Science.gov

Sample records for vehicle design

  1. Aerodynamic Design of Road Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Guidebook discusses design of road vehicles to reduce aerodynamic drag. Book presents strategy for integrating aerodynamic design into vehicle design. Book written for readers lacking experience in aerodynamics.

  2. Laser Lightcraft Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buch, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Current space deployment vehicle research is investigating ways to lower the cost to place payloads into orbit. Beamed energy propulsion is one of the areas that are being studied. The Laser lightcraft concept, which uses a ground based laser as part of its propulsion system, falls into this category. This concept has been developed by previous Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) research. In this concept, the laser energy is reflected off of a mirror on the craft and is focused inside the cowl to created optical breakdown of the propellant. There are several concerns about the design that must be further studied. These include: 1) Thermodynamic analysis of the cryogenic fuel storage and feed systems, 2) Analysis of the regenerative cooling system for the primary optic, and 3) Analysis of focal blurring of the laser due to off-axis flight.

  3. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  4. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  5. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  6. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near-term as well as framework for development of more advanced methods to serve future needs.

  7. The Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    The aerospace vehicle interactive design (AVID) is a computer aided design that was developed for the conceptual and preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. The AVID system evolved from the application of several design approaches in an advanced concepts environment in which both mission requirements and vehicle configurations are continually changing. The basic AVID software facilitates the integration of independent analysis programs into a design system where the programs can be executed individually for analysis or executed in groups for design iterations and parametric studies. Programs integrated into an AVID system for launch vehicle design include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, mass properties, and economics.

  8. Biocular vehicle display optical designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, H.; Carter, Tom

    2012-06-01

    Biocular vehicle display optics is a fast collimating lens (f / # < 0.9) that presents the image of the display at infinity to both eyes of the viewer. Each eye captures the scene independently and the brain merges the two images into one through the overlapping portions of the images. With the recent conversion from analog CRT based displays to lighter, more compact active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLED) digital image sources, display optical designs have evolved to take advantage of the higher resolution AMOLED image sources. To maximize the field of view of the display optics and fully resolve the smaller pixels, the digital image source is pre-magnified by relay optics or a coherent taper fiber optics plate. Coherent taper fiber optics plates are used extensively to: 1. Convert plano focal planes to spherical focal planes in order to eliminate Petzval field curvature. This elimination enables faster lens speed and/or larger field of view of eye pieces, display optics. 2. Provide pre-magnification to lighten the work load of the optics to further increase the numerical aperture and/or field of view. 3. Improve light flux collection efficiency and field of view by collecting all the light emitted by the image source and guiding imaging light bundles toward the lens aperture stop. 4. Reduce complexity of the optical design and overall packaging volume by replacing pre-magnification optics with a compact taper fiber optics plate. This paper will review and compare the performance of biocular vehicle display designs without and with taper fiber optics plate.

  9. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  10. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  11. Heat source reentry vehicle design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The design details are presented of a flight-type heat source reentry vehicle and heat exchanger compatible with the isotope Brayton power conversion system. The reference reentry vehicle and heat exchanger were modified, orbital and superorbital capability was assessed, and a complete set of detail design layout drawings were provided.

  12. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  13. Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John

    1993-01-01

    The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar vehicle design concepts for Mars missions.

  14. Mars vehicle design: The fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-09-01

    Powerful new computational tools and small, expert teams have produced unprecedented levels of design detail in the latest cycle of engineering planning for human expeditions to Mars. This article reports on a study contract for NASA-MSFC which evolved mature fourth-generation Mars mission vehicle concepts, a set based on nuclear electric, solar electric, and nuclear thermal propulsion methods. The concept described in this article covers propulsion vehicle and lander design, transfer vehicle design, engines and propulsion components, crew habitats, and the earth-to-orbit (ETO) flight plan. The vehicle design integration has taken full advantage of modern numerical capabilities, including the following: supercomputer flight dynamics calculations; automated radiation dose analysis; and computer-aided design, drafting, performance modeling, and image representation. Fourth-generation methodology has established a challenging benchmark against which future concepts will be judged.

  15. Design of Scale Intelligent Vehicle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junliang; Zhang, Zufeng; Jia, Peng; Luo, Shaohua; Zhang, Zufeng

    Nowadays, intelligent vehicle is widely studied all over the world. On considering cost and safety of test on real vehicle, it takes scale intelligent vehicle as a carrier platform, which uses visual sensors to capture the environmental information in a Wi-Fi wireless communication network environment, and creates a system including video surveillance system, monitoring command terminal, data server and three-dimensional simulating test traffic environment. The core algorithms, such as road recognition perception, image data processing, path planning and the implementation of motion control, have been completely designed and applying on the vehicle platform. The experimental results verified its good effects and the robustness and stability of the algorithm.

  16. Automated mixed traffic vehicle design AMTV 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The design of an improved and enclosed Automated Mixed Traffic Transit (AMTT) vehicle is described. AMTT is an innovative concept for low-speed tram-type transit in which suitable vehicles are equipped with sensors and controls to permit them to operate in an automated mode on existing road or walkway surfaces. The vehicle chassis and body design are presented in terms of sketches and photographs. The functional design of the sensing and control system is presented, and modifications which could be made to the baseline design for improved performance, in particular to incorporate a 20-mph capability, are also discussed. The vehicle system is described at the block-diagram-level of detail. Specifications and parameter values are given where available.

  17. Multidisciplinary design optimization for space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, Annalisa; Castellini, Francesco; Bueskens, Christof; Lavagna, Michèle Roberta

    The paper presents the ongoing research activity on Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of the ESA PRESTIGE Program (PRrogram in Education for Space, Technology, Innovation and knowledGE), which is aimed at providing the European Space Agency with a new software technology for assisting in the early design phases of space vehicles. During the research, a software called SVAGO (Space Vehicles Analysis and Global Optimization) for future space transportation systems will be developed for the conceptual and early preliminary design of launch and re-entry vehicles, exploiting the synergies of the different interacting disciplines through the MDO methodology. First results of the research, namely the conceptual level modelling and optimization of classical expendable launch vehicles, will be presented in the paper, together with an overview of the complete software under development and its capabilities. Particular attention will be paid to the launcher subsystems analysis architecture, to the global and local optimization algorithms and the MDO architectures selected for this purpose.

  18. Launch Vehicle Design Process Characterization Enables Design/Project Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Robinson, Nancy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the project described in this viewgraph presentation included the following: (1) Provide an overview characterization of the launch vehicle design process; and (2) Delineate design/project tool to identify, document, and track pertinent data.

  19. The role of flight tests in hypersonic vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, D.; Wurster, K.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt is made to relate the hypersonic vehicle design process to various techniques for predicting the vehicle flight environment. Case studies are described to demonstrate the current vehicle design techniques used to predict the vehicle aerodynamics, aerodynamic heating, and performance and to show vehicle sensitivity to uncertainties in these parameters. Vehicle cost and weight, vehicle complexity, and development risk are the three contributors to vehicle development cost. Development risk is related to the design process itself and can be decreased by reducing uncertainties in the vehicle design.

  20. Design innovations in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Contents include: Design and analysis of a hybrid electric vehicle chassis; A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design; Controlling a CVT-equipped hybrid car; Computerized speed control of electric vehicles; A comparison of modeled and measured energy use in hybrid electric vehicles; and more.

  1. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

  2. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-08-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  3. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  4. Airbreathing hypersonic vehicle design and analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Petley, Dennis H.; Hunt, James L.; Martin, John G.

    1996-01-01

    The design, analysis, and optimization of airbreathing hypersonic vehicles requires analyses involving many highly coupled disciplines at levels of accuracy exceeding those traditionally considered in a conceptual or preliminary-level design. Discipline analysis methods including propulsion, structures, thermal management, geometry, aerodynamics, performance, synthesis, sizing, closure, and cost are discussed. Also, the on-going integration of these methods into a working environment, known as HOLIST, is described.

  5. Improving Conceptual Design for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes activities performed during the second year of a three year cooperative agreement between NASA - Langley Research Center and Georgia Tech. Year 1 of the project resulted in the creation of a new Cost and Business Assessment Model (CABAM) for estimating the economic performance of advanced reusable launch vehicles including non-recurring costs, recurring costs, and revenue. The current year (second year) activities were focused on the evaluation of automated, collaborative design frameworks (computation architectures or computational frameworks) for automating the design process in advanced space vehicle design. Consistent with NASA's new thrust area in developing and understanding Intelligent Synthesis Environments (ISE), the goals of this year's research efforts were to develop and apply computer integration techniques and near-term computational frameworks for conducting advanced space vehicle design. NASA - Langley (VAB) has taken a lead role in developing a web-based computing architectures within which the designer can interact with disciplinary analysis tools through a flexible web interface. The advantages of this approach are, 1) flexible access to the designer interface through a simple web browser (e.g. Netscape Navigator), 2) ability to include existing 'legacy' codes, and 3) ability to include distributed analysis tools running on remote computers. To date, VAB's internal emphasis has been on developing this test system for the planetary entry mission under the joint Integrated Design System (IDS) program with NASA - Ames and JPL. Georgia Tech's complementary goals this year were to: 1) Examine an alternate 'custom' computational architecture for the three-discipline IDS planetary entry problem to assess the advantages and disadvantages relative to the web-based approach.and 2) Develop and examine a web-based interface and framework for a typical launch vehicle design problem.

  6. HIFiRE-5 Flight Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, Roger L.; Adamczak, David; Berger, Karen; Choudhari, Meelan

    2010-01-01

    The Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) program is a hypersonic flight test program executed by the Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL) and Australian Defence Science and Technology Organization (DSTO). HIFiRE flight 5 is devoted to measuring transition on a three-dimensional body. This paper summarizes payload configuration, trajectory, vehicle stability limits and roughness tolerances. Results show that the proposed configuration is suitable for testing transition on a three-dimensional body. Transition is predicted to occur within the test window, and a design has been developed that will allow the vehicle to be manufactured within prescribed roughness tolerances

  7. Dynamic issues in launch vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.; Jewell, Ronald E.

    1993-01-01

    Launch vehicles, in general, have been defined using performance requirements and generic payload characteristics which dictated the propulsion system and the payload carrier. The vehicle concept is then selected using these requirements in conjunction with basic criteria and standards. During the design phase, the selected concept must be modified in order to cope with the numerous dynamic and other problems that occur during design and development. This is costly and is, to some extent, unnecessary. The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach for bringing the dynamic issues into focus during concept selection, where the greatest payoff exists. Delaying consideration of the issues to the design phases creates many problems, not the least of which are the impacts levied against the payload community. Volumes of information exist from prior programs on these dynamic issues and serve as the guidelines for this paper.

  8. Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Keller, Vernon W.; Vaughan, William W.

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial environment is an important driver of space vehicle structural, control, and thermal system design. NASA is currently in the process of producing an update to an earlier Terrestrial Environment Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicle Design and Development Handbook. This paper addresses the contents of this updated handbook, with special emphasis on new material being included in the areas of atmospheric thermodynamic models, wind dynamics, atmospheric composition, atmospheric electricity, cloud phenomena, atmospheric extremes, and sea state. In addition, the respective engineering design elements are discussed relative to terrestrial environment inputs that require consideration. Specific lessons learned that have contributed to the advancements made in the application and awareness of terrestrial environment inputs for aerospace engineering applications are presented.

  9. A lunar construction shack vehicle: Final design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A lunar construction shack vehicle is a critical component in most of the plans proposed for the construction of a permanent base on the moon. The Selene Engineering Company (SEC) has developed a concept for this vehicle which is both innovative and practical. The design makes use of the most advanced technology available to meet the goals for a safe, versatile and durable habitat that will serve as a starting point for the initial phase of the construction of a permanent lunar base. This document outlines SEC's proposed design for a lander vehicle which will be fully self-sufficient and will provide for all necessary life support, including consumables and radiation protection, needed by the construction crew until they can complete the assembly of a more permanent habitat. Since it is highly likely that it will take more than one crew to complete the construction of a permanent lunar base, the design emphasis is on systems which can be easily maintained and resupplied and which will take a minimum of start up preparation by succeeding crews.

  10. Aircraft Conceptual Design Using Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Antcliff, Kevin R.; Costa, Guillermo; Deshpande, Nachiket; Moore, Mark D.; Miguel, Edric A. San; Snyder, Alison N.

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is a parametric geometry modeling tool that is intended for use in the conceptual design of aircraft. The intent of this software is to rapidly model aircraft configurations without expending the expertise and time that is typically required for modeling with traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages. VSP accomplishes this by using parametrically defined components, such as a wing that is defined by span, area, sweep, taper ratio, thickness to cord, and so on. During this phase of frequent design builds, changes to the model can be rapidly visualized along with the internal volumetric layout. Using this geometry-based approach, parameters such as wetted areas and cord lengths can be easily extracted for rapid external performance analyses, such as a parasite drag buildup. At the completion of the conceptual design phase, VSP can export its geometry to higher fidelity tools. This geometry tool was developed by NASA and is freely available to U.S. companies and universities. It has become integral to conceptual design in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) here at NASA Langley Research Center and is currently being used at over 100 universities, aerospace companies, and other government agencies. This paper focuses on the use of VSP in recent NASA conceptual design studies to facilitate geometry-centered design methodology. Such a process is shown to promote greater levels of creativity, more rapid assessment of critical design issues, and improved ability to quickly interact with higher order analyses. A number of VSP vehicle model examples are compared to CAD-based conceptual design, from a designer perspective; comparisons are also made of the time and expertise required to build the geometry representations as well.

  11. Winged cargo return vehicle conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is committed to placing a permanent space station in Earth orbit in the 1990's. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be located in a 220 n.m. orbit at 28.5 degrees inclination. The Winged Cargo Return Vehicle's (CRV) primary mission is to support SSF crew by flying regular resupply missions. The winged CRV is designed to be reusable, dry land recoverable, and unmanned. The CRV will be launched inline on three liquid hydrogen/oxygen rocket boosters with a payload capacity of 113,000 lbs. The three boosters will take the CRV to an orbit of 50 by 110 n.m. From this altitude the orbital manuevering engine will place the vehicle in synchronous orbit with the space station. The winged CRV will deliver cargo modules to the space station by direct docking or by remaining outside the SSF command zone and using the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) to transfer cargo. After unloading/loading, the CRV will deorbit and fly back to Kennedy Space Center. The CRV has a wing span of 57.8 feet, a length of 76.0 feet, and a dry weight of 61.5 klb. The cargo capacity of the vehicle is 44.4 klb. The vehicle has a lift-drag ratio of 1.28 (hypersonic) and 6.0 (subsonic), resulting in a 1351 n.m. cross range. The overall mission length ranges between 18.8 and 80.5 hr. The operational period will be the years 2000 to 2020.

  12. Hypersonic drone vehicle design: A multidisciplinary experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    UCLA's Advanced Aeronautic Design group focussed their efforts on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necesary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: (1) to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and (2) to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. The group concentrated on three areas of great concern to NASP design: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed toward design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A 70 deg swept double-delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at the NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based on flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 pounds and an overall length of 85 feet.

  13. Space transportation vehicle design evaluation using saturated designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1993-01-01

    An important objective in the preliminary design and evaluation of space transportation vehicles is to find the best values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic (e.g. dry weight). For a given configuration, the vehicle performance can be determined by the use of complex sizing and performance evaluation computer programs. These complex computer programs utilize iterative algorithms and they are generally too expensive and/or difficult to use directly in multidisciplinary design optimization. An alternative is to use response surface methodology (RSM) and obtain quadratic polynomial approximations to the functional relationships between performance characteristics and design variables. In RSM, these approximation models are then used to determine optimum design parameter values and for rapid sensitivity studies. Constructing a second-order model requires that 'n' design parameters be studied at least at 3 levels (values) so that the coefficients in the model can be estimated. There, 3(n) factorial experiments (point designs or observations) may be necessary. For small values of 'n' such as two or three, this design works well. However, when a large number of design parameters are under study, the number of design points required for a full-factorial design may become excessive. Fortunately, these quadratic polynomial approximations can be obtained by selecting an efficient design matrix using central composite designs (CCD) from design of experiments theory. Each unique point design from the CCD matrix is then conducted using computerized analysis tools (e.g. POST, CONSIZ, etc.). In the next step, least squares regression analysis is used to calculate the quadratic polynomial coefficients from the data. However, in some multidisciplinary applications involving a large number of design variables and several disciplines, the computerized performance synthesis programs may get too time consuming and expensive to run even with the use of efficient central composite designs. In such cases, it may be preferable to keep the number of design points to an absolute minimum and trade some model accuracy with cost. For this purpose, another class of experimental designs, called saturated D-optimal designs may be utilized for generating a matrix of vehicle designs. A design is called saturated when the number of design points is exactly equal to the number of terms in the model to be fitted. As a result, saturated designs require the absolute minimum number of design points ((n+1)(n+2)/s) to estimate the quadratic polynomial model coefficients. Saturated designs can be generated using the D-optimality criterion. A good saturated design should give rise to least squares estimates with minimum generalized variance.

