Electrified Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation was delivered by Anthony Tisler from the Michigan Academy for Green Mobility Alliance (MAGMA) at the Utica Community Schools’ Professional Development Day for Teachers in the Industrial Arts/Engineering Pathway, held at the Instructional Resource Center in Sterling Heights, MI on April 15, 2014. The presentation provides information on electric vehicle architecture and components. It is a great tool for introducing students at the high school or college level to various battery electric vehicle (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) components, configurations, and operation.

2014-05-28

308

S:\\RiskBC\\Risk Management\\Claims and Loss History\\Accident reporting and Auto Insurance.doc January 30, 2014  

E-print Network

S:\\RiskBC\\Risk Management\\Claims and Loss History\\Accident reporting and Auto Insurance.doc January is to provide guidance on liability and collision/comprehensive insurance for North Carolina Motor Fleet no bearing on private or unauthorized use of these vehicles. C. Automobile Liability Protection. Liability

Howitt, Ivan

309

Collaborative Situation-Awareness in Vehicles by Means of Spatio-Temporal Information Fusion With Probabilistic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive driver assistance systems are a key issue in the visionary field of accident-free driving. Vehicles should be enabled to foresee critical driving conditions and therefore inform their drivers in a timely manner. In this context, direct communication among vehicles complements on-board sensor systems, enabling a new paradigm in driving assistance: collaborative situation-awareness. However, such predictive and cooperative systems typically

Maximilian Reiss; Bernhard Sick; Markus Strassberger

2006-01-01

310

Spatial disorientation in general aviation accidents.  

PubMed

Spatial disorientation (SD) was the third highest "cause" of fatal accidents in small, fixed-wing aircraft and closely related to the second highest "cause"--"continued VFR flight into adverse weather." SD was a cause or factor in 16% of all fatal accidents. When SD was ascribed as a cause or factor in an accident, 90% of the time that accident involved fatalities. Small, fixed-wing aircraft under 12,500 lb (570 kg) accounted for 97.3% of all SD accidents. Inclement weather was associated with 42% of all fatal accidents, and SD was a cause or factor in 35.6% of these. Flight was initiated into and continued into adverse weather in 19.7 and 68.7%, respectively, of SD weather-related fatal accidents. Fog (56.8%) and rain (41.8%) were the most prevalent adverse weather conditions. These and other data attest to the importance of this psychophysiological phenomenon in flight safety. PMID:697670

Kirkham, W R; Collins, W E; Grape, P M; Simpson, J M; Wallace, T F

1978-09-01

311

An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

1975-01-01

312

Electric Vehicles 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation was developed by a member of MIT’s electric vehicle team and provides a basic overview of electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV and HEV) history, operation, challenges, and advantages. Discussed is EV/HEV history dating from 1830- 2010, the operation of EV/HEV systems (networking and sourcing of power throughout components), challenges (ranges, energy equivalence, consumer acceptance, charge time, grid integration, and cost), advantages (energy efficiency, fuel cost, and emissions), meeting challenges (convenient charging and improving technology), EV/HEV vehicles today (Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Roadster, and Fisker Karma), and MIT’s electric vehicle team (projects, awards, and competitions). For more info on the MIT team visit http://web.mit.edu/evt/.

2013-06-25

313

Remotely Operated Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center, learn how some students are putting to work both technical skills as well as soft skills, such as teamwork and problem solving, in creating underwater remotely operated vehicles.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-10-25

314

Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

Mueller, Thomas J.

315

Space Vehicle Valve System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

316

Compact Robotic Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio-controlled microrover features light weight and agility. Miniature robotic vehicle, called Go-For, implements new fork-wheeled mobility concept to traverse extremely rough terrain. Weighs 4 kg and is 0.4 m long, climbs over obstacles as large as 60 percent of its length. Mobility concept applied to much larger vehicles. Demonstrates such applications as exploration of planetary surfaces, military surveillance, and assessing hazardous situations. Video camera on vehicle sends images to control station, where human supervisor chooses sequence of paths to traverse to reach locations of interest. For planetary exploration, spectrometer and seisometer on vehicle sends scientific data to control station, and onboard tools collect soil and rock samples. Terrestrial version equipped similarly to take samples in chemically and/or biologically contaminated areas.

Wilcox, Brian H.; Ohm, Timothy R.

1993-01-01

317

Launch Vehicle Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

2005-01-01

318

Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

1986-01-01

319

Vehicle detection from aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle detection from aerial images is becoming an increasingly important research topic in surveillance, traffic monitoring and military applications. The system described in this paper focuses on vehicle detection in rural environments and its applications to oil and gas pipeline threat detection. Automatic vehicle detection by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) will replace current pipeline patrol services that rely on pilot

Joshua Gleason; Ara V. Nefian; Xavier Bouyssounousse; Terry Fong; George Bebis

2011-01-01

320

Development of severe accident procedures for Ringhals  

SciTech Connect

Symptom based procedures have been developed for Ringhals to improve the ability of nuclear power plant operators to respond to severe accident transients leading to core melt and reactor vessel failure. These severe accident procedures, together with the existing Ringhals emergency operating procedures, constitute an integrated package of consistent operator actions for dealing with severe accidents in both the short term and long term. The impact of the recommended operator actions evaluated based on Ringhals specific analyses performed with the MAAP 3.0 version B computer code.

Lutz, R.J.; Frantz, E.; Prokopovich, S.R. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Bastien, R. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Brussels (BE))

1988-01-01

321

Impact of nuclear accidents on marine biota.  

PubMed

The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, precipitated by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck the northeastern coast of Japan in March 2011, has raised concerns about the potential impact to marine biota posed by the release of radioactive water and radionuclide particles into the environment. The Fukushima accident is the only major nuclear accident that has resulted in the direct discharge of radioactive materials into a coastal environment. This article briefly summarizes what is currently understood about the effects of radioactive wastewaters and radionuclides to marine life. PMID:21608110

Vives i Batlle, Jordi

2011-07-01

322

Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.  

PubMed

Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers. PMID:24486771

Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

2014-05-01

323

Measuring accident risk exposure for pedestrians in different micro-environments.  

PubMed

Pedestrians are mainly exposed to the risk of road accident when crossing a road in urban areas. Traditionally in the road safety field, the risk of accident for pedestrian is estimated as a rate of accident involvement per unit of time spent on the road network. The objective of this research is to develop an approach of accident risk based on the concept of risk exposure used in environmental epidemiology, such as in the case of exposure to pollutants. This type of indicator would be useful for comparing the effects of urban transportation policy scenarios on pedestrian safety. The first step is to create an indicator of pedestrians' exposure, which is based on motorised vehicles' "concentration" by lane and also takes account of traffic speed and time spent to cross. This is applied to two specific micro-environments: junctions and mid-block locations. A model of pedestrians' crossing behaviour along a trip is then developed, based on a hierarchical choice between junctions and mid-block locations and taking account of origin and destination, traffic characteristics and pedestrian facilities. Finally, a complete framework is produced for modelling pedestrians' exposure in the light of their crossing behaviour. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on an artificial network and a first set of results is obtained from the validation of the models in observational studies. PMID:17920847

Lassarre, Sylvain; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Golias, John

2007-11-01

324

Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

1981-01-01

325

MADYMO simulation of children in cycle accidents: a novel approach in risk assessment.  

PubMed

Head injuries are a significant cause of death and injury to child cyclists both on and off the road. Current evaluations of the effectiveness of cycle helmets rely on simplified mechanical testing or the analysis of aggregated accident statistics. This paper presents a direct evaluation of helmet efficacy by using computational modelling to simulate a range of realistic accident scenarios, including loss of control, collision with static objects and vehicle impact. A 6-year-old cyclist was modelled (as a Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy), in addition to a typical children's bicycle and a vehicle using the MADYMO dynamics software package. Simulations were performed using ranges of cyclist position, cycle speed and vehicle speed with and without a helmet that meets current standards. Wearing a cycle helmet was found to reduce the probability of head injuries, reducing the average probability of fatality over the scenarios studied from 40% to 0.3%. Similarly, helmet wearing reduced the probability of neck injuries (average probability of fatality reduced from 11% to 1%). There was no evidence that helmet wearing increased the severity of brain or neck injuries caused by rotational accelerations; in fact these were slightly reduced. Similarly, there was no evidence that increased cycling speed, such as might result from helmet related risk compensation, increased the probability of head injury. PMID:23954681

McNally, D S; Rosenberg, N M

2013-10-01

326

An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

Evans, Joni K.

2007-01-01

327

Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009.  

