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1

Electric Vehicle Conceptual Design Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual design of an electric vehicle is presented. The vehicle has been designed to accommodate a number of alternate drive trains. The initial drive will consist of commercially available dc components; more advanced drives may be installed to up...

1976-01-01

2

EOD Vehicle Conceptual Design Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design study of a tethered undersea remotely operated vehicle (ROV) has been made for the U.S. Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Technology Center. The conceptual design vehicle is designated ROV-EOD. The purpose of the vehicle is to locate, identify and neutralize suspected ordnance on the ocean floor, normally at or near harbors; thus relieving divers of a very

K. Rogers; G. Bane; W. Laing

1982-01-01

3

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers design for autonomous intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrainment and vehicle following controllers are proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles in both non-tight and tight vehicle following manoeuvres. A nonlinear vehicle model is used for designing the controllers. The proposed vehicle following controller is designed based on a constant time headway policy; whereas, the proposed entrainment controller is designed based on a k-factor headway policy. The proposed vehicle following

C. C. Chien; P. Ioannou; M. C. Lai

1994-01-01

4

Intelligent vehicle airbag controller design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent vehicle airbag controller design methodology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the vehicle impact severity is analyzed to get four characteristic factors utilized as fuzzy inputs. From these four characteristics factors, the 'two stages fuzzy algorithm' is developed and used as the airbag deployment algorithm to identify the vehicle impact severity. Finally, the fuzzy-Gaussian neural network (FGNN) is

Yi-Jen Mon; Kuang-Tso Luo

2004-01-01

5

Hybrid Vehicle Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is written for a first-year algebra-based physics class, though it could easily be modified for conceptual physics. It is intended to provide hands-on activities to teach the overarching concept of energy, as it relates to both kinetic and potential energy. Within these topics, students are exposed to gravitational potential, spring potential, the Carnot engine, temperature scales, and simple magnets. During the module, students utilize these scientific concepts to solve the following problem: âThe rising price of gasoline has many effects on the US economy and the environment. You have been contracted as by an engineering firm to help with the design of a physical energy storage system to be used on a new hybrid vehicle for Nissan. How would you go about solving this problem? What information would you consider to be important to know? You will make a sales pitch to Nissan with a small prototype with your idea at the end of the unit.â This module is built around the Legacy Cycle, a format that incorporates findings from educational research on how people best learn.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

6

Vehicle systems design optimization study  

SciTech Connect

The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

Gilmour, J. L.

1980-04-01

7

Advanced concepts in electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994, the Eco-Vehicle Project was begun to develop an electric vehicle (EV) using a ground-up design approach that incorporates unique designs specific to an EV. The Eco-Vehicle will be a high-performance, but ultrasmall, battery-powered vehicle. New designs for the Eco-Vehicle include an in-wheel motor drive system, a hollow load floor which will house the batteries, and a new battery

Hiroshi Shimizu; Junji Harada; Colby Bland; Kiyomoto Kawakami; Lam Chan

1997-01-01

8

The acoustic design of outside broadcast vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is given of the acoustic design of outside broadcast vehicles in terms of the constraints implicit in the use of road vehicles. A new design of vehicle wall construction is described, the provision of sound absorbing material suitable for use in small enclosures is discussed, and particular factors involved in utilizing large (articulated) vehicles are mentioned. As an illustration, an account is given of the acoustic design of the BBC's Digital Control Vehicle: priority was given, in this vehicle, to the provision of the best possible environment for sound monitoring and control.

Taylor, E. W.

1984-05-01

9

Mars vehicle design - The fourth generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourth generation of Mars mission vehicle concepts which are based on nuclear electric (NEP), solar electric (SEP), and nuclear thermal (NTP) propulsion methods are discussed. These concepts combine powerful computational tools with the tight coordination and multiple iterations to obtain high level of detail and cost-effective craftsmanship. Topics addressed include NTP vehicle and lander design, transfer vehicle design, engines and

Brent Sherwood

1993-01-01

10

Design of a flapping foil underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, construction and testing of a biomimetic flapping foil autonomous underwater vehicle are detailed. The project is a proof of concept for the use of flapping foils as the sole source of propulsion for an underwater vehicle. We intend to use the vehicle in several physical arrangements to compare the swimming performance of different shapes and foil arrangements. The

Stephen Licht; Franz Hover; Michael S. Triantafyllou

2004-01-01

11

Biocular vehicle display optical designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocular vehicle display optics is a fast collimating lens (f / # < 0.9) that presents the image of the display at infinity to both eyes of the viewer. Each eye captures the scene independently and the brain merges the two images into one through the overlapping portions of the images. With the recent conversion from analog CRT based displays to lighter, more compact active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLED) digital image sources, display optical designs have evolved to take advantage of the higher resolution AMOLED image sources. To maximize the field of view of the display optics and fully resolve the smaller pixels, the digital image source is pre-magnified by relay optics or a coherent taper fiber optics plate. Coherent taper fiber optics plates are used extensively to: 1. Convert plano focal planes to spherical focal planes in order to eliminate Petzval field curvature. This elimination enables faster lens speed and/or larger field of view of eye pieces, display optics. 2. Provide pre-magnification to lighten the work load of the optics to further increase the numerical aperture and/or field of view. 3. Improve light flux collection efficiency and field of view by collecting all the light emitted by the image source and guiding imaging light bundles toward the lens aperture stop. 4. Reduce complexity of the optical design and overall packaging volume by replacing pre-magnification optics with a compact taper fiber optics plate. This paper will review and compare the performance of biocular vehicle display designs without and with taper fiber optics plate.

Chu, H.; Carter, Tom

2012-05-01

12

Mars vehicle design - The fourth generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourth generation of Mars mission vehicle concepts which are based on nuclear electric (NEP), solar electric (SEP), and nuclear thermal (NTP) propulsion methods are discussed. These concepts combine powerful computational tools with the tight coordination and multiple iterations to obtain high level of detail and cost-effective craftsmanship. Topics addressed include NTP vehicle and lander design, transfer vehicle design, engines and propulsion, crew habitats, and an ETO flight plan.

Sherwood, Brent

1993-09-01

13

Design of robust vehicle launch control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a robust algorithm for vehicle start-up from a stop (commonly referred to as “vehicle launch”) using a microprocessor controlled friction clutch. The design applies an “M-exclusion” concept for achieving guaranteed robust tracking and stability using quantitative feedback theory (QFT). The analytical design technique is carried out in the complex plane and improves on the conventional graphical QFT

James M. Slicker; Robert N. K. Loh

1996-01-01

14

Basic Utility Vehicle Design Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What would you describe as a "car for humanity?" The Institute for Affordable Transportation (IAT) sees it as a simple vehicle that can be assembled almost anywhere by almost anyone to meet everyday needs and is a vehicle that can change lives for the working poor in Third World countries.

Reese, Susan

2004-01-01

15

Basic Utility Vehicle Design Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What would you describe as a "car for humanity?" The Institute for Affordable Transportation (IAT) sees it as a simple vehicle that can be assembled almost anywhere by almost anyone to meet everyday needs and is a vehicle that can change lives for the working poor in Third World countries.|

Reese, Susan

2004-01-01

16

Advances in fuel cell vehicle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied to any system utilizing the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system and is not limited in application to only fuel cell vehicles. With regards to DC/DC converters, it is important to design efficient and light-weight converters for use in fuel cell and other electric vehicles to improve overall vehicle fuel economy. Thus, this research presents a novel soft-switching method, the capacitor-switched regenerative snubber, for the high-power DC/DC boost converters commonly used in fuel cell vehicles. This circuit is shown to increase the efficiency and reduce the overall mass of the DC/DC boost converter.

Bauman, Jennifer

17

Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar vehicle design concepts for Mars missions.

Hodge, John

18

Robust observer design for underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new observer system for underwater vehicles. The main design objective behind this strategy is to reduce the effect of the destabilizing Coriolis and centripetal forces and moments. For low cost vehicles with limited measurement equipment, these forces and moments represent a significant challenge for automatic control when the forward speed is high. However, by

Jon E. Refsnes; A. J. Sorensen; Kristin Y. Pettersen

2006-01-01

19

Trends in vehicle design research - 1987  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 papers. Some of the titles are: Test rig design for hydrostatic accumulator energy-storage automobile research; Actively coordinated vehicle systems; Steady turning stability of partially filled tank vehicles with arbitrary tank geometry; Modeling and simulation of a supercharger; and Contributions of rider induced loads to bicycle frame stress.

Velinsky, S.A.

1988-01-01

20

Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The approach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the

J. F. Donoghue; J. H. Burghart

1983-01-01

21

Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DoD 4120.15-L is a list of approved Mission Design Series (MDS) designations for all approved military aerospace vehicles in the DoD inventory (aircraft and missiles) i.e., F-15A (Eagle), B-52G (Stratofortress) and LGM-25G (Minuteman III). The list displa...

J. Notaro

1987-01-01

22

Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DoD 4120.15-L is a list of approved Mission Design Series (MDS) designations for all approved military aerospace vehicles in the DoD inventory (aircraft and missiles) (i.e., F-15A (Eagle), B-52G (Stratofortress) and LGM-25G (Minuteman III). The list displ...

J. Notaro

1990-01-01

23

Lunar NTR Vehicle Design and Operations Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lun...

J. Hodge

1993-01-01

24

Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar

John Hodge

1993-01-01

25

Design of flight vehicles and their systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiple approach to the design of aerospace vehicles is considered along with the processing characteristics of systems for automated design work in the initial stage of aerospace vehicle design, complex problems in the theory of optimal control and differential games, the choice of allowable errors regarding the parameters of mathematical models of aerospace vehicles, and a study of the sensitivity of mathematical models of aerospace vehicles. Attention is also given to the combination of a semigroup approach and the method of Lagrange multipliers as a suitable means for the solution of distinct optimization problems with constraints in the form of inequalities, a method for increasing the search rate in a search for extrema, and the realization of combinatorial objectives on an electronic computer. Other subjects discussed are related to the construction of a graphical structural representation of a layout diagram for an aerospace vehicle, a flywheel energy storage device, and the effect of vibration on the tightness of rubber-metal valve seals.

Budnik, V. S.

26

Mars vehicle design: The fourth generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful new computational tools and small, expert teams have produced unprecedented levels of design detail in the latest cycle of engineering planning for human expeditions to Mars. This article reports on a study contract for NASA-MSFC which evolved mature fourth-generation Mars mission vehicle concepts, a set based on nuclear electric, solar electric, and nuclear thermal propulsion methods. The concept described

Brent Sherwood

1993-01-01

27

Road Vehicle Suspension System Design - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based mainly on English language literature, information relating to the design of automobile suspension systems for ride comfort and control of wheel load variations for frequencies below body structure resonances is reviewed. The information is interpreted in the context of vehicles which travel through a wide speed range on roads of markedly differing quality, which do so carrying different loads

R. S. SHARP; D. A. CROLLA

1987-01-01

28

Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

1995-08-01

29

Human Factors in space vehicle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper consideration of human needs in the design of space vehicles results in a safe and productive environment for crewmembers. This is particularly important for crew interfaces that are used during ascent and entry due to the demanding environmental conditions. The involvement of Human Factors (HF) engineers in the design and evaluation process ensures that Human-Systems Integration (HSI) begins early, and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This paper highlights various aspects of the HSI process: establishment of HSI standards, the use of research to develop and refine challenging requirements and verification methods, partnering with research projects to drive evidence-based designs, and the value of applying HF methods and principles to design.

Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer L.; Ezer, Neta; Holubec, Keith; Sándor, Anikó; Stephens, John-Paul

2013-11-01

30

Underground mining vehicles: a design challenge  

SciTech Connect

Trackless machines for underground mining applications are examined. High capacity, reliability, and low operating cost are fundamental requirements. Mobile vehicles for underground use include loaders, haulers, and general utility machines. The broad concept of designing for special conditions is epitomized in the load haul dump machine. Remote-controlled vehicles give potential to recovery of ore in locations inaccessible to humans. The system was developed by Eimco M.M. International, and is offered as an option for either diesel or electric loaders of this series.

Hovolka, D.J.; Olsen, R.J.

1985-04-01

31

Engineering in accidents: vehicle design and injuries.  

PubMed

This review has touched superficially on the various mechanisms of injuries to the main classes of road-user casualties, and illustrated some of the desirable vehicle design characteristics which can minimize road trauma. There is still much to be gained by better vehicle design. For occupants, enhanced performance from restraint systems, supplementary airbags, better structural integrity and better compatibility between cars and lorries are obvious areas where known solutions are waiting to be applied. For pedestrians there is an extensive literature outlining the characteristics of friendly vehicle exteriors; many current models of cars are exhibiting some of these properties but better agreement on an optimum specification for the car's exterior is still required. For motorcyclists there is the promise of improved leg protection from energy-absorbing fairings although substantial technical debate still surrounds these proposals. For the clinician, a more accurate appreciation of the likely injuries which occur in given collision circumstances can help in diagnosis and treatment. It is for these reasons that some understanding of vehicle design and crash-worthiness is worthwhile. PMID:7989105

Mackay, M

1994-11-01

32

Conceptual design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional micro air vehicles (MAVs) are miniature versions of full-scale aircraft from which their design principles closely follow. The first step in aircraft design is the development of a conceptual design, where basic specifications and vehicle size are established. Conceptual design methods do not rely on specific knowledge of the propulsion system, vehicle layout and subsystems; these details are addressed

J P Whitney; R J Wood

2012-01-01

33

Design of Low Drag Bluff Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low drag bluff road vehicle design can be obtained effectively and efficiently with a three phase approach that uses numerical simulations, scaled wind tunnel experiments and full-scale road testing. By applying this generalised method, SideWings were developed for an improved trailer underbody flow and tails for the trailer's rear-end. A combination of these aerodynamic devices resulted in fuel savings of

G. M. R. Van Raemdonck

2012-01-01

34

Editors’ perspectives: road vehicle suspension design, dynamics, and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the latest advances in road vehicle suspension design, dynamics, and control, together with the authors’ perspectives, in the context of vehicle ride, handling, and stability. The general aspects of road vehicle suspension dynamics and design are discussed, followed by descriptions of road-roughness excitations with a particular emphasis on road potholes. Passive suspension system designs

Dongpu Cao; Xubin Song; Mehdi Ahmadian

2011-01-01

35

Design and Implementation of Lab. Simulator for Vehicle Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lab. simulator for conducting a performance test and a reliability test on a vehicle and components has been designed and embodied. In order to control non-linear of a vehicle, a fuzzy control algorithm, a running mode tracking algorithm and a vehicle speed control algorithm were applied to the actuator control. The vehicle controller functions were implemented; setup of the

Jeongdai Jo; Dong-Soo Kim; Kwang-Young Kim; Hyung-Eui Kim

2005-01-01

36

Adaptive Critic Designs-based autonomous unmanned vehicles navigation: Application to robotic farm vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of generating autonomously an optimal control action sequence for robotic autonomous unmanned vehicles based on adaptive critic designs (ACDs) for their use in autonomous agriculture vehicles, in the context of precision agriculture. The main objective is to design autonomously an optimal controller that steers the center of the vehicle through a number of waypoints in

H. Daniel Patiño; Santiago Tosetti; Flavio Capraro

2009-01-01

37

A CAI tool design for vehicle design course teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer aided instruction (CAI) technology has been proved that it can strongly support teaching in improving class quality, students' studying efficiency and effectiveness. In terms of the requirement of general vehicle design course, this paper proposes a way to this kinds of course teaching by offering a practical teaching tool, which is based on supporting multi-engineering modeling and simulation. It

Bai Yue-wei; Wei Shuang-yu; He Ya-fei; Qian Rui

2009-01-01

38

Collaborative Design Environment for Space Launch Vehicle Design and Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Like all organizations, the Air Force is interested in conducting its vehicle studies as quickly as possible with as high fidelity an analysis as is feasible and with a proven, repeatable design and analysis process. This research is in support of an appr...

A. A. Bhungalia A. R. Hartong J. V. Zweber M. D. Stevenson R. V. Grandhi

2003-01-01

39

Design Optimization of the Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) is a parallel hybrid electric vehicle propulsion concept that was invented at Texas A&M University, by the advanced vehicle systems research group. Over the past six years, design methodologies, component development, an...

M. Ehsani Y. Gao K. Butler

1998-01-01

40

Advances in fuel cell vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some

Jennifer Bauman

2008-01-01

41

Configuration Design of the Adaptive Suspension Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of vehicle and leg configuration and of power transmission and actuation system configuration for the adaptive suspension vehicle (ASV) are discussed. The ASV will be a proof-of-concept prototype of a proposed class of transportation vehicles for use in terrain that is not passable for conventional vehicles. It uses a legged locomotion princi ple. The machine will not be

Kenneth J. Waldron; Vincent J. Vohnout; Arrie Pery; Robert B. McGhee

1984-01-01

42

Developing CEM design standards to improve light rail vehicle crashworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years extensive effort has been devoted to the development of crashworthiness standards for rail cars spanning modalities from light rail to heavy rail and commuter rail applications. Each mode provides different challenges to the designer, whether it is designing against collisions with similar rail car designs, dissimilar vehicle designs such as freight rail vehicles or other obstructions such

Martin P. Schroeder

2006-01-01

43

Research on integrated optimization design of hypersonic cruise vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization design is the most important key technique of Air-breathing Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV). To improve the design level and get better integrated performances of HCV, this paper researches the integrated optimization design method of waverider hypersonic cruise vehicle. In the optimization design, Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms (MOGA) is selected as the optimization algorithm, and the shape parameters of aircraft are

Jing Che; Shuo Tang

2008-01-01

44

Optimal configuration design for hydraulic split hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic hybrid vehicles are more suitable for heavy-duty applications in urban driving than hybrid electric vehicles because of the high power density and low cost of hydraulic devices. However, the low rotational speeds of hydraulic pump\\/motor and the low energy density of the accumulator impose severe constraints on the design and control for these vehicles. The split configuration is an

Chiao-Ting Li; Huei Peng

2010-01-01

45

Mechatronic design and control of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work in this paper presents techniques for design, development, and control of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Toward these ends, four issues are explored. First, the development of HEV is presented. This synopsis includes a novel definition of degree of hybridization for automotive vehicles. Second, a load-leveling vehicle operation strategy is developed. In order to accomplish the strategy, a fuzzy

Bernd M. Baumann; Gregory Washington; Bradley C. Glenn; Giorgio Rizzoni

2000-01-01

46

Robust platoon-stable controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new variable structure longitudinal controller is designed and analyzed for an autonomous intelligent vehicle. The proposed controller not only guarantees individual vehicle stability but also platoon stability. Moreover, the achieved platoon stability is proven to be robust with respect to vehicle parameter uncertainties and unknown time varying disturbances. Explicit transient bounds are obtained which indicate ways of choosing controller

A. Stotsky; C. C. Chien; P. Ioannou

1994-01-01

47

Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

1997-01-01

48

Design considerations of autonomous amphibious vehicle (UTAR-AAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compact design of the UTAR-AAV is an attractive solution to the problem of big size amphibious vehicle available in the market. Most amphibious vehicles aim to navigate in a wide and open area. This paper sets out the design considerations for the development of the compact UTAR-AAV. The body and buoyancy design is made compact to pass through narrow

YuHon Tee; BoonYew Teoh; D. E. B. Tan; ZhenYang Wong; ChingSeong Tan; YongChai Tan

2010-01-01

49

Nonlinear Control Design for a Supercavitating Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercavitating vehicles can achieve very high speed but also pose technical challenges in system stability, maneuvering, and control. Compared to a fully-wetted vehicle for which substantial lift is generated due to vortex shedding off the hull, a supercavitating vehicle is enveloped by gas surface (cavity) and thus the lift is provided by control surface deflections of the cavitator and fins,

Xiaofeng Mao; Qian Wang

2009-01-01

50

Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle Perliminary Design Study Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a preliminary design for a Tracked Air Cusion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The proposed design meets performance, design, and test requirements prescribed by the OHSGT. The research program test requirements emphasize air cushion and sus...

1969-01-01

51

Preventing Passenger Vehicle Occupant Injuries by Vehicle Design—A Historical Perspective from IIHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure—designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to

Brian ONeill

2009-01-01

52

Design of a stable fuzzy controller for an articulated vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a backward movement control of an articulated vehicle via a model-based fuzzy control technique. A nonlinear dynamic model of the articulated vehicle is represented by a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. The concept of parallel distributed compensation is employed to design a fuzzy controller from the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model of the articulated vehicle. Stability of the designed fuzzy control

Kazuo Tanaka; Takahiro Kosaki

1997-01-01

53

Gain-scheduled reusable launch vehicle attitude controller design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of gain-scheduled attitude controller for reusable launch vehicle is presented. In this paper, gain-scheduled controller design is finished without considering small perturbation linearization. Simultaneously, coordinated scheduling controller is used to deal with intentionally cross coupling. This framework is applied to the design of coupling between roll, pitch and yaw of reusable launch vehicle with large angles of

Nai-gang Cui; Jiangtao Xu; Rongjun Mu; Pengxin Han

2009-01-01

54

Lunar Construction Shack Vehicle: Final Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lunar construction shack vehicle is a critical component in most of the plans proposed for the construction of a permanent base on the moon. The Selene Engineering Company (SEC) has developed a concept for this vehicle which is both innovative and pract...

1988-01-01

55

Unmanned air vehicles: new challenges in design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last ten years have seen a gradual shift in emphasis on future aeronautical technologies towards autonomous operation. This is most evident in the extended planning and development of unmanned air vehicles (UAV). UAV have grown from being target drones to unmanned combat air vehicles that will perform the suppression of enemy air defenses mission. Following generations may even include

T. J. Cord; S. Newbern

2001-01-01

56

Ultralight Hybrid Vehicles: Principles and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical feasibility of superefficient family cars has been demonstrated. Yet it has typically com- promised vehicle performance, safety, cost, manufacturability, or marketability. Industry experimentation has tended to focus on improving performance, or on implementing hybrid-electric drivesystems in essentially conventional vehicles, or on reducing mass and drag, or on improving safety—but has rarely attempted to optimize all of these as

Timothy C. Moore

57

Design diversity of HEVs with example vehicles from HEV competitions  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVS) can be designed and operated to satisfy many different operational missions. The three most common HEV types differ with respect to component sizing and operational capabilities. However, HEV technology offers design opportunities beyond these three types. This paper presents a detailed HEV categorization process that can be used to describe unique HEV prototype designs entered in college and university-level HEV design competitions. We explored possible energy management strategies associated with designs that control the utilization of the two on- board energy sources and use the competition vehicles to illustrate various configurations and designs that affect the vehicle`s capabilities. Experimental data is used to help describe the details of the power control strategies which determine how the engine and electric motor of HEV designs work together to provide motive power to the wheels.

Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.; LeBlanc, N.

1996-12-31

58

Design of turning control for a tracked vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a turning control system for an M113 tracked vehicle, which is modeled as a two-input\\/two-output system, is treated. Since the vehicle model is nonlinear, time varying, and implicit, it is replaced by a set of linear time-invariant models that are valid over certain operation regions. The two inputs to the vehicle are throttle and steering. The two

Geng G. Wang; Shih H. Wang; Cheng W. Chen

1990-01-01

59

Aerodynamic design of winged space vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic and flight dynamic characteristics of a winged space vehicle, the Highly Maneuverable Experimental Space vehicle, have been evaluated by numerical calculations and wind tunnel tests. Special attention is given to the high angle-of-attack flight capability in high-speed flight conditions, along with the capability to achieve a safe horizontal landing on a conventional runway. The longitudinal and lateral\\/directional trim

Yoshifumi Inatani; Koichi Yonemoto

1988-01-01

60

The design of two stage to orbit vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two designs are presented for a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle to complement an existing heavy lift vehicle. The payload is 10,000 lbs and 27 ft long by 10 ft in diameter for design purposes and must be carried to a low earth orbit by an air-breathing carrier configuration that can take off horizontally within 15,000 ft. Two designs are presented: a delta

G. M. Gregorek; T. N. Ramsay

1991-01-01

61

DESIGN OF A REMOTELY CONTROLLED HOVERCRAFT VEHICLE FOR SPILL RECONNAISSANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This program was undertaken to prepare a conceptual design for a practical prototype of a remotely-controlled reconnaissance vehicle for use in hazardous material spill environment. Data from past hazardous material spills were analyzed to determine the type of vehicle best suite...

62

Design of Adaptive Variable Structure Control System for Aerospace Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerospace vehicle is a hypersonic vehicle for long distance transport in near-space. The control system design is much more complicated than that of conventional aircraft due to its large attitude maneuvers and a large amount of uncertainty in ascent and descent modes. In order to provide accurate guidance and attitude tracking, the controller must be robust to external unknown

Tong Chunxia

2006-01-01

63

Performance and design analysis of ballistic reusable SSTO launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous system studies of MBB on single-stage ballistic launch vehicles with vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) from 1969 and 1986, a review is presented of the performance and design criteria of such advanced launch systems with respect to the present 'state of the art'. This type of launch vehicle is a prime candidate for an economical future space

Dietrich E. Koelle

1992-01-01

64

Conceptual Design and Numerical Simulations of Hypersonic Waverider Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modularized airframe/propulsion integrated model is established by oblique shock wave theory, engineering method and method of characteristics(MOC). Based on this method, a new design methodology for hypersonic waverider vehicle which integrated scramjets with waverider airframe derived from cone-wedge flow field is presented. Integrated aero-propulsion performance of the waverider vehicle under on-design and off-design conditions is predicted using Euler equations discretized by Harten-Yee non-MUSCL TVD scheme and the combustor flow field is approximated by a quasi-ID cycle analysis, skin friction of vehicle is calculated by reference temperature method.

Cao, D. Y.; Zhang, J. B.; Lee, C. H.

65

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional...

2010-10-01

66

43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted...for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional...

2009-10-01

67

Design of a lightweight, low-cost geophysical survey vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A remote-controlled vehicle has been designed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for surveying sites that are dangerous for manned vehicles. The vehicle is required to be small, maneuverable, inexpensive, and as free of metallic parts as practicable. The prototype being fabricated will have a mostly aluminum engine, dual bicycle tire wheel assemblies, a two-clutch steering system for selective engagement of pairs of wheels on either side of the vehicle, and radio control with fiber-optic umbilical video link. Wireless control and telemetry are planned for the future. Other future possibilities include a mostly plastic engine and a global positioning system that uses satellite signals. 3 figs.

Ames, K.

1989-03-01

68

Orbit design for a space ambulance vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of rendezvous maneuvers between space stations in geocentric orbits at altitudes ranging between 200 km and geosynchronous altitude are examined. Minimum time to complete rendezvous is studied for purposes of expediting crew patient transfer to an orbiting medical base station (MBS) for the stabilization of trauma and definitive care. The vehicle to be used for the crew patient transfer to the MBS is the space ambulance vehicle (SAV). The SAV is assumed to use two velocity impulses to complete rendezvous maneuvers between an SS and the MBS: an accelerating impulse when departing the SS and a second decelerating impulse prior to docking with the MBS. Recommendations are made concerning the planning of space operations which will reduce both time and propulsive energy for rendezvous maneuvers. It is suggested that throttleable engines be used when transferring a crew patient whose trauma could be exacerbated by excessive acceleration of the carrier vehicle.

Nelson, Walter C.

69

Prototype Paratransit Vehicle as Designed by Steam Power Systems, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a prototype low pollution paratransit vehicle (PTV) designed and constructed for evaluation by the U.S. Department of Transportation. Special features of this PTV include a large comfortable interior which would accommodate five passe...

P. H. Schneider D. D. Norton

1976-01-01

70

Multidisciplinary design optimization of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary optimization method is applied to the design of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions. The method is implemented in a GA-A’GEM-MATLAB simulation environment in such a way that the linear mechanical vehicle model is designed in a multibody dynamics software package, i.e. A’GEM, the controllers and estimators are constructed using linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, and Kalman filter algorithm

Yuping He; John McPhee

2005-01-01

71

Mechanical design of alarm system for vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This device will consist of two separate packages connected to each other by a cable and to the vehicles power supply (battery). One package is to be located in the passenger compartment in view of the driver. The other is to be mounted on the lower rear of the car for an unobstructed view to the rear. They are separate

S. Senator

1996-01-01

72

Winged Cargo Return Vehicle Conceptual Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA is committed to placing a permanent space station in Earth orbit in the 1990's. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be located in a 220 n.m. orbit at 28.5 degrees inclination. The Winged Cargo Return Vehicle's (CRV) primary mission is to support SSF cre...

1990-01-01

73

Optimal Design of Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cells are being considered increasingly as a viable al- ternative energy source for automobiles because of their clean and efficient power generation. Numerous technological con- cepts have been developed and compared in terms of safety, ro- bust operation, fuel economy, and vehicle performance. How- ever, several issues still exist and must be addressed to improve the viability of this

Jeongwoo Han; Michael Kokkolaras; Panos Y. Papalambros

2008-01-01

74

Design and analysis of a gyroscopically controlled micro air vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the current research on micro air vehicle design relies on aerodynamic forces for attitude control. The aerodynamic environment in which micro air vehicles operate is characterized by a low Reynolds number and is not fully understood, resulting in decreased performance and efficiency when compared to large-scale vehicles. In this work, we propose a new rotary-wing micro air vehicle design that utilizes gyroscopic dynamics for attitude control. Unlike traditional micro air vehicles where attitude control moments are generated by aerodynamic control surfaces, the proposed vehicle will leverage the existing angular momentum of its rotating components to generate gyroscopic moments for controlling attitude. We explore this paradigm in an effort to reduce mechanical complexity that is inherent in blade pitch modulation mechanisms such as the swashplate, and to increase agility and possibly even efficiency when compared to state-of-the-art micro vertical-take-off-and-landing vehicles. The evolution of the mechanical design, including the evaluation of three prototypes that explore the use of gyroscopic attitude control, is presented along with a comprehensive dynamic and aerodynamic model of the third prototype. Two controllers that utilize gyroscopic moments are developed and tested in simulation. In addition, several experiments were performed using a VICON motion tracking system and off-board control. These results will also be presented.

Thorne, Christopher Everett

75

Design considerations for a contactless electric vehicle battery charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper overviews theoretical and practical design issues related to inductive power transfer systems and verifies the developed theory using a practical electric vehicle battery charger. The design focuses on the necessary approaches to ensure power transfer over the complete operating range of the system. As such, a new approach to the design of the primary resonant circuit is proposed,

Chwei-Sen Wang; Oskar H. Stielau; Grant A. Covic

2005-01-01

76

19 CFR 115.65 - Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type. 115.65 Section...TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL...CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Road Vehicles by Design Type § 115.65...

2013-04-01

77

19 CFR 115.65 - Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type. 115.65 Section...TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL...CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Road Vehicles by Design Type § 115.65...

2009-04-01

78

19 CFR 115.65 - Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type. 115.65 Section...TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL...CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Road Vehicles by Design Type § 115.65...

2010-04-01

79

Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs. PMID:19333823

O'Neill, Brian

2009-04-01

80

Application of waverider-based configurations to hypersonic vehicle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypersonic waverider concept is explored in the context of aircraft design and optimization. Waveriders are vehicles which provide the highest known values of lift-to-drag ratio, suggesting that they are ideal for hypersonic cruise applications. However, these high lift-to-drag ratios are not retained with engine integration. It is shown that waveriders may have applications to the design of accelerating vehicles, even though high L/D is no longer a priority, because they exhibit relatively low drag, and have highly desirable properties for engine/airframe integration. Along these lines, waveriders provide highly uniform flowfields, making them ideal for forebodies on engine-airframe integrated configurations. The inverse design methodology of a waverider lends itself readily to the vehicle design process. Characteristics which govern the performance of a hypersonic vehicle for cruise and accelerating flight are examined, and applied to waverider vehicle design. Finally, it is shown that waveriders, though configured for the specific shock flowfield of a single design point, have acceptable off-design performance characteristics.

Lewis, Mark J.

1991-09-01

81

Spacecraft rendezvous operational considerations affecting vehicle systems design and configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One lesson learned from Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program experience is that Design Reference Missions must include an appropriate balance of operations and performance inputs to effectively drive vehicle systems design and configuration. Rendezvous trajectory design is based on vehicle characteristics (e.g., mass, propellant tank size, and mission duration capability) and operational requirements, which have evolved through the Gemini, Apollo, and STS programs. Operational constraints affecting the rendezvous final approach are summarized. The two major objectives of operational rendezvous design are vehicle/crew safety and mission success. Operational requirements on the final approach which support these objectives include: tracking/targeting/communications; trajectory dispersion and navigation uncertainty handling; contingency protection; favorable sunlight conditions; acceptable relative state for proximity operations handover; and compliance with target vehicle constraints. A discussion of the ways each of these requirements may constrain the rendezvous trajectory follows. Although the constraints discussed apply to all rendezvous, the trajectory presented in 'Cargo Transfer Vehicle Preliminary Reference Definition' (MSFC, May 1991) was used as the basis for the comments below.

Prust, Ellen E.

82

Conceptual design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles.  

PubMed

Traditional micro air vehicles (MAVs) are miniature versions of full-scale aircraft from which their design principles closely follow. The first step in aircraft design is the development of a conceptual design, where basic specifications and vehicle size are established. Conceptual design methods do not rely on specific knowledge of the propulsion system, vehicle layout and subsystems; these details are addressed later in the design process. Non-traditional MAV designs based on birds or insects are less common and without well-established conceptual design methods. This paper presents a conceptual design process for hovering flapping-wing vehicles. An energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics is combined with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include simple analytical expressions for flight endurance and range, predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass, and critical design space restrictions resulting from finite wing inertia. A new figure-of-merit for wing structural-inertial efficiency is proposed and used to quantify the performance of real and artificial insect wings. The impact of these results on future flapping-wing MAV designs is discussed in detail. PMID:22498507

Whitney, J P; Wood, R J

2012-04-12

83

Design Criteria for Low Risk Re-Entry Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper shows how a sharp vehicle with low wing loading, is able to follow re-entry trajectories with low thermal risks by using Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) to thermally protect the vehicle front edges. These reusable materials can withstand the global radiative equilibrium temperatures that are experienced during reentry characterized by a longer and a more gradual conversion of the kinetic and potential energy of the vehicle into thermal energy. A number of aerothermodynamic problems are addressed to assess the feasibility of the vehicle design and of the thermal protection of the payload. In particular, the boundary layer thermal protection concept is illustrated to show how a UHTC massive tip edges (fuselage and wings) are able to protect also the remaining vehicle structure made of conventional material, promoting a revolutionary approach to the Thermal Protection System (TPS) configuration for hypersonic vehicle flying at small angle of attack. CFD results and engineering formulations are adopted for the computation of the aerodynamic coefficients and heat fluxes. The analysis identifies the design criteria for a conventional looking vehicle for a crew return from LEO (e.g. from the International Space Station).

Monti, R.; Pezzella, G.

2005-02-01

84

Camel-Vehicle Accidents Mitigation System: Design and Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Animal-vehicle collisions (AVC) affect human safety, property and wildlife. Furthermore, the number of collisions with large animals worldwide and especially\\u000a in the Saudi Arabia Kingdom has increased substantially over the last decades. The negative effects of AVC and the increase in collisions prompted the initiation for designing a deployable and intelligent Camel-Vehicle Accident Avoidance System (CVAAS) using global positioning system

Khaled Ragab; Mohammed Zahrani; Asrar Ul Haque

85

Numerical methods for aerothermodynamic design of hypersonic space transport vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirement of the design process of hypersonic vehicles to predict flow past entire configurations with wings, fins, flaps, and propulsion system represents one of the major challenges for aerothermodynamics. In this context computational fluid dynamics has come up as a powerful tool to support the experimental work. A couple of numerical methods developed at MBB designed to fulfill the

K. M. Wanie; A. Brenneis; A. Eberle; S. Heiss

1993-01-01

86

Rotor Design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Railway Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is an efficient machine, which has found application over wide power and speed ranges. This paper presents the optimal rotor design of a PMSM for use on a railway vehicle. This design utilizes reluctance torque in order to develop higher torque at starting with low open circuit voltage at high speed.