  14. Space transportation vehicle design evaluation using saturated designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Resit

    1993-12-01

    An important objective in the preliminary design and evaluation of space transportation vehicles is to find the best values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic (e.g. dry weight). For a given configuration, the vehicle performance can be determined by the use of complex sizing and performance evaluation computer programs. These complex computer programs utilize iterative algorithms and they are generally too expensive and/or difficult to use directly in multidisciplinary design optimization. An alternative is to use response surface methodology (RSM) and obtain quadratic polynomial approximations to the functional relationships between performance characteristics and design variables. In RSM, these approximation models are then used to determine optimum design parameter values and for rapid sensitivity studies. Constructing a second-order model requires that 'n' design parameters be studied at least at 3 levels (values) so that the coefficients in the model can be estimated. There, 3(n) factorial experiments (point designs or observations) may be necessary. For small values of 'n' such as two or three, this design works well. However, when a large number of design parameters are under study, the number of design points required for a full-factorial design may become excessive. Fortunately, these quadratic polynomial approximations can be obtained by selecting an efficient design matrix using central composite designs (CCD) from design of experiments theory. Each unique point design from the CCD matrix is then conducted using computerized analysis tools (e.g. POST, CONSIZ, etc.). In the next step, least squares regression analysis is used to calculate the quadratic polynomial coefficients from the data. However, in some multidisciplinary applications involving a large number of design variables and several disciplines, the computerized performance synthesis programs may get too time consuming and expensive to run even with the use of efficient central composite designs. In such cases, it may be preferable to keep the number of design points to an absolute minimum and trade some model accuracy with cost. For this purpose, another class of experimental designs, called saturated D-optimal designs may be utilized for generating a matrix of vehicle designs. A design is called saturated when the number of design points is exactly equal to the number of terms in the model to be fitted. As a result, saturated designs require the absolute minimum number of design points ((n+1)(n+2)/s) to estimate the quadratic polynomial model coefficients. designs can be generated using the D-optimality criterion. &A good saturated design should give rise to least squares estimates with minimum generalized variance.

  15. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  16. Habitability Designs for Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    NASA's space human factors team is contributing to the habitability of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), which will take crews to low Earth orbit, and dock there with additional vehicles to go on to the moon's surface. They developed a task analysis for operations and for self-sustenance (sleeping, eating, hygiene), and estimated the volumes required for performing the various tasks and for the associated equipment, tools and supplies. Rough volumetric mockups were built for crew evaluations. Trade studies were performed to determine the size and location of windows. The habitability analysis also contributes to developing concepts of operations by identifying constraints on crew time. Recently completed studies provided stowage concepts, tools for assessing lighting constraints, and approaches to medical procedure development compatible with the tight space and absence of gravity. New work will be initiated to analyze design concepts and verify that equipment and layouts do meet requirements.

  17. Aeroshell design techniques for aerocapture entry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, R. Eric; Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2007-12-01

    A major goal of NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program is to shorten trip times for scientific planetary missions. To meet this challenge arrival speeds will increase, requiring significant braking for orbit insertion, and thus increased deceleration propellant mass that may exceed launch lift capabilities. A technology called aerocapture has been developed to expand the mission potential of exploratory probes destined for planets with suitable atmospheres. Aerocapture inserts a probe into planetary orbit via a single pass through the atmosphere using the probe's aeroshell drag to reduce velocity. The benefit of an aerocapture maneuver is a large reduction in propellant mass that may result in smaller, less costly missions and reduced mission cruise times. The methodology used to design rigid aerocapture aeroshells will be presented with an emphasis on a new systems tool under development. Current methods for fast, efficient evaluations of structural systems for exploratory vehicles to planets and moons within our solar system have been under development within NASA having limited success. Many systems tools that have been attempted applied structural mass estimation techniques based on historical data and curve fitting techniques that are difficult and cumbersome to apply to new vehicle concepts and missions. The resulting vehicle aeroshell mass may be incorrectly estimated or have high margins included to account for uncertainty. This new tool will reduce the guesswork previously found in conceptual aeroshell mass estimations.

  18. Aeroshell Design Techniques for Aerocapture Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyke, R. Eric; Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2004-01-01

    A major goal of NASA s In-Space Propulsion Program is to shorten trip times for scientific planetary missions. To meet this challenge arrival speeds will increase, requiring significant braking for orbit insertion, and thus increased deceleration propellant mass that may exceed launch lift capabilities. A technology called aerocapture has been developed to expand the mission potential of exploratory probes destined for planets with suitable atmospheres. Aerocapture inserts a probe into planetary orbit via a single pass through the atmosphere using the probe s aeroshell drag to reduce velocity. The benefit of an aerocapture maneuver is a large reduction in propellant mass that may result in smaller, less costly missions and reduced mission cruise times. The methodology used to design rigid aerocapture aeroshells will be presented with an emphasis on a new systems tool under development. Current methods for fast, efficient evaluations of structural systems for exploratory vehicles to planets and moons within our solar system have been under development within NASA having limited success. Many systems tools that have been attempted applied structural mass estimation techniques based on historical data and curve fitting techniques that are difficult and cumbersome to apply to new vehicle concepts and missions. The resulting vehicle aeroshell mass may be incorrectly estimated or have high margins included to account for uncertainty. This new tool will reduce the guesswork previously found in conceptual aeroshell mass estimations.

  19. Aerospace vehicle design, spacecraft section. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to create a manned Martian aircraft which can perform: scientific surveys of particular sites distant from the base; a deployment of scientific instrument packages by air drop that land rovers cannot accomplish; and rescue operations. Designing the airfoil requires a wing which can operate within the low Reynolds numbers apparent on Mars. The airfoil, NASA NLF(1)-1015 was chosen. The design of the aircraft is comparable to a P-38 military aircraft. The aircraft uses fuel cells to power the two propellers. A rocket-assisted takeoff is necessary to enable Romulus to liftoff. Although the design and creation of Romulus would be an expensive adventure, such a vehicle could be most useful in evaluating the Mars surface and in creating a habitat for mankind.

  20. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, D.; Novosad, S. W.; Tu, K.; Loh, Y. C.; Kuo, Y. S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle space station communications systems design approach which is intended to satisfy the stringent link requirements. The operational scenario, system configuration, signal design, antenna system management, and link performance analysis are discussed in detail. It is shown that the return link can transmit up to 21.6 Mb/s and maintain at least a 3-dB link margin through proper power and antenna management control at a maximum distance of 37 km. It is suggested that the proposed system, which is compatible with the space station multiple-access system, can be a model for other space station interoperating elements or users to save the development cost and reduce the technical and schedule risks.

  1. Design of Flight Vehicle Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, George; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    As the operation of large systems becomes ever more dependent on extensive automation, the need for an effective solution to the problem of design and validation of the underlying software becomes more critical. Large systems possess much detailed structure, typically hierarchical, and they are hybrid. Information processing at the top of the hierarchy is by means of formal logic and sentences; on the bottom it is by means of simple scalar differential equations and functions of time; and in the middle it is by an interacting mix of nonlinear multi-axis differential equations and automata, and functions of time and discrete events. The lecture will address the overall problem as it relates to flight vehicle management, describe the middle level, and offer a design approach that is based on Differential Geometry and Discrete Event Dynamic Systems Theory.

  2. Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Weilmuenster, K. James; Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Olynick, David R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1997-01-01

    A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design process of hypersonic vehicles. Some topics to be highlighted include: (1) aerodynamic coefficient predictions with emphasis on high temperature gas effects; (2) surface heating and temperature predictions for thermal protection system (TPS) design in a high temperature, thermochemical nonequilibrium environment; (3) methods for extracting and extending computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solutions for efficient utilization by all members of a multidisciplinary design team; (4) physical models; (5) validation process and error estimation; and (6) gridding and solution generation strategies. Recent experiences in the design of X-33 will be featured. Computational aerothermodynamic contributions to Mars Pathfinder, METEOR, and Stardust (Comet Sample return) will also provide context for this discussion. Some of the barriers that currently limit computational aerothermodynamics to a predominantly reactive mode in the design process will also be discussed, with the goal of providing focus for future research.

  3. Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Weilmuenster, K. James; Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Olynick, David R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2005-01-01

    A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design process of hypersonic vehicles. Some topics to be highlighted include: (1) aerodynamic coefficient predictions with emphasis on high temperature gas effects; (2) surface heating and temperature predictions for thermal protection system (TPS) design in a high temperature, thermochemical nonequilibrium environment; (3) methods for extracting and extending computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solutions for efficient utilization by all members of a multidisciplinary design team; (4) physical models; (5) validation process and error estimation; and (6) gridding and solution generation strategies. Recent experiences in the design of X-33 will be featured. Computational aerothermodynamic contributions to Mars Path finder, METEOR, and Stardust (Comet Sample return) will also provide context for this discussion. Some of the barriers that currently limit computational aerothermodynamics to a predominantly reactive mode in the design process will also be discussed, with the goal of providing focus for future research.

  4. Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design process of hypersonic vehicles. Some topics to be highlighted include: (1) aerodynamic coefficient predictions with emphasis on high temperature gas effects; (2) surface heating and temperature predictions for thermal protection system (TPS) design in a high temperature, thermochemical nonequilibrium environment; (3) methods for extracting and extending computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solutions for efficient utilization by all members of a multidisciplinary design team; (4) physical models; (5) validation process and error estimation; and (6) gridding and solution generation strategies. Recent experiences in the design of X-33 will be featured. Computational aerothermodynamic contributions to Mars Pathfinder, METEOR, and Stardust (Comet Sample return) will also provide context for this discussion. Some of the barriers that currently limit computational aerothermodynamics to a predominantly reactive mode in the design process will also be discussed, with the goal of providing focus for future research.

  5. Wooden Spaceships: Human-Centered Vehicle Design for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twyford, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Presentation will focus on creative human centered design solutions in relation to manned space vehicle design and development in the NASA culture. We will talk about design process, iterative prototyping, mockup building and user testing and evaluation. We will take an inside look at how new space vehicle concepts are developed and designed for real life exploration scenarios.

  6. Accelerating the Design of Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Larry (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    One of NASA's key goals is to increase the safety and reduce the cost of space transportation. Thus, a key element of NASA's new Integrated Space Transportation Plan is to develop new propulsion, structures, and operations for future generations of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). As part of this effort to develop the next RLV, the ClCT Program's Computing, Networking, and Information Systems (CNIS) Project is developing and demonstrating collaborative software technologies that use the collective power of the NASA Grid to accelerate spacecraft design. One of these technologies, called AeroDB, automates the execution and monitoring of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) parameter studies on the NASA Grid. About the NASA Grid The NASA Grid, or Information Power Grid,. is being developed to leverage the distributed resources of NASA's many computers. instruments, simulators, and data storage systems. The goal is to use these combined resources to sdve difficult NASA challenges, such as iimulating the entire flight of a space vehicle from ascent to descent.To realize the vision of the NASA Grid, the CNIS Project is developing the software framework and protocols for building domain-specific environments and interfaces, new Grid services based on emerging industry standards, and advanced networking and computing testbeds to support new Grid-based applications such as AeroDB.

  7. Manned Mars aerobrake vehicle design issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Powell, Richard W.; Braun, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    The paper examines the preliminary definition of the stagnation region aerothermodynamic environment, the effect of convective/radiative effect of trim angle-of-attack mispredictions, packaging issues, and the implications of wake flow for vehicles not having an aft aeroshell. The implications of each of these factors for a Mars aerobrake configuration with a L/D in the range of 0.3-0.5 is evaluated. It is shown that packaging and wake flow requirements have a significant impact on the final design of a low L/D aerobrake. Due to the large proportion of carbonaceous species in the Martian atmosphere, radiative heating is seen to play a more dominant role in the stagnation region aerothermodynamics than for an equivalent earth entry. It is concluded that this radiation amplification is an additional reason to consider a multiple aerobrake system.

  8. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  9. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  10. Robust flight design for an advanced launch system vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhand, Sanjeev K.; Wong, Kelvin K.

    1991-01-01

    Current launch vehicle trajectory design philosophies are generally based on maximizing payload capability. This approach results in an expensive trajectory design process for each mission. Two concepts of robust flight design have been developed to significantly reduce this cost: Standardized Trajectories and Command Multiplier Steering (CMS). These concepts were analyzed for an Advanced Launch System (ALS) vehicle, although their applicability is not restricted to any particular vehicle. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the feasibility of these concepts at minimal loss in payload capability.

  11. CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS FOR A NEW HIGHWAY VEHICLE EMISSIONS ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses six conceptual designs for a new highway vehicle emissions estimation methodology and summarizes the recommendations of each design for improving the emissions and activity factors in the emissions estimation process. he complete design reports are included a...

  12. Aerodynamic design of a variable-bend vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Rutledge, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Variable-bend maneuvering vehicles provide a unique type of control for a variety of supersonic and hypersonic missions. Unfortunately, the large hinge moments often associated with these vehicles have prevented their application. A procedure is presented for the efficient design of a variable-bend geometry vehicle given a set of system constraints. In particular, the selection of vehicle parameters to produce minimum hinge moments for trimmed flight is examined in detail. 20 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Design synthesis of Shuttle-class hypersonic SSTO vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Mark G.

    1990-01-01

    A conceptual design for a manned fully-reusable horizontal-takeoff-and-landing airbreathing hypersonic single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle is outlined. This design for a large-payload SSTO vehicle (LSSTO) of the early 21st century is based on projections of mature National Aerospaceplane (NASP) technology. The LSSTO design is used to demonstrate the unique system integration challenges discovered in the design of airbreathing hypersonic SSTO vehicles. Generic NASP data, as well as lessons learned in other aerospace vehicle programs, are used as design inputs and constraints. Representative trade studies, parametrics, and drawings are used to illustrate the design process. Descriptions of primary structural concepts, payload bay design, landing gear design, and placement of auxiliary systems are discussed to illustrate the importance of design synergism.

  14. Design optimization for a space based, reusable orbit transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, L.

    1985-01-01

    Future NASA and DOD missions will benefit from high performance, reusable orbit transfer vehicles. With the advent of a space station, advanced engine technology, and various new vehicle concepts, reusable orbit transfer vehicles that provide significant economic benefits and mission capability improvements will be realized. Engine and vehicle design criteria previously have lacked definition with regard to issues such as space basing and servicing, man-rating and reliability, performance, mission flexibility, and life cycle cost for a reusable vehicle. The design study described here has resulted in the definition of a reusable orbit transfer vehicle concept and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine. These design criteria include number of engines per vehicle, nozzle design, etc. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include low lift to drag aerocapture capability, a main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with a high performance attitude control system for back-up or three main engines with which to meet this failure criteria. In addition, a maintenance approach has been established for the advanced vehicle concept.

  15. Novel design for antidazzle vehicle headlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liandong; Fei, Yetai

    2006-11-01

    Compared to the important role in night driving of vehicle headlights, the dazzling and discomfort problems caused by the headlights are also not ignored. Sometimes the dazzling light is the main factor of causing traffic accidents in the night. In the paper, a novel design using irregular coating mirror to solve the dazzle problem is brought forward. As for the traditional headlamp comprised of a high beam and a low beam filament, the high beam filament causes plenty of the dazzling light. If the high beam filament's lighting density can be reduced without influencing the lighting effect, the problem is to be solved. Because plane-reflect mirror can change the light's transmitting direction, we employ the plan which uses 88 slat glasses whose upper surfaces coated with reflection films and bottom surfaces with light absorbing films, and put the whole mirror in front of the headlamp. When turn on headlight, the dazzling light is reflected by glass' upper plane, then absorbed by bottom plane. So the mirror prevents people from the dazzling light. In addition, the paper presents the experiment results to prove the anti-dazzle effect.