PubMed

Several studies have investigated road traffic deaths, but few have compared by road user type. Iran, with an estimated 44 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in 2002 had higher road traffic deaths than any other country for which reliable estimates can be made. So, the present study was conducted on road death data and identified fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury as well as the influences of age and gender on deaths at accident scenes for all road user groups. Data used in this study are on fatal road accidents recorded by forensic medicine experts of the Khorasan Razavi province in Mashhad, the capital of the province, the second largest city and the largest place of pilgrimage, immigration and tourism in Iran. Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to identify the relation of death place with age and gender in 2495 fatal road accidents from 2006 to 2009. The t-test and analysis of variance were employed for continues variable, age, to compare males' and females' mean age for all road user categories. For two genders, all three groups of fatalities (pedestrian, motorcyclist and motor vehicle occupant) had a peak at the ages of 21-30. The youngest were male motorcyclists (mean age = 28). Old pedestrians were included in road deaths very much, too. Male/female overall ratio was 3.41 and the highest male/female ratio was related to motorcyclists (14). The overall ratio of head injury to other organ injuries (torso and underbody) was 2.51 and pedestrians had the largest amount of head injury (38.2%). Regarding death at accident scene, for all road users, gender did not have any significant relation with death at the scene (P-value > 0.1); on the contrary, age had significant relation (P-value < 0.05). Females were more vulnerable at accident scenes (male/female ratio at accident sense < 1). Pedestrians aged 21-30, motorcyclists 41-50 and motor vehicle occupants 31-40 died the most at accident scenes. Identifying the most endangered groups of road accident fatalities, which was conducted in this study, is invaluable for the appropriate design of prevention strategies and allocation of financial resources for each group of road user fatalities - since in developing nations, there are insufficient financial resources to traffic safety and we should consider superiorities, i.e. the most risky groups. Steps which may contribute to safety promotion for local conditions include suitable facilities for old pedestrians, a training course before obtaining motorcycle license for motorcyclists, informing young road users by provincial media about death risk of road users and improving management of the head-injured patients. Finally, suggestions for future researches were made. PMID:22681408

Zangooei Dovom, Hossein; Shafahi, Yousef; Zangooei Dovom, Mehdi

2013-01-01

328

Mobility-Related Accidents Experienced by People with Visual Impairment  

E-print Network

in the survey focused on the frequency, nature, and causes of head-level and fall accidents, as well as on other, other types of accidents (e.g., traffic-related accidents) are also important and should be addressedMobility-Related Accidents Experienced by People with Visual Impairment Roberto Manduchi, PhD* Sri

Manduchi, Roberto

329

Use of Human Factors Analysis for Wildland Fire Accident Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident investigators at any level are challenged with identifying causal factors and making preventative recommendations. This task can be particularly complicated considering that 70-80% of accidents are associated with human error. Due to complexities of the wildland fire environment, this is especially challenging when investigating a wildland fire-related accident. Upon reviewing past accident investigations within the United States Federal wildland

Michelle Ryerson; Chuck Whitlock

2005-01-01

330

Driving habits and risk factors for traffic accidents among sleep apnea patients--a European multi-centre cohort study.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased motor vehicle accident risk, and improved detection of patients at risk is of importance. The present study addresses potential risk factors in the European Sleep Apnea Database and includes patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea [n = 8476, age 51.5 (12.5) years, body mass index 31.0 (6.6) kg m(-2) , 82.4% driver's licence holders]. Driving distance (km year(-1) ), driver's licence type, sleep apnea severity, sleepiness and comorbidities were assessed. Previously validated risk factors for accident history: Epworth Sleepiness Scale ?16; habitual sleep time ?5 h; use of hypnotics; and driving ?15 000 km year(-1) were analysed across European regions. At least one risk factor was identified in male and female drivers, 68.75 and 51.3%, respectively. The occurrence of the risk factors was similar across Europe, with only a lower rate in the eastern region (P = 0.001). The mean number of risk factors increased across classes of sleep apnea severity. Frequent driving was prevalent [14.0 (interquartile range 8.0-20.0) × 10(3)  km year(-1) ] and 32.7% of drivers had severe obstructive sleep apnea [apnea-hypopnea index 50.3 (38.8-66.0) n h(-1) ]. Obesity, shorter sleep time and younger age were associated with increased traffic exposure (P ? 0.03). In conclusion, the risk factors associated with accident history were common among European patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea, but varied between geographical regions. There was a weak covariation between occurrence of risk factors and clinically determined apnea severity but frequent driving, a strong risk factor for accidents, was over-represented. Systematic evaluation of accident-related risk factors is important to detect sleep apnea patients at risk for motor vehicle accidents. PMID:25040185

Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Lombardi, Carolina; Mcnicholas, Walter T; Penzel, Thomas; Riha, Renata L; Rodenstein, Daniel; Grote, Ludger

2014-12-01

331

Identification of Vehicle Health Assurance Related Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trend analysis in aviation as related to vehicle health management (VHM) was performed by reviewing the most current statistical and prognostics data available from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident, and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident datasets. In addition, future directions in aviation technology related to VHM research areas were assessed through the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementations (SERFIs), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Most-Wanted List and recent open safety recommendations, the National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics, and the Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) areas of change. Future research direction in the VHM research areas is evidently strong as seen from recent research solicitations from the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), and VHM-related technologies actively being developed by aviation industry leaders, including GE, Boeing, Airbus, and UTC Aerospace Systems. Given the highly complex VHM systems, modifications can be made in the future so that the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project (VSST) technical challenges address inadequate maintenance crew's trainings and skills, and the certification methods of such systems as recommended by the NTSB, NRC, and FAST areas of change.

Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Leone, Karen M.; Reveley, Mary S.

2014-01-01

332

Characterization of a nuclear accident dosimeter  

E-print Network

National Laboratories' (SNL) personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). Two separate critical assemblies, SHEBA and Godiva, were used to generate seven separate neutron spectra for use in dose comparisons. SNL's PNAD measured absorbed doses that were...

Burrows, Ronald Allen

1995-01-01

333

A Humanoid Robot to Prevent Children Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe in this paper the implementation and experimentation of a humanoid robot system, aimed at the prevention of children accidents in everyday indoor activities. The main focus of this research work is placed on the \\

Altion Simo; Yoshifumi Nishida; Koichi Nagashima

2006-01-01

334

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-01-01

335

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-11-01

336

Designing for post-accident radiological conditions  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power plant design efforts have previously tacitly assumed that in the event of an accident, all actions necessary to bring the plant to a cold shutdown could be accomplished from a well-protected control room. However, the incident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2), showed that access to the balance-of-plant is desirable, and perhaps even necessary, to determine the past and future course of an accident and its consequences. The present report reviews the in-plant radiological consequences of the TMI-2 accident and formulates radiation protection design criteria for the balance-of-plant which would minimize post-accident in-plant radiation exposure.

Lahti, G.P.; Brtis, J.S.; Davidson, G.R.; Gill, C.F.

1980-12-01

337

22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will probably...first to be informed of the accident...telephone number of representatives of any United States airline engaged...

2013-04-01

338

22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will probably...first to be informed of the accident...telephone number of representatives of any United States airline engaged...

2012-04-01

339

22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will probably...first to be informed of the accident...telephone number of representatives of any United States airline engaged...

2010-04-01

340

22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will probably...first to be informed of the accident...telephone number of representatives of any United States airline engaged...

2011-04-01

341

22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will probably...first to be informed of the accident...telephone number of representatives of any United States airline engaged...

2014-04-01

342

A systems approach to food accident analysis  

E-print Network

Food borne illnesses lead to 3000 deaths per year in the United States. Some industries, such as aviation, have made great strides increasing safety through careful accident analysis leading to changes in industry practices. ...

Helferich, John D

2011-01-01

343

Containment leakage during severe accident conditions  

SciTech Connect

An alternate to the THRESHOLD model used in most severe accident risk assessments has been investigated. One reference plant for each of six containment types has been studied to determine the magnitude of containment leakage that would result from the pressures and temperatures associated with severe accident conditions. Containment penetrations having the greatest potential for early containment leakage are identified. The studies indicate that containment leakage through penetrations prior to reaching containment threshold pressures (currently reported containment shell failure pressures) should be considered in severe accident risk assessments. Failure of non-metallic seals for containment penetrations can be a significant source of containment leakage under severe accident pressure and temperature conditions. Although studies of containment types are useful in identifying sources of containment leakage, final conclusions may need to be plant specific. Recommendations concerning future studies to better develop the use of continuous leakage models are provided. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

Hofmayer, C.H.; Bagchi, G.; Noonan, V.S.

1984-01-01

344

Iodine prophylaxis and nuclear accidents.  

PubMed

Due to high volatility and environmental mobility, radioactive isotopes of iodine pose a serious risk in the acute phases of a nuclear accident. The critical organ for iodine is the thyroid. A number of studies dealing with thyroid protection from exposure to radioiodine have shown that radioiodine uptake by the thyroid can be effectively blocked by administration of stable iodine, usually in the form of potassium iodide (KI) pills. However, unless perfectly timed, this protective action may be counterproductive. The International Atomic Energy Agency recommends potassium iodide prophylaxis in cases when an avertable thyroid dose by protective action exceeds 100 mGy. This paper reviews experiences and practices with potassium iodide in the thyroid protection. This kind of information should serve as the basis for discussion and decision making on KI prophylactic programmes in nuclear emergency situations in Croatia. If Croatia adopts such programme, it will still have to develop the most effective way of KI stockpiling and distribution or predistribution. PMID:10566200

Frani?, Z

1999-06-01

345

Structural assessment of accident loads  

SciTech Connect

Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-28

346

Shuttle accident stalls science plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans to make 1986 a uniquely productive year for U.S. space science activities ended in one horrible moment with the January 28, 1986, explosion of the space shuttle Challenger. The joyless scene at Cape Canaveral, Fla., stood in sharp contrast to the overwhelming success of Voyager 2 in its encounter with Uranus 4 days earlier. (Scientific details of that encounter will follow in upcoming issues of Eos.)Of the 15 space shuttle flights planned for fiscal year 1986, beginning October 1, 1985, a total of seven were to have carried scientific payloads for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The remaining eight flights were evenly divided between missions for the U.S. Department of Defense and commercial missions for NASA's paying customers. The explosion caused NASA to put its entire space shuttle program on hold to allow time for engineers to find the cause of the accident and for NASA to implement corrective measures. As Eos went to press, NASA acting administrator William R. Graham had not yet released the names of those who would serve on the formal investigative panel. “I think everybody's agreed that it will take weeks to months to unravel,” said Alexander Dessler, director of the space science laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center near Huntsville, Ala. Dessler speculated that investigators would begin with a list of hundreds of possible causes for the explosion.