Kondo, Minoru; Kondo, Keiichiro; Fujishima, Yasushi; Wakao, Shinji

87

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF SERIAL-HYBRID VEHICLE ENERGY GAUGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper describes a usability study of serial-hybrid vehicle energy gauge designs. Eight gauges that were modified by design format (bars, dials), color (one color, two colors) and the type of information present (range information, no range information) were tested in a driving simulator under urban\\/suburban traffic conditions. Participants answered questions about the state of the battery and fuel

Janet Creaser; John Lenneman; Joseph Szczerba

88

An active emergency stop design and protocol for unmanned vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency stop systems are an integral and lifesaving component of large unmanned vehicles. Some E-stop designs may require their own separate data radio link, and passive listening designs can fail due to false carrier signals, or be delayed by buffering of data if no protocol handshake is required. This paper describes an active emergency stop architecture with data handshake that

Gary L. Crum

2006-01-01

89

Multidisciplinary design optimization of a reentry vehicle using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is the optimal design of a reentry vehicle configuration to minimize the mission cost which is equal to minimize the heat absorbed (thermal protection system mass) and structural mass and to maximize the drag coefficient (trajectory errors and minimum final velocity). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – There are two optimization approaches for solving this problem: multiobjective

M. Nosratollahi; M. Mortazavi; A. Adami; M. Hosseini

2010-01-01

90

Optimization of waverider-based hypersonic vehicle designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypersonic vehicle model based on osculating cones waverider is developed. The osculating cones waverider is designed to produce uniform flow for a two-dimensional multiple inlet ramp design. A quasi-one-dimensional combustor model with paritial equilibrium combustion is used to calculate the flow through a scramjet engine. The method of osculating cones, the off-design performance calculation of osculating cone waverider, and the vehicle model have been validated with CFD calculations. The vehicle model is used to optimize the vehicle design for Mach 10 cruise mission using the sequential quadradic programming method. The design is optimized maxium L/D, range coefficient, and cruise range for a fixed Mach 10 cruise condition. The L/D of the maximum L/D design is 4.26 which is 9.79% greater than the L/D of the maximum cruise range design; however, the cruise range of the maximum L/D design is 5.70% less than the maximum cruise range design. The design of the maximum cruise range design and the maximum range coefficient design is nearly identical for the present vehicle model. The design is also optimized for maximum range along a qsb{infty} = 1000 psf trajectory from Msb{infty} = 6 to Msb{infty} = 10 to assess the effects of the off-design performance on the Mach 10 designed shape. The difference between the range along the hypersonic trajectory for the optimized design and the cruise range optimized design is only 0.49%. The effects of varying the waverider design Mach number on the optimized Mach 10 cruise range design are studied. The waverider design Mach number is varied from Mach 6 to Mach 12 in increments of Mach 2. The difference in the optimized cruise range performances is less than one percent; however, the anhedral angle decreases by 28% as the design Mach number is increased which makes the Mach 12 design the most favorable in terms of structural considerations.

Takashima, Naruhisa

1997-09-01

91

Design solutions for thermal imaging devices in military vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing infrared driver viewers for use in military vehicles poses a unique set of technical challenges to ensure operational usability. This paper describes driver, operational, and technical considerations that must be addressed for successful integration of infrared driver viewers in military vehicles. Discussed are requirements derived from user testing that influenced driver viewer design. The Driver's Vision Enhancer sensor and display are described. Also discussed are considerations that derive from the state of flat-panel display technology, including image intensity, field of view, and magnification. Relevant vehicle issues such as sensor position, and parallax are described. Driver issues such as display resolution, brightness, and symbology are addressed. Finally, design alternatives, solutions, and ongoing challenges are presented and discussed.

Schwalm, Robert C.; Brady, John F.

1996-05-01

92

The ironies of vehicle feedback in car design.  

PubMed

Car drivers show an acute sensitivity towards vehicle feedback, with most normal drivers able to detect 'the difference in vehicle feel of a medium-size saloon car with and without a fairly heavy passenger in the rear seat' (Joy and Hartley 1953-54). The irony is that this level of sensitivity stands in contrast to the significant changes in vehicle 'feel' accompanying modern trends in automotive design, such as drive-by-wire and increased automation. The aim of this paper is to move the debate from the anecdotal to the scientific level. This is achieved by using the Brunel University driving simulator to replicate some of these trends and changes by presenting (or removing) different forms of non-visual vehicle feedback, and measuring resultant driver situational awareness (SA) using a probe-recall method. The findings confirm that vehicle feedback plays a key role in coupling the driver to the dynamics of their environment (Moray 2004), with the role of auditory feedback particularly prominent. As a contrast, drivers in the study also rated their self-perceived levels of SA and a concerning dissociation occurred between the two sets of results. Despite the large changes in vehicle feedback presented in the simulator, and the measured changes in SA, drivers appeared to have little self-awareness of these changes. Most worryingly, drivers demonstrated little awareness of diminished SA. The issues surrounding vehicle feedback are therefore similar to the classic problems and ironies studied in aviation and automation, and highlight the role that ergonomics can also play within the domain of contemporary vehicle design. PMID:16484143

Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Young, Mark S

2006-02-10

93

Reliability-based design optimization for crashworthiness of vehicle side impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of powerful computers, vehicle safety issues have recently been addressed using computational methods of vehicle crashworthiness, resulting in reductions in cost and time for new vehicle development. Vehicle design demands multidisciplinary optimization coupled with a computational crashworthiness analysis. However, simulation-based optimization generates deterministic optimum designs, which are frequently pushed to the limits of design constraint boundaries, leaving

B. D. Youn; K. K. Choi; R.-J. Yang; L. Gu

2004-01-01

94

Optimization of waverider-based hypersonic vehicle designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypersonic vehicle model based on osculating cones waverider is developed. The osculating cones waverider is designed to produce uniform flow for a two-dimensional multiple inlet ramp design. A quasi-one-dimensional combustor model with paritial equilibrium combustion is used to calculate the flow through a scramjet engine. The method of osculating cones, the off-design performance calculation of osculating cone waverider, and

Naruhisa Takashima

1997-01-01

95

Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design proce...

P. A. Gnoffo K. J. Weilmuenster H. H. Hamilton D. R. Olynick E. Venkatapathy

2004-01-01

96

Thermostructural design tools for hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operating conditions of scramjet engines demand designs that include active cooling by the fuel and the use of lightweight materials capable of withstanding extreme heat fluxes and structural loads. As hypersonic flight is an emerging technology, there is limited ability to evaluate candidate material systems in hypersonic environments. This dissertation addresses the problem by developing an optimization protocol that establishes the capabilities and deficiencies of existing combustor panel designs and directs the development of advanced materials that will outperform existing high temperature alloys and compete with ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). By incorporating models that characterize the key loading and boundary conditions of hypersonic combustors, the optimization protocol is able to rapidly survey the design space and facilitate communication between design variables and material properties. The code determines temperatures and stresses present in panels that line the combustion chamber and optimizes for minimum weight subject to two primary constraints: the stresses induced by thermomechanical loads remain below representative levels of material strength or elasto-plastic design rules; and the maximum temperature in the structure does not exceed the material limit. The results indicate that there are multiple avenues for achieving greater robustness and weight efficiency, including: (i) tailoring properties such as intermediate strength and material softening temperature and (ii) allowing localized plasticity. Design implementation is explored using laser heat flux experiments on convectively-cooled structures. The experiments serve as feedback for the optimization code and highlight benefits and concerns associated with allowing elasto-plastic response.

Vermaak, Natasha

97

Design of an instrumented vehicle test bed for developing a human centered driver support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new type of intelligent vehicle test-bed that is enabling new research in the field. This new test-bed is designed to capture not just a portion of the vehicle surround, but rather the entire vehicle surround as well as the vehicle interior and vehicle state for extended periods of time. This is accomplished using multiple modalities of sensor

Joel C. McCall; Ofer Achler; Mohan M. Trivedi

2004-01-01

98

The design of infrared laser radar for vehicle initiative safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser radar for vehicle is mainly used in advanced vehicle on-board active safety systems, such as forward anti-collision systems, active collision warning systems and adaptive cruise control systems, etc. Laser radar for vehicle plays an important role in the improvement of vehicle active safety and the reduction of traffic accidents. The stability of vehicle active anti-collision system in dynamic environment is still one of the most difficult problems to break through nowadays. According to people's driving habit and the existed detecting technique of sensor, combining the infrared laser range and galvanometer scanning technique , design a 3-D infrared laser radar which can be used to assist navigation, obstacle avoidance and the vehicle's speed control for the vehicle initiative safety. The device is fixed to the head of vehicle. Then if an accident happened, the device could give an alarm to remind the driver timely to decelerate or brake down, by which way can people get the purpose of preventing the collision accidents effectively. To accomplish the design, first of all, select the core components. Then apply Zemax to design the transmitting and receiving optical system. Adopt 1550 nm infrared laser transmitter as emission unit in the device, a galvanometer scanning as laser scanning unit and an InGaAs-APD detector as laser echo signal receiving unit. Perform the construction of experimental system using FPGA and ARM as the core controller. The system designed in this paper can not only detect obstacle in front of the vehicle and make the control subsystem to execute command, but also transfer laser data to PC in real time. Lots of experiments using the infrared laser radar prototype are made, and main performance of it is under tested. The results of these experiments show that the imaging speed of the laser radar can reach up to 25 frames per second, the frame resolution of each image can reach 30×30 pixels, the horizontal angle resolution is about 6. 98mrad, the vertical angle resolution is about 3. 49mrad, the maximum value of range error is 0. 5m, minimum value is 0. 07m at the detectable distance range 10-200m and the detection probability is more than 99. 9%.

Gong, Ping; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Xiao-yu; Li, Tian-zhi; Liu, Yu-long; Wu, Jia-hui

2013-09-01

99

A comparison of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cell vehicles: implications for vehicle design and infrastructure development  

Microsoft Academic Search

All fuel cells cuuenuy being developed for near term use in electric vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol. or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g.. gasoline. diesel. or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage. but requires developing a more complex refueling

Joan M. Ogden; Margaret M. Steinbugler; Thomas G. Kreutz

1999-01-01

100

Emerging CFD technologies and aerospace vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recent focus on the needs of design and applications CFD, research groups have begun to address the traditional bottlenecks of grid generation and surface modeling. Now, a host of emerging technologies promise to shortcut or dramatically simplify the simulation process. This paper discusses the current status of these emerging technologies. It will argue that some tools are already

Michael J. Aftosmis

1995-01-01

101

Design, Modeling and Hardware Implementation of a Next Generation Extended Range Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in battery and hybrid powertrain technology have significantly expanded the automotive design space. In this work, the design process of a new extended range electric vehicle (E-REV) is presented, following industry standard vehicle development process (VDP). To effectively achieve the design targets, this project was developed following a model-based design (MBD) process. The design process started from a vehicle

Leon Zhou; Jeremy Wise; Shaun Bowman; Curran Crawford; Zuomin Dong

102

Infantry mobility hybrid electric vehicle performance analysis and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal energy flux analysis and design of a power plant for infantry mobility hybrid diesel-electric vehicle is dealt with in this paper. Control strategy management and propulsion system sizing is done on the basis of minimizing total fuel consumption. A quasi-static system model has allowed analyzing the most restrictive operations; moreover the simulation has been used in expected real driving

Francisco José Jimenez-Espadafor; Juan José Ruiz Marín; José A. Becerra Villanueva; Miguel Torres García; Elisa Carvajal Trujillo; Francisco José Florencio Ojeda

2011-01-01

103

Design Study of Toroidal Traction Cvt for Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development, evaluation, and optimization of a preliminary design concept for a continuously variable transmission (CVT) to couple the high-speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle is discussed. An exi...

A. E. Raynard J. Kraus D. D. Bell

1980-01-01

104

Designing and building an electric vehicle for commercial fleet operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grumman Allied Industries was charged to design an electrically propelled truck that used Grumman's lightweight aluminum truck bodies. A prototype was tested in-house, and failed. It was then redesigned to increase battery mass friction, and to decrease vehicle curb weight. A VW Dasher rear suspension and a VW Rabbit undercarriage configuration were installed. Motor, vent and fill system, propulsion batteries,

S. Ferdman; J. C. Kessler

1982-01-01

105

Vibration Challenges in the Design of NASA's Ares Launch Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on the vibration challenges inherent in the design of NASA s Ares launch vehicles. A brief overview of the launch system architecture is provided to establish the context for the discussion. Following this is a general discussion of the...

S. G. Ryan

2009-01-01

106

Zinc-Bromine Battery Design for Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design projections for zinc-bromine batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-bromine batery projections (60 to 80 Wh/kg, 130 to 200 W/kg) compare fa...

R. Bellows P. Grimes H. Einstein E. Kantner P. Malachesky

1982-01-01

107

Neighborhood design and vehicle type choice: Evidence from Northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have found that suburban development is associated with the unbalanced choice of light duty trucks. The specific aspects of the built environment that influence vehicle choice, however, have not been well-established. Further, these studies have not shed much light on the underlying direction of causality: whether neighborhood designs themselves, as opposed to preferences for neighborhood characteristics or attitudes

Xinyu Cao; Patricia L. Mokhtarian; Susan L. Handy

2006-01-01

108

Role of Habitability Studies in Space Facility and Vehicle Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the role of the space architect in designing a space vehicle with habitability as a chief concern. Habitability is composed of the qualities of the environment or system which support the crew in wor...

C. M. Adams

1999-01-01

109

A Bayesian Approach to Non-Deterministic Hypersonic Vehicle Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affordable, reliable endo- and exoatmospheric transporta- tion, for both the military and commercial sectors, grows in importance as the world grows smaller and space explo- ration and exploitation increasingly impact our daily lives. However, the impact of disciplinary, operational, and tech- nological uncertainties inhibit the design of the requisite hypersonic vehicles, an inherently multidisciplinary and non-deterministic process. Without investigation, these

George C. Mantis; Dimitri N. Mavris

110

Design of Sliding Mode Tracking Control for Hypersonic Reentry Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integral sliding mode controller is designed via equivalent approach under model uncertainties and external disturbances to provide robust, de-coupled tracking of the guided angle command for hypersonic reentry vehicles. All uncertainties and disturbances are not required to be constants. They may be bounded by some known functions of states and external measurable variables. In the presence of uncertainties and

Yang Junchun; Hu Jun; Lv Xiaole

2007-01-01

111

Conceptual designing — Unmanned aerial vehicle flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design procedure of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control system is discussed in this paper. Detailed discussion of important aspects of UAV relating to its role, mission, capabilities and their implications on the flight control system are discussed. This leads to the basic requirements for the flight control and then translates to the type of controller to be used

Tahir Hameed; Wang Wei; Ren Zhang

2009-01-01

112

Design, Synthesis, Manufacturing, and Testing of a Competitive FHSAE Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition scheduled for 2012. Vehicle integration has been completed as part of a variety of 2010-2011 senior design projects and 2011-2012 ...

C. Eacker E. Odom J. Law S. Beyerlein S. Wos

2012-01-01

113

On improving design aspects of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aON IMPROVING DESIGN ASPECTS OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES\\u000aBy\\u000aGAUTHAM THYAGARAJAN\\u000aAdvisor : Dr. Harpreet Singh\\u000aMajor : Mechanical Engineering\\u000aDegree: Master Of Science\\u000aAugust 2011\\u000aHybrid vehicles are becoming very popular in the market. With increase in demand for performance and efficiency in the market, new technologies are evolving. Use of electronics in automobile control systems, have become very

Gautham Thyagarajan

2011-01-01

114

Design optimization by response surface methodology: application to crashworthiness design of vehicle structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standards imposed by certification regulations are very strict and the requirements of the customer in terms of vehicle safety are always increasing. It is often necessary to redesign several vehicle components in order to achieve a global better performance. Design optimization by response surface methodology has been effectively used to improve the mechanical behaviour of several automotive components in impact

M. Avalle; G. Chiandussi; G. Belingardi

2002-01-01

115

Software design for an autonomous ground vehicle for the 13th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the vision and path planning software design of a totally autonomous vehicle built to compete in the 13th Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition, IGVC. The vehicle, Calculon, is based on a powered wheelchair and uses a variety of sensors for its navigation and obstacle avoidance including a 3CCD Sony color camera, an outdoor laser range finder, a DGPS, 2 wheel encoders and a solid state compass. The modules forming the core vision system include: filters, color classifier, image segments, and line finder. Our color classifier is based on a modified implementation of an adaptive Gaussian color model similar to those used in some skin detection algorithms. A combination of various image enhancing filters and the color classifier allow for the isolation of possible obstacles within the image. After filtering the image for areas of high brightness and contrast, the line finder performs a Hough Transform to find lines in the image. Our path planning is accomplished using a variety of known and custom algorithms in combination including a modified road map method, a Rapidly Exploring Trees method and a Gaussian Potential Field's method. This paper will present the software design and methods of our autonomous vehicle focusing mainly on the 2 most difficult components, the vision and path planning.

Roberts, Tim; Barber, Daniel; Becker, Brian C.; Gonzalez, Fernando

2005-10-01

116

Intelligent Design of Vehicle Package Using Ontology and Casebased Reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The similarity of varied vehicle package is a critical design feature that affects method selection, optimized design and driver performance. However there is limited understanding of what constitutes similarity in package design and limited computer-based support to identify this feature in a layout model. This paper contributes a case-based framework for representing and reasoning about layout similarity that builds on domain-specific ontological modeling and case-based reasoning techniques. Validation study of the system provides evidence that the framework is general and enables a more efficient package layout design process.

Jin, Xiaoping; Mao, Enrong; Cheng, Bo

117

Kistler reusable vehicle facility design and operational approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kistler Aerospace Corporation is designing and developing the K-1, the world's first fully reusable aerospace vehicle to deliver satellites into orbit. The K-1 vehicle test program will be conducted in Woomera, Australia, with commercial operations scheduled to begin shortly afterwards. Both stages of the K-1 will return to the launch site utilizing parachutes and airbags for a soft landing within 24 h after launch. The turnaround flow of the two stages will cycle from landing site to a maintenance/refurbishment facility and through the next launch in only 9 days. Payload processing will occur in a separate facility in parallel with recovery and refurbishment operations. The vehicle design and on-board checkout capability of the avionics system eliminates the need for an abundance of ground checkout equipment. Payload integration, vehicle assembly, and K-1 transport to the launch pad will be performed horizontally, simplifying processing and reducing infrastructure requirements. This simple, innovative, and cost-effective approach will allow Kistler to offer its customers flexible, low-cost, and on-demand launch services.

Fagan, D.; McInerney, F.; Johnston, C.; Tolson, B.

118

Issues in the design of fault tolerant vehicle management systems for next generation unstable air vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes design issues in fault-tolerant vehicle management systems (VMS) for next-generation high-performance aircraft. Unstable aircraft require a highly reliable fault-tolerant computer to perform dynamic compensation of effector surface controls. Next-generation system requirements for system availability and performance will extend the role of flight criticality beyond the flight data sensors and actuation control functions. Additional control systems requiring a

T. D. Gaska

1988-01-01

119

Vehicle Impact Tests on Frangible and Yielding Post Designs of Bridge Parapets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two designs of post and rail bridge parapets were developed which provide more positive containment of vehicles and better vehicle response after impact than conventional parapets. In one design the posts fracture at their bases at a predetermined transve...

V. J. Jehu

1972-01-01

120

Zinc-bromine battery design for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design projections for zinc-bromine batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28\\/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-bromine batery projections (60 to 80 Wh\\/kg, 130 to 200 W\\/kg) compare favorably to both current lead acid batteries and proposed advanced battery candidates. The performance of recently developed battery components with 1200 cm² electrodes in a 120V,

R. Bellows; P. Grimes; H. Einstein; E. Kantner; P. Malachesky; K. Newby

1982-01-01

121

Zinc-bromine battery design for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design projections for zinc-bromine batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28\\/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-bromine battery projections (60-80 Wh\\/kg, 130-200 W\\/kg) compare favorably to both current lead acid batteries and proposed advanced battery candidates. The performance of recently developed battery components with 1200 cm2electrodes in a 120V, 10 kWh module is described.

RICHARD J. BELLOWS; PATRICK GRIMES; HARRY EINSTEIN; EDWARD KANTNER; PAUL MALACHESKY; KENNETH NEWBY

1983-01-01

122

Modeling and simulation of autonomous underwater vehicles: design and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have many scientific, military, and commercial applications because of their potential capabilities and significant cost-performance improvements over traditional means for performing search and survey. The development of a reliable sampling platform requires a thorough system design and many costly at-sea trials during which systems specifications can be validated. Modeling and simulation provides a cost-effective measure to

Feijun Song; P. Edgar An; Andres Folleco

2003-01-01

123

Critical engine system design characteristics for SSTO vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engine system design characteristics are summarized for typical vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) and vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles utilizing plug nozzle configurations. Power cycle selection trades involved the unique modular platelet engine (MPE) with the use of (1) LO2 and LH2 at fixed and variable mixture ratios,

Thomas J. Fanciullo; D. C. Judd; C. J. Obrien

1992-01-01

124

Design of damping valve for vehicle hydro pneumatic suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the design features of a hydro pneumatic spring, the necessity of a separate damping valve is proposed. Based\\u000a on a 1\\/4 vehicle linear suspension model, the optimum damping coefficient is worked out and the parameters of the damping\\u000a valve are determined with the equivalent linearization method. A practical structure of the damping valve is proposed having\\u000a a small

Mingming Dong; Hua Huang; Lian Gu

2008-01-01

125

Design and construction of a solar-electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Recent concerns relating to global warming caused by greenhouse gases, coupled with a growing awareness of the limited available resources of fossil fuels, have spurred an interest in alternative energy powered vehicles. This paper describes the analysis, development, and testing of an aerodynamic vehicle powered by photovoltaic cells. The primary components of the vehicle are the composite material body, the aluminum space frame, the wheel hubs and front suspension assembly, the drive train, and the electrical system. The frame was designed using finite element analysis with the components of the frame modeled as beam elements. The body, designed to have a very high strength-to-weight ratio, was of graphite/Kevlar/Nomex sandwich construction. Testing was carried out using the three-point bend test to determine the optimal sandwich cross-sectional configuration. The design of the front suspension, the wheel hubs, and the power transmission are also discussed. The electrical system, based on a monocrystalline photovoltaic cell assembly, and silver-zinc storage cells, is also described. Finally, results of the optimization routine developed are also described.

Bhavnani, S.H. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-02-01

126

Design and demonstration of an extended range hydrogen fuel cell utility vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the design, build, and demonstration of two hybrid electric fuel cell utility vehicles for a program sponsored by DLA (Defense Logistics Agency). The design emphasis for the utility vehicles was range extension over state of the art battery systems using a fuel cell power plant. The design work involved vehicle modeling in PSAT to evaluate different battery

C. S. Hearn; M. C. Lewis; R. T. Thompson; D. Chen; J. Hanlm; D. Zuckerman; T. Lindsay

2011-01-01

127

The Design of Autonomous Smart Car Used in Simulation of Vehicle Platoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomous smart car is the foundation of physical simulation of vehicle platoon based on vehicle and road cooperation. This paper analyzed the architecture of vehicle platoon system in the case of vehicle-road cooperation, and proposed the constitution and structure of autonomous smart car control system.After analyzing functional requirement of the autonomous smart car, the paper designed the key hardware

Jian Wan; Xiumin Chu; Yong Wu; Rui Zhang

2008-01-01

128

Design of Energy Management Systems for Mobile Power Station of Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current development and situation of electric vehicle battery charging station are introduced and analyzed, and a design scheme of mobile power station for electric vehicles is presented. The mobile power station for electric vehicles in this scheme can directly get electricity to drive the electromotor from the electricity supply grid for electric vehicles or oil dual-mode electric drive motor-powered

Zhang Yu; Minghong Zhang; Jianning Yang

2009-01-01

129

Small thermal optics design for UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now, Military demands focused attention on small and light-weight system development. Above all, UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is necessary to reduce weight of equipments. Therefore, we invest some expense in many years so that it might design more light optical system for UAV. Consequently, we can build new miniaturization and light-weight system. The most important thing is the system using just two motors for continuous zoom(x3 ~ x20), NUC(nonuniformity correction), Narcissus, Athermalization, and auto-focus functions. An MTF (modulation transfer function) and a detection range are also satisfied by the demands. We use CODE V and NVTherm program for design and analysis.

Lee, Sun Kyu; Na, Jun Hee; Yoon, Chang Jun; Oh, Seung Eun; Choi, Joongkyu; Pyo, Hyo Jin

2010-08-01

130

Older Drivers' Attitudes about Instrument Cluster Designs in Vehicles  

PubMed Central

Little is known about older drivers’ preferences and attitudes about instrumentation design in vehicles. Yet visual processing impairments are common among older adults and could impact their ability to interface with a vehicle’s dashboard. The purpose of this study is to obtain information from them about this topic, using focus groups and content analysis methodology. A trained facilitator led 8 focus groups of older adults. Discussion was stimulated by an outline relevant to dashboard interfaces, audiotaped, and transcribed. Using multi-step content analysis, a trained coder placed comments into thematic categories and coded comments as positive, negative, or neutral in meaning. Comments were coded into these categories: gauges, knobs/switches, interior lighting, color, lettering, symbols, location, entertainment, GPS, cost, uniformity, and getting information. Comments on gauges and knobs/switches represented half the comments. Women made more comments about getting information; men made more comments about uniformity. Positive and negative comments were made in each category; individual differences in preferences were broad. The results of this study will be used to guide the design of a population-based survey of older drivers about instrument cluster forma, which will also examine how their responses are related to their visual processing capabilities.

Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Seder, Thomas

2011-01-01

131

Design and testing of a dissociated methanol vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The concept of dissociating methanol with exhaust gas heat to improve the efficiency of methanol-burning engines has often been described in the literature. The concept has been controversial with conflicting results from analysis and experimentation. In this report, we describe the design and testing of a dissociated methanol vehicle based on a Ford Escort. This work draws heavily on the experience gained by Finegold et al. (1984) when they built a dissociated methanol Chevrolet Citation at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The improvements that we incorporated into the dissociated methanol Ford Escort include a very active, custom palladium on ..gamma..-alumina dissociation catalyst, a liquid methanol injection system for starting and high power operation, and a custom microprocessor-based engine controller provided by Ford Motor Company. The goal of the work described in this report was to design, build, and test a dissociated methanol vehicle to measure the fuel economy and emissions benefits compared to lean burning liquid methanol. The original test plan called for transient testing using the EPA city and highway driving cycle tests. However, technical and funding problems prevented that testing. Steady-state vehicle testing was performed that revealed many of the benefits and problems of the dissociated methanol concept. 19 refs., 40 figs., 14 tabs.

Karpuk, M.E.

1989-02-01

132

Analysis and design of a multi-wheeled vehicle with variable geometry suspension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most field robots, go or no-go decision depends on the maximum height of a bump. For combat vehicles, however, much advanced capability of the vehicle is required to pass over a higher bump compared to its wheel radius. For this purpose, many combat vehicles are using variable geometry suspension (VGS). In this paper, a 6x6 vehicle with a rotating VGS was designed. Computer simulations of the designed vehicle were carried out with the ADAMS program to estimate motor capacity and the required torque. The suspension was designed to rotate 360 degrees about the swing axis, thus, the vehicle could climb a higher bump by rotating its suspension.

Noh, Tae-Bum; Yoo, Wan-Suk; Kim, Min-Ho; Noh, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Huh, Nam; Park, Hee-Young; Park, Se-Jin

2006-06-01

133

Assured crew return vehicle post landing configuration design and test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1991-1992 senior Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Design class continued work on the post landing configurations for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Emergency Egress Couch (EEC). The ACRV will be permanently docked to Space Station Freedom fulfilling NASA's commitment of Assured Crew Return Capability in the event of an accident or illness aboard Space Station Freedom. The EEC provides medical support and a transportation surface for an incapacitated crew member. The objective of the projects was to give the ACRV Project Office data to feed into their feasibility studies. Four design teams were given the task of developing models with dynamically and geometrically scaled characteristics. Groups one and two combined efforts to design a one-fifth scale model for the Apollo Command Module derivative, an on-board flotation system, and a lift attachment point system. This model was designed to test the feasibility of a rigid flotation and stabilization system and to determine the dynamics associated with lifting the vehicle during retrieval. However, due to priorities, it was not built. Group three designed a one-fifth scale model of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) benchmark configuration, the Station Crew Return Alternative Module (SCRAM) with a lift attachment point system. This model helped to determine the flotation and lifting characteristics of the SCRAM configuration. Group four designed a full scale EEC with changeable geometric and geometric and dynamic characteristics. This model provided data on the geometric characteristics of the EEC and on the placement of the CG and moment of inertia. It also gave the helicopter rescue personnel direct input to the feasibility study. Section 1 describes in detail the design of a one-fifth scale model of the Apollo Command Module Derivative (ACMD) ACRV. The objective of the ACMD Configuration Model Team was to use geometric and dynamic constraints to design a one-fifth scale working model of the Apollo Command Module Derivative (ACMD) configuration with a Lift Attachment Point (LAP) System. This model was required to incorporate a rigidly mounted flotation system and the egress system designed the previous academic year. The LAP system was to be used to determine the dynamic effects of locating the lifting points at different locations on the vehicle. The team was then to build and test the model; however, due to priorities, this did not occur. design process were construction, center of gravity and moment of inertia, and lift attachment points.

134

Reliability-based design optimization for crashworthiness of vehicle side impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of powerful computers, vehi- cle safety issues have recently been addressed using com- putational methods of vehicle crashworthiness, resulting in reductions in cost and time for new vehicle devel- opment. Vehicle design demands multidisciplinary opti- mization coupled with a computational crashworthiness analysis. However, simulation-based optimization gener- ates deterministic optimum designs, which are frequently pushed to the limits

B. D. Youn; K. K. Choi; R.-J. Yang; L. Gu

2003-01-01

135

Design, simulation and fabrication of a fuel efficient urban class series hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

While designing all the attributes of a Hybrid vehicle, the most important factor is the fuel economy. Reduced aerodynamic drag and light weight vehicle chassis are major factors for improving the fuel economy. The series hybrid vehicle designed utilizes gasoline to generate electricity which is then stabilized and stored in the super capacitor banks. This stored electrical energy is then

Syed Hassaan Ali; Humza Akhtar; Shuja Munir; Umair bin Ikram

2011-01-01

136

A systematic design approach for two planetary gear split hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple power sources in a hybrid vehicle allow for flexible vehicle power-train operations, but also impose kinematic constraints due to component characteristics. This paper presents a design process that enables systematic search and screening through all three major dimensions of hybrid vehicle designs – system configuration, component sizing and control, to achieve optimal performance while satisfying the imposed constraints. An

Jinming Liu; Huei Peng

2010-01-01

137

Design, analysis, and optimization of composite leaf springs for light vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and manufacture of a functional composite spring for a solar powered light vehicle is described. The objective is to provide an understanding of the manufacture, use, and capabilities of composite leaf springs produced by using unidirectional Eglass' roving impregnated by an epoxy resin for light vehicle applications where the vehicle weight is of primary concern. The current design application

Erol Sancaktar; Mathieu Gratton

1999-01-01

138

Multidisciplinary Design of Air-launched Satellite Launch Vehicle Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launch vehicle design is a complex, multidisciplinary engineering activity that requires making difficult compromises to achieve a balance among competing objectives for the vehicle, including safety, reliability, performance, operability, and cost. Significant work has been done in recent years to advance the design, analysis and optimization of launch vehicles. In the present research effort we propose the application of Particle

Amer Farhan Rafique; He LinShu; Qasim Zeeshan; Ali Kamran

139

Design of the Bearcat Cub for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle, called the Bearcat Cub, named after the UC mascot. The Bearcat Cub is a hybrid powered, three wheeled vehicle that was designed for the International Ground Vehicle Competition and will be tested in the contest in 2005. The dynamic model, control system and

Ernest L. Hall; Masoud Ghaffari; Justin Gaylor; Mei Long; Steve Climer; Robert Gilliland; Rayjan Wilson

2005-01-01

140

Design sounding rocket payload system to study vehicle charging phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this contract are the following: (1) reassemble and test the A31.603 rocket payload, previously flown at WSMR in January of 1978. Conduct spacecraft charging tests in a plasma using the vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Flight Center, Texas; (2) design a sounding rocket payload for the measurement of vehicle charging due to charge ejection in accordance with the results of the reassembly and retest of the A31.603 payload, and in accordance with specifications for the instrumentation for the instrumentation for the spacecraft charging rocket-2 payload; (3) fabricate and test a negative charge ejection system; (4) fabricate and test rocket payload sensor systems to measure the vehicle-to-plasma potential difference; (5) fabricate and test sensor systems to measure and identify charged particle return to the payload; (6) fabricate and test sensor systems to measure rapid changes in vehicle potential; (7) fabricate and test a microprocessor-based sounding rocket experiment controller. (8) fabricate and test one set of ground support equipment; (9) integrate at contractor's facility the above sensor systems with a rocket payload structure and instrumentation provided by the government.

Hills, R. S.

1985-05-01

141

Digital Simulation Analysis for Evaluating Earth Berm Design and Vehicle Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study deals with the evaluation and modification of the original North Carolina earth berm based on the generalized vehicle dynamic analysis and computer-aided design using digital simulation techniques. Simulation runs of vehicle-berm interaction we...

B. K. Huang K. H. Kim

1975-01-01

142

Replacement Design Study for Lighter Amphibious Re-Supply Cargo 5 Ton, Amphibious Vehicle LARC V.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project examines LARC V, which is water and land interface vehicle designed for support of amphibious operations (troops and cargo transport) in rivers and protected waters. Vehicle's 5 mission evolved to more stringent, involving amphibious assault ...

R. B. Kaczmarek

2004-01-01

143

Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

2009-12-01

144

Video displays for tracked vehicle FLIR systems: some design considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thrust of this paper will be to trace some of the design decisions made during development of the M1A2 System Enhancement Package (SEP) Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) display. We will describe factors which determined the size, resolution, optical filtering, as well as packaging characteristics. The Commanders Thermal Viewer (CTV) display is a 16:9 aspect ratio, 9.2' diagonal, mirror electrode EL, providing a 1316 X 480 pixel resolution. These characteristics were determined through a combination of vehicle space limitations, human factors considerations and technology limitations. Packaging, both electrical and mechanical were determined by the environmental and physical constraints of confined space inside a main battle tank.

Thomas, John T.; Downs, Greg

1999-08-01

145

Design principles for a flywheel energy store for road vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a flywheel energy storage device capable of enhancing the fuel economy of a hybrid-type road vehicle. A number of possible drive types are considered and the permanent magnet machine drive is shown to provide the best solution. Reasons for selecting a device using an axial-field configuration with single-rotor and double-stator sections are described. Electrical, magnetic, and mechanical design data are presented for a full-scale prototype device with 240 KJ of usable energy storage and 25 kW of power transfer, operating at speeds up to 50,000 r/min, with a 10% duty cycle.