  16. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems Using Ascent Vehicle Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A launch vehicle represents a complicated flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. The Ascent-vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) is developed to address the complicity in design and analysis of a launch vehicle. The design objective for the flight control system of a launch vehicle is to best follow guidance commands while robustly maintaining system stability. A constrained optimization approach takes the advantage of modern computational control techniques to simultaneously design multiple control systems in compliance with required design specs. "Tower Clearance" and "Load Relief" designs have been achieved for liftoff and max dynamic pressure flight regions, respectively, in the presence of large wind disturbances. The robustness of the flight control system designs has been verified in the frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis using ASAT.

  17. Design diversity of HEVs with example vehicles from HEV competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.; LeBlanc, N.

    1996-12-31

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVS) can be designed and operated to satisfy many different operational missions. The three most common HEV types differ with respect to component sizing and operational capabilities. However, HEV technology offers design opportunities beyond these three types. This paper presents a detailed HEV categorization process that can be used to describe unique HEV prototype designs entered in college and university-level HEV design competitions. We explored possible energy management strategies associated with designs that control the utilization of the two on- board energy sources and use the competition vehicles to illustrate various configurations and designs that affect the vehicle`s capabilities. Experimental data is used to help describe the details of the power control strategies which determine how the engine and electric motor of HEV designs work together to provide motive power to the wheels.

  18. Two designs for an orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard; Duquette, Miles; Fredrick, Rebecca; Schumacher, Daniel; Somers, Schaeffer; Stafira, Stanley; Williams, James; Zelinka, Mark

    1988-01-01

    The Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) and systems were researched in the following areas: avionics, crew systems, electrical power systems, environmental control/life support systems, navigation and orbital maneuvers, propulsion systems, reaction control systems (RCS), servicing systems, and structures.

  19. Winged cargo return vehicle. Volume 1: Conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Design Project (ADP) allows an opportunity for students to work in conjunction with NASA and other aerospace companies on NASA Advanced Design Projects. The following volumes represent the design report: Volume 1 Conceptual Design; Volume 2 Wind Tunnel Tests; Volume 3 Structural Analysis; and Volume 4 Water Tunnel Tests. The project chosen by the University of Minnesota in conjunction with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for this year is a Cargo Return Vehicle (CRV) to support the Space Station Freedom. The vehicle is the third generation of vehicles to be built by NASA, the first two being the Apollo program, and the Space Shuttle program. The CRV is to work in conjunction with a personnel launch system (PLS) to further subdivide and specialize the vehicles that NASA will operate in the year 2000. The cargo return vehicle will carry payload to and from the Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  20. Defining Support Requirements During Conceptual Design of Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, N. H.; Davis, W. T.; Ebeling, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Current methods for defining the operational support requirements of new systems are data intensive and require significant design information. Methods are being developed to aid in the analysis process of defining support requirements for new launch vehicles during their conceptual design phase that work with the level of information available during this phase. These methods will provide support assessments based on the vehicle design and the operating scenarios. The results can be used both to define expected support requirements for new launch vehicle designs and to help evaluate the benefits of using new technologies. This paper describes the models, their current status, and provides examples of their use.

  1. DESIGN OF A REMOTELY CONTROLLED HOVERCRAFT VEHICLE FOR SPILL RECONNAISSANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program was undertaken to prepare a conceptual design for a practical prototype of a remotely-controlled reconnaissance vehicle for use in hazardous material spill environment. Data from past hazardous material spills were analyzed to determine the type of vehicle best suite...

  2. Design of a lightweight, low-cost geophysical survey vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, K.

    1989-03-01

    A remote-controlled vehicle has been designed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for surveying sites that are dangerous for manned vehicles. The vehicle is required to be small, maneuverable, inexpensive, and as free of metallic parts as practicable. The prototype being fabricated will have a mostly aluminum engine, dual bicycle tire wheel assemblies, a two-clutch steering system for selective engagement of pairs of wheels on either side of the vehicle, and radio control with fiber-optic umbilical video link. Wireless control and telemetry are planned for the future. Other future possibilities include a mostly plastic engine and a global positioning system that uses satellite signals. 3 figs.

  3. An integrated approach to the design of supercavitating underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Seong Sik

    2007-12-01

    A supercavitating vehicle, a next-generation underwater vehicle capable of changing the paradigm of modern marine warfare, exploits supercavitation as a means to reduce drag and achieve extremely high submerged speeds. In supercavitating flows, a low-density gaseous cavity entirely envelops the vehicle and as a result the vehicle is in contact with liquid water only at its nose and partially over the afterbody. Hence, the vehicle experiences a substantially reduced skin drag and can achieve much higher speed than conventional vehicles. The development of a controllable and maneuvering supercavitating vehicle has been confronted with various challenging problems such as the potential instability of the vehicle, the unsteady nature of cavity dynamics, the complex and non-linear nature of the interaction between vehicle and cavity. Furthermore, major questions still need to be resolved regarding the basic configuration of the vehicle itself, including its control surfaces, the control system, and the cavity dynamics. In order to answer these fundamental questions, together with many similar ones, this dissertation develops an integrated simulation-based design tool to optimize the vehicle configuration subjected to operational design requirements, while predicting the complex coupled behavior of the vehicle for each design configuration. Particularly, this research attempts to include maneuvering flight as well as various operating trim conditions directly in the vehicle configurational optimization. This integrated approach provides significant improvement in performance in the preliminary design phase and indicates that trade-offs between various performance indexes are required due to their conflicting requirements. This dissertation also investigates trim conditions and dynamic characteristics of supercavitating vehicles through a full 6 DOF model. The influence of operating conditions, and cavity models and their memory effects on trim is analyzed and discussed. Unique characteristics are identified, e.g. the cavity memory effects introduce a favorable stabilizing effect by providing restoring fins and planing forces. Furthermore, this research investigates the flight envelope of a supercavitating vehicle, which is significantly different from that of a conventional vehicle due to different hydrodynamic coefficients as well as unique operational conditions.

  4. Design of a fast crew transfer vehicle to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A final report is made on the trajectory and vehicle requirements for a fast crew transfer vehicle to Mars which will complete an Earth to Mars (and Mars to Earth) transfer in 150 days and will have a stay time at Mars of 40 days. This vehicle will maximize the crew's effectiveness on Mars by minimizing detrimental physiological effects such as bone demineralization and loss of muscle tone caused by long period exposure to zero gravity and radiation from cosmic rays and solar flares. The crew transfer vehicle discussed will complete the second half of a Split Mission to Mars. In the Split Mission, a slow, unmanned cargo vehicle, nicknamed the Barge, is sent to Mars ahead of the crew vehicle. Once the Barge is in orbit around Mars, the fast crew vehicle will be launched to rendezvous with the Barge in Mars orbit. The vehicle presented is designed to carry six astronauts for a mission duration of one year. The vehicle uses a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear power system. Four crew modules, similar to the proposed Space Station Common Modules, are used to house the crew and support equipment during the mission. The final design also includes a command module that is shielded to protect the crew during radiation events.

  5. Concept design of a new generation military vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Ursescu, Gabriel; Serrao, Lorenzo; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Bechtel, James; Udvare, Thomas; Letherwood, Mike

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an advanced concept for a next generation military vehicle based on state of the art technologies. The vehicle's platform will be directly suitable for high mobility applications for instance: Special Forces missions, Marine reconnaissance missions, and commercial racing in events such as Bajas and the Paris - Dakar. The platform will be a 10000 -14000 lbs high-speed multi-purpose vehicle, designed for extreme off-road operation. A completely new suspension concept is expected to be developed and the new vehicle topology will accommodate a new generation hybrid-electric power train. The dynamic performance targets are 125 mph off-road and 0-60 in 7 seconds. The concept design will focus also on survivability mainly through the use of a new vehicle topology (herein referred to as "island") specifically designed to enhance crew protection. The "island" topology consists in locating the powertrain and other vehicle equipment and subsystems around the crew compartment. Thus, even in the event of an external shield penetration the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment which serves in an additional role as a secondary shield. The paper presents vehicle specifications, performance capabilities, simulation models and virtual models of the vehicle.

  6. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  7. Preliminary subsystem designs for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Described herein is a series of design studies concerning the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV). Study topics include a braking and landing system for the ACRV, ACRV growth options, and the design impacts of ACRV's role as a medical emergency vehicle. Four alternate designs are presented for the ACRV braking and landing system. Options presented include ballistic and lifting body reentries; the use of high-lift, high-payload aerodynamic decelerators, as well as conventional parachutes; landing systems designed for water landings, land landings or both; and an aerial recovery system. Uses of the ACRV or a similarly designed vehicle in several roles for possible future space missions are discussed, along with the required changes to the ACRV to allow it to perform these missions optimally. The impacts on the design of the ACRV due to its role as an emergency vehicle were studied and are presented here. This study included the design of a stretcher-like system to transport an ill or injured crewmember safely within the ACRV; a compilation of necessary medical equipment and decisions on how or where to store it; and recommendations about internal and external vehicle characteristics that will ease the transport of the ill or injured crewmember and allow for swift and easy ingress/egress of the vehicle.

  8. Design of a vehicle based system to prevent ozone loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Matthew D.; Eby, Steven C.; Ireland, Glen J.; Mcwithey, Michael C.; Schneider, Mark S.; Youngblood, Daniel L.; Johnson, Matt; Taylor, Chris

    1994-01-01

    This project is designed to be completed over a three year period. Overall project goals are: (1) to understand the processes that contribute to stratospheric ozone loss; (2) to determine the best scheme to prevent ozone loss; and (3) to design a vehicle based system to carry out the prevention scheme. The 1993/1994 design objectives included: (1) to review the results of the 1992/1993 design team, including a reevaluation of the key assumptions used; (2) to develop a matrix of baseline vehicle concepts as candidates for the delivery vehicle; and (3) to develop a selection criteria and perform quantitative trade studies to use in the selection of the specific vehicle concept.

  9. Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

  10. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Research results are presented for the following groups: Project Mars Airplane Vehicle and Reconnaissance Instrument Carrier (MAVRIC), ACME, ARES, Project ACRONYM, Mars Aircraft Recepticle with Technical Instruments, Aerobraking, and Navigation (MARTIAN), and NOMADS. Each project is described by the following areas of focus: mission planning and costs; aerobraking systems; structures and thermal control systems; attitude and articulation control systems; comman and data control systems; science instrumentation; and power and propulsion systems.

  11. Information Flow in the Launch Vehicle Design/Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R., Sr.; Holland, W.; Bishop, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a team effort aimed at defining the information flow between disciplines at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engaged in the design of space launch vehicles. The information flow is modeled at a first level and is described using three types of templates: an N x N diagram, discipline flow diagrams, and discipline task descriptions. It is intended to provide engineers with an understanding of the connections between what they do and where it fits in the overall design process of the project. It is also intended to provide design managers with a better understanding of information flow in the launch vehicle design cycle.

  12. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Calvery, A. L.; Davis, D. A.; Dickmann, L.; Folger, D. H.; Jochem, E. N.; Kitto, C. M.; Vonlimbach, G.

    1977-01-01

    Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) system design requirements are given. The information is based on the IPAD User Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70013-D) and the Integrated Information Processing Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70012-D). General information about IPAD and a list of the system design requirements that are to be satisfied by the IPAD system are given. The system design requirements definition is to be considered as a baseline definition of the IPAD system design requirements.

  13. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs. PMID:19333823

  14. Neural dynamic optimization for autonomous aerial vehicle trajectory design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Verma, Ajay; Mayer, Richard J.

    2007-04-01

    Online aerial vehicle trajectory design and reshaping are crucial for a class of autonomous aerial vehicles such as reusable launch vehicles in order to achieve flexibility in real-time flying operations. An aerial vehicle is modeled as a nonlinear multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system. The inputs include the control parameters and current system states that include velocity and position coordinates of the vehicle. The outputs are the new system states. An ideal trajectory control design system generates a series of control commands to achieve a desired trajectory under various disturbances and vehicle model uncertainties including aerodynamic perturbations caused by geometric damage to the vehicle. Conventional approaches suffer from the nonlinearity of the MIMO system, and the high-dimensionality of the system state space. In this paper, we apply a Neural Dynamic Optimization (NDO) based approach to overcome these difficulties. The core of an NDO model is a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network, which generates the control parameters online. The inputs of the MLP are the time-variant states of the MIMO systems. The outputs of the MLP and the control parameters will be used by the MIMO to generate new system states. By such a formulation, an NDO model approximates the time-varying optimal feedback solution.

  15. Design Criteria for Low Risk Re-Entry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, R.; Pezzella, G.

    2005-02-01

    The paper shows how a sharp vehicle with low wing loading, is able to follow re-entry trajectories with low thermal risks by using Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) to thermally protect the vehicle front edges. These reusable materials can withstand the global radiative equilibrium temperatures that are experienced during reentry characterized by a longer and a more gradual conversion of the kinetic and potential energy of the vehicle into thermal energy. A number of aerothermodynamic problems are addressed to assess the feasibility of the vehicle design and of the thermal protection of the payload. In particular, the boundary layer thermal protection concept is illustrated to show how a UHTC massive tip edges (fuselage and wings) are able to protect also the remaining vehicle structure made of conventional material, promoting a revolutionary approach to the Thermal Protection System (TPS) configuration for hypersonic vehicle flying at small angle of attack. CFD results and engineering formulations are adopted for the computation of the aerodynamic coefficients and heat fluxes. The analysis identifies the design criteria for a conventional looking vehicle for a crew return from LEO (e.g. from the International Space Station).

  16. Application of optimization techniques to vehicle design: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, B.; Magee, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    The work that has been done in the last decade or so in the application of optimization techniques to vehicle design is discussed. Much of the work reviewed deals with the design of body or suspension (chassis) components for reduced weight. Also reviewed are studies dealing with system optimization problems for improved functional performance, such as ride or handling. In reviewing the work on the use of optimization techniques, one notes the transition from the rare mention of the methods in the 70's to an increased effort in the early 80's. Efficient and convenient optimization and analysis tools still need to be developed so that they can be regularly applied in the early design stage of the vehicle development cycle to be most effective. Based on the reported applications, an attempt is made to assess the potential for automotive application of optimization techniques. The major issue involved remains the creation of quantifiable means of analysis to be used in vehicle design. The conventional process of vehicle design still contains much experience-based input because it has not yet proven possible to quantify all important constraints. This restraint on the part of the analysis will continue to be a major limiting factor in application of optimization to vehicle design.

  17. Design study of toroidal traction CVT for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raynard, A. E.; Kraus, J.; Bell, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and optimization of a preliminary design concept for a continuously variable transmission (CVT) to couple the high-speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle is discussed. An existing computer simulation program was modified and used to compare the performance of five CVT design configurations. Based on this analysis, a dual-cavity full-toroidal drive with regenerative gearing is selected for the CVT design configuration. Three areas are identified that will require some technological development: the ratio control system, the traction fluid properities, and evaluation of the traction contact performance. Finally, the suitability of the selected CVT design concept for alternate electric and hybrid vehicle applications and alternate vehicle sizes and maximum output torques is determined. In all cases the toroidal traction drive design concept is applicable to the vehicle system. The regenerative gearing could be eliminated in the electric powered vehicle because of the reduced ratio range requirements. In other cases the CVT with regenerative gearing would meet the design requirements after appropriate adjustments in size and reduction gearing ratio.

  18. Airbreathing Hypersonic Vision-Operational-Vehicles Design Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Pegg, Robert J.; Petley, Dennis H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vision-operational-vehicle design matrix, with emphasis on horizontal takeoff and landing systems being, studied at Langley, it reflects the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix including Mach 5 to 10 airplanes with global-reach potential, pop-up and dual-role transatmospheric vehicles and airbreathing launch systems. The convergence of several critical systems/technologies across the vehicle matrix is indicated. This is particularly true for the low speed propulsion system for large unassisted horizontal takeoff vehicles which favor turbines and/or perhaps pulse detonation engines that do not require LOX which imposes loading concerns and mission Flexibility restraints.

  19. Airbreathing Hypersonic Vision-Operational-Vehicles Design Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Pegg, Robert J.; Petley, Dennis H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vision-operational-vehicle design matrix, with emphasis on horizontal takeoff and landing systems being studied at Langley; it reflects the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix including Mach 5 to 10 airplanes with global-reach potential, pop-up and dual-role transatmospheric vehicles and airbreathing launch systems. The convergence of several critical systems/technologies across the vehicle matrix is indicated. This is particularly true for the low speed propulsion system for large unassisted horizontal takeoff vehicles which favor turbines and/or perhaps pulse detonation engines that do not require LOX which imposes loading concerns and mission flexibility restraints.