Katzoff, Judith A.

347

Risk of accidents in drivers with epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To estimate the risks of road traffic accidents over a period of three years in drivers with a history of single seizures or epilepsy, and to compare them with a cohort of drivers followed up by the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL). DESIGN--A retrospective survey of driving and accident experience by self-completion questionnaire. SUBJECTS--16,958 drivers with a previous history of epilepsy

J Taylor; D Chadwick; T Johnson

1996-01-01

348

Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-11-01

349

Issues of in-vehicle ITS information management  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents issues associated with the introduction into road vehicles of multiple information sources related to the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Also, an argument is made for an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) to manage messages from the associated Intelligent Transportation System Services, as well as other information to be presented to the driver. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and all the information sources, including both input from and information display to the driver. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, collision avoidance warning systems, yellow pages, can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. However, introduction of an IVIS raises a number of issues which relate to things such as proprietary messages, message prioritization across devices from different manufacturers, and safe access to the vehicle manufacturer`s proprietary data bus. These issues are the focus of this paper. Sections 1 and 2 of this paper present short summarizes of the efforts in a variety of areas related to in-vehicle information systems. In the first two sections, a summary of two Department of Transportation (DOT) initiatives is followed by a description of US standards development efforts. Next is a brief consideration of institutional, jurisdictional and legal issues associated with in-vehicle systems and the accompanying infrastructure. Section 3 of the paper is devoted to systems integration and driver interface engineering issues.

Spelt, P.F.

1997-12-01

350

Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.  

PubMed Central

The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

1999-01-01

351

Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned  

SciTech Connect

On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident.

Rast, D.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Reichel, C.W.

1995-02-01

352

China's Launch Vehicle Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science &Technology Corporation (CASC), which builds LM Launch Vehicle and is working on the new-generation Chinese Launchers. In the second part, the paper pays more attentions to introduce LM Launch Vehicles, as well as their commercial launch services. Then in the third part, the paper firstly describes the new-generation launchers.

Bai, Jingwu

2002-01-01

353

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

Kim, Hyun Dae

2010-01-01

354

Methylotroph cloning vehicle  

DOEpatents

A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

Hanson, Richard S. (Deephaven, MN); Allen, Larry N. (Excelsior, MN)

1989-04-25

355

Evaluating Product-Related Hazards At the Consumer Product Safety CommissionThe Case of All-Terrain Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate qualitative response models, such as logit regression models, are useful in evaluating product-related risk at the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). They are used to determine and quantify the factors associated with accidents, and can suggest or justify appropriate regulatory responses. This article applies the method to evaluating risks associated with all-terrain vehicles. A logit regression model is used

Gregory B. Rodgers

1990-01-01

356

Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create the spatial or temporal clustering of crash accidents. Since the 1990's, Geographical Informational Systems (GIS) became a very important tool for traffic and road safety management, allowing not only the spatial and multifactorial analysis, but also graphical and non-graphical outputs. The current paper presents an accessible GIS methodology to study the spatio-temporal pattern of injury related road accidents, to identify the high density accidents zones, to make a cluster analysis, to create multicriterial typologies, to identify spatial and temporal similarities and to explain them. In this purpose, a Geographical Information System was created, allowing a complex analysis that involves not only the events, but also a large set of interrelated and spatially linked attributes. The GIS includes the accidents as georeferenced point elements with a spatially linked attribute database: identification information (date, location details); accident type; main, secondary and aggravating causes; data about driver; vehicle information; consequences (damages, injured peoples and fatalities). Each attribute has its own number code that allows both the statistical analysis and the spatial interrogation. The database includes those road accidents that led to physical injuries and loss of human lives between 2007 and 2012 and the spatial analysis was realized using TNTmips 7.3 software facilities. Data aggregation and processing allowed creating the spatial pattern of injury related road accidents through Kernel density estimation at three different levels (national - Romania; county level - Iasi County; local level - Iasi town). Spider graphs were used to create the temporal pattern or road accidents at three levels (daily, weekly and monthly) directly related to their causes. Moreover the spatial and temporal database relates the natural hazards (glazed frost, fog, and blizzard) with the human made ones, giving the opportunity to evaluate the nature of uncertainties in risk assessment. At the end, this paper provides a clustering methodology based on several environmenta

Catalin Stanga, Iulian

2013-04-01

357

A study of bicyclist kinematics and injuries based on reconstruction of passenger car-bicycle accident in China.  

PubMed

Like pedestrians, bicyclists are vulnerable road users, representing a population with a high risk of fatal and severe injuries in traffic accidents as they are unprotected during vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to investigate the kinematics response of bicyclists and the correlation of the injury severity with vehicle impact speed. Twenty-four car-bicyclist cases with detailed information were selected for accident reconstruction using mathematical models, which was implemented in the MADYMO program. The dynamic response of bicyclists in the typical impact configuration and the correlation of head impact conditions were analyzed and discussed with respect to the head impact speed, time of head impact and impact angle of bicyclists to vehicle impact speed. Furthermore, the injury distribution of bicyclists and the risk of head injuries and fractures of lower limbs were investigated in terms of vehicle impact speed. The results indicate that wrap-around distance (WAD), head impact speed, time of head impact, head impact angle, and throw-out distance (TOD) of the bicyclists have a strong relationship with vehicle impact speed. The vehicle impact speed corresponding to a 50% probability of head AIS 2+ injuries, head AIS 3+ injuries, and lower limb fracture risk for bicyclists is 53.8km/h, 58.9km/h, and 41.2km/h, respectively. A higher vehicle impact speed produces a higher injury risk to bicyclist. The results could provide background knowledge for the establishment or modification of pedestrian regulations considering bicyclist protection as well as being helpful for developing safety measures and protection devices for bicyclists. PMID:24880929

Nie, Jin; Yang, Jikuang

2014-10-01

358

Dynamics of aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

Schmidt, David K.

1991-01-01

359

Aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle which includes an aerobraking device which also serves as a heat shield in the shape of a raked-off elliptic or circular cone with a circular or elliptical base, and with an ellipsoid or other blunt shape nose. The aerobraking device is fitted with a toroid-like skirt and is integral with the support structure of the propulsion system and other systems of the space vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be transported in components to a space station in lower earth orbit where it is assembled for use as a transportation system from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit and return. Conventional guidance means are included for autonomous flight.

Scott, Carl D. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Roberts, Barney B. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Kroll, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Gamble, Joe (Inventor)

1989-01-01

360

High speed electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The Formula Lighting is an exciting new addition to GMI Engineering and Management Institute. This project is an excellent opportunity for students to use their acquired skills in a real life application. The vehicle is slated to compete in several races around the country. These events offer students the exposure to high caliber competitions in engineering design, combined with the thrill of racing. The Formula Lightning is an electric vehicle. Most of the challenging design tasks lie within the drive train setup and battery system efficiency. Part of the battery system efficiency includes a quick and reliable exchange technique of battery packs under race conditions. The vehicle is designed and built by GMI students, except for the chassis. This project allows students from all fields of engineering to gain experience in mechanical and electrical design as well as project management.

Nasa, K.; Tavakoli, M.; Thompson, M.; Jordan, C. [GMI Engineering and Management Inst., Flint, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

361

Assured Crew Return Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

1991-01-01

362

Aeroacoustics of Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While for airplanes the subject of aeroacoustics is associated with community noise, for space vehicles it is associated with vibro-acoustics and structural dynamics. Surface pressure fluctuations encountered during launch and travel through lower part of the atmosphere create intense vibro-acoustics environment for the payload, electronics, navigational equipment, and a large number of subsystems. All of these components have to be designed and tested for flight-certification. This presentation will cover all three major sources encountered in manned and unmanned space vehicles: launch acoustics, ascent acoustics and abort acoustics. Launch pads employ elaborate acoustic suppression systems to mitigate the ignition pressure waves and rocket plume generated noise during the early part of the liftoff. Recently we have used large microphone arrays to identify the noise sources during liftoff and found that the standard model by Eldred and Jones (NASA SP-8072) to be grossly inadequate. As the vehicle speeds up and reaches transonic speed in relatively denser part of the atmosphere, various shock waves and flow separation events create unsteady pressure fluctuations that can lead to high vibration environment, and occasional coupling with the structural modes, which may lead to buffet. Examples of wind tunnel tests and computational simulations to optimize the outer mold line to quantify and reduce the surface pressure fluctuations will be presented. Finally, a manned space vehicle needs to be designed for crew safety during malfunctioning of the primary rocket vehicle. This brings the subject of acoustic environment during abort. For NASAs Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), abort will be performed by lighting rocket motors atop the crew module. The severe aeroacoustics environments during various abort scenarios were measured for the first time by using hot helium to simulate rocket plumes in the Ames unitary plan wind tunnels. Various considerations used for the helium simulation and the final confirmation from a flight test will be presented.

Panda, Jayanta

2014-01-01

363

Lockout/tagout accident investigation.  