Acarnley, P.P.; Mecrow, B.C.; Burdess, J.S.; Fawcett, J.N.; Kelly, J.G.; Dickinson, P.G. [Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

1996-11-01

146

Launch vehicle payload adapter design with vibration isolation features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Payloads, such as satellites or spacecraft, which are mounted on launch vehicles, are subject to severe vibrations during flight. These vibrations are induced by multiple sources that occur between liftoff and the instant of final separation from the launch vehicle. A direct result of the severe vibrations is that fatigue damage and failure can be incurred by sensitive payload components. For this reason a payload adapter has been designed with special emphasis on its vibration isolation characteristics. The design consists of an annular plate that has top and bottom face sheets separated by radial ribs and close-out rings. These components are manufactured from graphite epoxy composites to ensure a high stiffness to weight ratio. The design is tuned to keep the frequency of the axial mode of vibration of the payload on the flexibility of the adapter to a low value. This is the main strategy adopted for isolating the payload from damaging vibrations in the intermediate to higher frequency range (45Hz-200Hz). A design challenge for this type of adapter is to keep the pitch frequency of the payload above a critical value in order to avoid dynamic interactions with the launch vehicle control system. This high frequency requirement conflicts with the low axial mode frequency requirement and this problem is overcome by innovative tuning of the directional stiffnesses of the composite parts. A second design strategy that is utilized to achieve good isolation characteristics is the use of constrained layer damping. This feature is particularly effective at keeping the responses to a minimum for one of the most important dynamic loading mechanisms. This mechanism consists of the almost-tonal vibratory load associated with the resonant burn condition present in any stage powered by a solid rocket motor. The frequency of such a load typically falls in the 45-75Hz range and this phenomenon drives the low frequency design of the adapter. Detailed finite element analysis is used throughout to qualify the design for vibration isolation performance as well as confirm its static and dynamic strength.

Thomas, Gareth R.; Fadick, Cynthia M.; Fram, Bryan J.

2005-05-01

147

Design and implementation of Lab. simulator for vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lab. simulator for conducting a performance test and a reliability test on a vehicle and components has been embodied. In order to control non-linear of a vehicle, a fuzzy control algorithm, a running mode tracking algorithm and a vehicle speed control algorithm were applied to the actuator control. The vehicle controller and servo controller functions were implemented; position control, the

Jeongdai Jo; Heon Jeong; Kwang-Young Kim; Dong-Soo Kim; Do-Sik Kim

2007-01-01

148

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails...Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and...

2013-07-01

149

Multiobjective Static Output Feedback Control Design for Vehicle Suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach to design multiobjective static output feedback H2/H?/GH2 controller for vehicle suspensions by using linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and genetic algorithms (GAs). A quarter-car model with active suspension system is studied in this paper and three main performance requirements for an advanced vehicle suspension are considered. Among these requirements, the ride comfort performance is optimized by minimizing the H2 norm from the road disturbance to the sprung mass acceleration, the road holding performance is improved by constraining the H? norm from the road disturbance to the tyre deflection to be less than a given value, and the suspension deflection is guaranteed to be less than its hard limit by constraining the generalized H2 norm from the road disturbance to the suspension deflection. In addition, the controller gain can be constrained naturally in GAs, which can avoid the actuator saturation problem. A static output feedback controller, which only uses the available sprung velocity and suspension deflection signals as feedback signals, is obtained. This multiobjective controller is realized by using GAs to search for the possible control gain matrix and then to resolve the LMIs together with the minimization optimization problem. The approach is validated by numerical simulation which shows that the designed static output feedback controller can achieve good active suspension performances in spite of its simplicity.

Du, Haiping; Zhang, Nong

150

Loligomers: design of de novo peptide-based intracellular vehicles.  

PubMed Central

Defined branched peptides (loligomers) incorporating cytoplasmic translocation signals, nuclear localization sequences, and fluorescent probes were designed and synthesized to demonstrate the feasibility and simplicity of creating novel classes of intracellular vehicles. Loligomers containing all the above signals were rapidly internalized by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and accumulated in their nucleus. At 4 degrees C, the interaction of peptide constructs with CHO cells was limited to membrane association. Loligomers entered cells at higher temperatures by adsorptive endocytosis. Inhibitors of ATP synthesis affected cytoplasmic import only weakly but abolished nuclear uptake. The peptide signals guided both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization events. The properties exhibited by loligomers suggest a strategy for the facile design of "guided" classes of intracellular agents. Images Fig. 3

Sheldon, K; Liu, D; Ferguson, J; Gariepy, J

1995-01-01

151

Noise control, sound, and the vehicle design process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many products, noise and sound are viewed as necessary evils that need to be dealt with in order to bring the product successfully to market. They are generally not product ``exciters'' although some vehicle manufacturers do tune and advertise specific sounds to enhance the perception of their products. In this paper, influencing the design process for the ``evils,'' such as wind noise and road noise, are considered in more detail. There are three ingredients to successfully dealing with the evils in the design process. The first of these is knowing how excesses in noise effects the end customer in a tangible manner and how that effects customer satisfaction and ultimately sells. The second is having and delivering the knowledge of what is required of the design to achieve a satisfactory or even better level of noise performance. The third ingredient is having the commitment of the designers to incorporate the knowledge into their part, subsystem or system. In this paper, the elements of each of these ingredients are discussed in some detail and the attributes of a successful design process are enumerated.

Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

152

Design of a model reference adaptive controller for vehicle road following  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for vehicle road following is discussed. There are many factors which make automatic lateral control of vehicles difficult. These include changing vehicle parameters, changing road conditions, as well as disturbances caused by wind and other factors. Traditional controllers have difficulty guaranteeing performance and stability over a wide range of parameter changes.

C. T. Abdallah

1995-01-01

153

Enabling fuel efficient vehicles through integration of design tools and early-stage cost estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is, on average, responsible for 27% of US greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, improvements in vehicle design improving fuel economy, and therefore reducing emissions, are an important step towards meeting emission reduction goals. The primary ways to improve vehicle fuel economy include the use of advanced powertrains, improved rolling resistance and aerodynamics, and vehicle lightweighting [1]. This research centers on

Nathalie Rivest; Claire Poulizac; Richard Roth; Theresa Lee; Randolph Kirchain

2012-01-01

154

High-speed aerodynamic design of space vehicle and required hypersonic wind tunnel facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems associated with the aerodynamic design of space vehicles with emphasis of the role of hypersonic wind tunnel facilities in the development of the vehicle are considered. At first, to identify wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) requirements, operational environments are postulated for hypervelocity vehicles. Typical flight corridors are shown with the associated flow density: real gas effects, low

Seizou Sakakibara; Kouichi Hozumi; Kunio Soga; Shigeaki Nomura

1992-01-01

155

Platform and steady Kalman state observer design for Intelligent Vehicle based on visual guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

State observer design is one of key technologies in research field of intelligent vehicle. Experiment platform, visual guidance intelligent vehicle JLUIV-5, is established by Jilin University Intelligent Vehicle Group firstly. The system structure and assistant navigation control system, and different image identify algorithms to recognize preview path and stops for variable illuminations are introduced. The dynamic response equation of steering

Zhang Rong-hui; Wang Rong-ben; You Feng; Jia Hong-guang; Chen Tao

2008-01-01

156

Vehicle Engine Selection Strategy and Docking Design Based on Specific Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some influence factors such as engine performance, structural characteristics and docking situation affect the operating performance and structural safety of vehicle. However, due to lacking of systematic workflow in current vehicle manufacturers, it's unsatisfactory for engine selection and docking. In this paper, a vehicle engine configuration procedure was systematically designed based on the integrative structure, and a comprehensive study combined

Ziqing Zhang; Jimin Ni; Huizhang Rao; Hongchao Zhang; Yueyu Wang; Yong Li

2010-01-01

157

A quantitative feedback design for the turning control of a tracked vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle turning control system is developed; for the M113 tracked vehicle. The vehicle model is nonlinear, parameter varying, and implicit. It is approximated by a set of transfer function matrices. The turning control involves controlling both vehicle linear speed and heading rate by both using the throttle and steering. This is a two-input-two-output control design problem. Using Horowitz' quantitative

G. G. Wang; S. H. Wang; C. W. Chen

1989-01-01

158

A control design for a tracked vehicle with implicit nonlinearities using quantitative feedback theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle speed-control system is developed for the M113 tracked vehicle. Because the nonlinearities involved are implicit in the model, it is difficult to apply most currently available techniques. However, quantitative feedback theory (QFT) offers an alternative solution to this complex control design problem. The main idea of QFT nonlinear control design is to design one robust controller for an

G. G. Wang; I. Horowitz; S. H. Wang; C. W. Chen

1988-01-01

159

On improving design aspects of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicles are becoming very popular in the market. With increase in demand for performance and efficiency in the market, new technologies are evolving. Use of electronics in automobile control systems, have become very popular. Hybrid vehicles have a very complex control system. The use of fuzzy logic in making such controllers for hybrid electric vehicles is the motive of

Gautham Thyagarajan

2011-01-01

160

The ironies of vehicle feedback in car design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car drivers show an acute sensitivity towards vehicle feedback, with most normal drivers able to detect ‘the difference in vehicle feel of a medium-size saloon car with and without a fairly heavy passenger in the rear seat’ (Joy and Hartley 1953–54). The irony is that this level of sensitivity stands in contrast to the significant changes in vehicle ‘feel’ accompanying

Guy H. Walker; Neville A. Stanton; Mark S. Young

2006-01-01

161

Zinc-bromine battery design for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Design projections for zinc-bromine batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-bromine battery projections (60-80 Wh/kg, 130-200 W/kg) compare favorably to both current lead acid batteries and proposed advanced battery candidates. The performance of recently developed battery components with 1200 cm/sup 2/ electrodes in a 120V, 10 kWh module is described. Similarly constructed smaller scale (600 cm/sup 2/) components have shown lifetimes exceeding 400 cycles and the ability to follow both regenerative braking (J227aD) and random cycling regimes. Initial dynamometer evaluations of full scale 20 kWh batteries is expected in early 1984.

Bellows, R.J.; Einstein, H.; Grimes, P.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.

1983-02-01

162

Zinc-bromine battery design for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Design projections for zinc-bromine batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-bromine batery projections (60 to 80 Wh/kg, 130 to 200 W/kg) compare favorably to both current lead acid batteries and proposed advanced battery candidates. The performance of recently developed battery components with 1200 cm/sup 2/ electrodes in a 120V, 10 kWh module is described. Similarly constructed smaller scale (600 cm/sup 2/) components have shown lifetimes exceeding 400 cycles and the ability to follow both regenerative braking (J227aD) and random cycling regimes. Initial dynamometer evaluations of full scale 20 kWh batteries is expected in early 1984.

Bellows, R.; Grimes, P.; Einstein, H.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.

1982-01-01

163

Polymer selection and cell design for electric-vehicle supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect

Supercapacitors are devices for applications requiring high operating power levels, such as secondary power sources in electric vehicles (EVs) to provide peak power for acceleration and hill climbing. While electronically conducting polymers yield different redox supercapacitor configurations, devices with the n-doped polymer as the negative electrode and the p-doped polymer as the positive one are the most promising for EV applications. Indeed, this type of supercapacitor has a high operating potential, is able to deliver all the doping charge and, when charged, has both electrodes in the conducting (p- and n-doped) states. This study reports selection criteria for polymer materials and cell design for high performance EV supercapacitors and experimental results of selected polymer materials.

Mastragostino, M.; Arbizzani, C.; Paraventi, R.; Zanelli, A.

2000-02-01

164

Design and Development of Micro Aerial Vehicles and their Cooperative Systems for Target Search and Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and their cooperative systems including Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and a Base Station (BS), which were primarily designed for the 1st US-Asian Demonstration and Assessment on Micro-Aerial and Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology (MAV08). The MAVs are of coaxial design, which imparts mechanical stability both outdoor and indoor while obeying a 30 cm size

Lin Chi Mak; Makoto Kumon; Mark Whitty; Jayantha Katupitiya; Tomonari Furukawa

2009-01-01

165

Adjustment of Design Limited Imperfections for Transportation Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization of light weight-construction without loss of passive safety in transportation vehicles is a big challenge for the next years. Considering the requirements on an automobile from consumer view a modern car should combine a high quality of comfort and standard with low operating expenses and a high safety standard. The use of lightweight design enables reductions in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions which are leading to a decrease of operating costs. The increase in passive safety is mainly characterized by an increase in strength and weight due to a concerted material selection, an enhancement of sheet metal thickness and additional compensating elements, e.g. patches. Especially for limited imperfections like cataphoretic drain holes or accesses for joining operations the strength adjustment without additional compensating elements and increasing weight possesses very much potential. The presented research investigate the possibility to reinforce local imperfections considering the material TRIP780 by combining different approaches on light-weight design. The reinforcements are realized by additional forming elements and enhance the moment of inertia. Different investigations were carried out to assess the placement and arrangement of the reinforcements in the deep drawing parts

Voges-Schwieger, Kathrin; Hübner, Sven; Behrens, Bernd-Arno

2011-05-01

166

Critical engine system design characteristics for SSTO vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine system design characteristics are summarized for typical vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) and vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles utilizing plug nozzle configurations. Power cycle selection trades involved the unique modular platelet engine (MPE) with the use of (1) LO2 and LH2 at fixed and variable mixture ratios, (2) LO2 and propane or RP-1, and (3) dual fuels (LO2 with LH2 and C3H8). The number of thrust cells and modules were optimized. Dual chamber bell and a cluster of conventional bell nozzle configurations were examined for comparison with the plug configuration. Thrust modulation (throttling) was selected for thrust vector control. Installed thrust ratings were established to provide an additional 20 percent overthrust capability for engine out operation. Turbopumps were designed to operate at subcritical speeds to facilitate a wide range of throttling and long life. A unique dual spool arrangement with hydrostatic bearings was selected for the LH2 turbopump. Controls and health monitoring with expert systems for diagnostics are critical subsystems to ensure minimum maintenance and supportability for a less than seven day turnaround. The use of an idle mode start, in conjunction with automated health condition monitoring, allows the rocket propulsion system to operate reliably in the manner of present day aircraft propulsion.

Fanciullo, Thomas J.; Judd, D. C.; Obrien, C. J.

1992-02-01

167

A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a hybrid vehicle simulation model which can be applied to many of the vehicles currently being considered for low pollution and high fuel economy. The code operates in batch mode with all the vehicle information stored in data files. The code calculates power train dimensions, fuel economy for three driving schedules, time for 0-96 km/h at maximum acceleration, hill climbing performance, and pollution generation rates. This paper also documents the application of the code to a hybrid vehicle that utilizes a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle. The results show the fuel economy of the vehicle as a function of vehicle mass, aerodynamic drag, engine efficiency, accessory load, and flywheel efficiency. The code also calculates the minimum flywheel energy and power to obtain a desired performance. The hydrogen hybrid vehicle analyzed in the paper has a range of 480 km (300 miles), with a predicted gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 33.7 km/liter (79.3 mpg).

Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

1994-12-13

168

A new digital human environment and assessment of vehicle interior design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle interior design directly relates to driver performance measures such as comfort, efficiency, risk of injury, and vehicle safety. A digital human is a convenient tool for satisfying the need to reduce the design cycle in order to save time and money. This paper presents a digital human environment, SantosTM, developed at The University of Iowa, and its assessment as

Jingzhou Yang; Joo H. Kim; Karim Abdel-Maleka; Timothy Marler; Steven Beck; Gregory R. Kopp

169

Design method and control optimization of an Extended Range Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) is a promising choice to overcome the limitation on the driving range of Electric Vehicle. However, its potential advantages extremely depend on the system design, especially the battery. This paper focuses on the component sizing of the energy and power of battery system, power design of R-Ext and the traction motor. The control strategy is

Dong Tingting; Zhao Fuquan; Li Jun; Jin Qiqian; You Yi

2011-01-01

170

Design and Implementation of a Wireless Multimedia Advertising Vehicle Terminal System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extensible multi-function vehicle terminal system for multimedia advertising is designed, and the software and hardware design and realization method are also introduced. The terminal support remote release of text advertisement and audio advertisement and which was combined with the master server, vehicle LED screen, microphone, empty-car indicator light, taximeter to make up a multimedia advertising remote release system.

Fan Ya; Zhu Pingan; Zhou Baozhuo; Chen Shaojie

2010-01-01

171

Impact of empty vehicle flow on optimal flow path design for unidirectional AGV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the flow path design issue of automated material handling systems. We concentrate on the design of unidirectional guide path for automated guided vehicle systems. We present a modelling approach to determine the optimal flow path, which takes into account the impact of empty and loaded vehicle flows on the objective function to be minimized. We suggest a

X.-C. SUN; N. TCHERNEV

1996-01-01

172

Combined maximisation of interior comfort and frontal crashworthiness in preliminary vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing for improved interior comfort and crashworthiness is an important but competing objective in vehicle development. These objectives are linked by common design decisions on allocating a fixed total amount of space, and so they should be addressed together. Such combined optimisation is hindered by the large computational effort required for crash analysis using full-scale vehicle models and by the

K. Hamza; I. Hossoy; J. F. Reyes-Luna; P. Y. Papalambros

2004-01-01

173

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...the effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in...

2010-07-01

174

36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated...the effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in...

2009-07-01

175

The Monitoring System Design of Harmful Gas Inside Special Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality of special vehicle after long-distance road or special operations will deteriorate. The types of gas sensors are determined based on analysis of main pollutants in the air inside vehicle. The sound and light alarm circuit of monitoring system and starting guarantee of devices which improve air quality are determined with reference to relevant industry standards. The monitoring of

MingHua Yang; SiJie Shao; XiaoYan Wang

2012-01-01

176

Design factors analysis for instances of rich vehicle routing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last years various extensions of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), considering complicated constraints encountered in the real-life, has been studied. These extensions are often coined as rich VRP. In this work, we tackle a rich VRP namely the Multi Compartment Multi Commodity Heterogeneous Fixed Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with hard Time Windows (MCMCHFFVRPTW). The objective of the problem

Rahma Lahyani; Mahdi Khemakhem; Habib Chabchoub; Frederic Semet

2011-01-01

177

Controller design for hybrid vehicles — state of the art review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control problem for a hybrid vehicle powertrain is commonly tackled as an optimal control problem, although this is often used in a general sense as opposed to a strict mathematical definition. The problem may be characterised in many ways depending on the performance objective, the hybrid vehicle model considered, the constraints imposed and the available control actions. However, as

D. A. Crolla; Q. Ren; S. ElDemerdash; F. Yu

2008-01-01

178

Fuzzy CMAC control design for an airbreathing hypersonic cruise vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the implementation of fuzzy cerebellar model arithmetic computer (FCMAC) neural network for altitude and velocity tracking control of the longitudinal model of an airbreathing hypersonic cruise vehicle (AHCV) which has an integrated airframe-propulsion system configuration. A set of nonlinear longitudinal equations of motion for the vehicle which include the CFD-generated aerodynamic, propulsion, and coupled aero propulsion data

Yan Binbin; Lu Cunkan; Yu Weiwei; Yan Jie

2009-01-01

179

Design Criteria for Low Risk Re-Entry Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper shows how a sharp vehicle with low wing loading, is able to follow re-entry trajectories with low thermal risks by using Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) to thermally protect the vehicle front edges. These reusable materials can withstand the global radiative equilibrium temperatures that are experienced during reentry characterized by a longer and a more gradual conversion of

R. Monti; G. Pezzella

2005-01-01

180

Controller design for improving lateral vehicle dynamic stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle dynamics control system has been developed in this study for improving vehicle dynamic stability under critical lateral motions. The system consists of a feedforward controller, a state feedback controller, and an estimator for the body sideslip angle. The linear quadratic regulator theory has been exploited for the state feedback gain, and for estimation of the body sideslip angle,

Seung-Jin Heo; Inho Baek

2001-01-01

181

Design and Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a systematic approach for investigating a hydrogen fuel cell hybrid vehicle system is considered. This approach involves developing a mathematical model incorporating renewable hydrogen production, storage and refuelling of the fuel cell vehicle system. The University of Glamorgan's (UOG) Sustainable Environment Research Centre (SERC) have developed the UK's first alternative energy refuelling facility at the University's Hydrogen

Kary Thanapalan; Jonathan Williams; Alan Guwy

2011-01-01

182

Methanol reformers for fuel cell powered vehicles: Some design considerations  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells are being developed for use in automotive propulsion systems as alternatives for the internal combustion engine in buses, vans, passenger cars. The two most important operational requirements for a stand-alone fuel cell power system for a vehicle are the ability to start up quickly and the ability to supply the necessary power on demand for the dynamically fluctuating load. Methanol is a likely fuel for use in fuel cells for transportation applications. It is a commodity chemical that is manufactured from coal, natural gas, and other feedstocks. For use in a fuel cell, however, the methanol must first be converted (reformed) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The desired features for a methanol reformer include rapid start-up, good dynamic response, high fuel conversion, small size and weight, simple construction and operation, and low cost. In this paper the present the design considerations that are important for developing such a reformer, namely: (1) a small catalyst bed for quick starting, small size, and low weight; (2) multiple catalysts for optimum operation of the dissociation and reforming reactions; (3) reforming by direct heat transfer partial oxidation for rapid response to fluctuating loads; and (4) thermal independence from the rest of the fuel cell system. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1990-01-01

183

Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design  

SciTech Connect

We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO{sub x} emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO{sub x} concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today`s gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S.

1995-04-26

184

Design of In-Pipe Inspection Vehicles for ø25, ø50, ø150 Pi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we outline the design of in-pipe inspection vehicle for pipes with diameters of ?25, ?50 and ?150 mm, respectively. We introduce the concept “whole stem drive”. This concept is very effective to allow an in-pipe vehicle to travel long distance in the pipeline. Based on this concept, we have built four in-pipe vehicles, the “Theseus” series. For

Shigeo Hirose; Hidetaka Ohno; Takeo Mitsui; Kiichi Suyama

1999-01-01

185

Design and realization of an intelligent ground vehicle with modular payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2011, Worcester Polytechnic Institute's (WPI) unmanned ground vehicle Prometheus participated in the 8th Annual Robotic Lawnmower and 19th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competitions back-to-back. This paper details the two-year design and development cycle for WPI's intelligent ground vehicle, Prometheus. The on-board intelligence algorithms include lane detection, obstacle avoidance, path planning, world representation and waypoint navigation. The authors present experimental results and discuss practical implementations of the intelligence algorithms used on the robot.

Akmanalp, Mehmet A.; Doherty, Ryan M.; Gorges, Jeffrey; Kalauskas, Peter; Peterson, Ellen; Polido, Felipe; Nestinger, Stephen S.; Padir, Taskin

2012-01-01

186

Impact of mission requirements and constraints on conceptual launch vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of mission requirements and constraints on both the optimum vehicle design and the effects on flight path selection for two types of reusable two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles. The first vehicle type considered provides horizontal take-off and landing capabilities and is intended to be propelled by an airbreathing propulsion system during stage

M Rahn; U. M Schöttle; E Messerschmid

1999-01-01

187

Water Vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR Design for Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system study proposes the deployment of a water vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system on an Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform. The Altair offers improved payload weight and volume performance, and longer total flight time as c...

P. F. Mead R. J. DeYoung

2005-01-01

188

Design Study of Flat Belt CVT for Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommende...

E. L. Kumm

1980-01-01

189

Unmanned Surface Sea Vehicle Power System Design and Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs) can serve the roles of providing Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (USR) to a fleet as well as performing Mine Countermeasure (MCM) missions. Many of these missions require some period of low observable/stealth...

S. Pritpal

2005-01-01

190

Fire Hazard Considerations for Composites in Vehicle Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military ground vehicles fires are a significant cause of system loss, equipment damage, and crew injury in both combat and non-combat situations. During combat, the ability to successfully fight an internal fire, without losing fighting and mobility capa...

R. B. Gordon

1994-01-01

191

Design concept for an alternative heavy vehicle ABS system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of slip control on heavy vehicles to reduce stopping distances and compressed air usage in an emergency stop. A hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) rig has been developed to investigate slip control. The hardware includes an air receiver, anti-lock braking system (ABS) or slip-control modulator, brake actuator and brake calliper. The braked wheel and vehicle dynamics are simulated

F. W. Kienhöfer; J. I. Miller; D. Cebon

2008-01-01

192

Design and application of axial-flux permanent magnet wheel motors for an electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an optimal design of an axial-flux permanent magnet wheel motor for a small electric vehicle. This vehicle is driven directly by two wheel motors installed on its rear wheels, which are compact, low weight, and highly efficient. The optimal current waveform of the same pattern as the back electromagnetic force is used to increase the output torque

Yee-Pien Yang; Jia-Yuan Liang; Xian-Yee Xing

2009-01-01

193

Aerodynamic Design Criteria for Class 8 Heavy Vehicles Trailer Base Devices to Attain Optimum Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction

K Salari; J Ortega

2010-01-01

194

A New Speedometer Design for a Vehicle using K-Band Doppler Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new high-precision speedometer for vehicles using a K-band Doppler technology. The concept of our new speedometer is based on the Doppler effects phenomenon to obtain a speed of the vehicle more precisely. The experimental design, data collection and data evaluations are discussed, and the features of the new system have been appraised and compared

Takashi Araki; Daisuke Hasegawa; Tomoyuki Nagase; Makoto Araki; Hisao Ono

2004-01-01

195

An Approach for Designing Thermal Management Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Battery Packs  

Microsoft Academic Search

If battery packs for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are to operate effectively in all climates, thermal management of the packs is essential. In this paper, we will review a systematic approach for designing and evaluating battery pack thermal management systems. A thermal management system using air as the heat transfer medium is less complicated than a

A. A. Pesaran; M. Keyser; S. Burch

1999-01-01

196

Driving and Regenerating Fuzzy-Sliding Mode Controller Design of Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling system is the core of electric vehicles. Performance of the controller determines the character of the whole system. Based on the research of driving and regenerating circuit topology for permanent brushless DC motor (BLDCM), regenerating braking electric vehicle controller is designed. In order to improve the stability and reliability of the system, fuzzy-sliding mode control algorithm is applied to

Long Bo; Zhou Hao Bin; Jiang Hui; Cao BingGang

2007-01-01

197

The Design and Implementation of Vehicle Tail Gas Detection System Based on Virtual Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the multifunctional portable vehicle tail gas detection system adopts virtual instrument technology based on computer. It utilizes portable computer and USB data collecting card to control the detection. So it can detect and record the vehicle tail gas in wide range accurately, and can count and analyze the component and content of the harmful gas. This system

Wenlian Li; Yang Li; Fang Xiao

2008-01-01

198

Estimator and controller design for LaneTrak, a vision-based automatic vehicle steering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the underlying theory used in the design of a lane estimator and a lane controller to achieve automatic roadway tracking by a vehicle. In concert with a lane sensing algorithm, a comprehensive simulation assesses the roadway tracking performance of a Pontiac 6000 STE. The roadway curvature and the relative positioning of the vehicle within its lane

Bakhtiar B. Litkouhi; A. Y. Lee; Douglas B. Craig

1993-01-01

199

Parametric Analysis of Vehicle Design Influence on the Four Phases of Whiplash Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective is to establish a basis for motor vehicle test requirements that measure component contributions to Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD).Methods. Selected vehicle design features are evaluated with regard to their relative contributions to WAD measures. The motion of the occupant cervical spine associated with WAD is divided into four phases: retraction, extension, rebound, and protraction. Injury measures from

Polat Sendur; Robert Thibodeau; John Burge; Allan Tencer

2005-01-01

200

A design of bi-verification vehicle access intelligent control system based on RFID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is widespread developed and common for vehicle management in intelligent community. However, smart card used as the sole certificate of identification could also be impersonated by criminals when the card is lost or stolen. In this paper, an improvement design to the current widely-used vehicle monitoring systems, which utilize the RFID technology to carry on is

Xiaohu Fan; Yulin Zhang

2009-01-01

201

Drive train design enabling locomotion transition of a small hybrid air-land vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design modifications have improved the durability and performance of a previously developed hybrid vehicle capable of both aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Whereas the original vehicle could fly, land, and crawl in sequence, it suffered from limited durability, as evidenced by catastrophic failure after a small number of landings - two to four depending on the substrate. The two most common

Richard J. Bachmann; Ravi Vaidyanathan; Roger D. Quinn

2009-01-01

202

Design and implementation of management vehicle information system based on the .NET Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the present domestic situation of vehicle transportation industry. Because compatibility, high load and exists in the vehicle monitoring system, a solution, based on the .NET Framework 2.0, integration of GPS(Global Position System), wireless communication technology, Microsoft SQL Server 2005 database , Google Maps API V3 and Ajax technology solutions is proposed. The design principle and implementation method

Zhao Yunbo; Wang Jian

2011-01-01

203

Optimal reliability allocation under uncertain conditions, with application to hybrid electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the main aspects of optimal reliability allocation with respect to the design of hybrid electric vehicles. In particular, with reference to the hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system, the problem of data uncertainty, due to a scarce knowledge of the components' reliabilities, is taken into account. This problem is crucial

Flavio Allella; Elio Chiodo; Davide Lauria

2005-01-01

204

A RAPID PROTOTYPING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE DESIGN OF EXTENSIBLE IN-VEHICLE TELEMATICS SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the sharp uptake of mobile computing and communications technologies, many hardware and software vendors and telecommunication services providers (IBM & Motorola), (Sun Microsystems), (NEWSBYTES) have developed keen interests in the deployment of these technologies in vehicles as so-called In-Vehicle Telematics Systems (IVTS). Design is recognised as a vital discipline to envision innovative applications of new and existing

D. Reilly; A. Taleb Bendiab; M. Merabti

205

Analytical design of an axial flux permanent magnet in-wheel synchronous motor for electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the analytical design of an axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) in-wheel synchronous motor for electric vehicles (EVs). AFPM motor is a pancake-type high torque density motor that fits perfectly the wheel of an automobile vehicle and that can, thus, be easily and compactly integrated into the wheel. Therefore, AFPM motor seems to be a better choice

C. Versele; Z. De Greve; F. Vallee; R. Hanuise; O. Deblecker; M. Delhaye; J. Lobry

2009-01-01

206

Design for hybrid electric drive system of armored vehicle with two energy storage devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at characteristic of regenerative brake of hybrid electric drive system of armored vehicle, hybrid electric drive system of armored vehicle with two energy storage devices (battery and flywheel) in series is designed for steal running and electro-thermal chemical gun in future combat field. Battery and flywheel are coordinated to store maximum feedback energy. Heavy current within short time is

Li Hua; Zhang Jian; Xu Da; Ma Xiaojun

2009-01-01

207

Robust Controller Design for Supercavitating Vehicles Based on BTT Maneuvering Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercavitating vehicles can achieve very high speeds under water because of reduced drag. With proper design, a cavitation bubble is generated at the nose so that skin friction drag is drastically reduced. A 6 DOF mathematic model has been established. As discussed in this paper, control and maneuvering of supercavitating vehicle meet special challenges, The need for a BTT (bank-to-turn)

Maoli Wang; Guoliang Zhao; Jian Li

2007-01-01

208

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

1997-02-01

209

A Multiobjective Optimal Design of a Hybrid Power Source System for a Railway Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study an optimal design for a hybrid power source railway vehicle as an alternative to diesel railway vehicles. The hybrid power source railway vehicle is assumed to be composed of the fuel cell and the electric double layer capacitor. We apply the multiobjective optimization based on the genetic algorithm for the vehicle design, aiming at reduction of both initial cost and energy consumption. The pareto optimal solutions are obtained using the multiobjective optimization. First we develop a simulation model of the hybrid power source railway vehicle and its electric power control methods. Next we derive the pareto optimal solutions as a result of the multiobjective optimization. Finally, we categorize the pareto optimal solutions to some groups, which enables us to elucidate characteristics of the pareto optimal solutions. Consequently, using the multiobjective optimization approach we effectively comprehend the problem characteristics and can obtain the plural valuable solutions.

Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Wakao, Shinji; Kondo, Keiichiro

210

The optimal return trajectory design of space vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the performance index (the return cost) is the total mass of the fuel consumption for the vehicle to deorbit from the mission trajectory and Thermal Protection System (TPS) of vehicle. Optimal control theory, conjugate gradient numerical calculation method and the approximate calculation method of the TPS mass are introduced to optimize the return trajectories, Using the data of the American Space Shuttle, the optimal return trajectories of the Space Shuttle are obtained on digital computer while the TPS mass is (or is not) fixed in advance.

Lu, Xuefu; Nan, Ying

211

A prototype computerized synthesis methodology for generic space access vehicle (SAV) conceptual design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's and especially tomorrow's competitive launch vehicle design environment requires the development of a dedicated generic Space Access Vehicle (SAV) design methodology. A total of 115 industrial, research, and academic aircraft, helicopter, missile, and launch vehicle design synthesis methodologies have been evaluated. As the survey indicates, each synthesis methodology tends to focus on a specific flight vehicle configuration, thus precluding the key capability to systematically compare flight vehicle design alternatives. The aim of the research investigation is to provide decision-making bodies and the practicing engineer a design process and tool box for robust modeling and simulation of flight vehicles where the ultimate performance characteristics may hinge on numerical subtleties. This will enable the designer of a SAV for the first time to consistently compare different classes of SAV configurations on an impartial basis. This dissertation presents the development steps required towards a generic (configuration independent) hands-on flight vehicle conceptual design synthesis methodology. This process is developed such that it can be applied to any flight vehicle class if desired. In the present context, the methodology has been put into operation for the conceptual design of a tourist Space Access Vehicle. The case study illustrates elements of the design methodology & algorithm for the class of Horizontal Takeoff and Horizontal Landing (HTHL) SAVs. The HTHL SAV design application clearly outlines how the conceptual design process can be centrally organized, executed and documented with focus on design transparency, physical understanding and the capability to reproduce results. This approach offers the project lead and creative design team a management process and tool which iteratively refines the individual design logic chosen, leading to mature design methods and algorithms. As illustrated, the HTHL SAV hands-on design methodology offers growth potential in that the same methodology can be continually updated and extended to other SAV configuration concepts, such as the Vertical Takeoff and Vertical Landing (VTVL) SAV class. Having developed, validated and calibrated the methodology for HTHL designs in the 'hands-on' mode, the report provides an outlook how the methodology will be integrated into a prototype computerized design synthesis software AVDS-PrADOSAV in a follow-on step.

Huang, Xiao

212

Thermal Imagine Applications Toward Design Optimization and Operational Troubleshooting of Lightweight Robotic Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army is interested in using thermal imaging devices to identify potential mechanical/electrical failure modes and to validate system design of unmanned ground vehicles. Such a method would allow the improved reliablity and durability of unmanned groun...

E. Polsen J. Jones J. Mason

2006-01-01

213

Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems: A Call for User-Centered Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The essay views the prospects of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) technology from the perspective of human factors psychology. This viewpoint stresses the need for user-centered design in order to optimize the potential benefits and to avoid uni...

D. A. Owens G. Helmers M. Sivak

1992-01-01

214

Examination of the Effects of Tire Design on Vehicle Rolling Resistance and Fuel Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the current and expected future trends in highway tire design and their effects on vehicle rolling resistance and fuel economy. The primary emphasis is on passenger cars, operated under conditions typified by the US Environmental Prot...

D. L. Levine

1983-01-01

215

HASA: Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis for the Preliminary Design of Aerospace Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the hypersonic literature indicated that a general weight and sizing analysis was not available for hypersonic orbital, transport, and fighter vehicles. The objective here is to develop such a method for the preliminary design of aerospace veh...