  20. Conceptual Launch Vehicle and Spacecraft Design for Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motiwala, Samira A.; Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of developing human space launch and exploration systems is minimizing and mitigating the many potential risk factors to ensure the safest possible design while also meeting the required cost, weight, and performance criteria. In order to accomplish this, effective risk analyses and trade studies are needed to identify key risk drivers, dependencies, and sensitivities as the design evolves. The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) develops advanced risk analysis approaches, models, and tools to provide such meaningful risk and reliability data throughout vehicle development. The goal of the project presented in this memorandum is to design a generic launch 7 vehicle and spacecraft architecture that can be used to develop and demonstrate these new risk analysis techniques without relying on other proprietary or sensitive vehicle designs. To accomplish this, initial spacecraft and launch vehicle (LV) designs were established using historical sizing relationships for a mission delivering four crewmembers and equipment to the International Space Station (ISS). Mass-estimating relationships (MERs) were used to size the crew capsule and launch vehicle, and a combination of optimization techniques and iterative design processes were employed to determine a possible two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch trajectory into a 350-kilometer orbit. Primary subsystems were also designed for the crewed capsule architecture, based on a 24-hour on-orbit mission with a 7-day contingency. Safety analysis was also performed to identify major risks to crew survivability and assess the system's overall reliability. These procedures and analyses validate that the architecture's basic design and performance are reasonable to be used for risk trade studies. While the vehicle designs presented are not intended to represent a viable architecture, they will provide a valuable initial platform for developing and demonstrating innovative risk assessment capabilities.

  1. Vehicle drive module having improved terminal design

    DOEpatents

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Phillips, Mark G.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2006-04-25

    A terminal structure for vehicle drive power electronics circuits reduces the need for a DC bus and thereby the incidence of parasitic inductance. The structure is secured to a support that may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as by direct contact between the terminal assembly and AC and DC circuit components. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  2. Influence of structural dynamics on vehicle design - Government view. [of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordes, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic design considerations for aerospace vehicles are discussed, taking into account fixed wing aircraft, rotary wing aircraft, and launch, space, and reentry vehicles. It is pointed out that space vehicles have probably had the most significant design problems from the standpoint of structural dynamics, because their large lightweight structures are highly nonlinear. Examples of problems in the case of conventional aircraft include the flutter encountered by high performance military aircraft with external stores. A description is presented of a number of examples which illustrate the direction of present efforts for improving aircraft efficiency. Attention is given to the results of studies on the structural design concepts for the arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft configuration and a system study on low-wing-loading, short haul transports.

  3. Maximizing Launch Vehicle and Payload Design Via Early Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The United States? current fleet of launch vehicles is largely derived from decades-old designs originally made for payloads that no longer exist. They were built primarily for national security or human exploration missions. Today that fleet can be divided roughly into small-, medium-, and large-payload classes based on mass and volume capability. But no vehicle in the U.S. fleet is designed to accommodate modern payloads. It is usually the payloads that must accommodate the capabilities of the launch vehicles. This is perhaps most true of science payloads. It was this paradigm that the organizers of two weekend workshops in 2008 at NASA's Ames Research Center sought to alter. The workshops brought together designers of NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle (CLV) with scientists and payload designers in the astronomy and planetary sciences communities. Ares V was still in a pre-concept development phase as part of NASA?s Constellation Program for exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The space science community was early in a Decadal Survey that would determine future priorities for research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those observations. The primary purpose of the meetings in April and August of 2008, including the novel format, was to bring vehicle designers together with space scientists to discuss the feasibility of using a heavy lift capability to launch large observatories and explore the Solar System. A key question put to the science community was whether this heavy lift capability enabled or enhanced breakthrough science. The meetings also raised the question of whether some trade-off between mass/volume and technical complexity existed that could reduce technical and programmatic risk. By engaging the scientific community early in the vehicle design process, vehicle engineers sought to better understand potential limitations and requirements that could be added to the Ares V from the mission planning community. From the vehicle standpoint, while the human exploration mission could not be compromised to accommodate other payloads, the design might otherwise be tailored to not exclude other payload requirements. This paper summarizes the findings of the workshops and discusses the benefits of bringing together the vehicle design and science communities early in their concept phases

  4. Design for Safety - The Ares Launch Vehicles Paradigm Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    The lessons learned from the S&MA early involvement in the Ares I launch vehicle design phases proved that performing an in-line function jointly with engineering is critical for S&MA to have an effective role in supporting the system, element, and component design. These lessons learned were used to effectively support the Ares V conceptual design phase and planning for post conceptual design phases. The Top level Conceptual LOM assessment for Ares V performed by the S&MA community jointly with the engineering Advanced Concept Office (ACO) was influential in the final selection of the Ares V system configuration. Post conceptual phase, extensive reliability effort should be planned to support future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) design. In-depth reliability analysis involving the design, manufacturing, and system engineering communities is critical to understand design and process uncertainties and system integrated failures.

  5. Design Considerations for a Launch Vehicle Development Flight Instrumentation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Martin L.; Crawford, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    When embarking into the design of a new launch vehicle, engineering models of expected vehicle performance are always generated. While many models are well established and understood, some models contain design features that are only marginally known. Unfortunately, these analytical models produce uncertainties in design margins. The best way to answer these analytical issues is with vehicle level testing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration respond to these uncertainties by using a vehicle level system called the Development Flight Instrumentation, or DFI. This DFI system can be simple to implement, with only a few measurements, or it may be a sophisticated system with hundreds of measurement and video, without a recording capability. From experience with DFI systems, DFI never goes away. The system is renamed and allowed to continue, in most cases. Proper system design can aid the transition to future data requirements. This paper will discuss design features that need to be considered when developing a DFI system for a launch vehicle. It will briefly review the data acquisition units, sensors, multiplexers and recorders, telemetry components and harnessing. It will present a reasonable set of requirements which should be implemented in the beginning of the program in order to start the design. It will discuss a simplistic DFI architecture that could be the basis for the next NASA launch vehicle. This will be followed by a discussion of the "experiences gained" from a past DFI system implementation, such as the very successful Ares I-X test flight. Application of these design considerations may not work for every situation, but they may direct a path toward success or at least make one pause and ask the right questions.

  6. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumm, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  7. Design of a recovery system for a reentry vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Eckroth, Wulf; Garrard, William L.; Miller, Norman

    Engineers are often required to design decelerator systems which are deployed in cross-wind orientations. If the system is not designed to minimize 'line sail', damage to the parachutes could result. A Reentry Vehicle Analysis Code (RVAC) and an accompanying graphics animation software program (DISPLAY) are presented in this paper. These computer codes allow the user to quickly apply the Purvis line sail modeling technique to any vehicle and then observe the relative motion of the vehicle, nose cap, suspension lines, pilot and drogue bags and canopies on a computer screen. Data files are created which allow plots of velocities, spacial positions, and dynamic pressures versus time to be generated. The code is an important tool for the design engineer because it integrates two degrees of freedom (DOF) line sail equations with a three DOF model of the reentry body and jettisoned nose cap to provide an animated output.

  8. Performance and design analysis of ballistic reusable SSTO launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    Based on previous system studies of MBB on single-stage ballistic launch vehicles with vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) from 1969 and 1986, a review is presented of the performance and design criteria of such advanced launch systems with respect to the present 'state of the art'. This type of launch vehicle is a prime candidate for an economical future space transportation system in the medium-size payload class. Ascent trajectory optimization, which is more difficult than for a multistage rocket, reveals the requirement for a careful thrust variation (reduction) during ascent as well as a high takeoff acceleration in order to achieve the minimum velocity requirement and maximum payload. Further, the impact of vehicle net mass and average specific impulse are presented as well as the design options for the single-stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion system and other specific design features.

  9. Design of a recovery system for a reentry vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Eckroth, Wulf; Garrard, William L.; Miller, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Engineers are often required to design decelerator systems which are deployed in cross-wind orientations. If the system is not designed to minimize 'line sail', damage to the parachutes could result. A Reentry Vehicle Analysis Code (RVAC) and an accompanying graphics animation software program (DISPLAY) are presented in this paper. These computer codes allow the user to quickly apply the Purvis line sail modeling technique to any vehicle and then observe the relative motion of the vehicle, nose cap, suspension lines, pilot and drogue bags and canopies on a computer screen. Data files are created which allow plots of velocities, spacial positions, and dynamic pressures versus time to be generated. The code is an important tool for the design engineer because it integrates two degrees of freedom (DOF) line sail equations with a three DOF model of the reentry body and jettisoned nose cap to provide an animated output.

  10. Thermostructural design tools for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaak, Natasha

    The operating conditions of scramjet engines demand designs that include active cooling by the fuel and the use of lightweight materials capable of withstanding extreme heat fluxes and structural loads. As hypersonic flight is an emerging technology, there is limited ability to evaluate candidate material systems in hypersonic environments. This dissertation addresses the problem by developing an optimization protocol that establishes the capabilities and deficiencies of existing combustor panel designs and directs the development of advanced materials that will outperform existing high temperature alloys and compete with ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). By incorporating models that characterize the key loading and boundary conditions of hypersonic combustors, the optimization protocol is able to rapidly survey the design space and facilitate communication between design variables and material properties. The code determines temperatures and stresses present in panels that line the combustion chamber and optimizes for minimum weight subject to two primary constraints: the stresses induced by thermomechanical loads remain below representative levels of material strength or elasto-plastic design rules; and the maximum temperature in the structure does not exceed the material limit. The results indicate that there are multiple avenues for achieving greater robustness and weight efficiency, including: (i) tailoring properties such as intermediate strength and material softening temperature and (ii) allowing localized plasticity. Design implementation is explored using laser heat flux experiments on convectively-cooled structures. The experiments serve as feedback for the optimization code and highlight benefits and concerns associated with allowing elasto-plastic response.

  11. Analysis Method for Quantifying Vehicle Design Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fimognari, Peter; Eskridge, Richard; Martin, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a method for using Design Structure Matrices (DSM), coupled with high-level tools representing important life-cycle parameters, to comprehensively conceptualize a flight/ground space transportation system design by dealing with such variables as performance, up-front costs, downstream operations costs, and reliability. This approach also weighs operational approaches based on their effect on upstream design variables so that it is possible to readily, yet defensively, establish linkages between operations and these upstream variables. To avoid the large range of problems that have defeated previous methods of dealing with the complex problems of transportation design, and to cut down the inefficient use of resources, the method described in the document identifies those areas that are of sufficient promise and that provide a higher grade of analysis for those issues, as well as the linkages at issue between operations and other factors. Ultimately, the system is designed to save resources and time, and allows for the evolution of operable space transportation system technology, and design and conceptual system approach targets.

  12. Fire hazard considerations for composites in vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Rex B.

    1994-01-01

    Military ground vehicles fires are a significant cause of system loss, equipment damage, and crew injury in both combat and non-combat situations. During combat, the ability to successfully fight an internal fire, without losing fighting and mobility capabilities, is often the key to crew survival and mission success. In addition to enemy hits in combat, vehicle fires are initiated by electrical system failures, fuel line leaks, munitions mishaps and improper personnel actions. If not controlled, such fires can spread to other areas of the vehicle, causing extensive damage and the potential for personnel injury and death. The inherent fire safety characteristics (i.e. ignitability, compartments of these vehicles play a major roll in determining rather a newly started fire becomes a fizzle or a catastrophe. This paper addresses a systems approach to assuring optimum vehicle fire safety during the design phase of complex vehicle systems utilizing extensive uses of composites, plastic and related materials. It provides practical means for defining the potential fire hazard risks during a conceptual design phase, and criteria for the selection of composite materials based on its fire safety characteristics.

  13. Modular design of the LED vehicle projector headlamp system.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Chang; Li, Yan-Huei; Hung, Chih-Ching

    2013-07-20

    A well designed headlamp for a vehicle lighting system is very important as it provides drivers with safe and comfortable driving conditions at night or in dark places. With the advances of the semiconductor technology, the LED has become the fourth generation lighting source in the auto industry. In this study, we will propose a LED vehicle projector headlamp system. This headlamp system contains several LED headlamp modules, and every module of it includes four components: focused LEDs, asymmetric metal-based plates, freeform surfaces, and condenser lenses. By optimizing the number of LED headlamp modules, the proposed LED vehicle projector headlamp system has only five LED headlamp modules. It not only provides the low-beam cutoff without a shield, but also meets the requirements of the ECE R112 regulation. Finally, a prototype of the LED vehicle projector headlamp system was assembled and fabricated to create the correct light pattern. PMID:23872770

  14. Systems design analysis applied to launch vehicle configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R.; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    As emphasis shifts from optimum-performance aerospace systems to least lift-cycle costs, systems designs must seek, adapt, and innovate cost improvement techniques in design through operations. The systems design process of concept, definition, and design was assessed for the types and flow of total quality management techniques that may be applicable in a launch vehicle systems design analysis. Techniques discussed are task ordering, quality leverage, concurrent engineering, Pareto's principle, robustness, quality function deployment, criteria, and others. These cost oriented techniques are as applicable to aerospace systems design analysis as to any large commercial system.

  15. Towards Comprehensive Variation Models for Designing Vehicle Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdams, Daniel A.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    When designing vehicle vibration monitoring systems for aerospace devices, it is common to use well-established models of vibration features to determine whether failures or defects exist. Most of the algorithms used for failure detection rely on these models to detect significant changes in a flight environment. In actual practice, however, most vehicle vibration monitoring systems are corrupted by high rates of false alarms and missed detections. This crucial roadblock makes their implementation in real vehicles (e.g., helicopter transmissions and aircraft engines) difficult, making their operation costly and unreliable. Research conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center has determined that a major reason for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections is the numerous sources of statistical variations that are not taken into account in the modeling assumptions. In this paper, we address one such source of variations, namely, those caused during the design and manufacturing of rotating machinery components that make up aerospace systems. We present a novel way of modeling the vibration response by including design variations via probabilistic methods. Using such models, we develop a methodology to account for design and manufacturing variations, and explore the changes in the vibration response to determine its stochastic nature. We explore the potential of the methodology using a nonlinear cam-follower model, where the spring stiffness values are assumed to follow a normal distribution. The results demonstrate initial feasibility of the method, showing great promise in developing a general methodology for designing more accurate aerospace vehicle monitoring systems.

  16. Aerospace vehicle design, spacecraft section. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The next major step in the evolution of the space program is the exploration of the planet Mars. In preparation for this, much research is needed on the problem of surveying the planet surface. An aircraft appears to be a viable solution because it can carry men and equipment large distances in a short period of time as compared with ground transportation. The problems and design of an aircraft which would be able to survey the planet Mars are examined.

  17. Emerging CFD technologies and aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    With the recent focus on the needs of design and applications CFD, research groups have begun to address the traditional bottlenecks of grid generation and surface modeling. Now, a host of emerging technologies promise to shortcut or dramatically simplify the simulation process. This paper discusses the current status of these emerging technologies. It will argue that some tools are already available which can have positive impact on portions of the design cycle. However, in most cases, these tools need to be integrated into specific engineering systems and process cycles to be used effectively. The rapidly maturing status of unstructured and Cartesian approaches for inviscid simulations makes suggests the possibility of highly automated Euler-boundary layer simulations with application to loads estimation and even preliminary design. Similarly, technology is available to link block structured mesh generation algorithms with topology libraries to avoid tedious re-meshing of topologically similar configurations. Work in algorithmic based auto-blocking suggests that domain decomposition and point placement operations in multi-block mesh generation may be properly posed as problems in Computational Geometry, and following this approach may lead to robust algorithmic processes for automatic mesh generation.

  18. A design approach for small vision-based autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Barrett B.; Fife, Wade S.; Archibald, James K.; Lee, Dah-Jye; Wilde, Doran K.