PubMed

When I was in boot camp, our drill instructor told us that assume makes an ass out of u and me. It was true then, and it is true today. In this instance, assumptions came into play several times, both by the worker and by the companies involved. The good news is that it did not result in a fatality, but that does not relieve the pain and suffering that the employee had to endure. This same type of scenario is likely repeated at many job sites throughout the United States. Multiple contractors, dozens--maybe hundreds--of workers, power system equipment and devices; all of these have to be taken into consideration when performing maintenance activities. It can become a blur. People are people, and people make mistakes. That is why we have OSHA regulations, NFPA 70E, company procedures, policies, etc. Most if not all of us have either been involved in accidents or know people who have been. It's not like it's a secret that people make mistakes, but talk to some and they seem to think only others have that failing. Safety is not about just any one procedure or rule. It's about slowing down, making a plan, and executing that plan. There are plenty of tools available to help us: policies, procedures, codes, standards, federal regulations, and state and local laws. I am not about to say that the worker involved in this incident was not taking safety seriously, but he failed to follow some fundamental safety rules like test-before-touch. If he had taken just that one step, there would be nothing to write about. PMID:25188988

White, James R

2014-08-01

364

Technologies of Millimeter-Wave Road-Vehicle Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years interest in ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) technology has been growing, because it is thought that ITS can solve problems such as traffic jams and traffic accidents. Communication between roadside base stations and vehicles is a critical element of an ITS. In this paper, we describe the road-vehicle communication (RVC) system using ROF technology and software radio. These systems can realize multimode service and high speed data transmission. We developed RVC system using ROF technology which can transmit three kind of services (ETC, PHS, BS) simultaneously. The software radio with small size for mobile terminal is also developed. The overview of these systems is shown. In addition, activities of YRP (Yokosuka Research Park) ITS Joint Research Group are shown.

Sato, Katsuyoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kojima, Fumihide; Fujise, Masayuki

2001-12-01

365

An analytical study of electric vehicle handling dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypothetical electric vehicle configurations were studied by applying available analytical methods. Elementary linearized models were used in addition to a highly sophisticated vehicle dynamics computer simulation technique. Physical properties of specific EV's were defined for various battery and powertrain packaging approaches applied to a range of weight distribution and inertial properties which characterize a generic class of EV's. Computer simulations of structured maneuvers were performed for predicting handling qualities in the normal driving range and during various extreme conditions related to accident avoidance. Results indicate that an EV with forward weight bias will possess handling qualities superior to a comparable EV that is rear-heavy or equally balanced. The importance of properly matching tires, suspension systems, and brake system front/rear torque proportioning to a given EV configuration during the design stage is demonstrated.

Greene, J. E.; Segal, D. J.

1979-01-01

366

Vehicle brake testing system  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

Stevens, Samuel S. (Harriman, TN); Hodgson, Jeffrey W. (Lenoir City, TN)

2002-11-19

367

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

368

Aerosol Monitoring and Early Detection of Pre-Accident and Accident Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using the instrumentation methods and methodological approachs, developed for clean-room technology, in systems for early detection of accidents and for diagnostics of pre-accident situations by monitoring the aerosol composition of room air is analyzed. The results of experimental investigations of the dynamics of the variation of the number density and dispersion composition of aerosol particles, produced during

P. A. Aleksandrov; V. I. Kalechits; O. Yu. Maslakov

2000-01-01

369

Adolescent injury and death: the plagues of accident, self-infliction and violence.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle-related accidents and firearm-related violence are the first and second leading causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, considerable progress has been made in reducing motor vehicle-related injuries and death through state-level legislation designed to decrease alcohol use and increase seat belt use. Homicide and suicide, however, are increasing dramatically among teenagers. Family violence and the epidemic of gang activity also contribute significantly to both; violence portrayed on television, in movies, and in adolescent music also has become a more significant part of teen life. Family physicians are encouraged to implement preventive strategies for combating the problems of injury and violence in their offices, their communities, and on the broader states of medical education and public policy. PMID:9469921

Kelton, G M; Shank, J C

1998-03-01

370

ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS  

E-print Network

ROBUST SCALABLE VEHICLE CONTROL VIA NON-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS S. Brennan & A. Alleyne Dept called pi-groups. Investigation of these pi- groups using compiled data from 44 published sets of Vehicle Dynamics reveals that the data does not span the pi-space, but instead follows a multi-dimensional line

Brennan, Sean

371

Vehicle dynamics and external disturbance estimation for vehicle path prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the onboard prediction of a motor vehicle's path to help enable a variety of emerging functions in autonomous vehicle control and active safety systems. It is shown in simulation that good accuracy of path prediction is achieved using numerical integration of a linearized two degree of freedom vehicle handling model. To improve performance, a steady-state Kalman filter

Chiu-Feng Lin; A. Galip Ulsoy; David J. LeBlanc

2000-01-01

372

Vehicle system controller design for a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a way to meet the challenge of developing more fuel efficient and lower emission producing vehicles, auto manufacturers are increasingly looking toward revolutionary changes to conventional powertrain technologies as a solution. One alternative under consideration is that of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). An HEV combines some of the benefits of electric vehicles (efficient and clean motive power supplied by

Anthony M. Phillips; Miroslava Jankovic; Kathleen E. Bailey

2000-01-01

373

Pattern of accident distribution in the telecommunications industry.  

PubMed Central

Examination of the accident records from the telecommunication industry covering some 100 000 engineers over a 12-month period showed that 25% of accidents resulting in more than three days' sick leave gave rise to back injuries. Handling accidents and falls accounted for 65% of three-day-plus accidents; handling accidents alone gave rise to 65% of back injuries. The absolute numbers of accidents have been compared with the total population of engineers to estimate the effects of age or occupation on levels of hazard; certain occupations constituting 33% of the engineers' population suffered 70% of all three-day-plus accidents. Accidents occurred most frequently in the group aged from 31 to 48 years. Other significant factors affecting the occurrence of accidents were time of year and duty experience of the workers. PMID:7426467

Davis, P R; Sheppard, N J

1980-01-01

374

77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...For light vehicles, the focus...assist the driver in preventing the vehicle from leaving...when light vehicles run off the...for light vehicles equipped with...communicate to the driver the condition...malfunctioning vehicle system...

2012-05-23

375

Household vehicles energy consumption 1991  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Not Available

1993-12-09

376

Parametrized maneuvers for autonomous vehicles  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a method for creating continuously parametrized maneuver classes for autonomous vehicles. These classes provide useful tools for motion planners, bundling sets of related vehicle motions based on a ...

Dever, Christopher W. (Christopher Walden), 1972-

2004-01-01

377

Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overview of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests in the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project. This overview covers highlights of the completed VIPR I and VIPR II tests and also covers plans for the VIPR III test.

Lekki, John D.; Hunter, Gary W.; Simon, Don; Meredith, Roger; Wrbanek, John; Woike, Mark; Tokars, Roger; Guffanti, Marianne; Lyall, Eric

2013-01-01

378

Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts  

E-print Network

Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts Christine Kirby, MassDEP ZE-MAP Meeting October 24, 2014 #12 deployment · Provides ongoing support to region and states on EVs. #12;Massachusetts EV Initiative (MEVI-miles driven by state fleets; develop MA fuel efficiency standard for public fleets #12;Massachusetts Electric

California at Davis, University of

379

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

2007-01-01

380

Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

Braswell, Robert; And Others

381

Fire vehicle hardening  

Microsoft Academic Search

After attack, the wartime fire fighter faces a harsh environment in which he must operate to perform his mission. Debris, unexploded bombs, and munitions pose hazards that must be overcome. Without modification to the fire-fighting vehicles, there is little assurance that the fire fighter would even be able to reach the locations necessary for performing his mission. Adding armor to

1988-01-01

382

Heavy Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

2000-04-11

383

Load-carrying vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vehicle having a chassis supporting a loadbed at the rear of the chassis; a first longitudinally extending linear member pivotally mounted at one of its ends to pivot about a transverse axis adjacent the rear end of the chassis from a first position in which the first member underlies the loadbed to a second position in

Boughton

1987-01-01

384

Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

385

Mars Exploratory Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

1997-01-01

386

The Electric Vehicle Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

Roman, Harry T.

2010-01-01

387

Deep Submergence Vehicle Alvin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the site to go to for information about Alvin, the deep submergence vehicle. Describes the history of Alvin, dive statistics, dive logs, dive site viewer, publication, and photos. Students will love the interactive Alvin simulator. Also available are a user manual, observer information, and cruise planning tips. An excellent marine technology resource.

388

Lunar transfer vehicle studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar transportation architectures exist for several different mission scenarios. Direct flights from Earth are possible, as the Apollo program clearly demonstrated. Alternatively, a space transfer vehicle could be constructed in space by using the Space Station as a base of operations, or multiple vehicles could be launched from Earth and dock in LEO without using a space station for support. Similarly, returning personnel could proceed directly to Earth or rendezvous at the Space Station for a ride back home on the Space Shuttle. Multiple design concepts exist which are compatible with these scenarios and which can support requirements of cargo, personnel, and mission objectives. Regardless of the ultimate mission selected, some technologies will certainly play a key role in the design and operation of advanced lunar transfer vehicles. Current technologies are capable of delivering astronauts to the lunar surface, but improvements are needed to affordably transfer the material and equipment that will be needed for establishing a lunar base. Materials and structures advances, in particular, will enable the development of more capable cryogenic fluid management and propulsion systems, improved structures, and more efficient vehicle assembly, servicing and processing.

Keeley, Joseph T.