G. J. Harloff B. M. Berkowitz

1988-01-01

216

System design and optimization of the world's fastest hydrogen fuel cell vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Buckeye Bullet 2 is the world's fastest hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle, with a certified FIA record of 487.433 km\\/hr (302.877 mi\\/hr). This paper provides the basic details of the overall vehicle and focuses on the design, testing, and optimization of the propulsion system. A unique fuel cell system was designed, tested, and integrated to produce over 500 kW

Edward Hillstrom; Kevin Ponziani; Benjamin Sinshiemer; Carington Bork; Marcello Canova; Yann Guezennec; Giorgio Rizzoni; Mike Procter

2010-01-01

217

Launch Vehicle with Combustible Polyethylene Case Gasification Chamber Design Basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-stage launch vehicle equipped with a combustible tank shell of polyethylene and a moving propulsion plant is proposed. The propulsion plant is composed of a chamber for the gasification of the shell, a compressor of pyrolysed polyethylene and a magnetic powder obturator. It is shown that the “dental” structure of the gasification chamber is necessary to achieve the necessary contact area with the polyethylene shell. This conclusion is drawn from consideration of the thermo- physical properties of polyethylene, calculating quasisteady temperature field in the gasification chamber, estimating gasification rate of polyethylene, launch vehicle shortening rate and area of gasification. Experimental determination of the gasification rate is described. The gasification chamber specific mass as well as the propulsion plant weight-to-thrust ratio are estimated under some assumptions concerning the obturator and compressor. Combustible launch vehicles are compared with conventional launch vehicles taking into consideration their payload mass ratios. Combustible launchers are preferable as small launchers for micro and nano satellites. Reusable versions of such launchers seem suitable if polyethylene tank shells filled with metal or metal hydride fine dusts are used.

Yemets, V.

218

Design principles for a flywheel energy store for road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a flywheel energy storage device capable of enhancing the fuel economy of a hybrid-type road vehicle. A number of possible drive types is considered and the permanent magnet machine drive is shown to provide the best solution. Reasons for selecting a device using an axial-field configuration with single rotor and double stator sections are described. Electrical, magnetic

P. P. Acarnley; B. C. Mecrow; J. S. Burdess; J. N. Fawcett; J. G. Kelly; P. G. Dickinson

1995-01-01

219

Prototyping an Autonomous Guided Vehicle in Undergraduate Mechanical Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students majoring in mechanical engineering (ME) nowadays are required to study mechatronics at school as mechatronics plays an important role in modern product that often combines mechanical and electronic functions. However, most students have limited opportunities to be trained with hands-on experience in this field. This paper describes a team of ME juniors to accomplish an autonomous-guided vehicle (AGV) in

Jhy-Cherng Tsai; Guo-Jen Wang

220

Polymer selection and cell design for electric-vehicle supercapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercapacitors are devices for applications requiring high operating power levels, such as secondary power sources in electric vehicles (EVs) to provide peak power for acceleration and hill climbing. While electronically conducting polymers yield different redox supercapacitor configurations, devices with the n-doped polymer as the negative electrode and the p-doped polymer as the positive one are the most promising for EV

M. Mastragostino; C. Arbizzani; R. Paraventi; A. Zanelli

2000-01-01

221

Power converter design for a fuel cell electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is developed the electric vehicle by the fuel cell. Between fuel cell source and motor controller, we add new power converter, offer steady output voltage to motor controller and drive the direct current hub motor. Converter not only offers steady output voltage but it also combines with coupling inductance technology to battery charger. Besides offers energy to drive

Van-Tsai Liu; Jia-Wei Hong; Kuo-Ching Tseng

2010-01-01

222

Systems Design Analysis Applied to Launch Vehicle Configuration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As emphasis shifts from optimum-performance aerospace systems to least lift-cycle costs, systems designs must seek, adapt, and innovate cost improvement techniques in design through operations. The systems design process of concept, definition, and design...

R. Ryan V. Verderaime

1993-01-01

223

Optimum Design of Vehicle Frontal Structure and Occupant Restraint System for Crashworthiness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CAE tools have been applied for the crash safety design of vehicles, though they haven’t satisfied the optimum design of vehicles. The authors have proposed a Statistical Design Support System (SDSS), and have found that the SDSS is one of available optimization approaches for the nonlinear and dynamic phenomena. This system is a synthetic design method which is based on the response surface methodology and the design of experiments. In this study, a multilevel optimization approach using the SDSS is presented. This approach is well-suited to large-scale multilevel and multidisciplinary optimization problems, and optimum design of vehicle frontal structure and occupant restraint system for crashworthiness is solved. It is shown that successfully and effectively collaborative optimization for frontal structure and occupant restraint system can be conducted by this new approach.

Yu, Qiang; Koizumi, Naoya; Yajima, Hideoki; Shiratori, Masaki

224

Feasibility Study on the Design of Reinforced Plastic Components for the LVTP (7) Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feasibility study in the design and manufacture of a composite drive shaft and propeller shaft for the LVTP (7) amphibious vehicle. The report contains an analysis of the present steel shaft design and the two design approaches to a composite drive shaft....

J. McGee B. Spencer D. Shy

1984-01-01

225

Design of springs with ``negative'' stiffness to improve vehicle driver vibration isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimization of the fundamental frequencies of a vibratory system by means of springs with ``negative'' stiffness is probably the only way to attain infra-frequency vibration isolation under gravitation. Traditionally, the design of similar springs for vehicle driver vibration isolation systems was an art, and design decisions were based primarily on the designer experience. This paper presents an approach, based on

C.-M. Lee; V. N. Goverdovskiy; A. I. Temnikov

2007-01-01

226

Task-based vehicle interior layout design using optimization method to enhance safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a virtual environment for conducting vehicle interior layout design. A virtual human called Santos that is biomechanically correct, has realistic musculoskeletal system, and natural motion\\/posture is created to live in this virtual world. One of the objectives of this virtual environment is to allow Santos to explore the interior package design such that one designs new defense

Joo Kim; Jingzhou Yang; Karim Abdel-Malek; Kyle Nebel

2005-01-01

227

Design of springs with “negative” stiffness to improve vehicle driver vibration isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimization of the fundamental frequencies of a vibratory system by means of springs with “negative” stiffness is probably the only way to attain infra-frequency vibration isolation under gravitation. Traditionally, the design of similar springs for vehicle driver vibration isolation systems was an art, and design decisions were based primarily on the designer experience. This paper presents an approach, based on

C.-M. Lee; V. N. Goverdovskiy; A. I. Temnikov

2007-01-01

228

Design principles for a flywheel energy store for road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a flywheel energy storage device capable of enhancing the fuel economy of a hybrid-type road vehicle. A number of possible drive types are considered and the permanent magnet machine drive is shown to provide the best solution. Reasons for selecting a device using an axial-field configuration with single-rotor and double-stator sections are described. Electrical, magnetic, and mechanical

P. P. Acarnley; B. C. Mecrow; J. S. Burdess; J. N. Fawcett; J. G. Kelly; P. G. Dickinson

1996-01-01

229

The automated lane-keeping design for an intelligent vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a vision-based lane-keeping automated steering system is proposed and is successfully verified in our vehicle platform, TAIWAN iTS-1. The proposed steering system can achieve the accurate detection of the complicated road environment information; and more, the closed-loop automated lane-keeping steering system with virtual look-ahead is stable under varying speed operation. Furthermore, to achieve more manlike driving behavior

Shinq-Jen Wu; Hsin-Han Chiang; Jau-Woei Perng; Tsu-Tian Lee; Chao-Jung Chen

2005-01-01

230

High-speed aerodynamic design of space vehicle and required hypersonic wind tunnel facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems associated with the aerodynamic design of space vehicles with emphasis of the role of hypersonic wind tunnel facilities in the development of the vehicle are considered. At first, to identify wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) requirements, operational environments are postulated for hypervelocity vehicles. Typical flight corridors are shown with the associated flow density: real gas effects, low density flow, and non-equilibrium flow. Based on an evaluation of these flight regimes and consideration of the operational requirements, the wind tunnel testing requirements for the aerodynamic design are examined. Then, the aerodynamic design logic and optimization techniques to develop and refine the configurations in a traditional phased approach based on the programmatic design of space vehicle are considered. Current design methodology for the determination of aerodynamic characteristics for designing the space vehicle, i.e., (1) ground test data, (2) numerical flow field solutions and (3) flight test data, are also discussed. Based on these considerations and by identifying capabilities and limits of experimental and computational methods, the role of a large conventional hypersonic wind tunnel and the high enthalpy tunnel and the interrelationship of the wind tunnels and CFD methods in actual aerodynamic design and analysis are discussed.

Sakakibara, Seizou; Hozumi, Kouichi; Soga, Kunio; Nomura, Shigeaki

231

The Use of an Injury Cost Database to Evaluate Vehicle Design Changes in Australia  

PubMed Central

The aim of this project was to evaluate changes in vehicle design using the Road Injury Cost Database. Personal injury insurance claims data, together with data from other sources was used to develop a database of comprehensive injury costs by body region and severity level. Injury Assessment Functions were used to estimate the probability of injury resulting from barrier crash tests. These probabilities were used to estimate costs of injuries for driver and front passenger in vehicles tested in the Australian New Car Assessment Program. It was found that costs were considerably lower in later tests compared with tests of earlier models of the same vehicle. Costs were lower for offset tests compared to full frontal tests. This method shows promise for evaluating changes in vehicle design aimed at improving occupant protection. In Australia, testing for the Australian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) has been carried out since 1992. The Road Injury Cost Database developed by the Road Accident Prevention Research Unit has been used to provide a means of evaluating the effect of changes in vehicle design on occupant protection, measured in terms of injury costs. The aim of this project was to evaluate the effects of changes in vehicle design on the costs of injury by using the Road Injury Cost Database.

Ryan, G Anthony; Hendrie, Delia; Mullan, Narelle

1998-01-01

232

Modeling, control design, and performance evaluation of high speed ground vehicle dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The interest in developing high speed ground transportation systems is one reason for directing attention to the modeling and simulation of the dynamic behavior of vehicle systems. Rail-guided vehicles; i.e., conventional railways, advanced railway systems, or magnetically levitated trains, represent the practical implementation of such ground transportation systems. One computer program that is well suited for the analysis of rail-guided vehicles is the multibody program MEDYNA. This paper demonstrates the application of MEDYNA for control law design and to performance evaluation of such advanced vehicles. A brief description is made of the modeling requirements of magnetically levitated systems, along with a summary of some of the related capabilities and computational methods of MEDNYA. As a case study, analysis of a vehicle based on the German Transrapid system is presented. System matrices of a simplified vehicle model are established and control design is performed with the aid of MATLAB. Performance evaluation is studied with a complex model of the Transrapid vehicle and elastic guideways.

Faye, I.; Kortum, W.; Schwartz, W. (DFVLR-Institute for Flight Systems Dynamics, D-8031 Weeslin (DE))

1989-01-01

233

Design of an Advertisement Scenario for Electric Vehicles Using Digital Multimedia Broadcasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper designs an integrative advertisement system based on digital multimedia broadcasting for the electric vehicles, which need a lot of driving information for battery efficiency and charge planning. The advertiser interface interacts with the advertisement processing system to pay the fee and have the contents endorsed. The advertisement contents are registered, monitored, encoded, and finally delivered to vehicles according to the contract via the broadcasting center. Here, this paper defines a new frame format on the data service stream and is in the process of developing and verifying the encoder and decoder modules. Our system is expected to provide the fundamentals for the development of diverse electric vehicle services.

Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Hye-Jin; Shin, In-Hye; Cho, Jason; Lee, Sang Joon; Kwak, Ho-Young

234

Design of an agile unmanned combat vehicle: a product of the DARPA UGCV program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unmanned ground compat vehicle (UGCV) design evolved by the SAIC team on the DARPA UGCV Program is summarized in this paper. This UGCV design provides exceptional performance against all of the program metrics and incorporates key attributes essential for high performance robotic combat vehicles. This performance includes protection against 7.62 mm threats, C130 and CH47 transportability, and the ability to accept several relevant weapons payloads, as well as advanced sensors and perception algorithms evolving from the PerceptOR program. The UGCV design incorporates a combination of technologies and design features, carefully selected through detailed trade studies, which provide optimum performance against mobility, payload, and endurance goals without sacrificing transportability, survivability, or life cycle cost. The design was optimized to maximize performance against all Category I metrics. In each case, the performance of this design was validated with detailed simulations, indicating that the vehicle exceeded the Category I metrics. Mobility metrics were analyzed using high fidelity VisualNastran vehicle models, which incorporate the suspension control algorithms and controller cycle times. DADS/Easy 5 3-D models and ADAMS simulations were also used to validate vehicle dynamics and control algorithms during obstacle negotiation.

Thornhill, Lindsey D.; Walls, Alan; Arkin, Ronald C.; Beno, Joseph H.; Bergh, Chuck; Bresie, Don; Giovannetti, Anthony; Gothard, Benny M.; Matthies, Larry H.; Nogueiro, Porfirio; Scanlon, Jim; Scott, Ron; Simon, Miguel; Smith, Wilford; Waldron, Kenneth J.

2003-09-01

235

Drive control system design for stability and maneuverability of a 6WD\\/6WS vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a drive controller designed to improve the lateral vehicle stability and maneuverability of a 6-wheel\\u000a drive \\/ 6-wheel steering (6WD\\/6WS) vehicle. The drive controller consists of upper and lower level controllers. The upper\\u000a level controller is based on sliding control theory and determines both front and middle steering angle, additional net yaw\\u000a moment, and longitudinal net force

W. G. Kim; J. Y. Kang; K. Yi

2011-01-01

236

Design validation testing of vehicle instrument cluster using machine vision and hardware-in-the-loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an advanced testing system, combining hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and machine vision technologies, for automated design validation testing of a vehicle instrument cluster. In the system, a HIL set-up supported by model-based approaches simulates vehicle network in real-time, and provides all essential signals to the instrument cluster under test. The machine vision system with novel image processing algorithms is

Yingping Huang; Alexandros Mouzakitis; Ross McMurran; Gunwant Dhadyalla; R. Peter Jones

2008-01-01

237

Robust Longitudinal Flight Controller Design for the Air-breathing Hypersonic Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a robust longitudinal flight controller for the air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is presented in this paper. The non-standard dynamic characteristics of air-breathing hypesonic flight vehicles together with the aerodynamic effects of hypersonic flight make the flight control of such systems highly challenging. Moreover the wide range of speed during operation and the lack of a broad flight dynamics

Wei Jian-li; Yu Yun-feng

2008-01-01

238

Distributed Communication System Design Based on Can Bus for Parallel-Serial Hybrid Electrical Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed network system based on Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol has been widely applied into the vehicle industries. CAN communication protocol for the parallel-serial hybrid electrical vehicles (PSHEV) has been designed in the paper. Real-time scheduling algorithms based on optimization periodic algorithm (OPA) with non-preemptive and preemptive scheduling are also proposed with an optimization goal function to decrease the delay

Yi-He Zuo; Chang-Le Xiang; Qing-Dong Yan; Wei-Da Wang; Hui Liu; Hong-Cai Li

2010-01-01

239

Rocket-powered single-stage vehicle configuration selection and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reusable rocket-powered, single-stage launch vehicle has been designed as a part of NASA's Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study to examine options for a next-generation manned space transportation system. The configuration selection process utilized a response surface methodology for multidisciplinary optimization. The methodology was utilized to determine the minimum dry weight entry vehicle to meet constraints on landing velocity

Douglas O. Stanley; Walter C. Engelund; Roger A. Lepsch; Mark McMillin; Kathryn E. Wurster; Richard W. Powell; Anthony A. Guinta; Resit Unal

1993-01-01

240

Design Considerations of EM-PM Hybrid Levitation and Propulsion Device for Magnetically Levitated Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design considerations of electromagnet\\/permanent magnet (EM-PM) hybrid levitation and propulsion device for magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicle. The machine requires PMs with high coercive force in order to levitate the vehicle by only PMs, and propulsion force is supplied by long-stator linear synchronous motor (LSM). The advantages of this configuration are an increasing levitation airgap length

Han-Wook Cho; Hyung-Suk Han; Jong-Min Lee; Bong-Sub Kim; So-Young Sung

2009-01-01

241

Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

1993-02-01

242

Optimal Design of ICPT Systems Applied to Electric Vehicle Battery Charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) systems for electric vehicle battery charge presents numerous advantages, a detailed design method cannot be found in the literature. This paper shows the steps to follow in the optimized design of an ICPT system and the results obtained in their application to the four most common compensation topologies, pointing out the

JesÚs Sallan; Juan L. Villa; AndrÉs Llombart; JosÉ Fco. Sanz

2009-01-01

243

Design and simulation of a quad rotor tail-sitter unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design and concept of a quad rotor tail-sitter UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). The designed UAV is composed of quad rotors and a fixed wing. It can hover like a helicopter, and can cruise like a fixed wing airplane. In order to verify this concept, a simulator of a quad rotor tail-sitter UAV is developed.

Atsushi Oosedo; Atsushi Konno; Takaaki Matumoto; Kenta Go; Kouji Masuko; Satoko Abiko; Masaru Uchiyama

2010-01-01

244

Capability to Generate Physics-based Mass Estimating Relationships for Conceptual Space Vehicle Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is written in support of the on-going research into conceptual space vehicle design conducted at the Space Systems Design Laboratory (SSDL) at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Research at the SSDL follows a sequence of a number of the tradi...

J. R. Olds L. Marcus

2002-01-01

245

Design of a Remotely Piloted Vehicle for a Low Reynolds Number Station Keeping Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six teams of senior level Aerospace Engineering undergraduates were given a request for proposal, asking for a design concept for a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). This RPV was to be designed to fly at a target Reynolds number of 1 times 10(exp 5). The cr...

1990-01-01

246

Using simulation in design of a cellular assembly plant with automatic guided vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper has two main purposes. The first purpose is to give a comprehensive summary of previous research done in design and analysis of Automatic Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS) and present a hierarchical taxonomy of the factors to be used in design of AGVS. The second purpose is to analyze the main and interaction effects of a large number of

Omur M. Ülgen; Pankaj Kedia

1990-01-01

247

A Study of Design and Control of a Quadruped Walking Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses some of the fundamental problems of energy efficiency, design, and adaptive gait control of quadru ped walking vehicles. The design principle of a leg called a gravitationally decoupled actuator (GDA) is shown to be indispensable for realizing energetically efficient walking mo tion. A novel mechanism, the three-dimensional Cartesian- coordinate pantograph (PANTOMEC), which follows the GDA principle and

Shigeo Hirose

1984-01-01

248

Design and Performance Analysis of Automatic Control Systems for Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the development of fully Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for deep ocean scientific and commercial applications. Specifically, it is regarding the design of automatic feedback control systems for AUV attitude control. The design method used in this paper formulates the AUV attitude control problem within the framework of the Optimal Control Theory. This approach determines an

H. Sehitoglu; P. K. Lee

1989-01-01

249

Thermoplastic sandwich structure design and manufacturing for the body panel of mass transit vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight savings in vehicles enhances fuel efficiency and decreases maintenance costs, especially in mass transit systems. Lightweight composite materials, such as glass fiber reinforced polymers, have been used to replace traditional steel and aluminum components. In this paper, a mass transit bus side body panel was designed, analyzed, and manufactured using thermoplastic composite materials. The design featured a sandwich composite

Haibin Ning; Gregg M. Janowski; Uday K. Vaidya; George Husman

2007-01-01

250

Design Evolution and Performance Characterization of the GTX Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Inlet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and analysis of a second version of the inlet for the GTX rocket-based combine-cycle launch vehicle is discussed. The previous design did not achieve its predicted performance levels due to excessive turning of low-momentum corner flows and loc...

J. R. DeBonis C. J. Steffen T. Rice C. J. Trefny

2002-01-01

251

Induction motor design for electric vehicle using a niching genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In case of the shape or structural optimization of induction motor design, it is needed to identify a multiple optimal profile by locating local optima as well as global. Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to the domain that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. In this paper, optimal design of induction motors for electric vehicles (EV) using a

Dong-Hyeok Cho; Hyun-Kyo Jung; Cheol-Gyun Lee

1999-01-01

252

Induction motor design for electric vehicle using a niching genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of the shape or structural optimization of induction motor design, it is necessary to identify multiple optimal profiles by locating local optima as well as global. Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. In this paper, optimal design of an induction motor for an electric vehicle using a

Dong-Hyeok Cho; Hyun-Kyo Jung; Cheol-Gyun Lee

2001-01-01

253

Magnetic Shield Design Between Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and Sensor for Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a design and analysis method of magnetic shield structure between a position sensor and an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). For a vector control algorithm and high reliability of traction system of HEV, a resolver is usually adopted as a position sensor of IPMSM instead of an encoder. However, the design

Ki-Chan Kim; Chang Sung Jin; Ju Lee

2009-01-01

254

Design of an energy storage unit for fuel-cell and hybrid-electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation describes an ESU design methodology capable of minimizing the volume, weight and cost of the MES and ESU (i.e., battery pack, ultracapacitor pack and PE interfaces) while allowing for the implementation of power management in a cost-effective manner. The proposed ESU design methodology is based on a holistic approach that includes the vehicle performance requirements and allows for

Roberto Marcelo Schupbach

2004-01-01

255

Household Market for Electric Vehicles. Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis: A Reflexively Designed Survey of New-Car-Buying, Multi-Vehicle California Households.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This survey was sponsored by the Air Resources Board in order to assist the Board in its evaluation of the zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) regulation. The survey was designed to test the consumer marketability of electric vehicles (EVs). A total of 454 househ...

T. Turrentine K. Kurani

1995-01-01

256

Guide path design and location of load pick-up\\/drop-off points for an automated guided vehicle system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The guide path layout for an automated guided vehicle system (AGVS) is a critical component in the overall design of a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) that utilizes AGVs for materials handling. Not only does it affect the total distance travelled by the vehicles but it also affects vehicle requirements and space utilization. In this study, the problem of selecting the

WILLIAM G. GOETZ JR; PIUS J. EGBELU

1990-01-01

257

Design and integration of a cryogenic propellant crossfeed system for parallel burn vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was made to design and integrate a cryogenic propellant crossfeed system into an orbiter/booster vehicle set having parallel burning stages. A crossfeed system configuration has been developed that provides a solution for crossfeeding multiparallel-burn stages for HLLV and AMLS vehicles. With a crossfeed system, the NASA/Langley Research Center predicted weight savings of about 26 percent in gross weight and about 23 percent in dry weight can be achieved. The crossfeed configuration success is highly dependent on component selection and the operational sequence chosen to achieve system performance objectives. These components and a flight sequence are identified. Emphasis is placed on minimizing vehicle complexity and obtaining low booster residuals. The related subsystem concerns for propellant loading, pressurization, venting, in-flight separable umbilical disconnects, and retraction are addressed. Guidelines and design objectives were also established for large diameter, separable disconnect design development.

Howarth, James W.; Merlin, Michael V.; Petrilla, Stephen P.; Vaddey, Seshagirirao V.

1993-06-01

258

A machine-to-loop assignment and layout design methodology for tandem AGV systems with multiple-load vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a design methodology for tandem Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) systems with multiple-load vehicles. Our goal is to devise a design methodology that can achieve the following objectives in multiple-load tandem AGV designs. The first objective is to achieve the workload-balance between vehicles of different loops. The second objective is to minimize the inter-loop flow. The

Ying-Chin Ho; Ping-Fong Hsieh

2004-01-01

259

Increasing the likelihood of large-scale grid-enabled vehicle (GEV) penetration through appropriate design choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The likelihood of widespread GEV adoption will be determined by pending vehicle, business model and policy design choices. Most designs to date have not made large-scale adoption a central design goal. We review the impacts of maximum charging rate, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) capabilities, and the charging business model on consumer acceptance and on the electric distribution, electric power,

Frank Kreikebaum; Dong Gu Choi; Frank Lambert; Valerie M. Thomas; Deepak Divan

2011-01-01

260

Design Refinement and Modeling Methods for Highly-Integrated Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for early-stage design of high-speed airplanes is presented based on analysis of vehicle performance, including internal flow in the engine and external flows around the body. Several ways of evaluating vehicle performance are shown, including thrust maps, combustor mode stability concerns, combustor optimization and trajectory optimization. The design performance analysis relies on a routine that computes the thrust of a dual-mode scramjet, which is a geometric-compression (ramjet) engine with a combustor that can operate both subsonically and supersonically. This strategy applies to any internal flow which is predominantly one-dimensional in character. A reduced-order model for mixing and combustion has been developed that is based on non-dimensional scaling of turbulent jets in crossflow and tabulated flamelet chemistry, and is used in conjunction with conventional conservation equations for quasi one-dimensional flow to compute flowpath performance. Thrust is computed by stream-tube momentum analysis. Vehicle lift and drag are computed using a supersonic panel method, developed separately. Comparisons to computational fluid dynamics solutions and experimental data were conducted to determine the validity of the combustion modeling approach, and results of these simulations are shown. Computations for both ram-mode and scram-mode operation are compared to experimental results, and predictions are made for flight conditions of a hypersonic vehicle built around the given flowpath. Trajectory performance of the vehicle is estimated using a collocation method to find the required control inputs and fuel consumption. The combustor is optimized for minimum fuel consumption over a short scram trajectory, and the scram-mode trajectory is optimized for minimum fuel consumption over a space-access-type trajectory. A vehicle design and associated optimized trajectory are shown, and general design principles for steady and efficient operation of vehicles of this type are discussed.

Torrez, Sean Michael

261

Reliability-Based Design Optimization for Durability of Ground Vehicle Suspension System Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of materials processing- and component manufacturing-induced uncertainties in material properties and component shape and size on the reliability of component performance is investigated. Specifically, reliability of a suspension system component from a high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle which typically can fail under low-cycle strain-based fatigue conditions is analyzed. Toward that end, the most advanced reliability-based design optimization methods available in the literature were combined with the present understanding of low-cycle fatigue durability and applied to the component in question. This entailed intricate integration of several computational tools such as multibody vehicle dynamics, finite-element simulations, and fatigue strain-life assessment/prediction techniques. The results obtained clearly revealed the importance of consideration of material property uncertainties in attaining vehicle performance of critical structural components in complex systems (e.g., a vehicle).

Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Bell, W. C.; Marvi, H.; Yalavarthy, H. V.; Pandurangan, B.; Haque, I.; Fadel, G. M.

2010-04-01

262

Multi-disciplinary design optimization of subsonic fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles projected through 2025  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through this research, a robust aircraft design methodology is developed for analysis and optimization of the Air Vehicle (AV) segment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems. The analysis functionality of the AV design is integrated with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to form an integrated Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) methodology for optimal AV design synthesis. This research fills the gap in integrated subsonic fixed-wing UAV AV MDO methods. No known single methodology captures all of the phenomena of interest over the wide range of UAV families considered here. Key advancements include: (1) parametric Low Reynolds Number (LRN) airfoil aerodynamics formulation, (2) UAV systems mass properties definition, (3) wing structural weight methods, (4) self-optimizing flight performance model, (5) automated geometry algorithms, and (6) optimizer integration. Multiple methods are provided for many disciplines to enable flexibility in functionality, level of detail, computational expediency, and accuracy. The AV design methods are calibrated against the High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) Global Hawk, Medium-Altitude Endurance (MAE) Predator, and Tactical Shadow 200 classes, which exhibit significant variations in mission performance requirements and scale from one another. All three UAV families show significant design gross weight reductions as technology improves. The overall technology synergy experienced 10--11 years after the initial technology year is 6.68% for Global Hawk, 7.09% for Predator, and 4.22% for the Shadow 200, which means that the technology trends interact favorably in all cases. The Global Hawk and Shadow 200 families exhibited niche behavior, where some vehicles attained higher aerodynamic performance while others attained lower structural mass fractions. The high aerodynamic performance Global Hawk vehicles had high aspect ratio wings with sweep, while the low structural mass fraction vehicles had straight, relatively low aspect ratios and smaller wing spans. The high aerodynamic performance Shadow 200 vehicles had relatively low wing loadings and large wing spans, while the lower structural mass fraction counterparts sought to minimize physical size. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gundlach, John Frederick, IV

263

Vehicle occupancy detection camera position optimization using design of experiments and standard image references  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Camera positioning and orientation is important to applications in domains such as transportation since the objects to be imaged vary greatly in shape and size. In a typical transportation application that requires capturing still images, inductive loops buried in the ground or laser trigger sensors are used when a vehicle reaches the image capture zone to trigger the image capture system. The camera in such a system is in a fixed position pointed at the roadway and at a fixed orientation. Thus the problem is to determine the optimal location and orientation of the camera when capturing images from a wide variety of vehicles. Methods from Design for Six Sigma, including identifying important parameters and noise sources and performing systematically designed experiments (DOE) can be used to determine an effective set of parameter settings for the camera position and orientation under these conditions. In the transportation application of high occupancy vehicle lane enforcement, the number of passengers in the vehicle is to be counted. Past work has described front seat vehicle occupant counting using a camera mounted on an overhead gantry looking through the front windshield in order to capture images of vehicle occupants. However, viewing rear seat passengers is more problematic due to obstructions including the vehicle body frame structures and seats. One approach is to view the rear seats through the side window. In this situation the problem of optimally positioning and orienting the camera to adequately capture the rear seats through the side window can be addressed through a designed experiment. In any automated traffic enforcement system it is necessary for humans to be able to review any automatically captured digital imagery in order to verify detected infractions. Thus for defining an output to be optimized for the designed experiment, a human defined standard image reference (SIR) was used to quantify the quality of the line-of-sight to the rear seats of the vehicle. The DOE-SIR method was exercised for determining the optimal camera position and orientation for viewing vehicle rear seats over a variety of vehicle types. The resulting camera geometry was used on public roadway image capture resulting in over 95% acceptable rear seat images for human viewing.

Paul, Peter; Hoover, Martin; Rabbani, Mojgan

2013-03-01

264

Computer modeling in the design and evaluation of electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This demonstration project uses modern simulation techniques to illustrate the important technologies and design variables that an auto-designer would consider in production a high efficiency, low emissions vehicle. Simulation and modeling techniques use the idea of capturing the relationships between real components of the systems with mathematical equations. These equations are then solved on a computer to simulate the behavior or performance of the system under various conditions. In the current demonstration project, we focus on many variations of a hydrogen-powered vehicle.

Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Johnson, N.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-08-16

265

A New Speedometer Design for a Vehicle using K-Band Doppler Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a new high-precision speedometer for vehicles using a K-band Doppler technology. The concept of our new speedometer is based on the Doppler effects phenomenon to obtain a speed of the vehicle more precisely. The experimental design, data collection and data evaluations are discussed, and the features of the new system have been appraised and compared with a conventional speedometer. The results show that our new speedometer development exhibits a phenomenal performance gains with low cost design, light weight and its performance provides a pragmatic element for emerging ITS infrastructure.

Araki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Nagase, Tomoyuki; Araki, Makoto; Ono, Hisao

266

Comparison of controller design methods for a scaled metro vehicle - flexible structure experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the design and implementation of different controllers on a 1\\/10 scaled flexible structure experiment of a metro vehicle car body. The particular controller design methods investigated are state vector feedback control combined with a Kalman-filter and the mu-synthesis procedure. Using experimental data it is shown, that with both design methods the structural response to disturbances can be

Christian Benatzky; Martin Kozek; H. P. Jorgl

2007-01-01

267

State of the art of plastic sorting and recycling: Feedback to vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today car manufacturers are beginning to integrate recycling constraints in the first stages of the design of a new car due to their concern regarding the effects of car design on the recovery of material after End-of-Life Vehicle treatment.Improved understanding of the recycling process can help designers to avoid contaminants in the recycled product and improve the efficiency of current

D. Froelich; E. Maris; N. Haoues; L. Chemineau; H. Renard; F. Abraham; R. Lassartesses

2007-01-01

268

Optimum Aeroelastic Design of Resonance Type Flapping Wing for Micro Air Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimum aeroelastic design method for a resonance-type flapping wing for a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) is presented. It uses Complex Method and 3D Navier-Stokes code to determine the optimum structural and aerodynamic parameters of a 2 DOF flapping wing system. The method is used to design a dragonfly-type MAV, and numerical simulation shows that the designed flapping wings can generate sufficient lift to sustain the weight and sufficient thrust to overcome the body drag.

Isogai, Koji; Kamisawa, Yuichi; Sato, Hiroyuki

269

Orbital maneuvering vehicle thermal design and analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the OMV thermal design that is required to maintain components within temperature limits for all mission phases. A key element in the OMV thermal design is the application of a motorized thermal shade assembly that is a replacement for the more conventional variable conductance heat pipes or louvers. The thermal shade assembly covers equipment module radiator areas, and based upon the radiator temperature input to onboard computer, opens and closes the shade, varying the effective radiator area. Thermal design verification thermal analyses results are presented. Selected thermal analyses methods, including several unique subroutines, are discussed. A representation of enclosure Script F equations, in matrix form, is also included. Personal computer application to the development of the OMV thermal design is summarized.

Chapter, J.

1986-06-01

270

Comparing Driver Frontal Mortality in Vehicles with Redesigned and Older-Design Front Airbags  

PubMed Central

In 1997, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration amended its requirements for frontal crash performance under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208 to temporarily allow 30 mph (48 kph) sled tests with unbelted dummies as an alternative to 30 mph head-on rigid-barrier vehicle tests. This change permitted automakers to reduce airbag inflation forces so that they would be less likely to injure occupants who are close to airbags when they first deploy. Most vehicle models were sled-certified starting in model year 1998. Airbag-related deaths have decreased since 1997; however, controversy persists about whether reduced inflation forces might be decreasing protection for some occupants in high-severity frontal crashes. To examine the effects of the regulatory changes, this study computed rate ratios (RR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CI) for passenger vehicle driver deaths per vehicle registration during 2000–02 at principal impact points of 12 o’clock for 1998–99 model year vehicles relative to 1997 models. Passenger vehicles included in the study had both driver and passenger front airbags, had the same essential designs during the 1997–99 model years, and had been sled-certified for drivers throughout model years 1998 and 1999. An adjustment was made for the higher annual mileage of newer vehicles. Findings were that the effect of the regulatory change varied by vehicle type. For cars, sport utility vehicles, and minivans combined, there was an 11 percent decrease in fatality risk in frontal crashes after changing to sled certification (RR=0.89; 95% CI=0.82–0.96). Among pickups, however, estimated frontal fatality risk increased 35 percent (RR=1.35; 95% CI=1.12–1.62). For a broad range of frontal crashes (11, 12, and 1 o’clock combined), the results indicated a modest net benefit of the regulatory change across all vehicle types and driver characteristics. However, the contrary finding for pickups needs to be researched further.

Braver, Elisa R.; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y.; Ferguson, Susan A.

2004-01-01

271

Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

2010-06-17

272

Development of a dedicated ethanol ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this 3.5 year project is to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol (or ethanol blend) that can meet California's ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards and equivalent corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency for a light-duty passenger car application. The definition of commercially competitive is independent of fuel cost, but does include technical requirements for competitive power, performance, refueling times, vehicle range, driveability, fuel handling safety, and overall emissions performance. This report summarizes a system design study completed after six months of effort on this project. The design study resulted in recommendations for ethanol-fuel blends that shall be tested for engine low-temperature cold-start performance and other criteria. The study also describes three changes to the engine and two other changes to the vehicle to improve low-temperature starting, efficiency, and emissions. The three engine changes are to increase the compression ratio, to replace the standard fuel injectors with fine spray injectors, and to replace the powertrain controller. The two other vehicle changes involve the fuel tank and the aftertreatment system. The fuel tank will likely need to be replaced to reduce evaporative emissions. In addition to changes in the main catalyst, supplemental aftertreatment systems will be analyzed to reduce emissions before the main catalyst reaches operating temperature.