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the design of a small autonomous vehicle based on the Helios computing platform, a custom FPGA-based board capable of supporting on-board vision. Target applications for the Helios computing platform are those that require lightweight equipment and low power consumption. To demonstrate the capabilities of FPGAs in real-time control of autonomous vehicles, a 16 inch long R/C monster truck was outfitted with a Helios board. The platform provided by such a small vehicle is ideal for testing and development. The proof of concept application for this autonomous vehicle was a timed race through an environment with obstacles. Given the size restrictions of the vehicle and its operating environment, the only feasible on-board sensor is a small CMOS camera. The single video feed is therefore the only source of information from the surrounding environment. The image is then segmented and processed by custom logic in the FPGA that also controls direction and speed of the vehicle based on visual input.

  19. Off-road perception testbed vehicle design and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spofford, John R.; Herron, Jennifer B.; Anhalt, David J.; Morgenthaler, Matthew K.; DeHerrera, Clinton

    2003-09-01

    Off-road robotics efforts such as DARPA"s PerceptOR program have motivated the development of testbed vehicles capable of sustained operation in a variety of terrain and environments. This paper describes the retrofitting of a minimally-modified ATV chassis into such a testbed which has been used by multiple programs for autonomous mobility development and sensor characterization. Modular mechanical interfaces for sensors and equipment enclosures enabled integration of multiple payload configurations. The electric power subsystem was capable of short-term operation on batteries with refueled generation for continuous operation. Processing subsystems were mounted in sealed, shock-dampened enclosures with heat exchangers for internal cooling to protect against external dust and moisture. The computational architecture was divided into a real-time vehicle control layer and an expandable high level processing and perception layer. The navigation subsystem integrated real time kinematic GPS with a three-axis IMU for accurate vehicle localization and sensor registration. The vehicle software system was based on the MarsScape architecture developed under DARPA"s MARS program. Vehicle mobility software capabilities included route planning, waypoint navigation, teleoperation, and obstacle detection and avoidance. The paper describes the vehicle design in detail and summarizes its performance during field testing.

  20. The design of infrared laser radar for vehicle initiative safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Xiao-yu; Li, Tian-zhi; Liu, Yu-long; Wu, Jia-hui

    2013-09-01

    Laser radar for vehicle is mainly used in advanced vehicle on-board active safety systems, such as forward anti-collision systems, active collision warning systems and adaptive cruise control systems, etc. Laser radar for vehicle plays an important role in the improvement of vehicle active safety and the reduction of traffic accidents. The stability of vehicle active anti-collision system in dynamic environment is still one of the most difficult problems to break through nowadays. According to people's driving habit and the existed detecting technique of sensor, combining the infrared laser range and galvanometer scanning technique , design a 3-D infrared laser radar which can be used to assist navigation, obstacle avoidance and the vehicle's speed control for the vehicle initiative safety. The device is fixed to the head of vehicle. Then if an accident happened, the device could give an alarm to remind the driver timely to decelerate or brake down, by which way can people get the purpose of preventing the collision accidents effectively. To accomplish the design, first of all, select the core components. Then apply Zemax to design the transmitting and receiving optical system. Adopt 1550 nm infrared laser transmitter as emission unit in the device, a galvanometer scanning as laser scanning unit and an InGaAs-APD detector as laser echo signal receiving unit. Perform the construction of experimental system using FPGA and ARM as the core controller. The system designed in this paper can not only detect obstacle in front of the vehicle and make the control subsystem to execute command, but also transfer laser data to PC in real time. Lots of experiments using the infrared laser radar prototype are made, and main performance of it is under tested. The results of these experiments show that the imaging speed of the laser radar can reach up to 25 frames per second, the frame resolution of each image can reach 30×30 pixels, the horizontal angle resolution is about 6. 98mrad, the vertical angle resolution is about 3. 49mrad, the maximum value of range error is 0. 5m, minimum value is 0. 07m at the detectable distance range 10-200m and the detection probability is more than 99. 9%.

  1. Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Humphries, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    Engineering design is a challenging activity for any product. Since launch vehicles are highly complex and interconnected and have extreme energy densities, their design represents a challenge of the highest order. The purpose of this document is to delineate and clarify the design process associated with the launch vehicle for space flight transportation. The goal is to define and characterize a baseline for the space transportation design process. This baseline can be used as a basis for improving effectiveness and efficiency of the design process. The baseline characterization is achieved via compartmentalization and technical integration of subsystems, design functions, and discipline functions. First, a global design process overview is provided in order to show responsibility, interactions, and connectivity of overall aspects of the design process. Then design essentials are delineated in order to emphasize necessary features of the design process that are sometimes overlooked. Finally the design process characterization is presented. This is accomplished by considering project technical framework, technical integration, process description (technical integration model, subsystem tree, design/discipline planes, decision gates, and tasks), and the design sequence. Also included in the document are a snapshot relating to process improvements, illustrations of the process, a survey of recommendations from experienced practitioners in aerospace, lessons learned, references, and a bibliography.

  2. 19 CFR 115.65 - Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Technical requirements for road vehicles by design... INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Road Vehicles by Design Type § 115.65 Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type. The plans and specifications of a road vehicle that...

  3. 19 CFR 115.65 - Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Technical requirements for road vehicles by design... INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Road Vehicles by Design Type § 115.65 Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type. The plans and specifications of a road vehicle that...

  4. 19 CFR 115.65 - Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Technical requirements for road vehicles by design... INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Road Vehicles by Design Type § 115.65 Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type. The plans and specifications of a road vehicle that...

  5. 19 CFR 115.65 - Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Technical requirements for road vehicles by design... INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Road Vehicles by Design Type § 115.65 Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type. The plans and specifications of a road vehicle that...

  6. Overview of integrated programs for aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of a joint industry/government project, denoted Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD), which focuses on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information is presented. Results to date are summarized and include an in-depth documentation of a representative design process for a large engineering project, the definition and design of computer-aided design software needed to support that process, and the release of prototype software to integrated selected design functions.

  7. Simulation of Wind Profile Perturbations for Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    2004-01-01

    Ideally, a statistically representative sample of measured high-resolution wind profiles with wavelengths as small as tens of meters is required in design studies to establish aerodynamic load indicator dispersions and vehicle control system capability. At most potential launch sites, high- resolution wind profiles may not exist. Representative samples of Rawinsonde wind profiles to altitudes of 30 km are more likely to be available from the extensive network of measurement sites established for routine sampling in support of weather observing and forecasting activity. Such a sample, large enough to be statistically representative of relatively large wavelength perturbations, would be inadequate for launch vehicle design assessments because the Rawinsonde system accurately measures wind perturbations with wavelengths no smaller than 2000 m (1000 m altitude increment). The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Jimsphere wind profiles (150/month and seasonal 2 and 3.5-hr pairs) are the only adequate samples of high resolution profiles approx. 150 to 300 m effective resolution, but over-sampled at 25 m intervals) that have been used extensively for launch vehicle design assessments. Therefore, a simulation process has been developed for enhancement of measured low-resolution Rawinsonde profiles that would be applicable in preliminary launch vehicle design studies at launch sites other than KSC.

  8. Design of cryogenic tanks for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copper, Charles; Pilkey, Walter D.; Haviland, John K.

    1990-01-01

    During the period since January 1990, work was concentrated on the problem of the buckling of the structure of an ALS (advanced launch systems) tank during the boost phase. The primary problem was to analyze a proposed hat stringer made by superplastic forming, and to compare it with an integrally stiffened stringer design. A secondary objective was to determine whether structural rings having the identical section to the stringers will provide adequate support against overall buckling. All of the analytical work was carried out with the TESTBED program on the CONVEX computer, using PATRAN programs to create models. Analyses of skin/stringer combinations have shown that the proposed stringer design is an adequate substitute for the integrally stiffened stringer. Using a highly refined mesh to represent the corrugations in the vertical webs of the hat stringers, effective values were obtained for cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, centroid height, and torsional constant. Not only can these values be used for comparison with experimental values, but they can also be used for beams to replace the stringers and frames in analytical models of complete sections of tank. The same highly refined model was used to represent a section of skin reinforced by a stringer and a ring segment in the configuration of a cross. It was intended that this would provide a baseline buckling analysis representing a basic mode, however, the analysis proved to be beyond the scope of the CONVEX computer. One quarter of this model was analyzed, however, to provide information on buckling between the spot welds. Models of large sections of the tank structure were made, using beam elements to model the stringers and frames. In order to represent the stiffening effects of pressure, stresses and deflections under pressure should first be obtained, and then the buckling analysis should be made on the structure so deflected. So far, uncharacteristic deflections under pressure were obtained from the TESTBED program using two types of structural elements. Similar results were obtained using the ANSYS program on a mainframe computer, although two finite element programs on microcomputers have yielded realistic results.

  9. IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Early work was performed to apply data base technology in support of the management of engineering data in the design and manufacturing environments. The principal objective of the IPAD project is to develop a computer software system for use in the design of aerospace vehicles. Two prototype systems are created for this purpose. Relational Information Manager (RIM) is a successful commercial product. The IPAD Information Processor (IPIP), a much more sophisticated system, is still under development.

  10. Hypersonic airbreathing vehicle design - Focus on aero-space plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Creating a viable, 'aerospaceplane' airbreathing SSTO vehicle will require sophisticated configuration synthesis and a synergistic integration of advanced technologies across the spectrum of disciplines. In design exercises conducted to date, reductions in the fuel weight-fraction requirement can result from improvements in aerodynamics/controls, enhanced propulsion efficiencies, and trajectory optimization. Additional improvements in fuel-weight fraction can result from improvements in structural design, heat-management techniques, and materials properties.

  11. Launch Vehicle Design Process Description and Training Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atherton, James; Morris, Charles; Settle, Gray; Teal, Marion; Schuerer, Paul; Blair, James; Ryan, Robert; Schutzenhofer, Luke

    1999-01-01

    A primary NASA priority is to reduce the cost and improve the effectiveness of launching payloads into space. As a consequence, significant improvements are being sought in the effectiveness, cost, and schedule of the launch vehicle design process. In order to provide a basis for understanding and improving the current design process, a model has been developed for this complex, interactive process, as reported in the references. This model requires further expansion in some specific design functions. Also, a training course for less-experienced engineers is needed to provide understanding of the process, to provide guidance for its effective implementation, and to provide a basis for major improvements in launch vehicle design process technology. The objective of this activity is to expand the description of the design process to include all pertinent design functions, and to develop a detailed outline of a training course on the design process for launch vehicles for use in educating engineers whose experience with the process has been minimal. Building on a previously-developed partial design process description, parallel sections have been written for the Avionics Design Function, the Materials Design Function, and the Manufacturing Design Function. Upon inclusion of these results, the total process description will be released as a NASA TP. The design function sections herein include descriptions of the design function responsibilities, interfaces, interactive processes, decisions (gates), and tasks. Associated figures include design function planes, gates, and tasks, along with other pertinent graphics. Also included is an expanded discussion of how the design process is divided, or compartmentalized, into manageable parts to achieve efficient and effective design. A detailed outline for an intensive two-day course on the launch vehicle design process has been developed herein, and is available for further expansion. The course is in an interactive lecture/workshop format to engage the participants in active learning. The course addresses the breadth and depth of the process, requirements, phases, participants, multidisciplinary aspects, tasks, critical elements,as well as providing guidance from previous lessons learned. The participants are led to develop their own understanding of the current process and how it can be improved. Included are course objectives and a session-by-session outline of course content. Also included is an initial identification of visual aid requirements.

  12. Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

  13. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  14. Preliminary structural design of a lunar transfer vehicle aerobrake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Lance B.; Unal, Resit

    1992-01-01

    An aerobrake for a lunar transfer vehicle was designed through the use of the Taguchi design method, structural finite element analyses, and structural sizing routines. A minimum weight aerobrake structural configuration was the objective of the study. Six design parameters were chosen to represent the aerobrake structural configuration. The design parameters included honeycomb core thickness, diameter-to-depth ratio, shape, material, number of concentric ring frames and number of radial frames. Each parameter had 3 levels. The optimum aerobrake configuration resulting from the study was approximately half the weight of the average of all the other experimental configurations. The parameters having the most significant impact on the aerobrake structural weight were identified.

  15. Entry Vehicle Control System Design for the Mars Smart Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Queen, Eric M.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, participated in a preliminary design study of the Entry, Descent and Landing phase for the Mars Smart Lander Project. This concept utilizes advances in Guidance, Navigation and Control technology to significantly reduce uncertainty in the vehicle landed location on the Mars surface. A candidate entry vehicle controller based on the Reaction Control System controller for the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module digital autopilot is proposed for use in the entry vehicle attitude control. A slight modification to the phase plane controller is used to reduce jet-firing chattering while maintaining good control response for the Martian entry probe application. The controller performance is demonstrated in a six-degree-of-freedom simulation with representative aerodynamics.

  16. Software design for an autonomous ground vehicle for the 13 th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Tim; Barber, Daniel; Becker, Brian C.; Gonzalez, Fernando

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the vision and path planning software design of a totally autonomous vehicle built to compete in the 13th Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition, IGVC. The vehicle, Calculon, is based on a powered wheelchair and uses a variety of sensors for its navigation and obstacle avoidance including a 3CCD Sony color camera, an outdoor laser range finder, a DGPS, 2 wheel encoders and a solid state compass. The modules forming the core vision system include: filters, color classifier, image segments, and line finder. Our color classifier is based on a modified implementation of an adaptive Gaussian color model similar to those used in some skin detection algorithms. A combination of various image enhancing filters and the color classifier allow for the isolation of possible obstacles within the image. After filtering the image for areas of high brightness and contrast, the line finder performs a Hough Transform to find lines in the image. Our path planning is accomplished using a variety of known and custom algorithms in combination including a modified road map method, a Rapidly Exploring Trees method and a Gaussian Potential Field's method. This paper will present the software design and methods of our autonomous vehicle focusing mainly on the 2 most difficult components, the vision and path planning.

  17. Design of an autonomous Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Chew, Mason; Dixon, Iain (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In order to prepare a site for a manned lunar base, an autonomously operated construction vehicle is necessary. A Lunar Construction Utility Vehicle (LCUV), which utilizes interchangeable construction implements, was designed conceptually. Some elements of the machine were studied in greater detail. Design of an elastic loop track system has advanced to the testing stage. A standard coupling device was designed to insure a proper connection between the different construction tools and the LCUV. Autonomous control of the track drive motors was simulated successfully through the use of a joystick and computer interface. A study of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells has produced estimates of reactant and product size requirements and identified multi-layer insulation techniques. Research on a 100 kW heat rejection system has determined that it is necessary to house a radiator panel on a utility trailer. The impact of a 720 hr use cycle has produced a very large logistical support lien which requires further study.

  18. Design studies of continuously variable transmissions for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Fischer, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed on four continuously variable transmission (CVT) concepts for use with a flywheel equipped electric vehicle of 1700 kg gross weight. Requirements of the CVT's were a maximum torque of 450 N-m (330 lb-ft), a maximum output power of 75 kW (100 hp), and a flywheel speed range of 28,000 to 14,000 rpm. Efficiency, size, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and controls were evaluated for each of the four concepts which included a steel V-belt type, a flat rubber belt type, a toroidal traction type, and a cone roller traction type. All CVT's exhibited relatively high calculated efficiencies (68 percent to 97 percent) over a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. Estimated weight and size of these transmissions were comparable to or less than equivalent automatic transmission. The design of each concept was carried through the design layout stage.

  19. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  20. Design of a Long Endurance Titan VTOL Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Ravi; Braun, Robert D.; Colby, Luke S.; Francis, Scott R.; Guenduez, Mustafa E.; Flaherty, Kevin W.; Lafleur, Jarret M.; Wright, Henry S.

    2006-01-01

    Saturn s moon Titan promises insight into many key scientific questions, many of which can be investigated only by in situ exploration of the surface and atmosphere of the moon. This research presents a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicle designed to conduct a scientific investigation of Titan s atmosphere, clouds, haze, surface, and any possible oceans. In this investigation, multiple options for vertical takeoff and horizontal mobility were considered. A helicopter was baselined because of its many advantages over other types of vehicles, namely access to hazardous terrain and the ability to perform low speed aerial surveys. Using a nuclear power source and the atmosphere of Titan, a turbo expander cycle produces the 1.9 kW required by the vehicle for flight and operations, allowing it to sustain a long range, long duration mission that could traverse the majority of Titan. Such a power source could increase the lifespan and quality of science for planetary aerial flight to an extent that the limiting factor for the mission life is not available power but the life of the mechanical parts. Therefore, the mission could potentially last for years. This design is the first to investigate the implications of this potentially revolutionary technology on a Titan aerial vehicle.