1993-01-01

389

Electric vehicle technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers the design and development of electric and hybrid vehicles. EV and hybrid drivetrains and their major components are described. Analytical and computer methods for analyzing, specifying, and designing such components as batteries, motors, electronic controllers and transmissions, are provided. Safety issues, operating costs, structural considerations, and battery charging and maintenance are examined. Topics include: fundamental concepts in

L. E. Unnewehr; S. A. Naser

1982-01-01

390

Flywheel batteries for vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy storage flywheels are useful in power conditioning applications, i.e. when there is a mismatch between the power generated and the power required by the load. Two examples of this mismatch are a temporal mismatch and a mismatch in magnitude. The use of a flywheel in a hybrid vehicle, for example, permits the engine to be designed to provide only

J. Beno; R. Thompson; R. Hebner

2002-01-01

391

Recreational Vehicle Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

Felice, Michael

392

NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

Patlach, Robert

2011-01-01

393

Accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy.  

PubMed

People with pilepsy are thought to be at an increased risk of accidents and injuries. This results in stigmatization of patients with epilepsy and contributes to a number of limitations in their daily living activities. However, even with differing results, several observational studies (including a large multicenter European survey) report that most accidental injuries are minor and are mostly caused by an epileptogenic clinical condition, an associated handicap or the recurrence of seizures. Domestic, street and work accidents are, in decreasing order, the most common places for such injuries to occur. Contusions and wounds are the most common injuries, followed by abrasions, fractures, brain concussions, sprains/strains and burns. Associated handicaps and comorbidity, where present, as well as antiepileptic drugs, may cause accidents and injuries by impairing cognitive functions and increasing the patient's susceptibility to suffer from the complications of injuries. Patients with epilepsy are also at a slightly higher risk of accidental death than the general population; accidental causes include fires and flames, drowning, suffocation, foreign bodies, falls, suicide and transport accidents. When epileptogenic conditions and seizure-related events are excluded, patients with epilepsy are only at a slightly greater risk of accidents and injuries than the general population. PMID:19210202

Beghi, Ettore

2009-02-01

394

Single pilot IFR accident data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft accident data recorded and maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board for 1964 to 1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964 to 1975 provided a basis for comparison. The purpose was to determine what changes, if any, have occurred in trends and cause-effect relationships reported in the earlier study. The increasing numbers have been tied to measures of activity to produce accident rates which in turn were analyzed in terms of change. Where anomalies or unusually high accident rates were encountered, further analysis was conducted to isolate pertinent patterns of cause factors and/or experience levels of involved pilots. The bulk of the effort addresses accidents in the landing phase of operations. A detailed analysis was performed on controlled/uncontrolled collisions and their unique attributes delineated. Estimates of day vs. night general aviation activity and accident rates were obtained.

Harris, D. F.; Morrisete, J. A.

1982-01-01

395

Under-reporting of maritime accidents.  

PubMed

The majority of current maritime regulations has been developed following a reactive approach, often as ad-hoc response to serious accidents, and are characterised as being prescriptive leaving limited space for adapting equivalent solutions rather those described in the regulations. On the premise of providing a more proactive approach for the proposal or the evaluation of regulations, the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) has been introduced. In the context of FSA, the analysis of accident data is considered to be very important for providing potential input on developing more balanced, proactive and cost-effective regulations. However, it has been argued that the validity of historical data may be undermined by uncertainties. This paper is aimed at showing evidence on serious under-reporting in accident databases, which can be considered as the main contributor to questioning the direct and uncritical use of historical data. By analysing the 10-year tanker accident data from the Lloyd's Register FairPlay (LRFP) and the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD) for vessels registered in Norway, it is found that the reporting performance has an upper bound of 41% for NMD and 30% for LRFP. Furthermore, based on comparison between LRFP data and self-assessment by Flag States, it is seen that accidents reported by the Flag States are also incomplete. PMID:20159087

Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Eide, Magnus Strandmyr

2010-03-01

396

The three essentials for accident prevention.  

PubMed

This article was written by Crystal Eastman when she was Secretary of the New York Commission on Employers' Liability and Causes of Industrial Accidents, Unemployment, and Lack of Farm Labor. It was published in July of 1911, in Volume 38, Number 1 of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pages 98-107. The issue title was "Risks in Modern Industry." Eastman calls for the prevention of workplace accidents through three essentials: injury surveillance/reporting (with annual public reporting of the data); government enforcement of accident prevention laws, via departments with well-paid and well-trained officials and inspectors, fines that are high enough to be a deterrence to employers, and the power to have police shut down a factory if preventive measures are not installed; and a workers' compensation system-"a system of liability by which an employer can reduce his accident costs, not by hiring a more unscrupulous attorney and a more hard-hearted claim agent, but only by reducing his accidents." PMID:25261022

Eastman, Crystal

2014-01-01

397

Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

2010-11-01

398

Methylotroph cloning vehicle  

DOEpatents

A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

1989-04-25

399

77 FR 12355 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OF TRANSPORTATION Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle...Research Workshop on Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle- to-Vehicle (V2V) and...About the Connected Vehicle Secure Environment Establishing a secure trust...

2012-02-29

400

Nonlinearities in Road Vehicle Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of lateral vehicle dynamics with the objective to enhance stability and handling qualities, non-linear aspects may have to be included to cover also larger lateral accelerations and amplitudes. The paper treats whole vehicle motions and relative motions of vehicle subsystems. In particular, single car stability, also in the large, is discussed as well as the shimmy phenomenon

H. B. Pacejka

1986-01-01

401

Logistics planning for agricultural vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, agricultural operations are mostly carried out with agricultural vehicles. To maximize the economic returns from agricultural production, the operating costs of the vehicles have to be minimized. This paper presents an integer linear programming formulation to improve the utilization of the agricultural vehicles during the crop harvesting process. Crops are harvested by combine harvesters. The harvested

O. Ali; D. Van Oudheusden

2009-01-01

402

Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drive-train hybridization improves the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. This is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Application of this concept in sport utility vehicles (SUVs), which consume more fuel as compared to passenger cars, will positively have a great impact. However, dynamic performances such as acceleration and gradeability also are of great importance in SUVs. Therefore, the

Jason M. Tyrus; Ryan M. Long; Marina Kramskaya; Yuriy Fertman; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

403

Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

Gomez, Julian E.

2004-01-01

404

A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision  

SciTech Connect

Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

2000-05-01

405

Workshop on iodine releases in reactor accidents  

SciTech Connect

Principal conclusions from the workshop can be summarized: Observed environmental releases of iodine from actual reactor accidents are several factors of 10 smaller than those predicted by licensing bases. The presence of water apparently prevents large fractions of iodine released from fuel from being airborne, either inside or outside containments or other enclosures. There is evidence that with fuel overheating in a loss-of-coolant accident iodine will be released mainly as cesium iodide, a thermodynamically stable substance which dissolves in water. Exaggerated estimates of potential accident releases can contribute to unfounded actions by public officials and unwarranted physical and mental stress damage to the public. Ten presentations were made at the workshop. These presentations are summarized and the viewographs used are given in this document. Separate abstracts were prepared for three presentations. (DCL)

Not Available

1980-11-01

406

Nuclear fuel in a reactor accident.  

PubMed

Nuclear accidents that lead to melting of a reactor core create heterogeneous materials containing hundreds of radionuclides, many with short half-lives. The long-lived fission products and transuranium elements within damaged fuel remain a concern for millennia. Currently, accurate fundamental models for the prediction of release rates of radionuclides from fuel, especially in contact with water, after an accident remain limited. Relatively little is known about fuel corrosion and radionuclide release under the extreme chemical, radiation, and thermal conditions during and subsequent to a nuclear accident. We review the current understanding of nuclear fuel interactions with the environment, including studies over the relatively narrow range of geochemical, hydrological, and radiation environments relevant to geological repository performance, and discuss priorities for research needed to develop future predictive models. PMID:22403382

Burns, Peter C; Ewing, Rodney C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

2012-03-01

407

Predicting road accidents: Structural time series approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the model for occurrence of road accidents in Malaysia between the years of 1970 to 2010 was developed and throughout this model the number of road accidents have been predicted by using the structural time series approach. The models are developed by using stepwise method and the residual of each step has been analyzed. The accuracy of the model is analyzed by using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the best model is chosen based on the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC) value. A structural time series approach found that local linear trend model is the best model to represent the road accidents. This model allows level and slope component to be varied over time. In addition, this approach also provides useful information on improving the conventional time series method.

Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

2014-07-01

408

Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics  

SciTech Connect

The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

1984-03-01

409

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

SciTech Connect

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

1988-09-02

410

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.  