Bourn, G.; Callahan, T.; Dodge, L.; Mulik, J.; Naegeli, D.; Shouse, K.; Smith, L.; Whitney, K.

1995-02-01

273

Series hybrid vehicles and optimized hydrogen engine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore, Sandia Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have a joint project to develop an optimized hydrogen fueled engine for series hybrid automobiles. The major divisions of responsibility are: system analysis, engine design and kinetics modeling by LLNL; performance and emission testing, and friction reduction by SNL; computational fluid mechanics and combustion modeling by LANL. This project is a

J. R. Smith; S. Aceves; P. Vanblarigan

1995-01-01

274

Hydrogen Filling Station Design for Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the energy bill was announced in 2005, a transi- tion of the national energy system from hydrocarbon to hydrogen had been envisioned. However, safe and convenient refueling and widespread availability of hydrogen from various energy sources are the prerequisites for the development of hydrogen economy. This paper focuses on the design of a hydrogen filling station with on-site hydrogen

Weiping Xiao; Yunzhi Cheng; Wei-Jen Lee; Victoria Chen; Surachai Charoensri

2011-01-01

275

Hydrogen filling station design for fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Energy Bill was announced in 2005, a transition of national energy system from hydrocarbon to hydrogen had been envisioned. However, safe and convenient refueling and widespread availability of hydrogen from various energy sources are the prerequisite for the development of hydrogen economy. This paper focuses on the design of a hydrogen filling station with on-site hydrogen production by

Weiping Xiao; Yunzhi Cheng; Wei-Jen Lee; Victoria Chen; Surachai Charoensri

2010-01-01

276

Design and operational requirements for a reusable launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equipment design, system layout, and operational requirements of reusable launch vechicles are discussed. It is suggested that environmental qualification and lifetime limitations must be reconsidered for extended use of equipment and checkout and accessibility provisions must be enhanced to reduce turnaround time and cost. Spare hardware, procedures and skilled personnel must be available at the launch site for system and equipment maintenance.

Levod, J.

277

The design philosophy of the Phobos-Grunt space vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper covers the main features of Russia's Phobos-Grunt space mission, whose primary goal is to return soil samples from the Martian satellite Phobos. The mission scenario, major design solutions, and evolution of the project throughout its development are described.

Martynov, M. B.

2012-12-01

278

The design of wheel retraction function of amphibious vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce bow wave loss of wheels to enhance amphibious vehiclepsilas speed when sailing in water, wheels retraction scheme was designed. Hydraulic forces acted on teeth-shaft couplings to produce moment, which drove upper arms to revolve up around pins, and wheels move up accordingly. Displacements of spring and absorber upper ends were restricted to ensure fixedness by guide

Song Guixia; Zhao Youqun

2008-01-01

279

The impact of improved vehicle design on highway safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a framework for evaluating the safety of automobile designs in terms of likelihood of accident occurrence and severity of likely injuries sustained. Fault-tree analysis is utilized to model interacting relationships between causative factors that affect accident occurrence. A multiattribute injury model based on harm measures obtained from the National Accident Sampling System Database is presented to describe

J. S. Eisele; Y. Y. Haimes; N. J. Garber; D. Li; J. H. Lambert; P. Kuzminski; M. Chowdhury

1996-01-01

280

Racing with the Sun: Students Learn Physics while Designing a Solar-Powered Vehicle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes his experience conducting an inquiry investigation in his classroom in which high school physics students design, create, and race a solar-powered vehicle. Students learn invaluable science, technology, mathematics, communication, and critical thinking skills. Fueled by their knowledge, creativity, and the…

Marshall, Jeff

2004-01-01

281

Empirical aerodynamic modeling for robust control design of an oceanographic Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a systematic procedure of system identification, flight control design and robustness analysis for an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is used to estimate the aerodynamic parameters with uncertainty bounds and to update the nonlinear model. A linearized model with parametric uncertainties is extracted from the nonlinear uncertain dynamics of the UAV by a new

Li Meng; Liu Li; S. M. Veres

2010-01-01

282

Modelling and PID controller design for a quadrotor unmanned air vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper presents the modelling of a four rotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicle known as the quadrotor aircraft. The paper presents a new model design method for the flight control of an autonomous quad rotor .The paper describes the controller architecture for the quadrotor as well. The dynamic model of the quad-rotor, which is an under

Atheer L. Salih; M. Moghavvemi; Haider A. F. Mohamed; Khalaf Sallom Gaeid

2010-01-01

283

Design and Evaluation of a Vehicle Data Distribution and Collection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key component of today's law enforcement is quick access to updated and relevant information. The emergent use of embedded computers in police vehicles provides a platform for displaying and interacting with large amounts of data making this access to information possible. Distributing and collecting this data however is a significant challenge. In this paper we describe the design of

Jacob LeBlanc; W. Thomas Miller; Andrew L. Kun

284

Biconic Cargo Return Vehicle with an Advanced Recovery System. Volume 1: Conceptual Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual design of the biconic Cargo Return Vehicle (CRV) is presented. The CRV will be able to meet all of the Space Station Freedom (SSF's) resupply needs. Worth note is the absence of a backup recovery chute in case of Advanced Recovery System (A...

1990-01-01

285

Design of permanent magnet brushless motors with asymmetric air gap for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a cost-effective approach to design permanent magnet brushless dc motors for electric vehicles. The key is to shape the pole arc in such a way that the air gap length is at a maximum at the leading edge of each rotor pole arc and at a minimum at the trailing edge of the same pole arc, hence

K. T. Chau; Wei Cui; J. Z. Jiang; Zheng Wang

2006-01-01

286

Design and aerodynamic analysis of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and aerodynamic performance of a planar membrane wing as shape airfoil for the micro aerial vehicle. This simulation calculates the average lift force, L¯ as the criteria weight of the flapping wing (weight must be lower than 8.78 g), to make one ultra-light, small size flapping wing MAV. In here two phases are discussed. First,

Bor-Jang Tsai; Yu-Chun Fu

2009-01-01

287

Design of a 100 kW switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost, high reliability, and competitive weight and efficiency combine to make the switched reluctance (SR) motor drive a strong candidate for application in future electric vehicle (EV) propulsion systems. This paper presents methods and results of a prototype SR motor design study. Finite element analysis and transient simulation results predict performance, efficiency, and weight that are competitive with existing

Tatsuya Uematsu; Richard S. Wallace

1995-01-01

288

Leading Edge Aerothermal Inverse Design of Hyersonic Vehicle Based on Homotopy Optimization Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blunt leading edge with profiles of circular or power law shape is often used to decrease the aerodynamic heating of a vehicle when it flights into hypersonic regime. In order to further reduce the peak of heat flux of the leading edge, an inverse shape design method is presented in this paper. The leading edge is parameterized by using B-spline

K. Cui; S. C. Hu; T. Y. Gao; X. P. Wang; G. W. Yang

2011-01-01

289

An energy and power based approach toward design of power split for urban hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a novel method of analyzing real and artificial urban driving cycles with regard to power and energy needs. The results can be used to facilitate the design of the power split between primary and secondary power sources for hybrid vehicles in urban applications. Based on the analysis of different real and artificial driving cycles three key values

Daniela CHRENKO; Irene Garcia Diez; David Bouquain; Luis Le Moyne; Abdellatif Miraoui

2011-01-01

290

A simulation based approach for supporting Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) logistic handling system are widely adopted when high transportation capacity and quality of service are the most important characteristics to reach. A large number of mathematical approaches have been developed in years to address AGV systems design and control. Nevertheless, proper performance estimations have to consider the peculiar aspects of the real environment in which the

Elisa Gebennini; Sara Dallari; Andrea Grassi; Giuseppe Perrica; Cesare Fantuzzi; Rita Gamberini

2008-01-01

291

Design of a quadruped walking vehicle for dynamic walking and stair climbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the design of a quadruped walking vehicle for walking dynamically at high speed and climbing ordinary stairs (30-40°). To realize these requests, new mechanisms are introduced, which are (1) a prismatic joint leg that does not interfere with the steps of a staircase and which performs a cylindrical coordinate motion with good energy efficiency, (2) an articulated

Shigeo Hirose; Kan Yoneda; Kazuhiko Arai; Tomoyoshi Ibe

1994-01-01

292

Design and experimental validation of linear and nonlinear vehicle steering control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the design of three control laws dedicated to vehicle steering control, two based on robust linear control strategies and one based on nonlinear control strategies, and presents a comparison between them. The two robust linear control laws (indirect and direct methods) are built around M linear bicycle models, each of these control laws is composed of two

Lghani Menhour; Daniel Lechner; Ali Charara

2011-01-01

293

Design and experimental validation of linear and nonlinear vehicle steering control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the design of three control laws dedicated to vehicle steering control, two based on robust linear control strategies and one based on nonlinear control strategies, and presents a comparison between them. The two robust linear control laws (indirect and direct methods) are built around M linear bicycle models, each of these control laws is composed of two

Lghani Menhour; Daniel Lechner; Ali Charara

2012-01-01

294

Highway Aesthetics: The Design of Motor Vehicles. Teaching Art with Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the design of highway vehicles as one means for students to learn about forms of three-dimensional art. Focuses on the Corvette, mass-produced cars like the Chrysler Concorde, the modern semi-trailer, and an antique 1931 Dusenberg Model J Murphy Aluminum Top Coupe. (CMK)

Hubbard, Guy

1999-01-01

295

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of the Shape and Trajectory of a Reentry Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the results for the optimal conceptual design of a reentry vehicle's shape and trajectory are presented. The general problem is decomposed into disciplinary subsystems that perform separated analyses for aerodynamics, weight estimation, and flight dynamics. A novel surface grid generation program that minimizes the number of panels required to calculate the aerodynamic coefficients by the Newtonian theory

Marcello Tava; Shinji Suzuki

2005-01-01

296

Design of robust backstepping controller for unmanned aerial vehicle using analytical redundancy and extended state observer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In current flight control system (FCS) practice for unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs), flight safety becomes more and more important in extreme weather or in the face of sensor and control effector failures. Flight safety is guaranteed traditionally by specifying functionally redundant control hardware. Compared with extra burden increased by hardware redundancy on UAV, design of analytical redundancy becomes attractive in recent

Liwei Qiu; Jianqiang Yi; Guoliang Fan; Wensheng Yu; Ruyi Yuan

2010-01-01

297

Examination of the effects of tire design on vehicle rolling resistance and fuel economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the current and expected future trends in highway tire design and their effects on vehicle rolling resistance and fuel economy. The primary emphasis is on passenger cars, operated under conditions typified by the US Environmental Protection Agency Urban, Highway, and Combined Cycles, and heavy duty trucks operated over the road. Analytical and experimental data indicate rolling resistance-fuel

Levine

1983-01-01

298

Vehicle routing and production planning decision support systems: Designing graphical user interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the inherent complexity of vehicle routing and production planning decision support systems, designing user interfaces for them is challenging and can make a big difference in the usability of these systems. Many heuristic and optimization-oriented systems that have been implemented for this type of problem have failed in part due to a poor graphical user interface. This work proposes

Sergio Maturana; Yadran Eterovic

1995-01-01

299

Racing with the Sun: Students Learn Physics while Designing a Solar-Powered Vehicle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes his experience conducting an inquiry investigation in his classroom in which high school physics students design, create, and race a solar-powered vehicle. Students learn invaluable science, technology, mathematics, communication, and critical thinking skills. Fueled by their knowledge, creativity, and the…

Marshall, Jeff

2004-01-01

300

Flexible Flight Vehicle Transfer Function Factors for Use in Autopilot Preliminary Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a series of charts of forward-loop transfer function poles and zeroes for a general flight vehicle having both rigid and elastic longitudinal degrees of freedom. These charts allow an assessment to be made, early in the design of an a...

A. G. Fonda F. J. Trueh

1964-01-01

301

Design and Control of a Passively Steered, Dual Axle Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the steering, suspension and control systems of the rover Zoë, a solar-powered robot designed to explore the Mars-like landscapes of the Atacama Desert in Chile. We are developing the Zoë chassis as an alternative to the traditional six-wheeled, rocker-bogie system used by Mars rovers flown in the past ten years. Zoë travels over rough terrain

Michael Wagner; Stuart Heys; David Wettergreen; James Teza; Dimitrios Apostolopoulos; George Kantor; William Whittaker

2005-01-01

302

Video displays for tracked vehicle FLIR systems: some design considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thrust of this paper will be to trace some of the design decisions made during development of the M1A2 System Enhancement Package (SEP) Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) display. We will describe factors which determined the size, resolution, optical filtering, as well as packaging characteristics. The Commanders Thermal Viewer (CTV) display is a 16:9 aspect ratio, 9.2' diagonal, mirror electrode

John T. Thomas; Greg Downs

1999-01-01

303

In Terms of Testability on the Design of Fire Extinguishing and Explosion Suppression System of Armored Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the testability of electrical system of the armored vehicles of the PLA, the author of this paper elaborates on the concept of DFT (design for test) in designing the fire extinguishing and explosion suppression system of armored vehicles, analyzes the structural characteristics of the system and the test strategies of DFT and puts forward two effective

Xie YongchengHe; He Hai; Li Guangsheng; Li Dongliang

2007-01-01

304

DHM in human-centered product design: a case-study on public transport vehicle.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to present the advantages on the use of 3D Digital Human Models (DHM) on the design of public transport vehicles. In this case, the subjects were scanned using the WBX Cyberware 3D Whole Body Scanner, with functional and daily postures according to the use of public transportation and some especial cases, such as a mother with her offspring or a business man with his valise, so the volume of the person would be taken in consideration. A data collection was created to simulate several situations of the daily use of the vehicle. PMID:22317047

Santos, V; Guimarães, C P; Franca, G A N; Cid, G L; Paranhos, A G

2012-01-01

305

Design of an integral thermal protection system for future space vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal protection systems (TPS) are the features incorporated into a spacecraft's design to protect it from severe aerodynamic heating during high-speed travel through planetary atmospheres. The ablative TPS on the space capsule Apollo and ceramic tiles and blankets on the Space Shuttle Orbiter were designed as add-ons to the main load-bearing structure of the vehicles. They are usually incompatible with

Satish Kumar Bapanapalli

2007-01-01

306

ECU loader design of in-vehicle CAN network based on ISO15765  

Microsoft Academic Search

on-line program download of in-vehicle ECU required to be implemented according to diagnostic protocol ISO15765. Now, it's short of convenient and flexible download tool, which is low-cost. For this problem, on-line downloader based on ISO15765 is designed in this paper. Strategy of downloader system is designed, three main function modules are illustrated in detail. Test and application results show that

Anyu Cheng; Yan Yao; Zhihui Duan; Anjian Zhou; Wei Hong

2011-01-01

307

Hover and wind-tunnel testing of shrouded rotors for improved micro air vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrouded-rotor configuration has emerged as the most popular choice for rotary-wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), because of the inherent safety of the design and the potential for significant performance improvements. However, traditional design philosophies based on experience with large-scale ducted propellers may not apply to the low-Reynolds-number (˜20,000) regime in which MAVs operate. An experimental investigation of the effects

Jason L. Pereira

2008-01-01

308

Design and analysis of biomimetic joints for morphing of micro air vehicles.  

PubMed

Flight capability for micro air vehicles is rapidly maturing throughout the aviation community; however, mission capability has not yet matured at the same pace. Maintaining trim during a descent or in the presence of crosswinds remains challenging for fixed-wing aircraft but yet is routinely performed by birds. This paper presents an overview of designs that incorporate morphing to enhance their flight characteristics. In particular, a series of joints and structures is adopted from seagulls to alter either the dihedral or sweep of the wings and thus alter the flight characteristics. The resulting vehicles are able to trim with significantly increased angles of attack and sideslip compared to traditional fixed-wing vehicles. PMID:21098958

Grant, Daniel T; Abdulrahim, Mujahid; Lind, Rick

2010-11-24

309

Concept Design of a Crash Management System for Goods Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study by the European Aluminium Association and FKA (Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen Aachen), a concept crash system for 40t trucks is developed based on the front end design used in the âAPROSYSâ study. The concept was built around European safety regulations in CAD software and simulated with an FE model using aluminum and steel. It was found that using an octagon shaped aluminum crush box would be the safest due to its characteristics of low weight, high energy absorption, and low technical complexity. Through additional testing it was also found if EU directive 96/53/EC could be modified to exclude cabin dimensions from its requirements, safer collisions for both parties would result.

Association, European A.

310

Design and implementation of small navigation system on land vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focused on the problem of frame loss and truncation on multi-channel universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) embedded in Integrated Navigation Systems, and it contains attitude heading reference system (AHRS) and global positioning system (GPS). An advanced design based on FPGA and ARM processor is discussed in this paper, in which FPGA would be used to coordinate with each logic modules, expand UART for GPS and AHRS, resolve navigation information, and save specify data to SD card, which can reduce the delay in data receiving and resolving, while ARM is applied in the area of parameters estimation and navigation algorithms. The experiment results show that this navigation system can use UART to receive, resolve data frames and save data while ARM execute parameter estimation and navigation algorithms in real time. This integrated navigation can effectively avoid the phenomenon of data frame loss or truncation in UART receiving, and can improve the navigation precision.

Ma, Shuaiqi

2013-03-01

311

Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in the area of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) have brought these materials to a maturity stage where the technology is ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. The new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel, especially when they are selectively reinforced with carbon, silicon carbide, or aluminum oxide fibers. Most of the developments in the MMC materials have been spurred, mainly by applications that require high structural performance at elevated temperatures, the heavy vehicle industry could also benefit from this emerging technology. Increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability are the main drivers for potential insertion of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. Critical elements of a typical tractor-trailer combination, such as highly loaded sections of the structure, engine components, brakes, suspensions, joints and bearings could be improved through judicious use of MMC materials. Such an outcome would promote the DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing the fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles and reducing their life cycle costs and pollution levels. However, significant technical and economical barriers are likely to hinder or even prevent broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The tradeoffs between such expected benefits (lower weights and longer durability) and penalties (higher costs, brittle behavior, and difficult to machine) must be thoroughly investigated both from the performance and cost viewpoints, before the transfer of MMC technology to heavy vehicle systems can be properly assessed and implemented. MMC materials are considered to form one element of the comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy pursued by the High Strength/Weight Reduction (HS/WR) Materials program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for structural weight savings and quality enhancements in heavy vehicles. The research work planed for the first year of this project (June 1, 2003 through May 30, 2004) focused on a theoretical investigation of weight benefits and structural performance tradeoffs associated with the design, fabrication, and joining of MMC components for heavy-duty vehicles. This early research work conducted at West Virginia University yielded the development of integrated material-structural models that predicted marginal benefits and significant barriers to MMC applications in heavy trailers. The results also indicated that potential applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles are limited to components identified as critical for either loadings or weight savings. Therefore, the scope of the project was expanded in the following year (June 1, 2004 through May 30, 2005) focused on expanding the lightweight material-structural design concepts for heavy vehicles from the component to the system level. Thus, the following objectives were set: (1) Devise and evaluate lightweight structural configurations for heavy vehicles. (2) Study the feasibility of using Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for critical structural components and joints in heavy vehicles. (3) Develop analysis tools, methods, and validated test data for comparative assessments of innovative design and joining concepts. (4) Develop analytical models and software for durability predictions of typical heavy vehicle components made of particulate MMC or fiber-reinforced composites. This report summarizes the results of the research work conducted during the past two years in this projects.

Jacky C. Prucz; Samir N. Shoukry; Gergis W. William

2005-08-31

312

Preliminary Design of a Manned Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithms  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate designs must be identified for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combined analysis codes for NEP subsystems with a genetic algorithm. The use of penalty functions with scaling ratios was investigated to increase computational efficiency. Also, the selection of design variables for optimization was considered to reduce computation time without losing beneficial design search space. Finally, trend analysis of a reference mission to the asteroids yielded a group of candidate designs for further analysis.

Irwin, Ryan W. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tinker, Michael L. [Spacecraft and Vehicle Systems Department, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2005-02-06

313

Optimal trajectory designs and systems engineering analyses of reusable launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realizing a reusable launch vehicle (RLU) that is low cost with highly effective launch capability has become the "Holy Grail" within the aerospace community world-wide. Clear understanding of the vehicle's operational limitations and flight characteristics in all phases of the flight are preponderant components in developing such a launch system. This dissertation focuses on characterizing and designing the RLU optimal trajectories in order to aid in strategic decision making during mission planning in four areas: (1) nominal ascent phase, (2) abort scenarios and trajectories during ascent phase including abort-to-orbit (ATO), transoceanic-abort-landing (TAL) and return-to-launch-site (RTLS), (3) entry phase (including footprint), and (4) systems engineering aspects of such flight trajectory design. The vehicle chosen for this study is the Lockheed Martin X-33 lifting-body design that lifts off vertically with two linear aerospike rocket engines and lands horizontally. An in-depth investigation of the optimal endo-atmospheric ascent guidance parameters such as earliest abort time, engine throttle setting, number of flight phases, flight characteristics and structural design limitations will be performed and analyzed to establish a set of benchmarks for making better trade-off decisions. Parametric analysis of the entry guidance will also be investigated to allow the trajectory designer to pinpoint relevant parameters and to generate optimal constrained trajectories. Optimal ascent and entry trajectories will be generated using a direct transcription method to cast the optimal control problem as a nonlinear programming problem. The solution to the sparse nonlinear programming problem is then solved using sequential quadratic programming. Finally, guidance system hierarchy studies such as work breakdown structure, functional analysis, fault-tree analysis, and configuration management will be developed to ensure that the guidance system meets the definition of vehicle design requirements and constraints.

Tsai, Hung-I. Bruce

314

Design, testing, and performance of a hybrid micro vehicle---The Hopping Rotochute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hopping Rotochute is a new hybrid micro vehicle that has been developed to robustly explore environments with rough terrain while minimizing energy consumption over long periods of time. The device consists of a small coaxial rotor system housed inside a lightweight cage. The vehicle traverses an area by intermittently powering a small electric motor which drives the rotor system, allowing the vehicle to hop over obstacles of various shapes and sizes. A movable internal mass controls the direction of travel while the egg-like exterior shape and low mass center allows the vehicle to passively reorient itself to an upright attitude when in contact with the ground. This dissertation presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a radio-controlled Hopping Rotochute prototype as well as an analytical study of the flight performance of the device. The conceptual design iterations are first outlined which were driven by the mission and system requirements assigned to the vehicle. The aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical design of a prototype is then described, based on the final conceptual design, with particular emphasis on the fundamental trades that must be negotiated for this type of hopping vehicle. The fabrication and testing of this prototype is detailed as well as experimental results obtained from a motion capture system. Basic flight performance of the prototype are reported which demonstrates that the Hopping Rotochute satisfies all appointed system requirements. A dynamic model of the Hopping Rotochute is also developed in this thesis and employed to predict the flight performance of the vehicle. The dynamic model includes aerodynamic loads from the body and rotor system as well as a soft contact model to estimate the forces and moments during ground contact. The experimental methods used to estimate the dynamic model parameters are described while comparisons between measured and simulated motion are presented. Good correlation between these motions is shown to validate the dynamic model. Using the validated dynamic model, simulations were performed to better understand the dynamics of the device. In addition, key parameters such as system weight, rotor speed, internal mass weight and location, as well as battery capacity are varied to explore and optimize flight performance characteristics such as single hop height and range, number of hops, and total achievable range. The sensitivity of the Hopping Rotochute to atmospheric winds is also investigated as is the ability of the device to perform trajectory shaping.

Beyer, Eric W.

315

Alloy Design and Thermomechanical Processing of a Beta Titanium Alloy for a Heavy Vehicle Application  

SciTech Connect

With the strength of steel, but at half the weight, titanium has the potential to offer significant benefits in the weight reduction of heavy vehicle components while possibly improving performance. However, the cost of conventional titanium fabrication is a major barrier in implementation. New reduction technologies are now available that have the potential to create a paradigm shift in the way the United States uses titanium, and the economics associated with fabrication of titanium components. This CRADA project evaluated the potential to develop a heavy vehicle component from titanium powders. The project included alloy design, development of manufacturing practices, and modeling the economics associated with the new component. New Beta alloys were designed for this project to provide the required mechanical specifications while utilizing the benefits of the new fabrication approach. Manufacturing procedures were developed specific to the heavy vehicle component. Ageing and thermal treatment optimization was performed to provide the desired microstructures. The CRADA partner established fabrication practices and targeted capital investment required for fabricating the component out of titanium. Though initial results were promising, the full project was not executed due to termination of the effort by the CRADA partner and economic trends observed in the heavy vehicle market.

Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

2010-08-01

316

Design of an energy storage unit for fuel-cell and hybrid-electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes an ESU design methodology capable of minimizing the volume, weight and cost of the MES and ESU (i.e., battery pack, ultracapacitor pack and PE interfaces) while allowing for the implementation of power management in a cost-effective manner. The proposed ESU design methodology is based on a holistic approach that includes the vehicle performance requirements and allows for the optimization of the ESU with respect to predetermined goals of minimum volume, weight and cost. Substantial weight and volume reductions are accomplish when combining batteries and ultracapacitors even when considering the efficiencies of the PE interfaces. The optimized BU-ESU achieved a volume reduction of over 37% (from 135 liters to 84 liters) and a weight reduction of over 66% (from 333 kg to 148 kg) when compared to a 'classic' BO-ESU design. The benefits of the optimized BU-ESU are not limited to weight and volume reductions since sweeping the battery cost in $/kW predicts that the BU-ESU provides the lowest cost path to meet the vehicles energy and power requirements. Additional benefits, such as improve ESU efficiency, vehicle acceleration, regenerative braking capabilities, and battery life are also identified in this research work. The proposed ESU design and optimization procedure also includes the associated PE interfaces by selecting and designing the most suitable converter topology. The design is carried out by encompassing the wide output-to-input voltage ratio variation and output power typical on this automotive application. The comparison process identifies the half-bridge converter topology as the most cost-effective converter topology for this application. A novel design approach that incorporated a ratio defined as transitioning power ratio is proposed to overcome shortcoming of the 'classical' approach. This novel design approach allows the minimization of inductor size requirements and current stresses present in active components when designing converters with wide output-to-input voltage ratio.

Schupbach, Roberto Marcelo

317

Flight Control Designs of Unmanned Space VehicleUsing Linear Interpolation Gain Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents flight control designs of an unmanned space vehicle, HOPE-X, vehicle using interpolation gain scheduling techniques. There are three flight phases from deorbit to landing in HOPE-X; reentry, terminal area energy management (TAEM), and approach and landing. This paper is addressed to the TAEM phase in which an amount of lateral maneuvers are required. Two interpolation gain scheduled state feedback laws were designed with respect to the Lyapunov functions used for guaranteeing the global stability of the closed-loop system, and were applied to the numerical simulations of the HOPE-X. As a result, the gain scheduled control law showed better control performance in the entire of TAEM phase than fixed state feedback laws. The gain scheduling using a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function was superior to the one using a conventional Lyapunov function.

Fujimori, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Manabu; Terui, Fuyuto

318

Application of ECQFD for enabling environmentally conscious design and sustainable development in an electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental consciousness is regarded as a vital concept for survival in the competitive market scenario. The need for infusing\\u000a environmental consciousness during early stage of product design is important. This article reports a study which is focused\\u000a on the application of Environmentally Conscious Quality Function Deployment (ECQFD) to an electric vehicle. ECQFD consists\\u000a of four phases. ECQFD phases I and

S. Vinodh; Gopinath Rathod

2011-01-01

319

Design and Implementation of a New Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Hybrid Energy System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a new thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid energy system is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to newly develop the multiple-input single-ended primary inductor converter to simultaneously regulate the thermoelectric and photovoltaic generators in such a way that the total output power can be maximized. Both design and implementation of the proposed system are discussed. Experimental results are

Xiaodong Zhang; K. T. Chau

2011-01-01

320

Design analysis of an aluminum-air battery for vehicle operations. Transportation systems research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study reported was to perform a detailed configuration analysis of an aluminum-air battery, evaluate various automobile propulsion systems utilizing the Al-air battery, and estimate the performance and cost of vehicles incorporating these propulsion systems. A preliminary engineering design is performed. A physical model and a cell-performance model of a conceptual mass-produced Al-air battery were constructed and

E. Behrin; R. L. Wood; J. D. Salisbury; D. J. Whisler; C. L. Hudson

1983-01-01

321

Design of a dependable model vehicle for rear-end collision avoidance and its evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for constructing a safe automobile society to decrease traffic accidents such as rear-end collision, crossing collision, and right turn collisions. Especially, the number of the traffic accidents can be decreased significantly if the occurrence of rear-end collision can be avoided. The purpose of this paper is to design a dependable model vehicle for rear-end collision avoidance even

Takeshi Kasuga; Satoshi Yakubo

2010-01-01

322

Design of output-feedback control system for high speed maneuvering of an underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a six-DOF output-feedback control system for high-speed maneuvering of an underwater vehicle with position and angle measurements only. The observer is designed and analyzed using a passivity-based control method. The main idea of this strategy, which has been commonly applied in electronics and robot applications, is to construct the closed loop system according to a

Jon E. Refsnes; A. J. Sorensen; Kristin Y. Pettersen

2005-01-01

323

Design of decimation filter for real-time signal processing of micro-air-vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a digital decimation filter chip for real-time signal processing of micro-air-vehicles (MAVs), which is composed of cascade integrator comb (CIC) filter, half-band filter and CIC compensation filter. To obtain low power, low hardware cost and efficient area, optimization was performed at behavioral level modeling and register transfer level (RTL) design. A mathematical framework was presented to perform

Ying-tao Ding; Shun-an Zhong; Jing Chen

2011-01-01

324

Universal Space Vehicle Design Concept to Defend the Earth against Asteroidal-Cometary Danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and experimental estimations are given on the structure of a universal space interceptor designed on the modular principle. The interceptor comprising one command-impact module and a variable number of separable impact modules, each with propulsion and guidance systems, can be injected into a trajectory towards an Earth approaching space object by launch vehicles MOLNIYA, PROTON, TITAN-4, ARIANE-5, N-2, and

V. A. Volkov; V. A. Danilkin; V. G. Degtyar; G. G. Sytyi

325

Design and New Control of DC\\/DC Converters to Share Energy Between Supercapacitors and Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors propose the supercapacitor integration strategy in a hybrid series vehicle. The designed vehicle is an experimental test bench developed at the laboratory of electrical engineering and systems (L2ES) in collaboration with the research in electrical engineering and electronics center of Belfort (CREEBEL). This test bench currently has two diesel motors (each connected to one alternator)

Mamadou BaÏlo Camara; Hamid Gualous; Frederic Gustin; Alain Berthon

2008-01-01

326

The acoustical design of vehicles: A new tool for benchmarking and target sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating sound quality leads to difficulties. Conventional tests neglect the context-sensitivity of human perception evaluation; they only reflect artificial realities which do not correspond with perceptual authenticity. Since the subjective evaluation is influenced by different modifiers, it is necessary to extend methods in order to be able to survey and represent various objective variables as well as subjective variables sufficiently. It is known that experiments in laboratories only constitute artificial realities and disregard important parameters like context, relevance, or external validity. The test design lacks the consideration of the usual interaction between the self-stimulated sound and the driver as well as the context, in which the driver experiences and evaluates the perceived sound. A 3-D sound simulation system (H3S) has been developed for the realistic reproduction of airborne sound in driving simulators. Mobile H3S is capable of simulating a vehicle soundscape-consisting of engine sound, tire, and wind noise-according to a real driving situation. A vehicle equipped with this interactive technique can be driven regularly on the road while the acoustic impression for the driver originates from a different or modified vehicle. The soundscape adapts online to changes in speed, engine rpm, and load caused by the vehicle controls.

Genuit, Klaus; Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte

2005-09-01

327

Designing cathodic protection systems for marine structures and vehicles. ASTM special technical publication 1370  

SciTech Connect

Cathodic protection is an important method of protecting structures and ships from the corrosive effects of seawater. Poor designs can be far more costly to implement than optimal designs, Improper design can cause overprotection, with resulting paint blistering and accelerated corrosion of some alloys, underprotection, with resultant structure corrosion, or stray current corrosion of nearby structures. The first ASTM symposium specifically aimed at cathodic protection in seawater was intended to compile all the criteria and philosophy for designing both sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems for structures and vehicles in seawater. The papers which are included in this STP are significant in that they summarize the major seawater cathodic protection system design philosophies. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

Hack, H.P. [ed.

1999-07-01

328

Design of outer-rotor-type multipolar switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an electric vehicle (EV) with in-wheel motors, reducing the weight of the motor is a very important problem in order to improve the driving performance. In this paper, we examine the lightweight design of an outer-rotor-type multipolar switched reluctance (SR) motor applied to a prototype EV. We design three SR motors which have different yoke widths and calculate the motor characteristics at a steady rotational speed based on a finite element method. We discuss the optimum relationship between a pole and yoke widths.

Fujishiro, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kazumi; Kikuchi, Shinki; Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu

2006-04-01

329

The design and results of an algorithm for intelligent ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the design, design method, test platform, and test results of an algorithm used in autonomous navigation for intelligent vehicles. The Bluefield State College (BSC) team created this algorithm for its 2009 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) robot called Anassa V. The BSC robotics team is comprised of undergraduate computer science, engineering technology, marketing students, and one robotics faculty advisor. The team has participated in IGVC since the year 2000. A major part of the design process that the BSC team uses each year for IGVC is a fully documented "Post-IGVC Analysis." Over the nine years since 2000, the lessons the students learned from these analyses have resulted in an ever-improving, highly successful autonomous algorithm. The algorithm employed in Anassa V is a culmination of past successes and new ideas, resulting in Anassa V earning several excellent IGVC 2009 performance awards, including third place overall. The paper will discuss all aspects of the design of this autonomous robotic system, beginning with the design process and ending with test results for both simulation and real environments.

Duncan, Matthew; Milam, Justin; Tote, Caleb; Riggins, Robert N.

2010-01-01

330

Jet Noise Reduction for Military Reconnaissance/Surveillance Aircraft. Phase II. Analysis and Design of a Quiet Research Test Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the analysis and design of a static ground test version of a Quiet Research Test Vehicle (QRTV) utilizing flightworthy propulsion system components. Also included is a discussion of the fabrication of a sufficient numbe...

R. F. Speth M. V. Barsottelli R. L. Ashby W. N. Meholik G. E. Snyder

1974-01-01

331

Effect of inductive power technology systems on battery-electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

As battery-electric vehicle technology advances as a viable alternative to internal combustion engine vehicles, consumer acceptance becomes a critical factor for the future of these vehicles, with driving range and vehicle cost being the preeminent parameters of concern. Unique to battery-electric vehicles is the direct inverse relationship between these parameters. Battery pack costs often account for over one half of

Andre Lorico; Joachim Taiber; Tamer Yanni

2011-01-01

332

A formal approach to reactive system design: unmanned aerial vehicle flight management system design example  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a formal methodology for the design, implementation and validation of reactive systems. The methodology has been applied to the design of a flight management systems for a model helicopter in the BEAR project. POLIS, a design tool developed at the University of California at Berkeley, is extensively used. The automation of the design problem and the validation

T. John Koo; Bruno Sinopoli; A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli; S. Sastry

1999-01-01

333

MOVING DESIGN AUTOMATION OF NETWORKED SYSTEMS TO EARLY VEHICLE LEVEL DESIGN STAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked systems in automobiles and aircraft are designed by groups of people, departments and\\/or companies of different expertise. Commonly used design methodologies in complex system design partition the work at high level of uncertainty into teams of specialists. These teams have to make assumptions and design decisions without being able to evaluate the impact of their decisions on the overall

Horst Salzwedel; Nils Fischer; Gunar Schorcht

334

Design, Implementation and Testing of a Common Data Model Supporting Autonomous Vehicle Compatibility and Interoperability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current autonomous vehicle interoperability is limited by vehicle- specific data formats and support systems. Until a standardized approach to autonomous vehicle command and control is adopted, true interoperability will remain elusive. This work explores...