  1. On computer-aided design of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J. E.; Voigt, S. J.; Fulton, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Digital computers are being used in many engineering activities to support design work. This paper provides an overview of some of this work as it relates to the design of aerospace vehicles. Discussions are given of some of the complexities of the design process which lead to large design costs and time. A number of important but disjointed computer capabilities have evolved over the years in analysis, optimization, and graphics, and such capabilities aid in addressing the problem of design complexity. Examples of existing computer-aided design (CAD) systems are given and trends for future CAD systems are indicated, as well as their relationship to pertinent data management technology. It is suggested that major gains in design capability will occur through continued development of CAD methodology and that these gains may be accelerated through a large focused effort.

  2. The design of two-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Two separate student design groups developed conceptual designs for a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle, with each design group consisting of a carrier team and an orbiter team. A two-stage-to-orbit system is considered in the event that single-stage-to-orbit is deemed not feasible in the foreseeable future; the two-stage system would also be used as a complement to an already existing heavy lift vehicle. The design specifications given are to lift a 10,000-lb payload 27 ft long by 10 ft diameter, to low Earth orbit (300 n.m.) using an air breathing carrier configuration that will take off horizontally within 15,000 ft. The staging Mach number and altitude were to be determined by the design groups. One group designed a delta wing/body carrier with the orbiter nested within the fuselage of the carrier, and the other group produced a blended cranked-delta wing/body carrier with the orbiter in the more conventional piggyback configuration. Each carrier used liquid hydrogen-fueled turbofanramjet engines, with data provided by General Electric Aircraft Engine Group. While one orbiter used a full-scale Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the other orbiter employed a half-scale SSME coupled with scramjet engines, with data again provided by General Electric. The two groups conceptual designs, along with the technical trade-offs, difficulties, and details that surfaced during the design process are presented.

  3. Conceptual design of a manned orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard; Duquette, Miles; Fredrick, Rebecca; Schumacher, Daniel; Somers, Schaeffer; Stafira, Stanley; Williams, James; Zelinka, Mark

    1988-01-01

    With the advent of the manned space station, man now requires a spacecraft based on the space station with the ability to deploy, recover, and repair satellites quickly and economically. Such a craft would prolong and enhance the life and performance of many satellites. A basic design was developed for an orbital tansfer vehicle (OTV). The basic design criteria are discussed. The design of the OTV and systems were researched in the following areas: avionics, crew systems, electrical power systems, environmental control/life support systems, navigation and orbital maneuvers, propulsion systems, reaction control systems (RCS), servicing systems, and structures. The basic concepts in each of the areas are summarized.

  4. How shall we design the future vehicle for Chinese market.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Wang, Minjuan; Zhu, Xi Chan; Li, Jiaqi

    2012-01-01

    Surface transportation system is developing very fast in China and the number of vehicles is increasing quickly as well. This development creates a lot of problems on traffic safety and the number of accident is also increasing. In this paper, we made deep analysis of different possible causes of safety problems through three aspects: the traffic environment and infrastructure, in-vehicle information system design and the characteristics of drivers. There are many factors in each aspects may contribute to the transportation safety problems. Problems with infrastructure design and traffic design contribute over 50% of the traffic accident. Another important factor is that people has very little traffic safety concept and very weak on understanding the important of right behavior on the road. This paper has pointed the urgent needs to study the human factors in road and transportation system and vehicle HMI design, as there are very few such studies available in literature based on Chinese situation. The paper also proposed the needs to develop proactive educational system that can promote driver's understanding of traffic safety and to take the right action during drive. PMID:22317375

  5. Design of an autonomous lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In order to prepare a site for a lunar base, an autonomously operated construction vehicle is necessary. Discussed here is a Lunar Construction Utility Vehicle (LCUV), which uses interchangeable construction implements. Design of an elastic loop track system has advanced to the testing stage. A standard coupling device has been designed to insure a proper connection between the different construction tools and the LCUV. Autonomous control of the track drive motors was simulated successfully through the use of a joystick and a computer interface. A study of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells produced estimates of reactant and product requirements and identified multilayer insulation needs. Research on the 100-kW heat rejection system determined that it is necessary to transport the radiator panel on a utility trailer. Extensive logistical support for the 720 hour use cycle requires further study.

  6. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  7. Pointing control design for autonomous space vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.D.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the design of pointing control systems for autonomous space vehicles. The function of the pointing control system is to keep distant orbiting objects within the field-of-view of an on-board optical sensor. We outline the development of novel nonlinear control algorithms which exploit the availability of on- board sensors. Simulation results comparing the performance of the different pointing control implementations are presented.

  8. Vibration Challenges in the Design of NASA's Ares Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the vibration challenges inherent in the design of NASA s Ares launch vehicles. A brief overview of the launch system architecture is provided to establish the context for the discussion. Following this is a general discussion of the design considerations and analytical disciplines that are affected by vibration. The first challenge discussed is that of coupling between the vehicle flight control system and fundamental vibrational modes of the vehicle. The potential destabilizing influence of the vibrational dynamics is described along with discussion of the typical methods employed to overcome this issue. Next is a general discussion of the process for developing the design loads for the primary structure. This includes quasi-steady loads and dynamic loads induced by the structural dynamic response. The two principal parts of this response are the gust induced responses of the lower frequency modes and the buffet induced responses of the higher frequency modes. Structural dynamic model validation will also be addressed. Following this, discussions of three somewhat unique topics of Pogo Instability, Solid Booster Thrust Oscillation, and Liquid Rocket Engine Turbopump Rotordynamic Stability and Response are presented.

  9. Design and construction of a solar-electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavnani, S.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    Recent concerns relating to global warming caused by greenhouse gases, coupled with a growing awareness of the limited available resources of fossil fuels, have spurred an interest in alternative energy powered vehicles. This paper describes the analysis, development, and testing of an aerodynamic vehicle powered by photovoltaic cells. The primary components of the vehicle are the composite material body, the aluminum space frame, the wheel hubs and front suspension assembly, the drive train, and the electrical system. The frame was designed using finite element analysis with the components of the frame modeled as beam elements. The body, designed to have a very high strength-to-weight ratio, was of graphite/Kevlar/Nomex sandwich construction. Testing was carried out using the three-point bend test to determine the optimal sandwich cross-sectional configuration. The design of the front suspension, the wheel hubs, and the power transmission are also discussed. The electrical system, based on a monocrystalline photovoltaic cell assembly, and silver-zinc storage cells, is also described. Finally, results of the optimization routine developed are also described.

  10. The vehicle design evaluation program - A computer-aided design procedure for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, B. H.; Kruse, G. S.; Schrader, O. E.

    1977-01-01

    The vehicle design evaluation program is described. This program is a computer-aided design procedure that provides a vehicle synthesis capability for vehicle sizing, external load analysis, structural analysis, and cost evaluation. The vehicle sizing subprogram provides geometry, weight, and balance data for aircraft using JP, hydrogen, or methane fuels. The structural synthesis subprogram uses a multistation analysis for aerodynamic surfaces and fuselages to develop theoretical weights and geometric dimensions. The parts definition subprogram uses the geometric data from the structural analysis and develops the predicted fabrication dimensions, parts material raw stock buy requirements, and predicted actual weights. The cost analysis subprogram uses detail part data in conjunction with standard hours, realization factors, labor rates, and material data to develop the manufacturing costs. The program is used to evaluate overall design effects on subsonic commercial type aircraft due to parameter variations.

  11. NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

  12. Preliminary design of a lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, C. A.; Alcorn, D.; Bentley, R.; Campbell, B.; Coulson, T.; Jacobs, J.; Stiles, P.

    1989-01-01

    Construction of a lunar base, prior to manned occupancy, is one of the most demanding technological challenges facing space system designers today. A flexible lunar construction machine is needed that can be operated remotely and that can perform a variety of construction tasks over a wide range of lunar conditions. A preliminary lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) design has been developed as part of a capstone design course at Old Dominion University and is described in this summary report. The design requirements are taken from a 1988 USRA Summer Design Report entitled The Lunar Split Mission: A Robotic Constructed Lunar Base Scenario, and from the proceedings of a workshop hosted by United Technologies Corporation entitled Report of the In Situ Resources Utilization Workshop. The first report describes a bootstrap base concept in which a minimum of essential surface elements are delivered and configured such that minimum EVA is required to bring the initial base on-line. The base is to be built in three phases, the first of which will be unmanned, while the second and third will be manned. The key to these concepts is the development of a semiautonomous, telerobotic lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV). The tasks required of this robotic vehicle during the phase 1 build-up are as follows: (1) surface element transportation, handling, and assembly; (2) soil excavation and movement for site preparation; (3) radiation protection and materials processing; and (4) repair and maintenance of surface elements. In order to meet the stated requirements, the LCUV must be: (1) transformable to perform a wide variety of tasks; (2) self supporting; (3) designed to allow for telerobotic control as well as autonomous operation; (4) able to transport one fully configured space station common module (SSCM); (5) upgradable to allow for future growth; and (6) easy to maintain.

  13. Design Guidelines for Quiet Fans and Pumps for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, John S.; Magliozzi, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This document presents guidelines for the design of quiet fans and pumps of the class used on space vehicles. A simple procedure is presented for the prediction of fan noise over the meaningful frequency spectrum. A section also presents general design criteria for axial flow fans, squirrel cage fans, centrifugal fans, and centrifugal pumps. The basis for this report is an experimental program conducted by Hamilton Standard under NASA Contract NAS 9-12457. The derivations of the noise predicting methods used in this document are explained in Hamilton Standard Report SVHSER 6183, "Fan and Pump Noise Control," dated May 1973 (6).

  14. Small thermal optics design for UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Kyu; Na, Jun Hee; Yoon, Chang Jun; Oh, Seung Eun; Choi, Joongkyu; Pyo, Hyo Jin

    2010-08-01

    Now, Military demands focused attention on small and light-weight system development. Above all, UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is necessary to reduce weight of equipments. Therefore, we invest some expense in many years so that it might design more light optical system for UAV. Consequently, we can build new miniaturization and light-weight system. The most important thing is the system using just two motors for continuous zoom(x3 ~ x20), NUC(nonuniformity correction), Narcissus, Athermalization, and auto-focus functions. An MTF (modulation transfer function) and a detection range are also satisfied by the demands. We use CODE V and NVTherm program for design and analysis.

  15. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  16. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Design with Multiple Selection Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Joey D.; Frederick, Robert A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2005-01-01

    The approach and techniques described herein define an optimization and evaluation approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system. The method uses Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, a propulsion thermo-chemical code, power series regression curves for historical data, and statistical models in order to optimize a vehicle system. The system, including parameters for engine chamber pressure, area ratio, and oxidizer/fuel ratio, was modeled and optimized to determine the best design for seven separate design weight and cost cases by varying design and technology parameters. Significant model results show that a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Other key findings show the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology factors, and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. Each of the three key propulsion parameters; chamber pressure, area ratio, and oxidizer/fuel ratio, are optimized in the seven design cases and results are plotted to show impacts to engine mass and overall vehicle mass.

  17. Design Considerations for Space Transfer Vehicles Using Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The economical deployment of satellites to high energy earth orbits is crucial to the ultimate success of this nations commerical space ventures and is highly desirable for deep space planetary missions requiring earth escape trajectories. Upper stage space transfer vehicles needed to accomplish this task should ideally be simple, robust, and highly efficient. In this regard, solar thermal propulsion is particularly well suited to those missions where high thrust is not a requirement. The Marshall Space Flight Center is , therefore, currently engaged in defining a transfer vehicle employing solar thermal propulsion capable of transferring a 1000 lb. payload from low Earth orbit (LEO) to a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) using a Lockheed launch vehicle (LLV3) with three Castors and a large shroud. The current design uses liquid hydrogen as the propellant and employs two inflatable 16 x 24 feet eliptical off-axis parabolic solar collectors to focus sunlight onto a tungsten/rhenium windowless black body type absorber. The concentration factor on this design is projected to be approximately 1800:1 for the primary collector and 2.42:1 for the secondary collector for an overall concentration factor of nearly 4400:1. The engine, which is about twice as efficient as the best currently available chemical engines, produces two pounds of thrust with a specific impulse (Isp) of 860 sec. Transfer times to GEO are projected to be on the order of one month. The launch and deployed configurations of the solar thermal upper stage (STUS) are depicted.

  18. Reentry Vehicle Flight Controls Design Guidelines: Dynamic Inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, Daigoro; Georgie, Jennifer; Valasek, John; Ward, Donald T.

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses issues in developing a flight control design for vehicles operating across a broad flight regime and with highly nonlinear physical descriptions of motion. Specifically it addresses the need for reentry vehicles that could operate through reentry from space to controlled touchdown on Earth. The latter part of controlled descent is achieved by parachute or paraglider - or by all automatic or a human-controlled landing similar to that of the Orbiter. Since this report addresses the specific needs of human-carrying (not necessarily piloted) reentry vehicles, it deals with highly nonlinear equations of motion, and then-generated control systems must be robust across a very wide range of physics. Thus, this report deals almost exclusively with some form of dynamic inversion (DI). Two vital aspects of control theory - noninteracting control laws and the transformation of nonlinear systems into equivalent linear systems - are embodied in DI. Though there is no doubt that the mathematical tools and underlying theory are widely available, there are open issues as to the practicality of using DI as the only or primary design approach for reentry articles. This report provides a set of guidelines that can be used to determine the practical usefulness of the technique.

  19. Mobile large-vehicle inspection system design issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald J.; Adams, William L.; Huang, Suzhou

    1998-12-01

    X-ray systems capable of scanning semitrailers using conventional fanbeam technology are restricted to transmission-based imaging techniques that suffer from superposition of clutter. MobileSearchTM I is a truck-mounted 450 KeV pencil beam system incorporating x-ray backscatter imaging to produce near photo-like images, which was reported on in a paper by Swift in 1996. Since that time MobileSearchTM II added a transmission detector providing both backscatter and transmission in a single pass. The transmission detector design is the result of extensive x-ray and optical simulations. The radiation safety was studied extensively using the GEANT2 simulation system. The simulations were extended from 450 KeV to 5 MeV, to determine the safety implications of increasing the x-ray energy. Operationally, a 14 foot high, 8 foot 6 inch wide vehicle can be parked on a level area and the MobileSearchTM II system driven alongside to examine the contents. Deployment and setup are facilitated by having a self-contained system, which can be driven over the road and cen be operational in less than an hour. MobileSearchTM II is also capable of continuous mode scanning. In this mode, a line of vehicles can be scanned without having to stop and reposition or queue vehicles. The system is designed to fit in a C17 for easy air transport to a distant location.

  20. Integrated Software for Analyzing Designs of Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philips, Alan D.

    2003-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Analysis Tool (LVA) is a computer program for preliminary design structural analysis of launch vehicles. Before LVA was developed, in order to analyze the structure of a launch vehicle, it was necessary to estimate its weight, feed this estimate into a program to obtain pre-launch and flight loads, then feed these loads into structural and thermal analysis programs to obtain a second weight estimate. If the first and second weight estimates differed, it was necessary to reiterate these analyses until the solution converged. This process generally took six to twelve person-months of effort. LVA incorporates text to structural layout converter, configuration drawing, mass properties generation, pre-launch and flight loads analysis, loads output plotting, direct solution structural analysis, and thermal analysis subprograms. These subprograms are integrated in LVA so that solutions can be iterated automatically. LVA incorporates expert-system software that makes fundamental design decisions without intervention by the user. It also includes unique algorithms based on extensive research. The total integration of analysis modules drastically reduces the need for interaction with the user. A typical solution can be obtained in 30 to 60 minutes. Subsequent runs can be done in less than two minutes.

  1. Simulation Assisted Risk Assessment Applied to Launch Vehicle Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Go, Susie; Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott

    2008-01-01

    A simulation-based risk assessment approach is presented and is applied to the analysis of abort during the ascent phase of a space exploration mission. The approach utilizes groupings of launch vehicle failures, referred to as failure bins, which are mapped to corresponding failure environments. Physical models are used to characterize the failure environments in terms of the risk due to blast overpressure, resulting debris field, and the thermal radiation due to a fireball. The resulting risk to the crew is dynamically modeled by combining the likelihood of each failure, the severity of the failure environments as a function of initiator and time of the failure, the robustness of the crew module, and the warning time available due to early detection. The approach is shown to support the launch vehicle design process by characterizing the risk drivers and identifying regions where failure detection would significantly reduce the risk to the crew.