PubMed

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. PMID:21345660

Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

2011-05-01

411

Injury Severity and Mortality of Adult Zebra Crosswalk and Non-Zebra Crosswalk Road Crossing Accidents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis  

PubMed Central

Principals Over a million people worldwide die each year from road traffic injuries and more than 10 million sustain permanent disabilities. Many of these victims are pedestrians. The present retrospective study analyzes the severity and mortality of injuries suffered by adult pedestrians, depending on whether they used a zebra crosswalk. Methods Our retrospective data analysis covered adult patients admitted to our emergency department (ED) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012 after being hit by a vehicle while crossing the road as a pedestrian. Patients were identified by using a string term. Medical, police and ambulance records were reviewed for data extraction. Results A total of 347 patients were eligible for study inclusion. Two hundred and three (203; 58.5%) patients were on a zebra crosswalk and 144 (41.5%) were not. The mean ISS (injury Severity Score) was 12.1 (SD 14.7, range 1-75). The vehicles were faster in non-zebra crosswalk accidents (47.7 km/n, versus 41.4 km/h, p<0.027). The mean ISS score was higher in patients with non-zebra crosswalk accidents; 14.4 (SD 16.5, range 1–75) versus 10.5 (SD13.14, range 1–75) (p<0.019). Zebra crosswalk accidents were associated with less risk of severe injury (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38–0.98, p<0.042). Accidents involving a truck were associated with increased risk of severe injury (OR 3.53, 95%CI 1.21–10.26, p<0.02). Conclusion Accidents on zebra crosswalks are more common than those not on zebra crosswalks. The injury severity of non-zebra crosswalk accidents is significantly higher than in patients with zebra crosswalk accidents. Accidents involving large vehicles are associated with increased risk of severe injury. Further prospective studies are needed, with detailed assessment of motor vehicle types and speed. PMID:24595100

Pfortmueller, Carmen A.; Marti, Mariana; Kunz, Mirco; Lindner, Gregor; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

2014-01-01

412

Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-06-01

413

A vehicle seat design concept for reducing whiplash injury risk in low-speed rear impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce whiplash injury risk in low-speed rear-impact accidents, a sliding mechanism of vehicle seat with crash energy-absorption (EA) function is proposed and analysed in this study. It can reduce relative motion between occupant head and torso under rear impact and lower values of neck injury related parameters such as neck injury criterion (NIC), neck displacement criterion (NDC) and neck

Meng Luo; Qing Zhou

2010-01-01

414

Accident tolerant fuels for LWRs: A perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation for exploring the potential development of accident tolerant fuels in light water reactors to replace existing Zr alloy clad monolithic (U, Pu) oxide fuel is outlined. The evaluation includes a brief review of core degradation processes under design-basis and beyond-design-basis transient conditions. Three general strategies for accident tolerant fuels are being explored: modification of current state-of-the-art zirconium alloy cladding to further improve oxidation resistance (including use of coatings), replacement of Zr alloy cladding with an alternative oxidation-resistant high-performance cladding, and replacement of the monolithic ceramic oxide fuel with alternative fuel forms.

Zinkle, S. J.; Terrani, K. A.; Gehin, J. C.; Ott, L. J.; Snead, L. L.

2014-05-01

415

The medical investigation of airship accidents.  

PubMed

A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident. PMID:3171506

Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

1988-07-01

416

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

1987-11-01

417

LESSONS LEARNED FROM A RECENT LASER ACCIDENT  

SciTech Connect

A graduate student received a laser eye injury from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser beam while adjusting a polarizing beam splitter optic. The direct causes for the accident included failure to follow safe alignment practices and failure to wear the required laser eyewear protection. Underlying root causes included inadequate on-the-job training and supervision, inadequate adherence to requirements, and inadequate appreciation for dimly visible beams outside the range of 400-700nm. This paper describes how the accident occurred, discusses causes and lessons learned, and describes corrective actions being taken.

Woods, Michael; /SLAC

2011-01-26

418

Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

1996-12-31

419

Stabilizing Wheels For Rover Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed articulated, normally-four-wheeled vehicle holds extra pair of wheels in reserve. Deployed to lengthen wheelbase on slopes, thereby making vehicle more stable, and to aid vehicle in negotiating ledge or to right vehicle if turned upside down. Extra wheels are drive wheels mounted on arms so they pivot on axis of forward drive wheels. Both extra wheels and arms driven by chains, hydraulic motors, or electric motors. Concept promises to make remotely controlled vehicles more stable and maneuverable in such applications as firefighting, handling hazardous materials, and carrying out operations in dangerous locations.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1990-01-01

420

Electric Vehicle History Online Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is self-proclaimed as the "first online archive created to encourage electric vehicle enthusiasts to help preserve the recent history of electric vehicles." A wide variety of information is presented, ranging from performance data and historical policy documents to retrospective articles and amusing forecasts of electric vehicle technology from decades past. The operators of the archive encourage electric vehicle drivers and enthusiasts to contribute anything they might have to the archive. The only shortcoming of the site is the very small number of historical electric vehicle photos, but this problem can be remedied by more submissions.

Kirsch, David A.

421

[Epidemiologic analysis of occupational accidents using data of the Swiss National Accident Insurance].  

PubMed

The present study is aimed to relate occupational accidents, as recorded by SAIF for 1974, to several risk factors among which the size of industrial enterprises. The results seem to demonstrate that very small enterprises (of less than ten employees) produce the highest rate of occupational accidents and accumulate risk factors. Nevertheless, before going very much further in the comment of results, the authors emphasize the limitations of the available statistical material. Further limitation in planning an ergonomical prevention programme on the basis of those records is to be related to the parameters chosen to explain the genesis of occupational accidents. PMID:7136290

Gressot, M; Rey, P

1982-09-01

422

Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

2011-01-01

423

National Transportation Safety Board Aircraft Accident Investigation Supported  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main purpose of this investigation was for NASA to help the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) gain better understanding of the events that led to the loss of Comair Flight 3272 over Monroe, Michigan, on January 9, 1997. In-flight icing was suspected as being the primary cause of this accident. Of particular interest to the Safety Board was what NASA could learn about the potential performance degradation of the wing of the Embraer EMB-120 twin-turboprop commuter aircraft with various levels of ice contamination. NASA agreed to undertake (1) ice-accretion prediction computations with NASA s LEWICE program to bound the kind of contaminations that the vehicle may have developed, (2) testing in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel to verify and refine the ice shapes developed by LEWICE, (3) a two-dimensional Navier- Stokes analysis to determine the performance degradation that those ice shapes could have caused, and (4) an examination using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes to study the three-dimensional effects of ice contamination.

Reehorst, Andrew L.

1999-01-01

424

Household vehicles energy consumption 1994  

SciTech Connect

Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

NONE

1997-08-01

425

Quantification method analysis of the relationship between occupant injury and environmental factors in traffic accidents.  

PubMed

Injury analysis following a vehicle crash is one of the most important research areas. However, most injury analyses have focused on one-dimensional injury variables, such as the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) or the IIS (Injury Impairment Scale), at a time in relation to various traffic accident factors. However, these studies cannot reflect the various injury phenomena that appear simultaneously. In this paper, we apply quantification method II to the NASS (National Automotive Sampling System) CDS (Crashworthiness Data System) to find the relationship between the categorical injury phenomena, such as the injury scale, injury position, and injury type, and the various traffic accident condition factors, such as speed, collision direction, vehicle type, and seat position. Our empirical analysis indicated the importance of safety devices, such as restraint equipment and airbags. In addition, we found that narrow impact, ejection, air bag deployment, and higher speed are associated with more severe than minor injury to the thigh, ankle, and leg in terms of dislocation, abrasion, or laceration. PMID:21094332

Ju, Yong Han; Sohn, So Young

2011-01-01

426

Reduction of the blood alcohol concentration limit in Norway--effects on knowledge, behavior and accidents.  

PubMed

From January 1, 2001, the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in Norway was reduced from 0.5 to 0.2 g/l. A before-and-after telephone survey concerning the effects of the reduced BAC limit was carried out. 3001 driver's license holders were interviewed before and after the amendment. The percentage of drivers claiming that they will drink no alcohol before driving has increased from 82 to 91 percent, thus the distinction between driving a motor vehicle and drinking alcohol has become clearer. Drivers influenced by alcohol and involved in accidents have on the average much higher BACs than 0.5 g/l. Statistics on alcohol-related accidents are not available for the years before and after the legal amendment, but single-vehicle night-time and weekend personal-injury and fatal crashes are used as surrogate measures. There are no significant decreases in these proxies from the six years before to the six years after the reductions of the legal limit. PMID:20728598

Assum, Terje

2010-11-01

427

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

428

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

429

Methane-Powered Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid methane is beginning to become an energy alternative to expensive oil as a power source for automotive vehicles. Methane is the principal component of natural gas, costs less than half as much as gasoline, and its emissions are a lot cleaner than from gasoline or diesel engines. Beech Aircraft Corporation's Boulder Division has designed and is producing a system for converting cars and trucks to liquid methane operation. Liquid methane (LM) is a cryogenic fuel which must be stored at a temperature of 260 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The LM system includes an 18 gallon fuel tank in the trunk and simple "under the hood" carburetor conversion equipment. Optional twin-fuel system allows operator to use either LM or gasoline fuel. Boulder Division has started deliveries for 25 vehicle conversions and is furnishing a liquid methane refueling station. Beech is providing instruction for Northwest Natural Gas, for conversion of methane to liquid state.

1982-01-01

430

Road accidents and tourism: the case of the Balearic Islands (Spain).  

PubMed

The increase in the number of tourists for many destinations and their increased mobility within host countries or regions has implied a rise in tourism-associated externalities, with vehicle crashes as the most common cause of injury for tourists. Within the transport literature, the number and variation in the amount of accidents has been related to a large set of determining variables, including weather conditions, socio-economic characteristics, exposure, physical characteristics of the road and a variety of dummies that try to capture effects such as safety laws and seasonal variations. However, the presence of tourism has been neglected. Using the case study of the Balearic Islands, the present study estimates the role of tourism in determining the number of accidents in a daily context, using the set of variables suggested by the literature and incorporating a daily measure for the stock of tourists at a host destination. Results show how tourism can be associated with a significant amount of the accidents that take place in the Balearics. PMID:21376854

Rosselló, Jaume; Saenz-de-Miera, Oscar

2011-05-01

431

Responsibility for Crashes of Autonomous Vehicles: An Ethical Analysis.  