D. T. Davis

2006-01-01

335

Analysis and design of high power factor interior permanent magnet motor with concentrated windings for undersea vehicle propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the design criteria of high power factor, high power density interior permanent magnet motors with concentrated windings for undersea vehicle propulsions. The design requirements and critical parameters are analyzed. A design approach based on the selection of normalized d-axis inductance and saliency ratio of IPM is presented. Comparisons are made between the different results obtained from

Youlong Wang; Wen Xuhui; Shan Xue; Tao Fan; Zeng lili

2008-01-01

336

Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program, Phase 1. Appendix B: Design Trade-off Studies Report. Volume 3: Computer Program Listings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description and listing is presented of two computer programs: Hybrid Vehicle Design Program (HYVELD) and Hybrid Vehicle Simulation Program (HYVEC). Both of the programs are modifications and extensions of similar programs developed as part of the Elect...

1979-01-01

337

Design and characterization of an electromagnetic energy harvester for vehicle suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the everyday usage of an automobile, only 10-16% of the fuel energy is used to drive the car—to overcome the resistance from road friction and air drag. One important loss is the dissipation of vibration energy by shock absorbers in the vehicle suspension under the excitation of road irregularity and vehicle acceleration or deceleration. In this paper we design, characterize and test a retrofit regenerative shock absorber which can efficiently recover the vibration energy in a compact space. Rare-earth permanent magnets and high permeable magnetic loops are used to configure a four-phase linear generator with increased efficiency and reduced weight. The finite element method is used to analyze the magnetic field and guide the design optimization. A theoretical model is created to analytically characterize the waveforms and regenerated power of the harvester at various vibration amplitudes, frequencies, equilibrium positions and design parameters. It was found that the waveform and RMS voltage of the individual coils will depend on the equilibrium position but the total energy will not. Experimental studies of a 1:2 scale prototype are conducted and the results agree very well with the theoretical predictions. Such a regenerative shock absorber will be able to harvest 16-64 W power at 0.25-0.5 m s - 1 RMS suspension velocity.

Zuo, Lei; Scully, Brian; Shestani, Jurgen; Zhou, Yu

2010-04-01

338

Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

Cooper, J. F.

1980-01-01

339

State-of-the-Art Railway Vehicle Design with Multi-Body Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-body simulation is a key method for design, homologation and research of railed vehicles of all kind. Not only the “classic” assessment of the rail-to-wheel forces and running stability but also many other common and advanced tasks can today be handled by multi-body simulation. This paper gives an overview of the multi-body simulation state of the art for the different fields of application, lifecycle steps and user groups in the railway industry, along with some examples of basic and advanced applications and current research topics.

Weidemann, Christoph

340

PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the IPM machine reflects industry's confidence in this market-proven design that exhibits a power density surpassed by no other machine design.

Staunton, R.H.

2004-08-11

341

Structural analysis and topology optimization design for a sweeper vehicle frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the mechanical performance and reduce the weight of a sweeper vehicle frame, a finite element model for a dump sweeper vehicle frame is established to analyze strength stiffness and modal of vehicle. By using Ls-dyna software, displacement and time curve for vehicle rectangular frame under external force incentives is solved. Based on the analysis results, topological optimization is

Zhou Bing; Wu Chonghui; Wei-ping Li

2010-01-01

342

Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

The extensive research and development effort was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2002 at West Virginia University (WVU) in order to investigate practical ways of reducing the structural weight and increasing the durability of heavy vehicles through the judicious use of lightweight composite materials. While this project was initially focused on specific Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) material, namely Aluminum/Silicon Carbide (Al/SiC) commercially referenced as ''LANXIDE'', the current research effort was expanded from the component level to the system level and from MMC to other composite material systems. Broadening the scope of this research is warranted not only by the structural and economical deficiencies of the ''LANXIDE'' MMC material, but also by the strong coupling that exists between the material and the geometric characteristics of the structure. Such coupling requires a truly integrated design approach, focused on the heaviest sections of a van trailer. Obviously, the lightweight design methods developed in this study will not be implemented by the commercial industry unless the weight savings are indeed impressive and proven to be economically beneficial in the context of Life Cycle Costs (LCC). ''Bulk Haul'' carriers run their vehicles at maximum certified weight, so that each pound saved in structural weight would translate into additional pound of cargo, and fewer vehicles necessary to transport a given amount of freight. It is reasonable to ascertain that a typical operator would be ready to pay a premium of about $3-4 for every additional pound of cargo, or every pound saved in structural weight. The overall scope of this project is to devise innovative, lightweight design and joining concepts for heavy vehicle structures, including cost effective applications of components made of metal matrix composite (MMC) and other composite materials in selected sections of such systems. The major findings generated by this research effort in its first two years have been summarized in the 2003 and 2004 Annual Progress Reports of DOE's Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies Program. Consistent interactions with producers of heavy trailers, such as Great Dane and Wabash, as well as with their users, such as Old Dominion Freight Lines, have continued during this period to ensure that the research conducted at WVU will yield practical results that will benefit the industry in the near future. Furthermore, Dr. Gergis William and Mr. Thomas Evans participated in the 2005 Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) annual meeting held in Tampa, Florida, in February 2005. This event offered the WVU researchers an effective opportunity to explore various technical needs and concerns of the industry, both from the performance and maintenance viewpoints, as well as to assess realistically potential benefits and barriers associated with practical implementation of lightweight materials and design technologies in heavy vehicle structures.

Prucz, Jacky C; Shoukry, Samir N; William, Gergis W; Evans, Thomas H

2006-09-30

343

Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) ceramic design manual  

SciTech Connect

This ceramic component design manual was an element of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). The ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the ceramic automotive gas turbine engine as a primary power plant. Of the several technologies requiring development before such an engine could become a commercial reality, structural ceramic components represented the greatest technical challenge, and was the prime focus of the program. HVTE-TS, which was created to support the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program, continued the efforts begun in ATTAP to develop ceramic components for an automotive gas turbine engine. In HVTE-TS, the program focus was extended to make this technology applicable to the automotive gas turbine engines that form the basis of hybrid automotive propulsion systems consisting of combined batteries, electric drives, and on-board power generators as well as a primary power source. The purpose of the ceramic design manual is to document the process by which ceramic components are designed, analyzed, fabricated, assembled, and tested in a gas turbine engine. Interaction with ceramic component vendors is also emphasized. The main elements of the ceramic design manual are: an overview of design methodology; design process for the AGT-5 ceramic gasifier turbine rotor; and references. Some reference also is made to the design of turbine static structure components to show methods of attaching static hot section ceramic components to supporting metallic structures.

NONE

1997-10-01

344

Shuttle orbiter experiments: Use of an operational vehicle for advancement and validation of space systems design technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program provided a mechanism for utilization of an operational space shuttle orbiter as a flight research vehicle, as an adjunct to its normal space transportation mission. OEX Program experiments were unique among orbiter payloads, as the research instrumentation for these experiments were carried as integral parts of the vehicle's structure, rather than being placed in the orbiter's payload bay as mission-unique cargo. On each of its first 17 flights, the Orbiter Columbia carried some type of research instrumentation. Various instrumentation systems were used to measure, in flight, the requisite parameters for determination of the orbiter aerodynamic characteristics over the entire entry flight regime and/or the aerodynamic-heating rates imposed upon the vehicle during the hypersonic portion of atmospheric entry. The data derived from this instrumentation represent benchmark hypersonic flight data heretofore unavailable for a lifting entry vehicle. The data are being used in a continual process of validation of state-of-the-art methods, both experimental and computational, for simulating/predicting the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of advanced space transportation vehicles. This paper describes the OEX Program complement of research experiments, presents typical flight data obtained by these experiments, and demonstrates the utilization of these data for advancement and validation of vehicle aerothermodynamic-design tools. By example, the concept of instrumenting operational vehicles and/or spacecraft in order to perform advanced technology development and validation is demonstrated to be an effective and economical method for maturing space-systems design technologies.

Holloway, Paul F.; Throckmorton, David A.

1995-03-01

345

Design and Performance of Insect-Scale Flapping-Wing Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-air vehicles (MAVs)---small versions of full-scale aircraft---are the product of a continued path of miniaturization which extends across many fields of engineering. Increasingly, MAVs approach the scale of small birds, and most recently, their sizes have dipped into the realm of hummingbirds and flying insects. However, these non-traditional biologically-inspired designs are without well-established design methods, and manufacturing complex devices at these tiny scales is not feasible using conventional manufacturing methods. This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of new MAV design and manufacturing methods, as applicable to insect-scale hovering flight. New design methods combine an energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include analytical expressions for maximum flight endurance and range, and predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass. To meet manufacturing constraints, the use of passive wing dynamics to simplify vehicle design and control was investigated; supporting tests included the first synchronized measurements of real-time forces and three-dimensional kinematics generated by insect-scale flapping wings. These experimental methods were then expanded to study optimal wing shapes and high-efficiency flapping kinematics. To support the development of high-fidelity test devices and fully-functional flight hardware, a new class of manufacturing methods was developed, combining elements of rigid-flex printed circuit board fabrication with "pop-up book" folding mechanisms. In addition to their current and future support of insect-scale MAV development, these new manufacturing techniques are likely to prove an essential element to future advances in micro-optomechanics, micro-surgery, and many other fields.

Whitney, John Peter

346

Design of a nonlinear robust controller for a complete unmanned aerial vehicle mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control systems must be capable of delivering the required performance while handling nonlinearities and uncertainties in the vehicle model, the atmosphere, and ambient wind. These factors necessitate the development of nonlinear flight control system design methods that can handle large nonlinearities and uncertainties. Variable approaches to the linear control of UAVs have been discussed in the recent literature. However, the development of a nonlinear robust autopilot has not been addressed to any significant degree. The development of a nonlinear autopilot based on robust control methods will be discussed in this dissertation. In this design technique, the nonlinear UAV model is not linearized. The control law is designed using the Hinfinity technique. This dissertation presents the results of an exploratory study to examine robust autopilot nonlinear design methods for the UAV and compare this new approach with existing PID, LQR, and linear Hinfinity techniques. Since the method must then be verified, its flight simulation will be done using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Verification, validation and robustness tests are documented at the end of this dissertation. The airplane examined is called the Hawkeye. It was designed and built by KU students in the fall of 2004. It is a small, 14 foot wingspan, remotely controlled airplane made from composite materials with a maximum takeoff weight of 90 lbs. It will be used in the future as a small UAV for research programs at KU. The mission includes take-off, climb, cruise, a one and a half circle accomplished in a level turn, and a return back to its original airfield accomplished by cruising back, descending, and completing an approach and landing. After take-off, the airplane is required to climb to 1,000 ft altitude, and then it travels 5,000 ft over the ground into the target area. It will then take some photos of that target using its camera. The complete mission for the UAV lasts about 180 seconds.

Sadraey, Mohammad Hashem

347

Design of an integral thermal protection system for future space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal protection systems (TPS) are the features incorporated into a spacecraft's design to protect it from severe aerodynamic heating during high-speed travel through planetary atmospheres. The ablative TPS on the space capsule Apollo and ceramic tiles and blankets on the Space Shuttle Orbiter were designed as add-ons to the main load-bearing structure of the vehicles. They are usually incompatible with the structure due to mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion and as a result the robustness of the external surface of the spacecraft is compromised. This could potentially lead to catastrophic consequences because the TPS forms the external surface of the vehicle and is subjected to numerous other loads like aerodynamic pressure loads, small object high-speed impacts and handling damages during maintenance. In order to make the spacecraft external surface robust, an Integral Thermal Protection System (ITPS) concept has been proposed in this research in which the load-bearing structure and the TPS are combined into one single structure. The design of an ITPS is a formidable task because the requirement of a load-bearing structure and a TPS are often contradictory to one another. The design process has been formulated as an optimization problem with mass per unit area of the ITPS as the objective function and the various functions of the ITPS were formulated as constraints. This is a multidisciplinary design optimization problem involving heat transfer and structural analysis fields. The constraints were expressed as response surface approximations obtained from a large number of finite element analyses, which were carried out with combinations of design variables obtained from an optimized Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. A MATLABRTM code has been developed to carry out these FE analyses automatically in conjunction with ABAQUSRTM . Corrugated-core structures were designed for ITPS applications with loads and boundary conditions similar to that of a Space Shuttle-like vehicle. Temperature, buckling, deflection and stress constraints were considered for the design process. An optimized mass ranging between 3.5--5 lb/ft2 was achieved by the design. This is considerably heavier when compared to conventional TPS designs. However, the ITPS can withstand substantially large mechanical loads when compared to the conventional TPS. Truss-core geometries used for ITPS design in this research were found to be unsuitable as they could not withstand large thermal gradients frequently encountered in ITPS applications. The corrugated-core design was used for further studying the influence of the various input parameters on the final design weight of the ITPS. It was observed that boundary conditions not only significantly influence the ITPS design but also have a major impact on the effect of various input parameters. It was found that even a small amount of heat loss from bottom face sheet leads to significant reduction in ITPS weight. Aluminum and Beryllium are the most suitable materials for bottom face sheet with Beryllium having considerable advantages in terms of heat capacity, stiffness and density. Although ceramic matrix composites have many superior properties when compared to metal alloys (Titanium alloys and Inconel), their low tensile strength presents difficulties in ITPS applications.

Bapanapalli, Satish Kumar

348

The acoustical design of vehicles-a challenge for qualitative evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whenever the acoustical design of vehicles is explored, the crucial question about the appropriate method of evaluation arises. Research shows that not only acoustic but also non-acoustic parameters have a major influence on the way sounds are evaluated. Therefore, new methods of evaluation have to be implemented. Methods are needed which give the opportunity to test the quality of the given ambience and to register the effects and evaluations in their functional interdependence as well as the influence of personal and contextual factors. Moreover, new methods have to give insight into processes of evaluation and their contextual parameters. In other words, the task of evaluating acoustical ambiences consists of designating a set of social, psychological, and cultural conditions which are important to determine particular individual and collective behavior, attitudes, and also emotions relative to the given ambience. However, no specific recommendations exist yet which comprise particular descriptions of how to assess those specific sound effects. That is why there is a need to develop alternative methods of evaluation with whose help effects of acoustical ambiences can be better predicted. A method of evaluation will be presented which incorporates a new sensitive approach for the evaluation of vehicle sounds.

Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Genuit, Klaus; Fiebig, Andre

2005-09-01

349

Design analysis of an aluminum-air battery for vehicle operations. Transportation systems research  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study reported was to perform a detailed configuration analysis of an aluminum-air battery, evaluate various automobile propulsion systems utilizing the Al-air battery, and estimate the performance and cost of vehicles incorporating these propulsion systems. A preliminary engineering design is performed. A physical model and a cell-performance model of a conceptual mass-produced Al-air battery were constructed and work together to characterize the battery system. The physical battery model is based on a specific battery design concept and defines the mass and volume of a complete Al-air battery system. The cell-performance model simulates the electrical and electrochemical characteristics of the battery. The physical model and two versions of the cell-performance model - near-term and optimistic - were used in a vehicle-conversion analysis to evaluate three automotive propulsion systems - Al-air battery only, Al-air battery/secondary battery, and Al-air battery/flywheel. (LEW)

Behrin, E.; Wood, R.L.; Salisbury, J.D.; Whisler, D.J.; Hudson, C.L.

1983-03-18

350

Design and development considerations for biologically inspired flapping-wing micro air vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the decade of numerical and experimental investigations leading to the development of the authors' unique flapping-wing micro air vehicle is summarized. Early investigations included the study of boundary layer energization by means of a small flapping foil embedded in a flat-plate boundary layer, the reduction of the recirculatory flow region behind a backward-facing step by means of a small flapping foil, and the reduction or suppression of flow separation behind blunt or cusped airfoil trailing edges by flapping a small foil located in the wake flow region. These studies were followed by systematic investigations of the aerodynamic characteristics of single flapping airfoils and airfoil combinations. These unsteady flows were described using flow visualization, laser-Doppler velocimetry in addition to panel and Navier-Stokes computations. It is then shown how this flapping-wing database was used to conceive, design and develop a micro air vehicle which has a fixed wing for lift and two flapping wings for thrust generation. While animal flight is characterized by a coupled force generation, the present design appears to separate lift and thrust. However, in fact, the performance of one surface is closely coupled to the other surfaces.

Jones, Kevin D.; Platzer, Max F.

351

A Generic Model Driven Approach for Safer Mission and Vehicle Management Software Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of a spacecraft, whether an observation or telecommunication satellite, a lander, a chaser as the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) or a launcher is to perform a mission. A mission is composed of several modes, the number of modes being generally representative of the complexity of the mission assigned to the spacecraft. The Mission and Vehicle Management Software (MVMS) plays the role of an orchestra conductor that will internally control the proper behaviour of the spacecraft and all its avionics element inter-cooperation during its lifetime, and therefore the safety of the mission. The MVMS can either be one function of the main onboard software, or a fully piece of segregated software running on a dedicated processing unit or distributed on several hardware or functional nodes. This paper presents a generic design that can be used for low to medium complexity system, or, in case of highly complex systems, for the most critical MVMS functions. The design is model based oriented. SCADE Suite (from Esterel Technologies) has being selected for its very high adequacy for MVMS implementation and its capability to satisfy high safety requirements: The purpose is to make use of the autocoding facility offered by SCADE, knowing that a Criticality A (DO178B standard) certification kit is available for the generator.

Boudillet, O.; Person, T.; Genevoix, M.

2012-01-01

352

Design of permanent magnet brushless motors with asymmetric air gap for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a cost-effective approach to design permanent magnet brushless dc motors for electric vehicles. The key is to shape the pole arc in such a way that the air gap length is at a maximum at the leading edge of each rotor pole arc and at a minimum at the trailing edge of the same pole arc, hence resulting in an asymmetric air gap. Thus, for a specified rotational direction, the distortion of air gap flux density and hence the torque ripple can be significantly suppressed. Also, with the use of advanced conduction angle control, the motor can achieve a wide speed range. The proposed motor drive is designed and implemented for a low-voltage battery-powered electric motorcycle.

Chau, K. T.; Cui, Wei; Jiang, J. Z.; Wang, Zheng

2006-04-01

353

Design of bipolar, flowing-electrolyte zinc-bromine electric-vehicle battery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of bipolar, flowing electrolyte zinc-bromine technology into a viable electric vehicle battery system requires careful analysis of the requirements placed on the battery system by the EV power train. In addition to the basic requirement of an appropriate battery voltage and power density, overall battery system energy efficiency must also be considered and parasitic losses from auxiliaries such as pumps and shunt current protection minimized. An analysis of the influence of these various factors on zinc-bromine EV battery system design has been carried out for two types of EV propulsion systems. The first of these is a nominal 100V dc system, while the second is a high voltage (200V dc) system as might be used with an advanced design ac propulsion system. Battery performance was calculated using an experimentally determined relationship which expresses battery voltage as a function of current density and state-of-charge.

Malachesky, P. A.; Bellows, R. J.; Einstein, H. E.; Grimes, P. G.; Newby, K.; Young, A.

1983-01-01

354

Power and energy computational models for the design and simulation of hybrid-electric combat vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the work being performed under the RDECOM Power and Energy (P&E) program (formerly the Combat Hybrid Power System (CHPS) program) developing hybrid power system models and integrating them into larger simulations, such as OneSAF, that can be used to find duty cycles to feed designers of hybrid power systems. This paper also describes efforts underway to link the TARDEC P&E System Integration Lab (SIL) in San Jose CA to the TARDEC Ground Vehicle Simulation Lab (GVSL) in Warren, MI. This linkage is being performed to provide a methodology for generating detailed driver profiles for use in the development of vignettes and mission profiles for system design excursions.

Smith, Wilford; Nunez, Patrick

2005-05-01

355

Nozzle design study for a quasi-axisymmetric scramjet-powered vehicle at Mach 7.9 flight conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nozzle shape optimization study for a quasi-axisymmetric scramjet has been performed for a Mach 7.9 operating condition with hydrogen fuel, aiming at the application of a hypersonic airbreathing vehicle. In this study, the nozzle geometry which is parameterized by a set of design variables, is optimized for the single objective of maximum net thrust using an in-house CFD solver for inviscid flowfields with a simple force prediction methodology. The combustion is modelled using a simple chemical reaction code. The effects of the nozzle design on the overall vehicle performance are discussed. For the present geometry, net thrust is achieved for the optimized vehicle design. The results of the nozzle-optimization study show that performance is limited by the nozzle area ratio that can be incorporated into the vehicle without leading to too large a base diameter of the vehicle and increasing the external drag of the vehicle. This study indicates that it is very difficult to achieve positive thrust at Mach 7.9 using the basic geometry investigated.

Tanimizu, Katsuyoshi; Mee, David J.; Stalker, Raymond J.; Jacobs, Peter A.

2013-09-01

356

Design and optimization of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid power sources for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel Cell powered Hybrid electric Vehicles (FCHVs) are considered to be the most promising alternatives of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) vehicles. One of the most important research aspects of FCHVs is their hybrid power sources study; however, current research is insufficient and there are many open problems to be further studied, such as hybrid power sources topology analysis, vehicle power sources design and optimization, and related dynamic models construction. Also a powerful simulation package of FCHVs is indispensable to evaluate and support the related research. Addressing these problems, this dissertation carries out a series of studies step by step which includes the following three parts. The first part is focused on modeling electrochemical components. A novel fully dynamic lithium-ion battery model is developed, which accounts for battery nonlinear equilibrium potentials, rate- and temperature-dependencies, thermal effects and response to transient power demand. A multi-stage resistor capacitor ladder supercapacitor model is constructed with unique characteristics including automatic order selection and capacity scaling. In the modeling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, each component is first modeled separately, and then these modules are coupled together into an integrative unit. The second part concentrates on the study of hybrid power source topology analysis. Firstly, the concepts of passive hybrid and active hybrid are defined. Secondly, an active hybrid is constructed and explored through both experiments and simulations. Finally, the comparison of passive and active hybrids, along with battery alone, is undertaken to study the performance extension of power sources using power converters. The study process is further extended and applied in hybrid power source design for FCHVs. In the third part, a complete simulation package for FCHVs is constructed in the Virtual Test Bed (VTB) computational environment. The modeling approach is forward looking (causal) and the system setup is modular, thus the package recognizes the dynamic interaction among different vehicle components and provides a powerful capability to simulate different topologies. After that, a novel 8-step energy component size determination and optimization method is proposed, which is based on the operation of the decreasing rearrangement distribution function of drive cycles.

Gao, Lijun

357

Statistical methods for launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system design and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel trajectory and attitude control and navigation analysis tool for powered ascent is developed. The tool is capable of rapid trade-space analysis and is designed to ultimately reduce turnaround time for launch vehicle design, mission planning, and redesign work. It is streamlined to quickly determine trajectory and attitude control dispersions, propellant dispersions, orbit insertion dispersions, and navigation errors and their sensitivities to sensor errors, actuator execution uncertainties, and random disturbances. The tool is developed by applying both Monte Carlo and linear covariance analysis techniques to a closed-loop, launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system. The nonlinear dynamics and flight GN&C software models of a closed-loop, six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF), Monte Carlo simulation are formulated and developed. The nominal reference trajectory (NRT) for the proposed lunar ascent trajectory is defined and generated. The Monte Carlo truth models and GN&C algorithms are linearized about the NRT, the linear covariance equations are formulated, and the linear covariance simulation is developed. The performance of the launch vehicle GN&C system is evaluated using both Monte Carlo and linear covariance techniques and their trajectory and attitude control dispersion, propellant dispersion, orbit insertion dispersion, and navigation error results are validated and compared. Statistical results from linear covariance analysis are generally within 10% of Monte Carlo results, and in most cases the differences are less than 5%. This is an excellent result given the many complex nonlinearities that are embedded in the ascent GN&C problem. Moreover, the real value of this tool lies in its speed, where the linear covariance simulation is 1036.62 times faster than the Monte Carlo simulation. Although the application and results presented are for a lunar, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), ascent vehicle, the tools, techniques, and mathematical formulations that are discussed are applicable to ascent on Earth or other planets as well as other rocket-powered systems such as sounding rockets and ballistic missiles.

Rose, Michael Benjamin

358

PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the IPM machine reflects industry's confidence in this market-proven design that exhibits a high power density.

Staunton, R.H.

2004-10-11

359

Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.  

PubMed

Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators. PMID:21623531

Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

2011-06-01

360

Aerodynamic Design Criteria for Class 8 Heavy Vehicles Trailer Base Devices to Attain Optimum Performance  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction techniques and concepts for significant on the road fuel economy improvements. As part of this effort a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design for aerodynamic drag reduction devices has been established. The objective of this report is to provide design guidance for trailer base devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. These devices are commonly referred to as boattails, base flaps, tail devices, and etc. The information provided here is based on past research and our most recent full-scale experimental investigations in collaboration with Navistar Inc. Additional supporting data from LLNL/Navistar wind tunnel, track test, and on the road test will be published soon. The trailer base devices can be identified by 4 flat panels that are attached to the rear edges of the trailer base to form a closed cavity. These devices have been engineered in many different forms such as, inflatable and non-inflatable, 3 and 4-sided, closed and open cavity, and etc. The following is an in-depth discussion with some recommendations, based on existing data and current research activities, of changes that could be made to these devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. There are 6 primary factors that could influence the aerodynamic performance of trailer base devices: (1) Deflection angle; (2) Boattail length; (3) Sealing of edges and corners; (4) 3 versus 4-sided, Position of the 4th plate; (5) Boattail vertical extension, Skirt - boattail transition; and (6) Closed versus open cavity.

Salari, K; Ortega, J

2010-12-13

361

Vehicles for lipophilic drugs: implications for experimental design, neuroprotection, and drug discovery.  

PubMed

The delivery of some classes of drugs is challenging. Solubility, absorption, distribution, and duration of action may all be altered by combination with vehicle molecules. It has already been discovered that polyethylene glycol - which is used as a stabiliser in peptide drug formulations - has biological activity in its own right, including potential neuroprotective properties. In this article we review the evidence for confounding activity for four distinct compounds that have been used as solvents and/or carrier molecules for the delivery of lipophilic drugs under investigation for potential neuroprotective properties. We discuss the evidence that cyclodextrins, ethanol, dimethyl sulphoxide, and a castor oil derivative - Cremophor™ EL - have all been found to have mild to moderate neuroprotective effects. We argue that this has probably reduced the statistical power and increased the Type II error rates of neuroprotection experiments that have employed these vehicles, and suggest experimental design considerations to help correct the problem. However, we also note that the properties of these compounds may represent an opportunity for drug development, particularly for the newer compounds that have been subject to only limited experimental investigation. PMID:23937198

Rivers-Auty, Jack; Ashton, John C

2013-11-01

362

Design considerations for a lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide electric vehicle battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made of battery-vehicle design interactions using a Toyota Carina converted to electric drive with a Li-Al/FeS battery used as a power and energy source. Energy and power requirements were calculated based on a range of 120 or 200 km with acceleration requirements typical of today's internal-combustion automobiles. Cell modeling analysis was employed to relate the specific energy of the battery to its power capability in terms of the P/E ratio, and this relationship was then used to estimate the battery weight and volume. Based on the results of the study, the specifications and performance of a compact electric automobile have been derived. It is concluded that, when fully developed, the Li-Al/FeS battery can provide a power source of high energy and power density for a personal electric vehicle. The battery is safe, rugged, requires no maintenance, and may offer the possibility of range extension through quick recharge.

Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Shimotake, H.; Barney, D. L.; Kawahara, K.; Goto, K.

363

Large-scale hybrid motor performance and designs for use in launch vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Rocket Company has developed two large-scale liquid oxygen/polybutadiene hybrid rocket motors at 334,000 N (75,000 lbf) and 1,112,000 N (250,000 lbf) thrust. These hybrid rocket motors or derivatives of these motors can be used as strap-on boosters to replace or upgrade the existing strap-on boosters for the fleet of U.S. launch vehicles and for the planned next generation launch vehicle. Hybrid rocket boosters offer a new solution for boost propulsion since hybrids solve many of the safety and environmental concerns facing solid rocket motor manufacture and operation, yet deliver performance comparable to liquid rocket engines with much less hardware and operational complexity. This paper presents motor performance data from AMROC's 334,000 N and 1,112,000 N thrust hybrid rocket motors. A description of these hybrid motors, their performance specifications, and the key enabling technologies that have been developed at AMROC is presented. The design and development approach for an 850K thrust hybrid motor is described.

Flittie, K. J.; Estey, P.

1993-11-01

364

Evaluation of Design Method for Engine Output and Battery Capacity for Lithium Ion-Battery Hybrid Diesel Railway Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel engine lithium-ion battery hybrid vehicles are gaining attention because the energy consumption during their operation and exhaust emission can be reduced considerably. However, designing a reasonably accurate method for the engine power and battery energy has not yet been proposed, though the above mentioned type of traction system can help in realizing an environment-friendly railway vehicle. In this paper, a design method for the battery capacity (energy) and engine output is proposed in the case of a control strategy in which the sum of the kinetic energy of the vehicle and the battery energy is maintained constant. The proposed method is verified by the velocity/state of charge of the battery charts obtained in the experimental tests. The proposed design method can be used to develop the environment-friendly railway traction systems for non electrified lines.

Shiraki, Naoki; Kondo, Keiichiro

365

Benefits of High Performance Computing in the Design of Lightweight Army Vehicle Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The insertion of lightweight composite materials in the applications of military vehicle chassis components has the potential of significantly reducing vehicle weight and improves its durability, life, and reliability. The use of hybrid material (composit...

B. K. Knouff D. Hudak D. Lamb G. Abumeri R. Graybill

2010-01-01

366

Design, demonstrations and sustainability impact assessments for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can draw and store energy from an electric grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. This simple functional change to the conventional hybrid electric vehicle allows a plug-in hybrid to displace petroleum energy with multi-source electrical energy. This has important and generally beneficial impacts on transportation energy sector petroleum

Thomas H. Bradley; Andrew A. Frank

2009-01-01

367

Design, building, and testing of the postlanding systems for the assured crew return vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, building, and testing of the postlanding support systems for a water-landing Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) are presented. One ACRV will be permanently docked to Space Station Freedom, fulfilling NASA's commitment to Assured Crew Return Capability in the event of an accident or illness. The configuration of the ACRV is based on an Apollo Command Module (ACM) derivative. The 1990-1991 effort concentrated on the design, building, and testing of a one-fifth scale model of the egress and stabilization systems. The objective was to determine the feasibility of (1) stabilizing the ACM out of the range of motions that cause seasickness and (2) the safe and rapid removal of a sick or injured crew member from the ACRV. The development of the ACRV postlanding systems model was performed at the University of Central Florida with guidance from the Kennedy Space Center ACRV program managers. Emphasis was placed on four major areas. First was design and construction of a one-fifth scale model of the ACM derivative to accommodate the egress and stabilization systems for testing. Second was the identification of a water test facility suitable for testing the model in all possible configurations. Third was the construction of the rapid egress mechanism designed in the previous academic year for incorporation into the ACRV model. The fourth area was construction and motion response testing of the attitude ring and underwater parachute systems.

Hosterman, Kenneth C.; Anderson, Loren A.

368

Design and performance of an insect-inspired nano air vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the structural design, actuation and performance of an insect-inspired nano air vehicle. For this purpose, an original design concept of resonant wings using indirect actuation and concise transmission to allow large and symmetrical bending angles, passive wing torsion and to minimize energy expenditure is presented. A simplified analytical model and a numerical approach for the transmission between the actuator and the wings are then proposed to validate the design. The all-polymer prototypes were obtained using micromachining SU-8 photoresist technology. An electromagnetic actuator was added to control the vibrating amplitudes and create passive wing torsion. The actuator was optimized to make it more effective whilst at the same time minimizing its mass. Prototypes with a global wingspan of 3.5 cm and a mass of 22 mg due to the structure and actuator are presented. Bending amplitudes of the wings up to 60° were measured with these prototypes. The resonant frequency of the wings varied according to the design and mass. It was demonstrated that it is possible to obtain, without an important driving mechanism a very promising kinematics.

Bontemps, A.; Vanneste, T.; Paquet, J.-B.; Dietsch, T.; Grondel, S.; Cattan, E.

2013-01-01

369

Examination of the effects of tire design on vehicle rolling resistance and fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the current and expected future trends in highway tire design and their effects on vehicle rolling resistance and fuel economy. The primary emphasis is on passenger cars, operated under conditions typified by the US Environmental Protection Agency Urban, Highway, and Combined Cycles, and heavy duty trucks operated over the road. Analytical and experimental data indicate rolling resistance-fuel economy sensitivity factors of 0.2 for passenger cars over the Combined Cycle, and 0.4 for a fully loaded tractor-van trailer at 55 mph. Improved radial construction, low hysteresis materials, and higher inflation pressures are the primary mechanisms through which passenger car tire rolling resistance has been reduced. Further design refinements are expected in the near future to achieve reduced rolling resistance and optimal ride and handling qualities at acceptable production cost. Similarly, heavy duty truck tire designs have been improved through the use of radial construction, and further rolling resistance reduction is expected through design modifications such as lower aspect ratio.

Levine, D.L.