  2. Ducted Fan Designs Lead to Potential New Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, aerospace engineers Rob Bulaga and Mike Moshier formed Trek Aerospace Inc., based in Folsom, California, to develop personal air vehicles using a novel ducted fan design. The company relied on Ames Research Center for a great deal of testing, the results of which have provided greater lift, lowered weight, more power, and improved maneuverability. The technology has been applied to three models: the Dragonfly UMR-1, the Springtail EFV, and the OVIWUN, a small-scale version that is for sale through the company's Web site. It is safer than a manned vehicle, and its size makes it relatively difficult for it to damage itself during test flights the way a larger mass, faster craft could.

  3. Assured crew return vehicle post landing configuration design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1991-1992 senior Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Design class continued work on the post landing configurations for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Emergency Egress Couch (EEC). The ACRV will be permanently docked to Space Station Freedom fulfilling NASA's commitment of Assured Crew Return Capability in the event of an accident or illness aboard Space Station Freedom. The EEC provides medical support and a transportation surface for an incapacitated crew member. The objective of the projects was to give the ACRV Project Office data to feed into their feasibility studies. Four design teams were given the task of developing models with dynamically and geometrically scaled characteristics. Groups one and two combined efforts to design a one-fifth scale model for the Apollo Command Module derivative, an on-board flotation system, and a lift attachment point system. This model was designed to test the feasibility of a rigid flotation and stabilization system and to determine the dynamics associated with lifting the vehicle during retrieval. However, due to priorities, it was not built. Group three designed a one-fifth scale model of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) benchmark configuration, the Station Crew Return Alternative Module (SCRAM) with a lift attachment point system. This model helped to determine the flotation and lifting characteristics of the SCRAM configuration. Group four designed a full scale EEC with changeable geometric and geometric and dynamic characteristics. This model provided data on the geometric characteristics of the EEC and on the placement of the CG and moment of inertia. It also gave the helicopter rescue personnel direct input to the feasibility study. Section 1 describes in detail the design of a one-fifth scale model of the Apollo Command Module Derivative (ACMD) ACRV. The objective of the ACMD Configuration Model Team was to use geometric and dynamic constraints to design a one-fifth scale working model of the Apollo Command Module Derivative (ACMD) configuration with a Lift Attachment Point (LAP) System. This model was required to incorporate a rigidly mounted flotation system and the egress system designed the previous academic year. The LAP system was to be used to determine the dynamic effects of locating the lifting points at different locations on the vehicle. The team was then to build and test the model; however, due to priorities, this did not occur. To better simulate the ACMD after a water landing, the nose cone section was removed and the deck area exposed. The areas researched during the design process were construction, center of gravity and moment of inertia, and lift attachment points.

  4. GPS Auto-Navigation Design for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, Caroline C. A.; Heinzen, Stearns N.; Hall, Charles E., Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona

    2003-01-01

    A GPS auto-navigation system is designed for Unmanned Air Vehicles. The objective is to enable the air vehicle to be used as a test-bed for novel flow control concepts. The navigation system uses pre-programmed GPS waypoints. The actual GPS position, heading, and velocity are collected by the flight computer, a PC104 system running in Real-Time Linux, and compared with the desired waypoint. The navigator then determines the necessity of a heading correction and outputs the correction in the form of a commanded bank angle, for a level coordinated turn, to the controller system. This controller system consists of 5 controller! (pitch rate PID, yaw damper, bank angle PID, velocity hold, and altitude hold) designed for a closed loop non-linear aircraft model with linear aerodynamic coefficients. The ability and accuracy of using GPS data, is validated by a GPS flight. The autopilots are also validated in flight. The autopilot unit flight validations show that the designed autopilots function as designed. The aircraft model, generated on Matlab SIMULINK is also enhanced by the flight data to accurately represent the actual aircraft.

  5. Multidisciplinary Design Techniques Applied to Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Design. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John Robert; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an emerging discipline within aerospace engineering. Its goal is to bring structure and efficiency to the complex design process associated with advanced aerospace launch vehicles. Aerospace vehicles generally require input from a variety of traditional aerospace disciplines - aerodynamics, structures, performance, etc. As such, traditional optimization methods cannot always be applied. Several multidisciplinary techniques and methods were proposed as potentially applicable to this class of design problem. Among the candidate options are calculus-based (or gradient-based) optimization schemes and parametric schemes based on design of experiments theory. A brief overview of several applicable multidisciplinary design optimization methods is included. Methods from the calculus-based class and the parametric class are reviewed, but the research application reported focuses on methods from the parametric class. A vehicle of current interest was chosen as a test application for this research. The rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle combines elements of rocket and airbreathing propulsion in an attempt to produce an attractive option for launching medium sized payloads into low earth orbit. The RBCC SSTO presents a particularly difficult problem for traditional one-variable-at-a-time optimization methods because of the lack of an adequate experience base and the highly coupled nature of the design variables. MDO, however, with it's structured approach to design, is well suited to this problem. The result of the application of Taguchi methods, central composite designs, and response surface methods to the design optimization of the RBCC SSTO are presented. Attention is given to the aspect of Taguchi methods that attempts to locate a 'robust' design - that is, a design that is least sensitive to uncontrollable influences on the design. Near-optimum minimum dry weight solutions are determined for the vehicle. A summary and evaluation of the various parametric MDO methods employed in the research are included. Recommendations for additional research are provided.

  6. Analysis and design of a multi-wheeled vehicle with variable geometry suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Tae-Bum; Yoo, Wan-Suk; Kim, Min-Ho; Noh, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Huh, Nam; Park, Hee-Young; Park, Se-Jin

    2006-05-01

    In most field robots, go or no-go decision depends on the maximum height of a bump. For combat vehicles, however, much advanced capability of the vehicle is required to pass over a higher bump compared to its wheel radius. For this purpose, many combat vehicles are using variable geometry suspension (VGS). In this paper, a 6x6 vehicle with a rotating VGS was designed. Computer simulations of the designed vehicle were carried out with the ADAMS program to estimate motor capacity and the required torque. The suspension was designed to rotate 360 degrees about the swing axis, thus, the vehicle could climb a higher bump by rotating its suspension.

  7. Integrated Design System (IDS) Tools for the Spacecraft Aeroassist/Entry Vehicle Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David; Braun, Robert; Langhoff, Steven R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The definition of the Integrated Design System technology focus area as presented in the NASA Information Technology center of excellence strategic plan is described. The need for IDS tools in the aeroassist/entry vehicle design process is illustrated. Initial and future plans for spacecraft IDS tool development are discussed.

  8. Crew emergency return vehicle - Electrical power system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, E. C.; Barrera, T. P.

    1989-01-01

    A crew emergency return vehicle (CERV) is proposed to perform the lifeboat function for the manned Space Station Freedom. This escape module will be permanently docked to Freedom and, on demand, will be capable of safely returning the crew to earth. The unique requirements that the CERV imposes on its power source are presented, power source options are examined, and a baseline system is selected. It consists of an active Li-BCX DD-cell modular battery system and was chosen for the maturity of its man-rated design and its low development costs.

  9. New vehicle bumper design for pedestrian protection during Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaka, H.; Manap, A.; Tarlochan, F.

    2015-09-01

    This study discusses the influence of the active bumper design on the performance of the selected current bumper in terms of pedestrian protection by using finite element method. The legform impactor is used to test the bumper models created according to EEVC/WG regulations (European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee). The simulation was performed using LS-DYNA. The lower leg injury risk was discussed based on the performance of the bumper. Results of the study show a significant improvement in the bumper performance to mitigate the impact injury of the pedestrian's lower leg.

  10. Design principles for a flywheel energy store for road vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Acarnley, P.P.; Mecrow, B.C.; Burdess, J.S.; Fawcett, J.N.; Kelly, J.G.; Dickinson, P.G.

    1996-11-01

    This paper introduces a flywheel energy storage device capable of enhancing the fuel economy of a hybrid-type road vehicle. A number of possible drive types are considered and the permanent magnet machine drive is shown to provide the best solution. Reasons for selecting a device using an axial-field configuration with single-rotor and double-stator sections are described. Electrical, magnetic, and mechanical design data are presented for a full-scale prototype device with 240 KJ of usable energy storage and 25 kW of power transfer, operating at speeds up to 50,000 r/min, with a 10% duty cycle.

  11. Design principles for a flywheel energy store for road vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Acarnley, P.P.; Mecrow, B.C.; Burdess, J.S.; Fawcett, J.N.; Kelly, J.G.; Dickinson, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper introduces a flywheel energy storage device capable of enhancing the fuel economy of a hybrid-type road vehicle. A number of possible drive types is considered and the permanent magnet machine drive is shown to provide the best solution. Reasons for selecting a device using an axial-field configuration with single rotor and double stator sections are described. Electrical, magnetic and mechanical design data are presented for a full-scale prototype device with 240 kJ of usable energy storage and 25 kW of power transfer, operating at speeds up to 50,000 revs per minute, with a 10% duty cycle.

  12. Assured crew return vehicle post landing configuration design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.; Armitage, Pamela Kay

    1992-01-01

    The 1991-1992 senior Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Design class continued work on the post landing configurations for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Emergency Egress Couch (EEC). The ACRV will be permanently docked to Space Station Freedom, fulfilling NASA's commitment of Assured Crew Return Capability in the event of an accident or illness aboard Space Station Freedom. The EEC provides medical support and a transportation surface for an incapacitated crew member. The objective of the projects was to give the ACRV Project Office data to feed into their feasibility studies. Four design teams were given the task of developing models with dynamically and geometrically scaled characteristics. Groups one and two combined effort to design a one-fifth scale model of the Apollo Command Module derivative, an on-board flotation system, and a lift attachment point system. This model was designed to test the feasibility of a rigid flotation and stabilization system and to determine the dynamics associated with lifting the vehicle during retrieval. However, due to priorities, it was not built. Group three designed a one-fifth scale model of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) benchmark configuration, the Station Crew Return Alternative Module (SCRAM) with a lift attachment point system. This model helped to determine the flotation and lifting characteristics of the SCRAM configuration. Group four designed a full scale EEC with changeable geometric and dynamic characteristics. This model provided data on the geometric characteristics of the EEC and on the placement of the CG and moment of inertia. It also gave the helicopter rescue personnel direct input to the feasibility study.

  13. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  14. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design methodology, the design decision rationale, the vehicle preliminary design summary, and the advanced technology developments are presented. The detailed vehicle design, the vehicle ride and handling and front structural crashworthiness analysis, the microcomputer control of the propulsion system, the design study of the battery switching circuit, the field chopper, and the battery charger, and the recent program refinements and computer results are presented.

  15. Building Operations Efficiencies into NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration guides NASA's challenging missions of technological innovation and scientific investigation. With the Agency's commitment to complete the International Space Station (ISS) and to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010, the NASA Administrator commissioned the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in mid 2005 to analyze options for a safer, simpler, more cost efficient launch system that could deliver timely human-rated space transportation capabilities. NASA's finite resources yield discoveries with infinite possibilities. As the Agency begins the process of replacing the Shuttle with new launch vehicles destined for missions beyond low-Earth orbit to the Moon and Mars, NASA is designing the follow-on crew and cargo systems for maximum operational efficiencies. This mandate is imperative to reduce the $4.5 billion NASA spends on space transportation each year. This paper gives top-level details of how the follow-on Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is being designed for reduced lifecycle costs as a primary catalyst for the expansion of future frontiers.

  16. Aeroheating Design Issues for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoby, E. Vincent; Thompson, Richard A.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of basic aeroheating design issues for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV), which addresses the application of hypersonic ground-based testing, and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and engineering codes, is presented. Challenges inherent to the prediction of aeroheating environments required for the successful design of the RLV Thermal Protection System (TPS) are discussed in conjunction with the importance of employing appropriate experimental/computational tools. The impact of the information garnered by using these tools in the resulting analyses, ultimately enhancing the RLV TPS design is illustrated. A wide range of topics is presented in this overview; e.g. the impact of flow physics issues such as boundary-layer transition, including effects of distributed and discrete roughness, shock-shock interactions, and flow separation/reattachment. Also, the benefit of integrating experimental and computational studies to gain an improved understanding of flow phenomena is illustrated. From computational studies, the effect of low-density conditions and of uncertainties in material surface properties on the computed heating rates a r e highlighted as well as the significant role of CFD in improving the Outer Mold Line (OML) definition to reduce aeroheating while maintaining aerodynamic performance. Appropriate selection of the TPS design trajectories and trajectory shaping to mitigate aeroheating levels and loads are discussed. Lastly, an illustration of an aeroheating design process is presented whereby data from hypersonic wind-tunnel tests are integrated with predictions from CFD codes and engineering methods to provide heating environments along an entry trajectory as required for TPS design.

  17. Aeroheating Design Issues for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoby, E. Vincent; Thompson, Richard A.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of basic aeroheating design issues for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV), which addresses the application of hypersonic ground-based testing, and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and engineering codes, is presented. Challenges inherent to the prediction of aeroheating environments required for the successful design of the RLV Thermal Protection System (TPS) are discussed in conjunction with the importance of employing appropriate experimental/computational tools. The impact of the information garnered by using these tools in the resulting analyses, ultimately enhancing the RLV TPS design is illustrated. A wide range of topics is presented in this overview; e.g. the impact of flow physics issues such as boundary-layer transition, including effects of distributed and discrete roughness, shockshock interactions, and flow separation/reattachment. Also, the benefit of integrating experimental and computational studies to gain an improved understanding of flow phenomena is illustrated. From computational studies, the effect of low-density conditions and of uncertainties in material surface properties on the computed heating rates are highlighted as well as the significant role of CFD in improving the Outer Mold Line (OML) definition to reduce aeroheating while maintaining aerodynamic performance. Appropriate selection of the TPS design trajectories and trajectory shaping to mitigate aeroheating levels and loads are discussed. Lastly, an illustration of an aeroheating design process is presented whereby data from hypersonic wind-tunnel tests are integrated with predictions from CFD codes and engineering methods to provide heating environments along an entry trajectory as required for TPS design.

  18. Postlanding optimum designs for the assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosterman, Kenneth C.; Anderson, Loren A.

    1990-01-01

    The optimized preliminary engineering design concepts for postlanding operations of a water-landing Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) during a medical rescue mission are presented. Two ACRVs will be permanently docked to Space Station Freedom, fulfilling NASA's commitment to Assured Crew Return Capability in the event of an accident or illness. The optimized configuration of the ACRV is based on an Apollo command module (ACM) derivative. The scenario assumes landing a sick or injured crewmember on water with the possibility of a delayed rescue. Design emphasis is placed on four major areas. First is the design of a mechanism that provides a safe and time-critical means of removing the sick or injured crewmember from the ACRV. Support to the assisting rescue personnel is also provided. Second is the design of a system that orients and stabilizes the craft after landing so as to cause no further injury or discomfort to the already ill or injured crewmember. Third is the design of a system that provides full medical support to a sick or injured crewmember aboard the ACRV from the time of separation from the space station to rescue by recovery forces. Last is the design of a system that provides for the comfort and safety of the entire crew after splashdown up to the point of rescue. The four systems are conceptually integrated into the ACRV.