PubMed

A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles. In particular, Patrick Lin's concern that any security gain derived from the introduction of autonomous cars would constitute a trade-off in human lives will be addressed. The second question is whether it would be morally permissible to impose liability on the user based on a duty to pay attention to the road and traffic and to intervene when necessary to avoid accidents. Doubts about the moral legitimacy of such a scheme are based on the notion that it is a form of defamation if a person is held to blame for causing the death of another by his inattention if he never had a real chance to intervene. Therefore, the legitimacy of such an approach would depend on the user having an actual chance to do so. The last option discussed in this paper is a system in which a person using an autonomous vehicle has no duty (and possibly no way) of interfering, but is still held (financially, not criminally) responsible for possible accidents. Two ways of doing so are discussed, but only one is judged morally feasible. PMID:25027859

Hevelke, Alexander; Nida-Rümelin, Julian

2014-06-11

432

Robotics vehicle mobility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nine-month study was conducted under the direction of Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) in Warren, MI. to determine the best platform design for inherent all-terrain mobility of an unmanned robotic vehicle in the 15000-2500 lb. range. Reference platforms were the DEMO III 4x4 and the Utah State University 6x6 with omni-directional wheels. The study systematically developed desired

Kurt H. Ansorge; James E. Pond

2000-01-01

433

The Cargo Transfer Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Cargo Transfer Vehicle is a key element of the National Launch System currently under definition by a joint USAF and NASA development program. The CTV reference mission and configuration are described. Key mission and system requirements are analyzed and summarized including CTV electrical power and energy, main engine thrust, RCS configurations. Methods of control system validation using full 6DoF simulations are presented.

Rourke, K. H.

1992-03-01

434

Mars transportation vehicle concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept of Mars planet propulsion vehicles is analyzed. Aluminum or magnesium combustion in CO2 is considered as the main energy production cycle. The flight possibilities in rarefied Martian atmosphere are analyzed. The problem of lift force determination in compressible gas in the proximity of rigid surface was solved theoretically. It was demonstrated that lift force increase on approaching rigid surface could guarantee reliable flights in Martian atmosphere.

Smirnova, Maria

2014-10-01

435

Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments were focused around the following sets of parameters: Clear sky, daylight; Clear-sky, night-to-day transition; Clear sky - improve/validate the accuracy of radiative fluxes derived from satellite-based measurements; Daylight, clouds of opportunity; and, Daylight, broken clouds.

Vitko, J. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-04-01

436

46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 ...PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine...

2011-10-01

437

46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 ...PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine...

2010-10-01

438

46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 ...PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine...

2013-10-01

439

46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 ...PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine...

2014-10-01

440

46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 ...PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine...

2012-10-01

441

Investigation of shipping accident injury severity and mortality.  

PubMed

Shipping movements are operated in a complex and high-risk environment. Fatal shipping accidents are the nightmares of seafarers. With ten years' worldwide ship accident data, this study develops a binary logistic regression model and a zero-truncated binomial regression model to predict the probability of fatal shipping accidents and corresponding mortalities. The model results show that both the probability of fatal accidents and mortalities are greater for collision, fire/explosion, contact, grounding, sinking accidents occurred in adverse weather conditions and darkness conditions. Sinking has the largest effects on the increment of fatal accident probability and mortalities. The results also show that the bigger number of mortalities is associated with shipping accidents occurred far away from the coastal area/harbor/port. In addition, cruise ships are found to have more mortalities than non-cruise ships. The results of this study are beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to prevent fatal shipping accidents. PMID:25617776

Weng, Jinxian; Yang, Dong

2015-03-01

442

78 FR 14877 - Pipeline Safety: Incident and Accident Reports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Accident Report--Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems. These revised forms are now available for electronic submittal in the PHMSA Portal. As described in this notice, PHMSA requests supplemental reports to improve the quality of the incident and accident...

2013-03-07

443

Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... most severe kinds of accidents, such as the Chernobyl accident in 1986, other dangerous radioactive isotopes, such ... the April 1986 nuclear power plant disaster at Chernobyl, in what is now Ukraine. The radioactive isotopes ...

444

Remote control continuous mining machine crushing accident data study  

SciTech Connect

A committee was formed to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents as part of US MSHA's efforts to reduce and eliminate these types of accidents. The committee was tasked with collecting, reviewing, and evaluating remote control accident data to identify significant factors that could possibly contribute to remote control accidents. The report identifies that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another (place changing). Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. 10 figs., 5 tabs., 7 apps.

NONE

2006-05-11

445

10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS...to prevent or to mitigate the consequences from a reasonable spectrum of postulated accidents which include internal and...

2012-01-01

446

10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS...to prevent or to mitigate the consequences from a reasonable spectrum of postulated accidents which include internal and...

2010-01-01

447

10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS...to prevent or to mitigate the consequences from a reasonable spectrum of postulated accidents which include internal and...

2014-01-01

448

10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS...to prevent or to mitigate the consequences from a reasonable spectrum of postulated accidents which include internal and...

2013-01-01

449

10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS...to prevent or to mitigate the consequences from a reasonable spectrum of postulated accidents which include internal and...

2011-01-01

450

32 CFR 256.7 - Accident potential zone guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident potential zone guidelines. 256.7 Section 256.7 National Defense...AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.7 Accident potential zone guidelines....

2010-07-01

451

Accidents: Normal or a Sign of a Problem  

MedlinePLUS

... son has been toilet-trained for about four months, but he still has an accident every day ... correct in saying the accidents sometimes continue for months after the toilet training process appears to be ...

452

High mobility vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vehicle, for driving over a ground surface, has a body with a left side, a right side, a front and a back. The vehicle includes left and right drive mechanisms. Each mechanism includes first and second traction elements for engaging the ground surface and transmitting a driving force between the vehicle and ground surface. Each mechanism includes first and second arms coupled to the first and second traction elements for relative rotation about first and second axis respectively. Each mechanism includes a rotor having a third axis, the rotor coupled to the body for rotation about the third axis and coupled to the first and second arms for relative rotation about the third axis. The mechanism includes first and second drive motors for driving the first and second traction elements and first and second transmissions, driven by the first and second motors and engaging the rotor. Driving the first and second traction elements simultaneously rotates the rotor relative to the first and second arms, respectively.

Wilcox, Brian H. (Inventor); Nasif, Annette K. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

453

Lunar construction utility vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

1989-01-01

454

Vehicle ignition system  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle ignition system comprises a transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding for providing the desired high voltage to the spark plug of the vehicle engine and a circuit including a further winding for said transformer connected across a switch and a load. The switch is operable only by a security device and when it is closed, the load absorbs energy from the transformer so that insufficient voltage is generated at the spark plug and the vehicle is immobilized. The load can be replaced by a reverse flux generator, the reverse flux opposing that generated by the primary winding. The security device may comprise a conventional key and keyhole, or more sophisticated devices such as code readers which read a code inputted from a magnetic card or from a keyboard. Further security may be provided by a further switch in series with the primary winding and battery, the further switch being operable in synchronism with and in the opposite sense to the first mentioned switch.

Cheung, W.S.H.

1984-03-27

455

RECENT LASER ACCIDENTS AT DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LABORATORIES  

SciTech Connect

Recent laser accidents and incidents at research laboratories across the Department of Energy complex are reviewed in this paper. Factors that contributed to the accidents are examined. Conclusions drawn from the accident reports are summarized and compared. Control measures that could have been implemented to prevent the accidents will be summarized and compared. Recommendations for improving laser safety programs are outlined and progress toward achieving them are summarized.

ODOM, CONNON R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-02

456

The design of Radiation Accident Registry.  

PubMed

In order to provide effective monitoring and follow-up on the health effects of individuals accidentally exposed to ionising radiation, a Radiation Accident Registry (RAR) has been designed and constructed as an extension to the existing National Dose Registry (NDR). The RAR has basic functions of recording, monitoring and reporting. This type of registry is able to assist responders in preparing for and managing situations during radiological events and in providing effective follow-up on the long-term health effects of persons exposed to ionising radiation. It is especially important to register radiation-exposed people in vulnerable population groups, such as children and pregnant women, to ensure proper long-term health care and protection. Even though radiation accidents are rare, a registry prepared for such accidents could involve a large population and, in some cases, require lifetime monitoring for individuals. One of the most challenging tasks associated with RAR is the assessment of radiation dose resulting from accidents. In some cases, the assessment of radiation doses to individuals could be a process requiring the involvement of various methods. The development of fast and accurate dose assessment tools will remain a long-term challenge associated with the RAR. To meet this challenge, further research activities in radiation dosimetry for individual monitoring are needed. PMID:21112894

Chen, Jing; Seely, Bob; Bergman, Lauren; Moir, Deborah

2011-03-01

457

The Hartford Life and Accident Insurance  

E-print Network

The Hartford Life and Accident Insurance Company Group Numbers Basic Term Life - 677984 Basic plan. Coverage is governed at all times by the complete terms of the Master Group Insurance policy issued to Colorado State University. The basic group term life and AD&D Insurance Plan is provided

458

Agricultural Accident Prevention--Problems and Accomplishments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Titles of bulletins, for persons who are interested in agricultural accident prevention, are listed as well as examples of farm machinery manufacturers who are making special efforts to produce valuable teaching aids and to inform all segments of agriculture about important safety development. (HD)

Bristol, Benton K.