1983-02-01

370

Exploring the relationship between vehicle safety and fuel efficiency in automotive design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panel data analysis is used within a fixed effect model to examine the relationship between vehicle safety ratings and fuel efficiency of 45 new vehicle models sold in the US between 2002 and 2007. While conventional wisdom and most early literature suggest that lighter, more fuel efficient vehicles are less safe to their occupants, the tests show a positive relationship

Chialin Chen; Yu Ren

2010-01-01

371

Design of a docking station for solar charged electric and fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effect of constant increase in the price of hydrocarbon-based fuels and the resulting pollution of environment have motivated researchers and the automobile industry to take a serious look at electric vehicles (EV). Hybrid technologies have also found their place in the automobile industry. Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are being developed and improved constantly. An electric vehicle

Diego M. Robalino; Ganapathy Kumar; L. O. Uzoechi; U. C. Chukwu; S. M. Mahajan

2009-01-01

372

Nonlinear output feedback control design of a hypersonic vehicle via high gain observers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the output feedback control problem for a genetic hypersonic vehicle is considered under the restriction that only the vehicle's velocity and altitude are measurable. High gain observers (HGO) are utilized to provide estimation signals for unmeasurable derivatives of the vehicle's velocity and altitude. A comprehensive stability analysis of the closed loop system under the output feedback control

Xindong Li; Bin Xian; Chen Diao; Yanping Yu; Kaiyan Yang; Yu Feng

2010-01-01

373

Electric and hybrid vehicle performance and design goal determination study. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendations are set forth for performance standards for near-term and advanced electric and hybrid vehicles. Limited market surveys and interviews with present owners of electric vehicles indicated that the most important criterion for private vehicles is low operating cost. This criterion, combined with the low specific energy density and relatively short life of present storage batteries, was the key factor

J. Brennand; R. Curtis; H. Fox

1977-01-01

374

A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are problematic for design space exploration. To begin addressing the current gaps in fuel cell aircraft development, a methodology has been developed to explore and characterize the near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs. The first step of the methodology is the development of a valid MDA. This is accomplished by using propagated uncertainty estimates to guide the decomposition of a MDA into key contributing analyses (CAs) that can be individually refined and validated to increase the overall accuracy of the MDA. To assist in MDA development, a flexible framework for simultaneously solving the CAs is specified. This enables the MDA to be easily adapted to changes in technology and the changes in data that occur throughout a design process. Various CAs that model a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) UAV are developed, validated, and shown to be in agreement with hardware-in-the-loop simulations of a fully developed fuel cell propulsion system. After creating a valid MDA, the final step of the methodology is the synthesis of the MDA with an uncertainty propagation analysis, an optimization routine, and a chance constrained problem formulation. This synthesis allows an efficient calculation of the probabilistic constraint boundaries and Pareto frontiers that will govern the design space and influence design decisions relating to optimization and uncertainty mitigation. A key element of the methodology is uncertainty propagation. The methodology uses Systems Sensitivity Analysis (SSA) to estimate the uncertainty of key performance metrics due to uncertainties in design variables and uncertainties in the accuracy of the CAs. A summary of SSA is provided and key rules for properly decomposing a MDA for use with SSA are provided. Verification of SSA uncertainty estimates via Monte Carlo simulations is provided for both an example problem as well as a detailed MDA of a fuel cell UAV. Implementation of the methodology was performed on a small fuel cell UAV designed to carry a 2.2 kg payload with 24 hours of endurance. Uncertainty distributions for both design

Moffitt, Blake Almy

375

Trajectory design and navigation analysis for Cargo Transfer Vehicle proximity operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper documents an investigation of alternative (or off-nominal) final approach trajectories and terminal guidance algorithms for Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) automated rendezvous and proximity operation in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF). Ten candidate trajectory designs, representing a survey of all approaches that reasonably satisfy the mission constraints, are compared qualitatively and quantitatively. It is shown that several fundamentally different types of approach strategies are feasible in the CTV application and enjoy more favorable passive collision avoidance and plume impingement properties than the nominal. They are, however, generally more costly in propellant. The extent to which an alternative approach is more costly is determined largely by the abort (or specifically the 'hold' or 'wave-off') requirements. These approach techniques are verified in a software simulation using a parametrically defined candidate navigation system, and proximity sensor accuracy requirements are derived.

Marsh, S. M.; White, B. D.

1992-08-01

376

Novel transport-vehicle design for moving optic modules in the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility, currently under design and construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, will be the world`s largest laser when complete. The NIF will use about 8,000 large optics of 26 different types to focus up to 192 laser beams on a dime-size target. Given the constraints of the NIF operating environment, the tasks associated with optics transport and handling require a novel, versatile transport system. The system will consist of a computer system containing guidance, traffic management and order entry functions, and four or more automated laser-guided vehicles. This transport system will transport optics enclosures that are essentially portable clean rooms and will lift, align, and position them as needed to contact and engage mating points on the laser support structure.

Grasz, E.; Tiszauer, D.

1998-05-07

377

Method for simulating a vehicle shock test: Design and realization of the required implementation tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical multibody model which simulates the behavior of a passenger car during various frontal crash configurations is presented. A formulation of the motion equations based on the Lie group of displacements is considered. The main difficulty is to know the laws of behavior of the springs. An identification method from the configuration of the experimental results was envisaged. In order to know the vehicle real behavior during a crash trial, it is necessary to have experimental devices which make it possible to rebuild the space kinematics of the components. In each case, the acquisition and processing suitable software was designed. Different nonparametric and parametric identification methods were tested on simple and complex models. The results highlight the model most adapted to solve the problem.

Mizzi, Jean-Paul

1992-09-01

378

Vehicle Classifying Counter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns the design, development and testing of a vehicle classifying counter. The vehicle classifying counter was developed at the Materials and Research Department to classify vehicles by their wheelbase and number of axles. Tests were perfor...

E. F. Nordlin L. G. Kubel A. F. Bailey T. F. Grillo L. E. Welsh

1969-01-01

379

Bridging the Design-Manufacturing-Materials Data Gap: Material Properties for Optimum Design and Manufacturing Performance in Light Vehicle Steel-Intensive Body Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As safety and fuel economy regulations become increasingly more challenging around the world, light vehicle manufacturers are facing increasing pressure to reduce the weight of their vehicles cost effectively while maintaining or improving safety performance. Optimum light vehicle steel body structure weight and performance are achieved when the constraints of design, manufacturing, and material properties are considered simultaneously. ArcelorMittal has invested heavily over the past several years to close the gap between material property knowledge and the inter-relation between material performance and design and manufacturing efficiency. Knowledge gained through this process is presented and the importance of achieving this simultaneous 3-way optimization is illustrated by a lightweight steel door design example from ArcelorMittal's S-in motion catalog of lightweight steel solutions.

Zuidema, Blake K.

2012-09-01

380

Electric and hybrid vehicle performance and design goal determination study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Recommendations are set forth for performance standards for near-term and advanced electric and hybrid vehicles. Limited market surveys and interviews with present owners of electric vehicles indicated that the most important criterion for private vehicles is low operating cost. This criterion, combined with the low specific energy density and relatively short life of present storage batteries, was the key factor in the minimum performance specified for near-term private electric vehicles: two or more passengers, 50 km range over the SAE J227a/C driving schedule, with a maximum energy use of about 0.9 MJ/km (0.4 kWh/mi). Near-term commercial vehicles have even lower recommended minimum performance, including 50 km on the (less demanding) SAE J227a/B schedule. Heat-engine battery-electric hybrid vehicles may provide the driving range lacking in electric vehicles and use appreciably less fuel than conventional vehicles. Performance standards recommended for near-term hybrid vehicles call for essentially the same performance as for comparably sized near-term electric vehicles, except for increased range capability. Development specifications recommended for advanced hybrids call for substantially reduced petroleum fuel consumption and the same acceleration capability exhibited by present conventional subcompact cars. Performance standards for a light agricultural utility vehicle are developed.

Brennand, J.; Curtis, R.; Fox, H.; Hamilton, W.

1977-08-01

381

Parameter Design of Logic-Based Controller for Two-Wheeled Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used in industrial world. In PLC-based control systems, low-resolution (especially ON/OFF) sensors are low-cost, and actuators are commonly used since they are compatible with programming languages used in PLCs. PLC switches ON/OFF of the actuators as ON/OFF of the sensors changes. In designing PLC-based systems, the design of parameters of these sensors and actuators (e.g., position of limit switches, torque of motors, and so on.) is important problem since they affect on overall performance of the system. This problem, however, has not been fully discussed yet. In this paper, the systematic design method for this problem is developed. The main idea is to express the model of the system as Mixed Logical Dynamical System (MLDS), and to formulate the problem as mathematical programming problem. The developed idea is applied to line following control of two-wheeled vehicle. The usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation and experiment.

Konaka, Eiji; Mutou, Takashi; Suzuki, Tatsuya

382

Design of bipolar, flowing-electrolyte zinc-bromine electric-vehicle-battery systems  

SciTech Connect

The integration of bipolar, flowing electrolyte zinc-bromine technology into a viable electric vehicle battery system requires careful analysis of the requirements placed on the battery system by the EV power train. In addition to the basic requirements of an appropriate battery voltage and power density, overall battery system energy efficiency must also be considered and parasitic losses from auxiliaries such as pumps and shunt current protection minimized. An analysis of the influence of these various factors on zinc-bromine EV battery system design has been carried out for two types of EV propulsion systems. The first of these is a nominal 100V dc system, while the second is a high voltage (200V dc) system as might be used with an advanced design ac propulsion system. Battery performance was calculated using an experimentally determined relationship which expresses battery voltage as a function of current density and state-of-charge. Based on these studies, low profile, 12 dm/sup 2/ bipolar cell components have been developed which are readily incorporated into a variety of motive power and stationary energy storage system designs.

Malachesky, P.A.; Bellows, R.J.; Einstein, H.E.; Grimes, P.G.; Newby, K.; Young, A.

1983-01-01

383

The lead-acid battery - demonstrating the systems design approach to a practical electric vehicle power source  

SciTech Connect

Resurgent interest in electric vehicles has resulted in extensive research and development programs, including government support, to develop a lead-acid battery system which can deliver acceptable range and cycle life. In the last decade, significant gains in energy density, power density, and cycle life have been made. The Improved State of the Art (ISOA) Electric Vehicle (EV) battery developed by the Globe Battery Division of Johnson Controls, Inc., utilizes the leading edge technology responsible for these improvements. The patented electrolyte circulation system is the cornerstone of this design. Emphasis was placed on a systems design approach which included priority consideration for safety and ease of maintenance. Efforts toward achieving the ambitious ''Advanced Battery'' goals are progressing. Rival exotic energy storage systems require considerable additional development before they might become practical alternatives. The major advantages of the lead-acid system firmly position it as the most practical energy source for electric vehicles, both now and in the near future.

Andrew, M.G.; Weinlein, C.E.

1983-02-01

384

Why vehicle design matters: Exploring the link between line-of-sight, driving posture and risk factors for injury.  

PubMed

Load haul dump (LHD) vehicles have been involved in workplace accidents resulting in fatal injuries and LHD operators also report high rates of musculoskeletal injury. Poor line-of-sight (LOS) and awkward postures adopted by the LHD operator increase the risk of driving related accidents and musculoskeletal injury. The purpose of this case study was to simultaneously measure point of regard (POR), driving posture and sitting position during the operation of a LHD in an underground mining environment in order to further understand the link between these variables and the design of the LHD vehicle. A 5.35 m3 bucket LHD vehicle was used and several driving tasks were analysed. The case study results showed that despite the driving task, the operator looked to the left side of the vehicle 65% of the time. Postural implications include extreme neck rotation (> 40 degrees) for 85% of the work cycle and the average peak compression at L4/L5 was 1843N. Despite changes in driving posture the average center of pressure location for the seated operator moved very little; however changes in peak pressure were observed. The design of the LHD vehicle dictated what the operator could see, which had a direct influence on driving postures adopted by the operator and resulted in several risk factors for musculoskeletal injury. PMID:20164623

Eger, T R; Godwin, A A; Henry, D J; Grenier, S G; Callaghan, J; Demerchant, A

2010-01-01

385

Design and development of an unconventional VTOL micro air vehicle: The Cyclocopter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the systematic experimental and vehicle design/development studies conducted at the University of Maryland which culminated in the development of the first flying Cyclocopter in the history. Cyclocopter is a novel Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft, which utilizes cycloidalrotors (cyclorotors), a revolutionary horizontal axis propulsion concept, that has many advantages such as higher aerodynamic efficiency, maneuverability and high-speed forward flight capability when compared to a conventional helicopter rotor. The experimental studies included a detailed parametric study to understand the effect of rotor geometry and blade kinematics on cyclorotor hover performance. Based on the experimental results, higher blade pitch angles were found to improve thrust and increase the power loading (thrust per unit power) of the cyclorotor. Asymmetric pitching with higher pitch angle at the top than at the bottom produced better power loading. The chordwise optimum pitching axis location was observed to be around 25-35% of the blade chord. Because of the flow curvature effects, the cycloidal rotor performance was a strong function of the chord/radius ratio. The optimum chord/radius ratios were extremely high, around 0.5-0.8, depending on the blade pitching amplitude. A flow field investigation was also conducted using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to unravel the physics behind thrust production of a cyclorotor. PIV studies indicated evidence of a stall delay as well as possible increases in lift on the blades from the presence of a leading edge vortex. The goal of all these studies was to understand and optimize the performance of a micro-scale cyclorotor so that it could be used in a flying vehicle. An optimized cyclorotor was used to develop a 200 gram cyclocopter capable of autonomous stable hover using an onboard feedback controller.

Benedict, Moble; Chopra, Inderjit

2012-05-01

386

Fuzzy logic control algorithms for MagneShock semiactive vehicle shock absorbers: design and experimental evaluations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive ride quality and handling performance remain challenging design tradeoffs for modern, passive automobile suspension systems. Despite extensive published research outlining the benefits of active vehicle suspensions in addressing this tradeoff, the cost and complexity of these systems frequently prohibit commercial adoption. Semi-active suspensions can provide performance benefits over passive suspensions without the cost and complexity associated with fully active systems. This paper outlines the development and experimental evaluation of a fuzzy logic control algorithm for a commercial semi-active suspension component, Carrera's MagneShock™ shock absorber. The MagneShock™ utilizes an electromagnet to change the viscosity of magnetorheological (MR) fluid, which changes the damping characteristics of the shock. Damping for each shock is controlled by manipulating the coil current using real-time algorithms. The performance capabilities of fuzzy logic control (FLC) algorithms are demonstrated through experimental evaluations on a passenger vehicle. Results show reductions of 25% or more in sprung mass absorbed power (U.S. Army 6 Watt Absorbed Power Criterion) as compared to typical passive shock absorbers over urban terrains in both simulation and experimentation. Average sprung-mass RMS accelerations were also reduced by as much as 9%, but usually with an increase in total suspension travel over the passive systems. Additionally, a negligible decrease in RMS tire normal force was documented through computer simulations. And although the FLC absorbed power was comparable to that of the fixed-current MagneShock™, the FLC revealed reduced average RMS sprung-mass accelerations over the fixed-current MagneShocks by 2-9%. Possible means for improvement of this system include reducing the suspension spring stiffness and increasing the dynamic damping range of the MagneShock™.

Craft, Michael J.; Buckner, Gregory D.; Anderson, Richard D.

2003-07-01

387

Curriculum Materials as a Vehicle for Innovation: a case study of the Nuffield Design and Technology Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to the advent of the National Curriculum in England and Wales, the production of teaching materials was an established vehicle for curriculum change. The Nuffield Design and Technology Project recently published extensive materials which enlarge upon the National Curriculum. This paper presents an investigation based on case studies of two teachers in separate schools, each using Nuffield publications with

Nick Givens

2000-01-01

388

Design and evaluation of automated guided vehicle systems for flexible manufacturing systems: an extended timed Petri net-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and evaluation of automated guided vehicle systems ( AGVSs) for flexible manufacturing systems ( FMSs) is complex because of the randomness and number of variables involved. A Petri net-based methodology is proposed in this paper for modelling and simulating AGVSs for FMSs. To this end, the capabilities of time Petri nets are expanded. The proposed methodology is elucidated

K. RAVI RAJU; O. V. KRISHNAIAH CHETTY

1993-01-01

389

Highly efficient brushless motor design for an air-conditioner of the next generation 42 V vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, worldwide awareness of environmental problems has grown dramatically. The idling stop and 42 V battery system has attracted large attention for next generation vehicle. In order to adapt to idling stop, air-conditioning compressors are required to be changed to electric-motor driven from gasoline engine driven. This paper discusses the optimum design of a high speed

Hiroshi Murakami; Hisakazu Kataoka; Yukio Honda; Shigeo Morimoto; Yoji Takeda

2001-01-01

390

Minimum-mass design of sandwich aerobrakes for a lunar transfer vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A structural mass optimization study of a sandwich aerobrake for a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) was conducted. The proposed spherical aerobrake had a base diameter of 15.2 m and radius of 13.6 m. A hot thermal protection system (TPS) and cold structure were used in the design. Honeycomb sandwich aerobrake structures made up of four different materials - aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, graphite-epoxy, and graphite-polyimide - were considered. Cases of aerodynamic load, equivalent uniform pressure, and aerodynamic plus thermal load were analyzed. Both linear stress and buckling analyses were conducted for a range of skin and core thicknesses. A graphical optimization procedure was used to determine the skin and core thicknesses of a minimum-mass aerobrake. The design criteria used were material strength, global buckling, and TPS tile deformation. Among them, the TPS deformation criterion was the most critical. The graphite-epoxy aerobrake was the lightest among the four materials studied. Its total mass is about 12.3% of the LTV mass, for supports at 75% span. Equivalent uniform loading produced smaller deformations, stresses, and buckling loads than did the more realistic aerodynamic loading for the same aerobrake configuration. Thermally induced stresses countered the aerodynamically induced stresses and hence had a beneficial effect on the deformation and buckling of the aerobrake.

Shivakumar, K. N.; Riddick, J. C.

1995-01-01

391

Design and Performance Evaluation of a Rotary Magnetorheological Damper for Unmanned Vehicle Suspension Systems  

PubMed Central

We designed and validated a rotary magnetorheological (MR) damper with a specified damping torque capacity, an unsaturated magnetic flux density (MFD), and a high magnetic field intensity (MFI) for unmanned vehicle suspension systems. In this study, for the rotary type MR damper to have these satisfactory performances, the roles of the sealing location and the cover case curvature of the MR damper were investigated by using the detailed 3D finite element model to reflect asymmetrical shapes and sealing components. The current study also optimized the damper cover case curvature based on the MFD, the MFI, and the weight of the MR damper components. The damping torques, which were computed using the characteristic equation of the MR fluid and the MFI of the MR damper, were 239.2, 436.95, and 576.78?N·m at currents of 0.5, 1, and 1.5?A, respectively, at a disk rotating speed of 10?RPM. These predicted damping torques satisfied the specified damping torque of 475?N·m at 1.5?A and showed errors of less than 5% when compared to experimental measurements from the MR damper manufactured by the proposed design. The current study could play an important role in improving the performance of rotary type MR dampers.

Lee, Jae-Hoon; Han, Changwan; Ahn, Dongsu; Lee, Jin Kyoo; Park, Sang-Hu; Park, Seonghun

2013-01-01

392

The Heterogeneous Systems Integration Design and Implementation for Lane Keeping on a Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an intelligent automated lane-keeping system is proposed and implemented on our vehicle platform, i.e., TAIWAN i TS-1. This system challenges the online integrating heterogeneous systems such as a real-time vision system, a lateral controller, in-vehicle sensors, and a steering wheel actuating motor. The implemented vision system detects the lane markings ahead of the vehicle, regardless of the

Shinq-jen Wu; Hsin-han Chiang; Jau-woei Perng; Chao-jung Chen; Bing-fei Wu; Tsu-tian Lee

2008-01-01

393

The effects of hypersonic flight test requirements on research vehicle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares and studies several launch, acceleration, and cruise concepts that have satisfied a variety of hypersonic research goals. The aerodynamic characteristics, propulsion performance, and propellant fractions of waverider derived vehicles are employed to estimate relative weight, size, and cost of differing approaches to meeting the research objectives. For the Mach 14 examples studied, a small boosted vehicle had about the same operational costs as a larger airbreathing hydrogen vehicle.

Grantz, A. C.; Cervisi, R. T.; Haney, J. W.; Patel, K. S.; Rishel, H. L.

1993-01-01

394

Demand-based Induction Motor Design for Diverging Electrical Vehicle Applications Powered by Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of robust, high efficient but low-cost battery powered electrical vehicles especially suited for applications up to a power range of maximum 20 kW (e.g. scooters, wheel-chairs, golf- mobiles, zero-emission vehicles for short-distances) is realised by means of sensorless control of a PWM inverter fed induction machine. To meet all requirements depending on the type of the vehicle

Peter Pichler; Peter Ebner; Helmut Weiss

395

Comparison of Seat Designs for Underground Mine Haulage Vehicles Using the Absorbed Power and ISO 2631-1(1985)-Based ACGIH Threshold Limit Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NIOSH researchers evaluated four seat designs on mine haulage vehicles with regard to roadway-induced jarring/jolting and operator comfort. In this paper, the performances of the seat designs are compared relative to the operator's exposure to vehicle vib...

A. G. Mayton C. C. Jobes F. Amirouche

2008-01-01

396

A Review of Evidence-Based Traffic Engineering Measures Designed to Reduce Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Crashes  

PubMed Central

We provide a brief critical review and assessment of engineering modifications to the built environment that can reduce the risk of pedestrian injuries. In our review, we used the Transportation Research Information Services database to conduct a search for studies on engineering countermeasures documented in the scientific literature. We classified countermeasures into 3 categories—speed control, separation of pedestrians from vehicles, and measures that increase the visibility and conspicuity of pedestrians. We determined the measures and settings with the greatest potential for crash prevention. Our review, which emphasized inclusion of studies with adequate methodological designs, showed that modification of the built environment can substantially reduce the risk of pedestrian–vehicle crashes.

Retting, Richard A.; Ferguson, Susan A.; McCartt, Anne T.

2003-01-01

397

Modeling, Simulation Design and Control of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drives  

SciTech Connect

Ohio State University (OSU) is uniquely poised to establish such a center, with interdisciplinary emphasis on modeling, simulation, design and control of hybrid-electric drives for a number of reasons, some of which are: (1) The OSU Center for Automotive Research (CAR) already provides an infrastructure for interdisciplinary automotive research and graduate education; the facilities available at OSU-CAR in the area of vehicle and powertrain research are among the best in the country. CAR facilities include 31,000 sq. feet of space, multiple chassis and engine dynamometers, an anechoic chamber, and a high bay area. (2) OSU has in excess of 10 graduate level courses related to automotive systems. A graduate level sequence has already been initiated with GM. In addition, an Automotive Systems Engineering (ASE) program cosponsored by the mechanical and electrical engineering programs, had been formulated earlier at OSU, independent of the GATE program proposal. The main objective of the ASE is to provide multidisciplinary graduate education and training in the field of automotive systems to Masters level students. This graduate program can be easily adapted to fulfill the spirit of the GATE Center of Excellence. (3) A program in Mechatronic Systems Engineering has been in place at OSU since 1994; this program has a strong emphasis on automotive system integration issues, and has emphasized hybrid-electric vehicles as one of its application areas. (4) OSU researchers affiliated with CAR have been directly involved in the development and study of: HEV modeling and simulation; electric drives; transmission design and control; combustion engines; and energy storage systems. These activities have been conducted in collaboration with government and automotive industry sponsors; further, the same researchers have been actively involved in continuing education programs in these areas with the automotive industry. The proposed effort will include: (1) The development of a laboratory facility that will include: electric drive and IC engine test benches; a test vehicle designed for rapid installation of prototype drives; benches for the measurement and study of HEV energy storage components (batteries, ultra-capacitors, flywheels); hardware-in-the-loop control system development tools. (2) The creation of new courses and upgrades of existing courses on subjects related to: HEV modeling and simulation; supervisory control of HEV drivetrains; engine, transmission, and electric drive modeling and control. Specifically, two new courses (one entitled HEV Component Analysis: and the other entitled HEV System Integration and Control) will be developed. Two new labs, that will be taught with the courses (one entitled HEV Components Lab and one entitled HEV Systems and Control lab) will also be developed. (3) The consolidation of already existing ties among faculty in electrical and mechanical engineering departments. (4) The participation of industrial partners through: joint laboratory development; internship programs; continuing education programs; research project funding. The proposed effort will succeed because of the already exceptional level of involvement in HEV research and in graduate education in automotive engineering at OSU, and because the PIs have a proven record of interdisciplinary collaboration as evidenced by joint proposals, joint papers, and co-advising of graduate students. OSU has been expanding its emphasis in Automotive Systems for quite some time. This has led to numerous successes such as the establishment of the Center of Automotive Research, a graduate level course sequence with GM, and numerous grants and contracts on automotive research. The GATE Center of Excellence is a natural extension of what educators at OSU already do well.

Giorgio Rizzoni

2005-09-30

398

A Simulation Experiment to Verify Differential Thrust Controller Designs for an Air Cushion Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manned simulation of an air cushion landing system vehicle was conducted to test the validity of differential thrust controllers that varied with the vehicle's engine time delay. The task was maintaining a constant heading angle in the presence of rando...

A. C. Troy

1976-01-01

399

Design, Implementation, and Utilization of a Common Data Model for Vehicle Health Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft have multiple disparate data sources associated with maintaining vehicle health. Storing and retrieving data for correlation, trending, and analysis from these data sources is inefficient and expensive. To enable efficient data retrieval and storage, we have implemented an innovative software system based on a common data model that is independent of the data type or vehicle platform. We show

Matthew A. Shawver; Geoff J. Hanson; Greg J. Clark; Daniel D. Gilbertson; Aaron A. Kagawa; Jian Shi Wang

2007-01-01

400

Current grid-generation strategies and future requirements in hypersonic vehicle design, analysis and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in computational power enable computational fluid dynamic modeling of increasingly complex configurations. A review of grid-generation methodologies implemented in support of the computational work performed for the X-38 (Experimental Crew Return Vehicle) and X-33 hypersonic vehicles are presented. In strategizing topological constructs and blocking structures, the factors considered are geometric configuration, optimal grid size, numerical algorithms, accuracy requirements,

Periklis Papadopoulos; Ethiraj Venkatapathy; Dinesh Prabhu; Mark P Loomis; Dave Olynick

1999-01-01

401

Coevolution of Form and Function in the Design of Micro Air Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses approaches to cooperative coevolution of form and function for autonomous vehicles, specifically ev olving morphology and control f or an autonomous micro air vehicle (MAV). The evolution of a sensor s uite with minimal size, weight, and power requirements, and reactive strategies for collision-free navigation for the simulated MAV is described. Results are presented for several different

Magdalena D. Bugajska; Alan C. Schultz

2002-01-01

402

General Description and Design of the Configuration of the Juno I and Juno II Launching Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Juno I Vehicle consists of a modified Redstone Booster with three solid propellant upper stages. The second and third stages are made up by clustering the same rocket used as the fourth stage. The upper stages are contained in a spinning launcher. The spinning provides stability during flight. The Juno II vehicle uses the same upper stages as the

Bill B. Greever

1960-01-01

403

Design, testing, and performance of a hybrid micro vehicle---The Hopping Rotochute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hopping Rotochute is a new hybrid micro vehicle that has been developed to robustly explore environments with rough terrain while minimizing energy consumption over long periods of time. The device consists of a small coaxial rotor system housed inside a lightweight cage. The vehicle traverses an area by intermittently powering a small electric motor which drives the rotor system,

Eric W. Beyer

2009-01-01

404

Pios fuel cell Motorcycle; design, development and test of hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles for motorised individual transport in Asia. Millions of motorcycles cause the majority of traffic-based air pollution. A prototype of a clean, silent and fuel efficient hydrogen fuel cell powered. Motorcycle demonstrates an alternative. The fuel cell motorcycle prototype named ldquoPiosrdquo is the latest model of a series of fuel cell experiment vehicle. For the

J. Weigl; I. Inayati; E. Zind; H. Said

2008-01-01

405

A novel design and feasibility analysis of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are receiving global attention, stimulated by the urgent need for more fuel-efficient vehicles. However, current challenges for fuel cells such as high cost, sizing problem, and limited driving range, greatly affect the pace of FCV development. At the same time, domestic and renewable energy resource usage is frequently being encouraged for future electric propulsion

Di Wu; Sheldon S. Williamson

2008-01-01

406

Design and Development of Autonomous Uninhabited Air Vehicles at ITB: Challenges and Progress Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uninhabited air vehicle has found diverse applications for both civil and military missions. To achieve the stated mission, the vehicle needs to have a certain level of autonomy to maintain its stability following a desired path under embedded guidance, navigation and control al- gorithm. To meet the increasingly more stringent operation requirements, the UAVs rely less and less on

A. Budiyono

2005-01-01

407

Air Vehicle Integration and Technology Research (AVIATR). Task Order 0023: Predictive Capability for Hypersonic Structural Response and Life Prediction: Phase 2 - Detailed Design of Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle Hot- Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four panels from a representative Mach 7 hypersonic cruise vehicle were designed and analyzed with state-of-the-art standard methods and tools to verify structural response and life predictive capabilities. Several modifications were made to the Technolog...

G. Tzong J. Embler R. Jacobs R. Quiroz S. Liguore

2012-01-01

408

Robust dynamic inversion controller design and analysis (using the X-38 vehicle as a case study)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new way to approach robust Dynamic Inversion controller synthesis is addressed in this paper. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian outer-loop controller improves the robustness of a Dynamic Inversion inner-loop controller in the presence of uncertainties. Desired dynamics are given by the dynamic compensator, which shapes the loop. The selected dynamics are based on both performance and stability robustness requirements. These requirements are straightforwardly formulated as frequency-dependent singular value bounds during synthesis of the controller. Performance and robustness of the designed controller is tested using a worst case time domain quadratic index, which is a simple but effective way to measure robustness due to parameter variation. Using this approach, a lateral-directional controller for the X-38 vehicle is designed and its robustness to parameter variations and disturbances is analyzed. It is found that if full state measurements are available, the performance of the designed lateral-directional control system, measured by the chosen cost function, improves by approximately a factor of four. Also, it is found that the designed system is stable up to a parametric variation of 1.65 standard deviation with the set of uncertainty considered. The system robustness is determined to be highly sensitive to the dihedral derivative and the roll damping coefficients. The controller analysis is extended to the nonlinear system where both control input displacements and rates are bounded. In this case, the considered nonlinear system is stable up to 48.1° in bank angle and 1.59° in sideslip angle variations, indicating it is more sensitive to variations in sideslip angle than in bank angle. This nonlinear approach is further extended for the actuator failure mode analysis. The results suggest that the designed system maintains a high level of stability in the event of aileron failure. However, only 35% or less of the original stability range is maintained for the rudder failure case. Overall, this combination of controller synthesis and robustness criteria compares well with the mu-synthesis technique. It also is readily accessible to the practicing engineer, in terms of understanding and use.

Ito, Daigoro

409

Analysis and Design of a Speed and Position System for Maglev Vehicles  

PubMed Central

This paper mainly researches one method of speed and location detection for maglev vehicles. As the maglev train doesn't have any physical contact with the rails, it has to use non-contact measuring methods. The technology based on the inductive loop-cable could fulfill the requirement by using an on-board antenna which could detect the alternating magnetic field produced by the loop-cable on rails. This paper introduces the structure of a speed and position system, and analyses the electromagnetic field produced by the loop-cable. The equivalent model of the loop-cable is given and the most suitable component of the magnetic flux density is selected. Then the paper also compares the alternating current (AC) resistance and the quality factor between two kinds of coils which the antenna is composed of. The effect of the rails to the signal receiving is also researched and then the structure of the coils is improved. Finally, considering the common-mode interference, 8-word coils are designed and analyzed.

Dai, Chunhui; Dou, Fengshan; Song, Xianglei; Long, Zhiqiang

2012-01-01

410

Design analysis and testing of liquid metal heat pipes for application to hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid metal heat pipes and vapor chambers are potentially efficient concepts for providing hypersonic vehicle thermal protection. The present paper presents a status report of efforts to develop these concepts for wing leading edge thermal protection. These efforts have included design and fabrication, analytical modeling, and experiment; results of these activities are discussed. The first configuration studied was a sample cylindrical heat pipe using sodium as the working fluid. This pipe was tested for thermal performance and for sensitivity to vibration. The second configuration was a single wedge-shaped pipe having a cross-section in the form of a 'D' to allow for a flat aerodynamically compatible surface. Again, sodium was used as the working fluid. This configuration was tested for thermal performance including isolation of the critical heat flux. The third configuration was an assembly of four 'D' cross-section heat pipes formed to simulate a section of leading edge; this configuration has yet to be tested. Sodium and lithium are planned to be used as working fluids. Start-up performance of two configurations tested was compared with analytical prediction.

Clark, L. T.; Glenn, G. S.

1988-06-01

411

Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles Reporting Period January 15, 2004 through April 15, 2004  

SciTech Connect

Listed are summaries of the activities and accomplishments during this second-quarter reporting period for each of the consortium participants. The following are some highlights for this reporting period: (1) Experiments and computations guide conceptual designs for reduction of drag due to tractor-trailer gap flow (splitter plate), trailer underbody (wedges), and base drag (base-flap add-ons). (2) Steady and unsteady RANS simulations for the GTS geometry are being finalized for development of clear modeling guidelines with RANS. (3) Full geometry and tunnel simulations on the GCM geometry are underway. (4) CRADA with PACCAR is supporting computational parametric study to determine predictive need to include wind tunnel geometry as limits of computational domain. (5) Road and track test options are being investigated. All is ready for field testing of base-flaps at Crows Landing in California in collaboration with Partners in Advanced Transportation Highways (PATH). In addition, MAKA of Canada is providing the device and Wabash is providing a new trailer. (6) Apparatus to investigate tire splash and spray has been designed and is under construction. Michelin has offered tires with customized threads for this study. (7) Vortex methods have improved techniques for the treatment of vorticity near surfaces and spinning geometries like rotating tires. (8) Wind tunnel experiments on model rail cars demonstrate that empty coal cars exhibit substantial aerodynamic drag compared to full coal cars, indicating that significant fuel savings could be obtained by reducing the drag of empty coal cars. (9) Papers are being prepared for an exclusive conference session on the Heavy Vehicle DOE Aerodynamic Drag Project at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference in Portland, Oregon, June 28-July 1, 2004.

Leonard, A; Chatelain, P; Heineck, J; Browand, F; Mehta, R; Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B; Brown, J; DeChant, L; Rubel, M; Ross, J; Hammache, M; Pointer, D; Roy, C; Hassan, B; Arcas, D; Hsu, T; Payne, J; Walker, S; Castellucci, P; McCallen, R

2004-04-13

412

Comparison of simulation and test for electric vehicles of recent design  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons have been made between data obtained from dynamometer tests of various electric vehicle and computer simulations of the same vehicle-battery combinations for several driving cycles. The vehicles included in the study were the ETV-1, Bedford Van, Unique Mobility, ETX-1, and DSEP (TB-1). The batteries studied were the ALCO 2200, Gel/cel 3, EV5T, ETX-100(CHL12), and the NIF-170. The comparisons are described in this paper. The results of these comparisons are discussed.

Burke, A.F.

1989-01-01

413

A Model-Based Approach for the Design and Development of In-Vehicle Telematics Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of computing and mobile communications technologies in road vehicles has attracted the interest of hardware and software vendors (IBM & Motorola), (Sun Microsystems) as well as system solution providers. These \\

D. Reilly; A. Taleb Bendiab; A. Laws

414

Modular Approach to Launch Vehicle Design Based on a Common Core Element.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With a heavy lift launch vehicle as the centerpiece of our nation's next exploration architecture's infrastructure, the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center initiated a study to examine the utilization of elements derived from a...

A. D. Philips D. M. Creech E. D. Waters G. E. Threet M. Baysinger

2010-01-01

415

Animal Vehicle Crash Mitigation Using Advanced Technology. Phase 1: Review, Design and Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Animal-vehicle collisions affect human safety, property and wildlife. The number of these types of collisions has increased substantially over the last decades. This report describes the results of a project that explored the prospects for a relatively ne...

A. Hardy A. P. Clevenger L. Salsman M. P. Huijser P. Wright P. T. McGowen T. Wilson W. Camel

2006-01-01

416

Design and Rapid Prototyping of Flight Control and Navigation System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work in this thesis is in support of a larger research effort to implement a cluster of autonomous airborne vehicles with the capability to conduct coordinated flight maneuver planning and to perform distributed sensor fusion. Specifically, it seeks t...

B. A. Lim

2002-01-01

417

Development and Design of Windtunnel and Test Facility for RPV (Remote Piloted Vehicle) Enhancement Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viscous drag represent a significant power demand on flight vehicles. Reductions of this requirement could result in higher speeds and altitudes, longer endurance and heavier payloads. General streamlining by shape control is highly developed so that the ...

B. D. Hibbs H. M. Drees P. B. Lissaman

1988-01-01

418

HVOSM (Highway Vehicle Object Simulation Model) Studies of Highway Cross Slope Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research was performed to study the operational characteristics of variable pavement cross slopes. Computer simulation of vehicles conducting passing maneuvers on high-speed two-lane highways was the methodology employed. The objective was to determin...

J. C. Glennon B. G. McHenry T. R. Neuman

1983-01-01

419

Design Analysis of an Aluminum-Air Battery for Vehicle Operations. Transportation Systems Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study reported was to perform a detailed configuration analysis of an aluminum-air battery, evaluate various automobile propulsion systems utilizing the Al-air battery, and estimate the performance and cost of vehicles incorporating t...

C. L. Hudson D. J. Whisler E. Behrin J. D. Salisbury R. L. Wood

1983-01-01

420

Vertical Lift Planetary Aerial Vehicles: Three Planetary Bodies and Four Conceptual Design Cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA Ames Research Center has been studying the feasibility of vertical lift aerial vehicles to support planetary science and exploration missions. Besides Earth, it appears that there are three planetary bodies within our solar system where vertical flig...

E. W. Aiken L. A. Young

2001-01-01

421

Flow Analysis and Design Optimization Methods for Nozzle Afterbody of a Hypersonic Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the methods developed for the aerodynamic analysis and the shape optimization of the nozzle-afterbody section of a hypersonic vehicle. Initially, exhaust gases were assumed to be air. Internal-external flows around a single scramjet...

O. Baysal

1991-01-01

422

Design and Analysis of an Electrical Variable Transmission for a Series–Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation results of a novel electrical variable transmission (EVT) for a series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle (SPHEV). The proposed EVT uses a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) planetary gearset with four clutches to combine an engine and two electric machines with the vehicle. The topology of the planetary gearset is the same as that of conventional

Li Chen; Futang Zhu; Minmin Zhang; Yi Huo; Chengliang Yin; Huei Peng

2011-01-01

423

Outline of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane) designed for Antarctic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Ant-Plane project for summertime scientific research and logistics in the coastal region of Antarctica, we developed six types of small autonomous UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles, similar to drones; we term these vehicles ‘Ant-Planes’) based on four types of airframe. In test flights, Ant-Plane 2 cruised within 20m accuracy along a straight course during calm weather at

Minoru Funaki; Naohiko Hirasawa

2008-01-01

424

Design and implementation of webGIS-based GPS vehicle monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a WebGIS-based GPS vehicle monitoring system with typical three-tier application architecture of B\\/S pattern.\\u000a It provides ordinary registered users with a valid and convenient means to get access to real-time GPS location information\\u000a of certain moving vehicles at any place, and further offers a powerful tool for super users to manage user information and\\u000a remotely monitor those

Cheng Qimin; Yang Chongjun; Shao Zhenfeng; Liu Donglin; Gao Liang

2004-01-01

425

Design of a Web-based Decision Support System for End-of-Life Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision Support Systems (DSS) have been involved in all of the stages of the products life-cycle. In the business of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) treatment, once PEID (Product Embedded Information Devices) systems are used to collect all life-cycle data of the vehicles, a DSS could be needed to manipulate the information and help the operator optimizing the decision results during the

Hui Cao

426

Optimal design of cylindrical shells for enhanced buckling stability: Application to supercavitating underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static and dynamic stability of supercavitating vehicles is investigated. The vehicles are modeled as thick shells, using nine-node iso-parametric shell elements. The model allows the prediction of the behavior of shells of non-uniform thickness, and it is formulated to account for the presence of circumferential stiffeners. The considered buckling loads include compressive forces corresponding to propulsion and drag at

S. S. Ahn; M. Ruzzene

2006-01-01

427

Mitigating vestibular disturbances during space flight using virtual reality training and reentry vehicle design guidelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy to eighty percent of astronauts reportedly exhibit undesirable vestibular disturbances during the first few days of weightlessness, including space motion sickness (SMS) and spatial disorientation (SD). SMS presents a potentially dangerous situation, both because critical piloted tasks such as docking maneuvers and emergency reentry may be compromised, and because of the potential for asphyxiation should an astronaut vomit while wearing a space suit. SD can be provocative for SMS as well as become dangerous during an emergency in which it is critical for an astronaut to move quickly through the vehicle. In the U.S. space program, medication is currently used both for prevention and treatment of SMS. However, this approach has had only moderate success, and the side effects of drowsiness and lack of concentration are undesirable. Research suggests that preflight training in virtual reality devices can simulate certain aspects of microgravity and may prove to be an effective countermeasure for SMS and SD. It was hypothesized that exposing subjects preflight to variable virtual orientations, similar to those encountered during space flight, will reduce the incidence and/or severity of SMS and SD. Results from a study conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center as part of this research demonstrated that this type of training is effective for reducing motion sickness and improving task performance in potentially disorienting visual surroundings, thus suggesting the possibility that such training may prove an effective countermeasure for SMS, SD and related performance decrements that occur in space flight. In addition to the effects associated with weightlessness, almost all astronauts experience vestibular disturbances associated with gravity-transitions incurred during the return to Earth, which could be exacerbated if traveling in a spacecraft that is designed differently than a conventional aircraft. Therefore, for piloted descent and landing operations, reducing vestibular disturbances must be considered in the early phases of spacecraft design. An integrated approach combining vestibular disturbances, mission constraints, and other human concerns is proposed in a spacecraft design solution that concurrently addresses all of the above constraints.

Stroud, Kenneth Joshua

428

Comparison of simulation and test for electric vehicles of recent design  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons have been made between data obtained from dynamometer tests of various electric vehicles and computer simulations of the same vehicle-battery combinations for several driving cycles. The vehicles included in the study were the ETV-1, Bedford Van, Unique Mobility, ETX-1 and DSEP(TB-1). The batteries studied were the ALCO 2200, Gel/cel 3, EV5T, ETX-100(CHL12), and the NIF-170. The comparisons indicated that the energy consumption values obtained using ELVEC agree within 10% with test data for both constant speed and variable power driving schedules. The range comparisons were less consistent, but the predictions agreed with the data to within 10% if the vehicle battery was in good condition and the controller did not limit battery power at low states-of-charge. Second-by-second comparisons of measured and calculated values of battery power and current during transient vehicle operation showed the agreement worse than would have been expected based on the good agreement found for cycle energy consumption. Further development of ELVEC is needed to complete its validation as an electric vehicle simulation code. 12 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Burke, A.F.

1988-01-01

429

PM-assisted reluctance synchronous motor\\/generator (PM-RSM) for mild hybrid vehicles: electromagnetic design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the conceptual design and finite-element method analysis of a permanent-magnet-assisted reluctance synchronous motor\\/generator for mild hybrid vehicles where a large constant power speed range (6:1) is required and machine volume, converter peak kVA, and battery size are the main constraints. Careful flux-barrier and permanent-magnet sizing, high magnetic saturation, and current density are the main requirements for maximum

Ion Boldea; Lucian Tutelea; Cristian Ilie Pitic

2004-01-01

430

A Geometric Approach to Trajectory Design for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Surveying the Bulbous Bow of a Ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a control strategy design technique for an autonomous underwater vehicle based on solutions to the\\u000a motion planning problem derived from differential geometric methods. The motion planning problem is motivated by the practical\\u000a application of surveying the hull of a ship for implications of harbor and port security. In recent years, engineers and researchers\\u000a have been

Ryan N. Smith; Dario Cazzaro; Luca Invernizzi; Giacomo Marani; Song K. Choi; Monique Chyba

431

Energy-Regenerative Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller Design for Ultracapacitor-Battery Hybrid Power of Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to deal with two major problems of electric vehicle (EV): the short driving range and the short life of batteries, a hybrid power system was designed and applied to the EV. It was composed of an ultracapacitor with high-specific power and long life, four lead-acid batteries with high-specific energy, and a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter. To improve the stability

Jianbo Cao; Binggang Cao; Zhifeng Bai; Wenzhi Chen

2007-01-01

432

In-flight oxygen collection for a two-stage air-launch vehicle: integration of vehicle and separation cycle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-flight oxygen collection is a very promising technique to reduce the launch costs and improve the payload capabilities of two-stage-to-orbit semireusable launchers. Using liquid hydrogen the incoming air is deeply cooled and enriched in oxygen during the cruise phase of the first stage. The liquified enriched air is stored in the second stage which is then launched into orbit. This paper gives the result of a conceptual design of a two-stage-to-orbit air launched space vehicle. The mass, aerodynamic, and propulsive characteristics of the first stage are determined and an assessment of the influence of the collection plant performance on the subsonic first stage is made. The results for a centrifugally enhanced destillation unit are given together with the plant cycle arrangement. Integration options for the plant into the first stage are proposed and a short description of the air separation test unit and its test bench is also given.

Verstraete, D.; Bizzarri, D.; Hendrick, P.

2009-09-01

433

Design, test and modelling evaluation approach of a novel Si-oil shock absorber for protection of electronic equipment in moving vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic equipment systems are precision system. There are some vibrations and impact in moving vehicles for road environments. Therefore, shock absorber is significant in protection of electronic equipment in moving vehicles. The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic investigation to design or evaluation of a shock absorber for protection of electronic equipment system in harsh vibration-impact environment.

Ping Yang; Ninbo Liao; Jianbo Yang

2008-01-01

434

Design and integration of vision based sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles navigation and guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel Navigation and Guidance System (NGS) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based on Vision Based Navigation (VBN) and other avionics sensors. The main objective of our research is to design a lowcost and low-weight/volume NGS capable of providing the required level of performance in all flight phases of modern small- to medium-size UAVs, with a special focus on automated precision approach and landing, where VBN techniques can be fully exploited in a multisensory integrated architecture. Various existing techniques for VBN are compared and the Appearance-based Navigation (ABN) approach is selected for implementation. Feature extraction and optical flow techniques are employed to estimate flight parameters such as roll angle, pitch angle, deviation from the runway and body rates. Additionally, we address the possible synergies between VBN, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electromechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit) sensors and also the use of Aircraft Dynamics Models (ADMs) to provide additional information suitable to compensate for the shortcomings of VBN sensors in high-dynamics attitude determination tasks. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is developed to fuse the information provided by the different sensors and to provide estimates of position, velocity and attitude of the platform in real-time. Two different integrated navigation system architectures are implemented. The first uses VBN at 20 Hz and GPS at 1 Hz to augment the MEMS-IMU running at 100 Hz. The second mode also includes the ADM (computations performed at 100 Hz) to provide augmentation of the attitude channel. Simulation of these two modes is performed in a significant portion of the Aerosonde UAV operational flight envelope and performing a variety of representative manoeuvres (i.e., straight climb, level turning, turning descent and climb, straight descent, etc.). Simulation of the first integrated navigation system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU) shows that the integrated system can reach position, velocity and attitude accuracies compatible with CAT-II precision approach requirements. Simulation of the second system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU/ADM) shows promising results since the achieved attitude accuracy is higher using the ADM/VBS/IMU than using VBS/IMU only. However, due to rapid divergence of the ADM virtual sensor, there is a need for a frequent re-initialisation of the ADM data module, which is strongly dependent on the UAV flight dynamics and the specific manoeuvring transitions performed. Finally, the output provided by the VBN and integrated navigation sensor systems is used to design a flight control system using a hybrid Fuzzy Logic and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller for the Aerosonde UAV.

Sabatini, Roberto; Bartel, Celia; Kaharkar, Anish; Shaid, Tesheen

2012-05-01

435

Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for a Flywheel Energy Storage System within a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an energy storage device, the flywheel has significant advantages over conventional chemical batteries, including higher energy density, higher efficiency, longer life time, and less pollution to the environment. An effective flywheel system can be attributed to its good motor/generator (M/G) design. This thesis describes the research work on the design of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) as an M/G suitable for integration in a flywheel energy storage system within a large hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The operating requirements of the application include wide power and speed ranges combined with high total system efficiency. Along with presenting the design, essential issues related to PMSM design including cogging torque, iron losses and total harmonic distortion (THD) are investigated. An iterative approach combining lumped parameter analysis with 2D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used, and the final design is presented showing excellent performance.

Jiang, Ming

436

Design of orbital re-entry experiment vehicle and outline of the experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) plans an Orbital Re-entry Experiment (OREX) in the winter of 1993 as part of a study of the H-2 Orbiting Plane (HOPE). There are some critical technical subjects in developing HOPE. Especially, relating to atmospheric re-entry, critical items are estimating aerodynamic and aerodynamic heating characteristics of the vehicle in the hypersonic region, and developing heat-resistance materials and thermal protection systems. In order to acquire basic data about these items, OREX is planned. In this experiment, an experimental vehicle will be launched and inserted into orbit by the first flight of the H-2 Launch Vehicle, and re-enter into the atmosphere afterward. During atmospheric re-entry, data about aerodynamic heating, etc., will be acquired.

Akimoto, Toshio; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Inaba, Motoyuki; Izumi, Tatsushi; Kawano, Isao

1991-06-01

437

The design and development of an axial flux permanent magnet brushless DC motor for wheel drive in a solar powered vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a “weight-power trade-off” applicable to high-performance, power limited vehicles. The theory is then applied to the electric vehicle case to justify the pursuit of an “in the wheel” motor design. The singular benefits of axial flux geometry are discussed with reference to the particular requirements of electric motors for vehicular applications. The basic design

Dean Patterson; R. Spee

1995-01-01

438

Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repelle...

D. W. Fuerstenau R. Ravikumar

1997-01-01

439

Design and Performance of a Water-cooled Permanent Magnet Retarder for Heavy Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet re- tarder (PMR) structure that uses water cooling to improve the braking performance of conventional PMR for heavy vehicles. A finite element model for a water-cooled PMR was developed by con- sidering the temperature dependence of magnetic characteristics and heat conductivity. The eddy current and temperature distri- bution were analyzed using the magneto-thermal

Lezhi Ye; Desheng Li; Yuanjing Ma; Bingfeng Jiao

2011-01-01

440

Design Consideration of a Novel Digital Bidirectional Constant Current Source Used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel circuit topologies dedicating to system within storage battery as standby power supply and operating as bidirectional current source used in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are proposed in this paper, and both advantages and disadvantages between the two proposed topologies are investigated. Functions of both discharging process with large current from battery to the relative lower voltage load end

Qingbo Hu; Zhengyu Lu

2006-01-01

441

Sensor Testing System for Design of a Quad-Winged Micro Air Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sensor testing system for sensing, control, and modeling of a quad- winged Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) has been built this work. This system contains two important components. One is an Agilent AFM system for microscopic static force measurement and calibra...

H. Dong Y. Zhuang

2010-01-01

442

Considerations on CFD modeling for the design of re-entry vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on the importance of a good geometrical representation of re-entry vehicles for hypersonic flow simulations by means of CFD. Based on investigations carried out by DLR throughout past re-entry programs, it is shown that in many cases geometrical simplifications of configurations used for CFD evaluation introduce errors in aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic quantities comparable or even higher than

José M. A. Longo; Marcus Orlowski; Stefan Brück

2000-01-01

443

Design methodology of a combined battery-ultracapacitor energy storage unit for vehicle power management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid and electric vehicles (HEV, EV) require some form of energy storage in order to achieve load leveling or efficiently manage power flows, mainly when accelerating or decelerating. Traditionally, batteries have been used but recently ultracapacitors have become potential candidates for energy storage in HEV\\/EV applications. To this end, this paper first presents a methodology for determining whether an energy

Roberto M. Schupbach; Juan C. Balda; Matthew Zolot; B. Kramer

2003-01-01

444

Series hybrid vehicle system analysis using an in-wheel motor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicles, which employ a technology combining gasoline and electric motors, are a hot item these days for transporters looking for ways to cut their fuel bills. To date, commercial systems implement diesel assisted electrical drives. As such the electrical motor is placed in a series or parallel configuration to assist the combustion engine. In the series configuration, the generator

Johannes J. H. Paulides; Evgeny V. Kazmin; B. L. J. Gysen; E. A. Lomonova

2008-01-01

445

Conceptual Design and Optimal Power Control Strategy for AN Eco-Friendly Hybrid Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new concept for a hybrid vehicle using a torque and speed splitting technique. It is implemented by the newly developed controller in combination with a two degree of freedom epicyclic gear transmission. This approach enables optimization of the power split between the less powerful electrical motor and more powerful engine while driving a car load. The

N. Mir Nasiri; Frederick T. A. Chieng

2011-01-01

446

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND OPTIMAL POWER CONTROL STRATEGY FOR AN ECO-FRIENDLY HYBRID VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new concept for a hybrid vehicle using a torque and speed splitting technique. It is implemented by the newly developed controller in combination with a two degree of freedom epicyclic gear transmission. This approach enables optimization of the power split between the less powerful electrical motor and more powerful engine while driving a car load. The

N. Mir Nasiri; Frederick T. A. Chieng

2011-01-01

447

Design of bipolar, flowing-electrolyte zinc-bromine electric-vehicle battery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of bipolar, flowing electrolyte zinc-bromine technology into a viable electric vehicle battery system requires careful analysis of the requirements placed on the battery system by the EV power train. In addition to the basic requirement of an appropriate battery voltage and power density, overall battery system energy efficiency must also be considered and parasitic losses from auxiliaries such

P. A. Malachesky; R. J. Bellows; H. E. Einstein; P. G. Grimes; K. Newby; A. Young

1983-01-01

448

Design for a Composite Sprocket Carrier for the LVT-7 Amphibian Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A composite sprocket carrier for the Marine Corps LVT-7 amphibian vehicle uses a graphite/epoxy composite, produced by wet filament winding followed by compression molding at high temperature to compact and cure the matrix. Stainless steel inserts are use...

M. D. Ward

1983-01-01

449

Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles Reporting Period October 15, 2002 through January 15, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three of the DOE Team members, Fred Browand (USC), Rose McCallen (LLNL), and Jim Ross (NASA), chaired an international conference titled The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles: Trucks, Busses, and Trains. It was held at the Asilomar Conference Center in Monte...

R. McCallen K. Salari J. Ortega T. Dunn F. Browand M. Hammache T. Y. Hsu A. Leonard P. Chatelain M. Rubel J. Ross D. Satran S. Walker J. T. Heineck D. Pointer T. Sofu

2003-01-01

450

Design of a speed controller for permanent magnet synchronous motor in pure electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a robust adaptive backstepping controller will be proposed for the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in using pure electrical vehicles (PEV). A general electric drive train of PEV is conceptually rearrange to major subsystems as electric propulsion, energy source, and auxiliary subsystem and the load torque is modeled by considering the aerodynamic, rolling resistance

Keun-Ho Hyun

2007-01-01

451

An autonomous aerial vehicle for unmanned security and surveillance operations: design and test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of an electrically powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with wingspan of 2.5 m. A flight control system is constructed using small and light-weight components. The logical interconnection and schematic layout of the AFC (Automatic Flight Control) are presented. The UAV prototype has been successfully tested carrying a high resolution camera, and was able to acquire

G. Belloni; M. Feroli; A. Ficola; S. Pagnottelli; P. Valigi

2007-01-01

452

Conceptual Design by TRIZ: An Application to a Rear Underrun Protective Device for Industrial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes results of methodical activity performed by employing inventive principles of the theory for the inventive resolution of problems (TRIZ), in order to obtain concept of rear underrun protective device for an industrial vehicle. A screening with concepts proposed in previous papers is also performed.

Cerniglia, D.; Lombardo, E.; Nigrelli, Vincenzo

2008-11-01

453

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES DESIGNED FOR LOW N0X EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Tailpipe emissions were characterized for four advanced low NOx catalyst equipped passenger cars under a variety of cyclic driving conditions. All of the vehicles had three-way catalysts, three with feedback carburetors and exhaust gas recirculation, and two with oxidation cataly...

454

Accidents Involving Heavy Goods Vehicles in Great Britain: Frequencies and Design Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present an overall view of the contribution that heavy goods vehicles make to the road accident situation, this being one factor of importance in considering goods transport by road. This overview is based on the accident s...

I. D. Neilson R. N. Kemp H. A. White

1979-01-01

455

Hover and wind-tunnel testing of shrouded rotors for improved micro air vehicle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shrouded-rotor configuration has emerged as the most popular choice for rotary-wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), because of the inherent safety of the design and the potential for significant performance improvements. However, traditional design philosophies based on experience with large-scale ducted propellers may not apply to the low-Reynolds-number (˜20,000) regime in which MAVs operate. An experimental investigation of the effects of varying the shroud profile shape on the performance of MAV-scale shrouded rotors has therefore been conducted. Hover tests were performed on seventeen models with a nominal rotor diameter of 16 cm (6.3 in) and various values of diffuser expansion angle, diffuser length, inlet lip radius and blade tip clearance, at various rotor collective angles. Compared to the baseline open rotor, the shrouded rotors showed increases in thrust by up to 94%, at the same power consumption, or reductions in power by up to 62% at the same thrust. These improvements surpass those predicted by momentum theory, due to the additional effect of the shrouds in reducing the non-ideal power losses of the rotor. Increasing the lip radius and decreasing the blade tip clearance caused performance to improve, while optimal values of diffuser angle and length were found to be 10 and 50% of the shroud throat diameter, respectively. With the exception of the lip radius, the effects of changing any of the shrouded-rotor parameters on performance became more pronounced as the values of the other parameters were changed to degrade performance. Measurements were also made of the wake velocity profiles and the shroud surface pressure distributions. The uniformity of the wake was improved by the presence of the shrouds and by decreasing the blade tip clearance, resulting in lower induced power losses. For high net shroud thrust, a favorable pressure distribution over the inlet was seen to be more important than in the diffuser. Strong suction pressures were observed above the blade-passage region on the inlet surface; taking advantage of this phenomenon could enable further increases in thrust. However, trade studies showed that, for a given overall aircraft size limitation, and ignoring considerations of the safety benefits of a shroud, a larger-diameter open rotor is more likely to give better performance than a smaller-diameter shrouded rotor. The open rotor and a single shrouded-rotor model were subsequently tested at a single collective in translational flight, at angles of attack from 0° (axial flow) to 90° (edgewise flow), and at various advance ratios. In axial flow, the net thrust and the power consumption of the shrouded rotor were lower than those of the open rotor. In edgewise flow, the shrouded rotor produced greater thrust than the open rotor, while consuming less power. Measurements of the shroud surface pressure distributions illustrated the extreme longitudinal asymmetry of the flow around the shroud, with consequent pitch moments much greater than those exerted on the open rotor. Except at low airspeeds and high angles of attack, the static pressure in the wake did not reach ambient atmospheric values at the diffuser exit plane; this challenges the validity of the fundamental assumption of the simple-momentum-theory flow model for short-chord shrouds in translational flight.

Pereira, Jason L.

456

Distributed Propulsion Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation....

H. D. Kim

2010-01-01

457

Feasibility Study on the Design of Reinforced Plastic Components for the LVTP (7) Vehicle Shafts. Final Report May - December 1984 on Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document pertains to a feasibility study in the design and manufacture of a composite drive shaft and propeller shaft for the LVTP (7) amphibious vehicle. The report shaft contains an analysis of the present steel shaft design and the two design appr...

B. Spencer D. Shy J. McGee

1984-01-01

458

Design and analysis of aluminum\\/air battery system for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum (Al)\\/air batteries have the potential to be used to produce power to operate cars and other vehicles. These batteries might be important on a long-term interim basis as the world passes through the transition from gasoline cars to hydrogen fuel cell cars. The Al\\/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to

Shaohua Yang; Harold Knickle

2002-01-01

459

Design Methodology of a Hybrid Propulsion Driven Electric Powered Miniature Tailsitter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contrary to the manned tailsitter aircraft concepts, which have been shelved and forgotten after mid 1960’s, the unmanned\\u000a versions of these concepts have become popular. Since, tailsitter type UAVs combine both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL)\\u000a operation and relatively high speed cruise flight capabilities which provide manifest advantages over the other VTOL aircraft\\u000a concepts, including helicopters and organic air vehicles

Mirac Aksugur; Gokhan Inalhan

460

Design Methodology of a Hybrid Propulsion Driven Electric Powered Miniature Tailsitter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the manned tailsitter aircraft concepts, which have been shelved and forgotten after mid 1960’s, the unmanned\\u000a versions of these concepts have become popular. Since, tailsitter type UAVs combine both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL)\\u000a operation and relatively high speed cruise flight capabilities which provide manifest advantages over the other VTOL aircraft\\u000a concepts, including helicopters and organic air vehicles

Mirac Aksugur; Gökhan Inalhan

2010-01-01

461

Optimal design of power-split transmissions for hydraulic hybrid passenger vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic hybrid vehicles are inherently power dense. Power-split or hydro-mechanical transmissions (HMT) have advantages over series and parallel architectures. In this paper, an approach for optimizing the configuration and sizing of a hydraulic hybrid power-split transmission is proposed. Instead of considering each mechanical configuration consisting of combinations of gear ratios, a generalized kinematic relation is used to avoid redundant computation.

Kai Loon Cheong; Perry Y. Li; Thomas R. Chase

2011-01-01

462

Design and development of effective manual control system for unmanned air vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are remotely piloted or self-piloted aircraft that are capable of flight without any on-board operator and can carry cameras, sensors, communications equipment or other payloads. UAVs have been used in a reconnaissance and intelligence-gathering role, including combat and rescue missions. This paper describes development and implementation of remote manual control system for a UAV. The paper

Muhammad Aamir Zafar; Ansar Rauf; Zeeshan Ashraf; Humza Akhtar

2011-01-01

463

Design and development considerations for biologically inspired flapping-wing micro air vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the decade of numerical and experimental investigations leading to the development of the authors’ unique flapping-wing\\u000a micro air vehicle is summarized. Early investigations included the study of boundary layer energization by means of a small\\u000a flapping foil embedded in a flat-plate boundary layer, the reduction of the recirculatory flow region behind a backward-facing\\u000a step by means of

Kevin D. Jones; Max F. Platzer

2009-01-01

464

A vehicle seat design concept for reducing whiplash injury risk in low-speed rear impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce whiplash injury risk in low-speed rear-impact accidents, a sliding mechanism of vehicle seat with crash energy-absorption (EA) function is proposed and analysed in this study. It can reduce relative motion between occupant head and torso under rear impact and lower values of neck injury related parameters such as neck injury criterion (NIC), neck displacement criterion (NDC) and neck

Meng Luo; Qing Zhou

2010-01-01

465

A Matlab-based modeling and simulation package for electric and hybrid electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a simulation and modeling package developed at Texas A&M University, V-Elph 2.01. V-Elph facilitates in-depth studies of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) configurations or energy management strategies through visual programming by creating components as hierarchical subsystems that can be used interchangeably as embedded systems. V-Elph is composed of detailed models of four major types of

Karen L. Butler; Mehrdad Ehsani; Preyas Kamath

1999-01-01

466

Design, development and characterisation of a FPGA platform for multi-motor electric vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors are used as a propulsion system of an electric vehicle (EV). A simple XC3S1000 FPGA is used to simultaneously control both electric motors, with field oriented control and space vector modulation techniques. To electronically distribute the torque between the two electric motors, a simple, yet effective, strategy based on a uniform torque distribution has been

Ricardo de Castro; Rui Esteves Araújo; Hugo Oliveira

2009-01-01

467

Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to

G. Dochat; A. Artiles; J. Killough; A. Ray; H. S. Chen

1978-01-01

468

Aerothermodynamics in the Heart of the Reentry Vehicles Shape Design and Mission Analysis Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\/RESUME On the path to a Reusable Space Transportation System, Europe first reviewed the gaps to fulfil. Then, a step-by-step master plan with both on-ground and in-flight tests was drawn up with the uppermost goal to secure the development of the future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and get proof of its economic efficiency. With the potential budgets and programmatics foreseeable

E. Cosson; F. Thivet; J. Soler; Ph. Tran; M. Spel; W. Dieudonne; J.-C. Paulat; M. Prampolini; J. Moulin

2005-01-01

469

Design and simulation of a fast-charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Despite such interest, conventional vehicle drivers are still reluctant in using such a new technology, mainly because of the long duration (4-8 hours) required to charge PHEV batteries with the currently existing Level I and II chargers. For this reason, Level III fast-charging stations capable of reducing the charging duration to 10-15 minutes are being considered. The present thesis focuses on the design of a fast-charging station that uses, in addition to the electrical grid, two stationary energy storage devices: a flywheel energy storage and a supercapacitor. The power electronic converters used for the interface of the energy sources with the charging station are designed. The design also focuses on the energy management that will minimize the PHEV battery charging duration as well as the duration required to recharge the energy storage devices. For this reason, an algorithm that minimizes durations along with its mathematical formulation is proposed, and its application in fast charging environment will be illustrated by means of two scenarios.

de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones

470

A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The project tasks and deliverables are as follows: Computations and Experiments--(1) Simulation and analysis of a range of generic shapes, simplified to more complex, representative of tractor and integrated tractor-trailer flow characteristics using computational tools, (2) The establishment of an experimental data base for tractor-trailer models for code/computational method development and validation. The first shapes to be considered will be directed towards the investigation of tractor-trailer gaps and mismatch of tractor-trailer heights. (3) The evaluation and documentation of effective computational approaches for application to heavy vehicle aerodynamics based on the benchmark results with existing and advanced computational tools compared to experimental data, and (4) Computational tools and experimental methods for use by industry, National Laboratories, and universities for the aerodynamic modeling of heavy truck vehicles. Evaluation of current and new technologies--(1) The evaluation and documentation of current and new technologies for drag reduction based on published literature and continued communication with the heavy vehicle industry (e.g., identification and prioritization of tractor-trailer drag-sources, blowing and/or suction devices, body shaping, new experimental methods or facilities), and the identification and analysis of tractor and integrated tractor-trailer aerodynamic problem areas and possible solution strategies. (2) Continued industrial site visits. It should be noted that ''CFD tools'' are not only the actual computer codes, but descriptions of appropriate numerical solution methods. Part of the project effort will be to determine the restrictions or avenues for technology transfer.

None

2001-09-01

471

Modeling and inverse controller design for an unmanned aerial vehicle based on the self-organizing map.  

PubMed

The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a self-organizing map (SOM)-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only on the embedded output space information and avoids normalization of the input data. Each local linear model is associated with a linear controller, which is easy to design. Switching of the controllers is done synchronously with the active local linear model that tracks the different operating conditions. The proposed multiple modeling and control strategy has been successfully tested in a simulator that models the LoFLYTE UAV. PMID:16566471

Cho, Jeongho; Principe, Jose C; Erdogmus, Deniz; Motter, Mark A

2006-03-01

472

Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

473

The design and development of an axial flux permanent magnet brushless dc motor for wheel drive in a solar powered vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the development of a weight-power trade-off applicable to high-performance, power limited vehicles. The theory is then applied to the electric vehicle case to justify the pursuit of an in the wheel motor design. The singular benefits of axial flux geometry are discussed with reference to the particular requirements of electric motors for vehicular applications. The basic design process, construction, and test results for a motor fitted in a 26-in wheel to drive a 260-kg all up weight vehicle are presented. At an output power of 1 kW, the attainable vehicle speed is 72 km/h, corresponding to a motor/wheel speed of 578 r/min and torque of 16.5 N {center_dot} m, at an estimated motor efficiency of 94%.

Patterson, D. [Northern Territory Univ., Darwin (Australia); Spee, R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1995-09-01

474

Throttle Control for Vehicle Following  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throttle control design is an important part of Au- tomated Vehicle Control System (AVCS). In this paper we design some throttle control schemes for vehicle following under constant time headway spacing policy. The schemes maintain a steady state inter-vehicle spacing decided by a desired time headway set by the driver. One verified nonlinear longitudinal vehicle model is used for simulations

P. Ioannou; Z. Xu

1993-01-01

475

The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident study investigating psychological distress: design, methods and cohort profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident (TCOM) Study has been carried out in Tokyo since 2004. This study examined\\u000a the association of medical and psychosocial variables evaluated shortly after admission to the acute critical care center\\u000a with long-term psychiatric morbidity risk in patients with accidental injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between May 2004 and January 2008, patients with accidental injury consecutively admitted were

Yutaka Matsuoka; Daisuke Nishi; Satomi Nakajima; Naohiro Yonemoto; Kenji Hashimoto; Hiroko Noguchi; Masato Homma; Yasuhiro Otomo; Yoshiharu Kim

2009-01-01

476

A case study comparing 1-D and 3-D analytical modeling methods for vehicle intake system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is intense competition among automakers to create ever-quieter vehicles and powertrains. Exterior and interior noise of many vehicles is significantly influenced by noise coming from the engine intake system. In order to address this source, significant effort needs to be expended on the noise design of an engine's intake system. Cost and time constraints tend to make intake designers ignore many complexities in their modeling efforts, specifically in assuming rigid walls, and using 1D model methods. This paper, presents a case study comparing results for a particular intake system between a 1D model, the 3-D boundary element analysis (BEA) method, both coupled and uncoupled to the structure and the new ACTRAN code by fft/MSC of analyzing coupled structure/fluid systems. The structure accuracy of the result is compared to measurements of a physical prototype. Costs and time required are compared, as well as some of the modeling issues encountered and the relative accuracy of each method.

Aubert, Allan C.; Green, Ed; Bastiaan, Jennifer; Leclercq, Thomas

2005-09-01

477

Design? An Exploratory Study into the Effect of 15 Years of Progress on Driver Situation Awareness. International Journal of Vehicle Design. What's happened to car design? An Exploratory Study into the Effect of 15 years of Progress on Driver Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the ubiquitous feedback that arises from the vehicle's normal interaction with the road. It includes steering feel, aerodynamic and engine noise, and most other aspects of what the driver can perceive through their interaction with the vehicle whilst driving. From a human factors perspective a troubling aspect of progress in vehicle design is a trend

Guy H. Walker; Neville A. Stanton; Mark S. Young

478

Generation of modules for control communication circuits: A design study used in the framework of the safe vehicle PROMETHEUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of communication protocols on silicon integrated circuits for access control is considered. The field of application is the European PROMETHEUS (Program for European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety) project. The design of communication circuits for network access control is discussed. The control type local network and the related protocols are analyzed. Market available communication controllers are presented. The functions and the architecture of network control systems are described and the interfaces with the host system are considered. A method based on the generation of modules for communication circuit's design is proposed. Examples of circuits generated for vehicle application networks are given. The feasibility of obstacle detection distributed system is investigated.

Sabouni, Imad

1992-01-01

479

Design of an integral starter/alternator with microprocessor control for vehicles driven by internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

Until now, all vehicles driven by internal combustion engines have had two separate electrical machines: a dc motor used in the starting process of the vehicle, and a generator (a synchronous alternator) used to provide the battery and electrical loads with the necessary power at a dc voltage via a solid state rectifier. The goal of this dissertation is to propose an integral ac/dc drive to replace the two electrical machines of the existing system, and to establish the technical advantage, the economical feasibility of the new system and the design of a gearless, pulleyless and brushless arrangement for a starter/alternator combination. The technical advantages are presented by weighing the proposed system against the existing one, and then by comparing the different types of electrical machines that can be considered for this application to select the most promising type. This turned out to be the induction machine. The system has a squirrel cage induction machine and a power conditioner with the necessary controllers designed to work in both motoring and generating modes, the machine has its rotor mounted on the periphery of the flywheel. The stator spans only a limited arch of the circumference. The power conditioner is can invert or rectify depending on whether it is working as a motor or as a generator, and of providing excitation to the machine. Presented in this work are the design criteria and the steps for complete design of the machine and complete analysis of the power conditioner. Also described is the control strategy adopted so the whole system works satisfactorily first in starting the engine and then changing into the generating mode to supply the loads with electrical energy. Implementation of the control strategy using a microprocessor based controller is also explained.

Kittaneh, O.I.

1989-01-01

480

Efficient Optimal Design Methodology for Nonlinear Multibody Dynamics Systems with Application to Vehicle Occupant Restraint Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need exists for robust and efficient optimal design methods for application to multibody systems, in which the components to be designed represent connections between large displacement, large rotation motions of the subsystems' bodies. A specific app...

G. Dong G. Hulbert N. Kikuchi S. Arepally Z. Ma

2011-01-01