1976-01-01

459

Accident Reporting/Notification Procedures Injured employee  

E-print Network

Safety Officer Home Phone - 488-4313 Shop Super - ____________ Shop Super Cell - Accident/Incident Occurs and will notify EHS&RM or FS Safety Office of any changes in patient progress/status. FS Safety Cell - 590-1902 FS notifies EHS&RM (or FS Safety Officer if FS employee) when injured employee is treated and released back

Hartman, Chris

460

Global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97%

L. R. Anspaugh; R. J. Catlin; M. Goldman

1988-01-01

461

ANS severe accident program overview & planning document  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) severe accident document was developed to provide a concise and coherent mechanism for presenting the ANS SAP goals, a strategy satisfying these goals, a succinct summary of the work done to date, and what needs to be done in the future to ensure timely licensability. Guidance was received from various bodies [viz., panel members of the ANS severe accident workshop and safety review committee, Department of Energy (DOE) orders, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for ALWRs and advanced reactors, ACRS comments, world-wide trends] were utilized to set up the ANS-relevant SAS goals and strategy. An in-containment worker protection goal was also set up to account for the routine experimenters and other workers within containment. The strategy for achieving the goals is centered upon closing the severe accident issues that have the potential for becoming certification issues when assessed against realistic bounding events. Realistic bounding events are defined as events with an occurrency frequency greater than 10{sup {minus}6}/y. Currently, based upon the level-1 probabilistic risk assessment studies, the realistic bounding events for application for issue closure are flow blockage of fuel element coolant channels, and rapid depressurization-related accidents.

Taleyarkhan, R.P.

1995-09-01

462

A European Nuclear Accident Pool&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compensation to victims of nuclear accidents is based on a Paris (OECD) and a Vienna (UN) convention. A problem with the system is that a strictly liable, but insolvent or uninsured plant owner leaves victims without compensation. In this paper, it is argued that a system could be better organised by, for example, the European Union (EU). A State

Göran Skogh

2008-01-01

463

Tragic Car Accident Involves ESO Employees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturday, May 27, turned into a tragic day for ESO. The team installing TIMMI2 at La Silla, went on an excursion to the Elqui valley, 70 km east of the city of La Serena and suffered a serious car accident, crashing against another car driving from the opposite direction.

2000-06-01

464

The Chernobyl accident: Causes and consequences  

SciTech Connect

Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signaled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 a.m. on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safely accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to certain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The Soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10 to 13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union.

Malinauskas, A.P.

1987-01-01

465

Modern accident investigation – Four major challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, ‘investigation’ is a very commonly advocated approach and consequently is becoming an umbrella concept. ‘Investigation’ includes many types of approaches on different system levels. Originating from transport accidents and crime scenes, ‘investigation’ ranges from genocide, natural disasters, via discrimination, health care to crime fighting, economic fraud and ethical questions in engineering and management. In such a changing operating environment

Sverre Roed-Larsen; John Stoop

466

School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

Mahoney, Daniel

2009-01-01

467

Infantile Subdural Hematomas due to Traffic Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common cause of subdural hematomas (SDH) in infants is shaken-baby syndrome (SBS). The pathogenesis and natural history of infantile SDH (ISDH) are poorly documented, because in SBS, the date of shaking is usually imprecise and the assault is often repeated. Victims of traffic accidents (TA) form a study group close to experimental conditions, because the trauma is unique,

Matthieu Vinchon; Odile Noizet; Sabine Defoort-Dhellemmes; Gustavo Soto-Ares; Patrick Dhellemmes

2002-01-01

468

An Investigation of the Therac-25 Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

With information for this article taken from publicly available documents, we present a detailed accident investigation of the factors involved in the overdoses and the attempts by the users, manufacturers, and the US and Canadian governments to deal with them. Our goal is to help others learn from this experience, not to criticize the equipment's manufacturer or anyone else. The

Nancy Leveson; Clark S. Turner

1992-01-01

469

Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.

1981-04-01

470

The accident site portable integrated video system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a high bandwidth fiber-optic communication system intended for post accident recovery of weapons. The system provides bi-directional multichannel, and multi-media communications. Two smaller systems that were developed as direct spin-offs of the larger system are also briefly discussed.

Jones, D.P.; Shirey, D.L.; Amai, W.A.

1995-12-31

471

Violence and accidents in competition sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this study is characterizing violence, accidents and their relationships in the field of sports. A sample from nine sporting practices (basketball, karate, table tennis, swimming, shooting, soccer, volleyball, judo, tennis) was selected for this comparative study, in which 420 competitors were surveyed. They answered a questionnaire and several were interviewed. The results show that 1) violence and

Sébastien Guilbert

2008-01-01

472

Nuclear accidents, consumers' perspectives and demands.  

PubMed

The public's reaction to life threatening situations is determined by a variety of factors. In the case of nuclear accidents, the panic experienced by citizens may be reasonably justified. This paper briefly describes the parameters that cause panic reactions from a consumer's point of view and summarizes citizen's demands concerning nuclear crisis management. PMID:15916841

Alevritou-Goulielmou, H

2005-01-01

473

A conceptual offshore oil and gas process accident model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss an accident prevention model for offshore oil and gas processing environments. The accidents that are considered in this work relate specifically to hydrocarbon release scenarios and any escalating events that follow. Using reported industry data, the elements to prevent an accident scenario are identified and placed within a conceptual model

M. F. Kujath; P. R. Amyotte; F. I. Khan

2010-01-01

474

40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42 Section 68.42 Protection... § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

2010-07-01

475

40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42 Section 68.42 Protection... § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

2011-07-01

476

40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42 Section 68.42 Protection... § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

2012-07-01

477

40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42 Section 68.42 Protection... § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

2014-07-01

478

40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42 Section 68.42 Protection... § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

2013-07-01

479

Smoking, belt use, and road accidents of youth in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth, worldwide, are involved in a disproportionate number of road accidents, in general, and fatal accidents, in particular. Kuwait is no exception to this trend. The objectives of this funded research were to identify the trends in belt use, smoking in motion, and road accidents of young drivers in Kuwait. Findings of a person-interview questionnaire survey of 1467 randomly selected

Parviz A. Koushki; Mahmood Bustan

2006-01-01

480

RAILROAD ACCIDENT RATES FOR USE IN TRANSPORTATION RISK ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual safety statistics published by FRA provide train accident counts for various groupings, such as railroad, accident type, cause, track type and class, train length, and speed. However, hazardous materials transportation risk analysis often requires more detailed accident rate statistics for specific combinations of these groupings. The statistics that are presented enable more precise determination of the probability that Class

Robert T Anderson; Christopher P. L. Barkan

2004-01-01

481

Comparison of techniques for accident scenario analysis in hazardous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, three accident scenario analysis techniques are presented and compared regarding their efficiency vs. the demanded resources. The complexity of modern industrial systems has prompted the development of accident analysis techniques that should thoroughly investigate accidents. The idea of criteria classification to fulfill this requirement has been proposed by other researchers and is examined here too. The comparison

Z. S. Nivolianitou; V. N. Leopoulos; M. Konstantinidou

2004-01-01

482

Off-site protective action selection for nuclear reactor accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program based upon a model using a rational theoretical basis was developed to select appropriate off-site protective actions during nuclear reactor accidents. The special features of this program include (a) introduction of a precursor concept that uses the history of the accident progression to determine the spectrum of potential accident scenarios and estimates of the likelihoods of each

Weerakkody

1986-01-01

483

Underestimation of language issues in frequently used accident investigation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of methods exist in the field of accident investigation. The challenge to find the cause for each and every accident has perpetuated a complicated and fundamental debate. In spite of the different paradigms, the many branch specific investigation methods, decades of accumulated and documented accident investigation experience, the diversity in taxonomy of causal factors, and an increasing

P. Lindhout; C. van Gulijk; B. J. M. Ale

2011-01-01

484

CHARACTERIZATION OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISRAEL INVOLVING LARGE MAMMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the first attempt to evaluate the magnitude of car accidents involving terrestrial mammals in Israel. With the cooperation of the Israeli insurance companies, we identified 351 accidents that involved mammals from 1995 through 1999. Since only accidents that resulted in human injuries were retrievable, this data set underestimates the full scope of the phenom- enon. The annual

MOSHE INBAR; URI SHANAS; IDO IZHAKI

2002-01-01

485

Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident

Bevelacqua, J. J.

2012-01-01

486

Pipeline accident effects for hazardous liquid pipelines. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project team identified the factors that cause pipeline failures and the factors that effect accidents on hazardous liquid pipelines. Since the normalizing of the data was not possible, the authors of this report used indirect and inferential approaches in the analysis. The databases used for this analysis are LIQUID (accident data for 1968-1985) and LIQLCK (accident data for 1985-present).

J. Greenfeld; E. Golub; R. Dresnack; F. H. Griffis; L. J. Pignataro

1996-01-01

487

46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5...Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further...

2010-10-01

488

46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5...Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further...

2012-10-01

489

46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5...Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of...

2013-10-01

490

46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5...Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of...

2010-10-01

491

46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5...Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of...

2011-10-01

492

46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5...Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further...

2013-10-01

493

46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5...Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further...

2011-10-01

494

46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5...Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of...

2012-10-01

495

46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5...Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of...