  19. Loligomers: design of de novo peptide-based intracellular vehicles.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, K; Liu, D; Ferguson, J; Gariépy, J

    1995-01-01

    Defined branched peptides (loligomers) incorporating cytoplasmic translocation signals, nuclear localization sequences, and fluorescent probes were designed and synthesized to demonstrate the feasibility and simplicity of creating novel classes of intracellular vehicles. Loligomers containing all the above signals were rapidly internalized by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and accumulated in their nucleus. At 4 degrees C, the interaction of peptide constructs with CHO cells was limited to membrane association. Loligomers entered cells at higher temperatures by adsorptive endocytosis. Inhibitors of ATP synthesis affected cytoplasmic import only weakly but abolished nuclear uptake. The peptide signals guided both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization events. The properties exhibited by loligomers suggest a strategy for the facile design of "guided" classes of intracellular agents. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7892224

  20. Structural design and fabrication techniques of composite unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Daniel Stephen

    Popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles has grown substantially in recent years both in the private sector, as well as for government functions. This growth can be attributed largely to the increased performance of the technology that controls these vehicles, as well as decreasing cost and size of this technology. What is sometimes forgotten though, is that the research and advancement of the airframes themselves are equally as important as what is done with them. With current computer-aided design programs, the limits of design optimization can be pushed further than ever before, resulting in lighter and faster airframes that can achieve longer endurances, higher altitudes, and more complex missions. However, realization of a paper design is still limited by the physical restrictions of the real world and the structural constraints associated with it. The purpose of this paper is to not only step through current design and manufacturing processes of composite UAVs at Oklahoma State University, but to also focus on composite spars, utilizing and relating both calculated and empirical data. Most of the experience gained for this thesis was from the Cessna Longitude project. The Longitude is a 1/8 scale, flying demonstrator Oklahoma State University constructed for Cessna. For the project, Cessna required dynamic flight data for their design process in order to make their 2017 release date. Oklahoma State University was privileged enough to assist Cessna with the mission of supporting the validation of design of their largest business jet to date. This paper will detail the steps of the fabrication process used in construction of the Longitude, as well as several other projects, beginning with structural design, machining, molding, skin layup, and ending with final assembly. Also, attention will be paid specifically towards spar design and testing in effort to ease the design phase. This document is intended to act not only as a further development of current practices, but also as a step-by-step manual for those who aspire to make composite airframes, predominantly the Oklahoma State University MAE students who either are, or will be using these techniques on a daily basis.

  1. A comparison of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cell vehicles: implications for vehicle design and infrastructure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Joan M.; Steinbugler, Margaret M.; Kreutz, Thomas G.

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in electric vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., gasoline, diesel, or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, we present modeling results comparing three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: (a) compressed gas hydrogen storage, (b) onboard steam reforming of methanol, (c) onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. We have developed a fuel cell vehicle model, including detailed models of onboard fuel processors. This allows us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various vehicle parameters, fuel storage choices and driving cycles. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and gasoline, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. The delivered fuel cost, total lifecycle cost of transportation, and capital cost of infrastructure development are estimated for each alternative. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, possible fuel strategies leading to the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are discussed.

  2. MAIUS-1- Vehicle, Subsystems Design and Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamminger, A.; Ettl, J.; Grosse, J.; Horschgen-Eggers, M.; Jung, W.; Kallenbach, A.; Raith, G.; Saedtler, W.; Seidel, S. T.; Turner, J.; Wittkamp, M.

    2015-09-01

    In November 2015, the DLR Mobile Rocket Base will launch the MAIUS-1 rocket vehicle at Esrange, Northern Sweden. The MAIUS-A experiment is a pathfinder atom optics experiment. The scientific objective of the mission is the first creation of a BoseEinstein Condensate in space and performing atom interferometry on a sounding rocket [3]. MAIUS-1 comprises a two-stage unguided solid propellant VSB-30 rocket motor system. The vehicle consists of a Brazilian 53 1 motor as 1 st stage, a 530 motor as 2nd stage, a conical motor adapter, a despin module, a payload adapter, the MAIUS-A experiment consisting of five experiment modules, an attitude control system module, a newly developed conical service system, and a two-staged recovery system including a nosecone. In contrast to usual payloads on VSB-30 rockets, the payload has a diameter of 500 mm due to constraints of the scientific experiment. Because of this change in design, a blunted nosecone is necessary to guarantee the required static stability during the ascent phase of the flight. This paper will give an overview on the subsystems which have been built at DLR MORABA, especially the newly developed service system. Further, it will contain a description of the MAIUS-1 vehicle, the mission and the unique requirements on operations and attitude control, which is additionally required to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector. Additionally to a usual microgravity environment, the MAIUS-l payload requires attitude control to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector.

  3. Series hybrid vehicles and optimized hydrogen engine design

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S.; Van Blarigan, P.

    1995-05-10

    Lawrence Livermore, Sandia Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have a joint project to develop an optimized hydrogen fueled engine for series hybrid automobiles. The major divisions of responsibility are: system analysis, engine design and kinetics modeling by LLNL; performance and emission testing, and friction reduction by SNL; computational fluid mechanics and combustion modeling by LANL. This project is a component of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technology, National Hydrogen Program. We report here on the progress on system analysis and preliminary engine testing. We have done system studies of series hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. The impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy are evaluated. Experiments with an available engine at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility demonstrated NO{sub x} emissions of 10 to 20 ppm at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid vehicle simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO{sub x} concentrations must be less than 180 ppm to meet the 0.2 g/mile California Air Resources Board ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. We have designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing single cylinder Onan engine. This head currently features 14.8:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses.

  4. Design Study of Wafer Seals for Future Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Future hypersonic vehicles require high temperature, dynamic seals in advanced hypersonic engines and on the vehicle airframe to seal the perimeters of movable panels, flaps, and doors. Current seals do not meet the demanding requirements of these applications, so NASA Glenn Research Center is developing improved designs to overcome these shortfalls. An advanced ceramic wafer seal design has shown promise in meeting these needs. Results from a design of experiments study performed on this seal revealed that several installation variables played a role in determining the amount of leakage past the seals. Lower leakage rates were achieved by using a tighter groove width around the seals, a higher seal preload, a tighter wafer height tolerance, and a looser groove length. During flow testing, a seal activating pressure acting behind the wafers combined with simulated vibrations to seat the seals more effectively against the sealing surface and produce lower leakage rates. A seal geometry study revealed comparable leakage for full-scale wafers with 0.125 and 0.25 in. thicknesses. For applications in which lower part counts are desired, fewer 0.25-in.-thick wafers may be able to be used in place of 0.125-in.-thick wafers while achieving similar performance. Tests performed on wafers with a rounded edge (0.5 in. radius) in contact with the sealing surface resulted in flow rates twice as high as those for wafers with a flat edge. Half-size wafers had leakage rates approximately three times higher than those for full-size wafers.

  5. Series hybrid vehicles and optimized hydrogen engine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Aceves, S.; Vanblarigan, P.

    1995-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore, Sandia Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have a joint project to develop an optimized hydrogen fueled engine for series hybrid automobiles. The major divisions of responsibility are: system analysis, engine design and kinetics modeling by LLNL; performance and emission testing, and friction reduction by SNL; computational fluid mechanics and combustion modeling by LANL. This project is a component of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technology, National Hydrogen Program. We report here on the progress on system analysis and preliminary engine testing. We have done system studies of series hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. The impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy are evaluated. Experiments with an available engine at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility demonstrated NO(x) emissions of 10 to 20 ppm at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid vehicle simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO(x) concentrations must be less than 180 ppm to meet the 0.2 g/mile California Air Resources Board ULEV or Federal Tier-2 emissions regulations. We have designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing single cylinder Onan engine. This head currently features 14.8:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses.

  6. A New Aerodynamic Data Dispersion Method for Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for implementing aerodynamic data dispersion analysis is herein introduced. A general mathematical approach combined with physical modeling tailored to the aerodynamic quantity of interest enables the generation of more realistically relevant dispersed data and, in turn, more reasonable flight simulation results. The method simultaneously allows for the aerodynamic quantities and their derivatives to be dispersed given a set of non-arbitrary constraints, which stresses the controls model in more ways than with the traditional bias up or down of the nominal data within the uncertainty bounds. The adoption and implementation of this new method within the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Project has resulted in significant increases in predicted roll control authority, and lowered the induced risks for flight test operations. One direct impact on launch vehicles is a reduced size for auxiliary control systems, and the possibility of an increased payload. This technique has the potential of being applied to problems in multiple areas where nominal data together with uncertainties are used to produce simulations using Monte Carlo type random sampling methods. It is recommended that a tailored physics-based dispersion model be delivered with any aerodynamic product that includes nominal data and uncertainties, in order to make flight simulations more realistic and allow for leaner spacecraft designs.

  7. THE DEFINITION AND INTERPRETATION OF TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT DESIGN INPUTS FOR VEHICLE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Keller, Vernon W.; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    The description and interpretation of the terrestrial environment (0-90 km altitude) is an important driver of aerospace vehicle structural, control, and thermal system design. NASA is currently in the process of reviewing the meteorological information acquired over the past decade and producing an update to the 1993 Terrestrial Environment Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicle Design and Development handbook. This paper addresses the contents of this updated handbook, with special emphasis on new material being included in the areas of atmospheric thermodynamic models, wind dynamics, atmospheric composition, atmospheric electricity, cloud phenomena, atmospheric extremes, sea state, etc. In addition, the respective engineering design elements will be discussed relative to the importance and influence of terrestrial environment inputs that require consideration and interpretation for design applications. Specific lessons learned that have contributed to the advancements made in the acquisition, interpretation, application and awareness of terrestrial environment inputs for aerospace engineering applications are discussed.

  8. A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-07-15

    This report describes a hybrid vehicle simulation model, which can be applied to many of the vehicles currently being considered for low pollution and high fuel economy. The code operates interactively, with all the vehicle information stored in data files. The code calculates fuel economy for three driving schedules, time for 0-96 km/h at maximum acceleration, hill climbing performance, power train dimensions, and pollution generation rates. This report also documents the application of the code to a hybrid vehicle that operates with a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle. The results show the fuel economy of the vehicle as a function of vehicle mass, aerodynamic drag, engine-generator efficiency, flywheel efficiency, and flywheel energy and power capacities.

  9. A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves, S. M.; Smith, J. R.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes a hybrid vehicle simulation model, which can be applied to many of the vehicles currently being considered for low pollution and high fuel economy. The code operates interactively, with all the vehicle information stored in data files. The code calculates fuel economy for three driving schedules, time for 0-96 km/h at maximum acceleration, hill climbing performance, power train dimensions, and pollution generation rates. This report also documents the application of the code to a hybrid vehicle that operates with a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle. The results show the fuel economy of the vehicle as a function of vehicle mass, aerodynamic drag, engine-generator efficiency, flywheel efficiency, and flywheel energy and power capacities.

  10. GPS Receiver Design for Spin-Stabilized Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinuma, Takuji; Kusu, Tomomichi; Abe, Toshio; Saito, Hirobumi

    This paper describes the design and development of a dedicated GPS receiver for spin stabilized launch vehicles. The receiver is built around a commercially available low cost GPS chip set and operates an enhanced firmware specifically adapted for high dynamics applications. In order to keep tracking a sufficient number of GPS signals even during the spinning motion, we use multiple GPS patch antennas and space them equally apart each other around the cylindrical launcher body. A new signal combining scheme was developed to avoid deep fading in antenna gain pattern. This technique requires phase control to keep signals received on multiple antennas in phase with each other. A dualantenna GPS receiver was developed to evaluate the proposed signal combining algorithm. The result showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of providing stable and continuous signal tracking under a high-rate spinning motion while simple RF combining through a power combiner was failed.

  11. Polymer selection and cell design for electric-vehicle supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Mastragostino, M.; Arbizzani, C.; Paraventi, R.; Zanelli, A.

    2000-02-01

    Supercapacitors are devices for applications requiring high operating power levels, such as secondary power sources in electric vehicles (EVs) to provide peak power for acceleration and hill climbing. While electronically conducting polymers yield different redox supercapacitor configurations, devices with the n-doped polymer as the negative electrode and the p-doped polymer as the positive one are the most promising for EV applications. Indeed, this type of supercapacitor has a high operating potential, is able to deliver all the doping charge and, when charged, has both electrodes in the conducting (p- and n-doped) states. This study reports selection criteria for polymer materials and cell design for high performance EV supercapacitors and experimental results of selected polymer materials.

  12. Man-vehicle systems research facility: Design and operating characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility (MVSRF) provides the capability of simulating aircraft (two with full crews), en route and terminal air traffic control and aircrew interactions, and advanced cockpit (1995) display representative of future generations of aircraft, all within the full mission context. The characteristics of this facility derive from research, addressing critical human factors issues that pertain to: (1) information requirements for the utilization and integration of advanced electronic display systems, (2) the interaction and distribution of responsibilities between aircrews and ground controllers, and (3) the automation of aircrew functions. This research has emphasized the need for high fidelity in simulations and for the capability to conduct full mission simulations of relevant aircraft operations. This report briefly describes the MVSRF design and operating characteristics.

  13. Aeroassisted-vehicle design studies for a manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.

    1987-01-01

    An aerobrake design that has matured over several years of development accounting for all of the important flow phenomenology which are characteristic of aerobraking vehicles is proposed as the mission baseline. Flight regimes and aerothermal environments for both Mars and Earth entry are calculated using advanced methods to account for real-gas, thermochemical, relaxation effects. The results are correlated with thermal-protection and structural requirements and mission performance capability. The importance of nonequilibrium radiative heating for Earth aerocapture is demonstrated. It is suggested that two aerobrakes of different sizes will produce optimal performance for the three phases of the mission (i.e., one aerobrake for Mars aerocapture and descent of the surface lander and another for Earth return).

  14. Hybrid Wing Body Planform Design with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.; Olson, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to provide an update on NASA s current tools for design and analysis of hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with an emphasis on Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). NASA started HWB analysis using the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS). That capability is enhanced using Phoenix Integration's ModelCenter(Registered TradeMark). Model Center enables multifidelity analysis tools to be linked as an integrated structure. Two major components are linked to FLOPS as an example; a planform discretization tool and VSP. The planform discretization tool ensures the planform is smooth and continuous. VSP is used to display the output geometry. This example shows that a smooth & continuous HWB planform can be displayed as a three-dimensional model and rapidly sized and analyzed.

  15. Zinc-bromine battery design for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellows, R. J.; Grimes, P.; Einstein, H.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.

    1983-02-01

    Design projections for zinc-bromine batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-bromine battery projections (60-80 Wh/kg, 130-200 W/kg) compare favorably to both current lead acid batteries and proposed advanced battery candidates. The performance of recently developed battery components with 1200 sq/cm electrodes in a 120V, 10 kWh module is described. Similarly constructed smaller scale (600 sq/cm) components have shown lifetimes exceeding 400 cycles and the ability to follow both regenerative braking (J227aD) and random cycling regimes. Initial dynamometer evaluations of full scale 20 kWh batteries is expected in early 1984.

  16. Enhanced Control Effector Designs for Airbreathing Transatmospheric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E.; McMinn, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential effectiveness of a moveable cowl-trailing-edge design for airbreathing hypersonic single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) configurations, which can be extended or deflected from the nominal position in order to provide additional pitching moment capability. This additional pitching moment capability may reduce the necessary deflection angle from conventional control surfaces and the associated trim drag penalty. Calculations for a generic SSTO configuration with baseline and modified cowl trailing edge geometries were performed at Mach 6 and 10 initially with an engineering analysis code in order to examine several design parametrics. In order to more accurately model geometries and flow physics, 2-D viscous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions were obtained. FInally, a limited set of 3D CFD predictions were obtained at Mach 6 in order to show the effects of modeling 3D flow fields as well as the full 3D vehicle geometry. Comparisons of aftbody surface pressures and force and moment predictions show differences between initial predictions and 2-D CFD solutions due to geometry modeling and calculation method differences. The 3-D CFD predictions confirm the trends observed in the 2-D solutions and provide additional information on 3D effects. These analyses shows that cowl-trailing-edge extensions were effective in providing additional (nose-down) pitching moment increments as well as increased thrust compared to the baseline geometry. These effects reduce the control surface deflection angle required to trim the vehicle and the associated trim drag. Cowl-trailingedge deflections were not as effective, generating more nose-up pitching moment and decreased thrust compared to non-deflected cases.

  17. Design of a vehicle based system to prevent ozone loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Sean R.; Bunker, Deborah; Hesbach, Thomas D., Jr.; Howerton, Everett B.; Hreinsson, G.; Mistr, E. Kirk; Palmer, Matthew E.; Rogers, Claiborne; Tischler, Dayna S.; Wrona, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced quantities of ozone in the atmosphere allow greater levels of ultraviolet light (UV) radiation to reach the earth's surface. This is known to cause skin cancer and mutations. Chlorine liberated from Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and natural sources initiate the destruction of stratospheric ozone through a free radical chain reaction. The project goals are to understand the processes which contribute to stratospheric ozone loss, examine ways to prevent ozone loss, and design a vehicle-based system to carry out the prevention scheme. The 1992/1993 design objectives were to accomplish the first two goals and define the requirements for an implementation vehicle to be designed in detail starting next year. Many different ozone intervention schemes have been proposed though few have been researched and none have been tested. A scheme proposed by R.J. Cicerone, Scott Elliot and R.P.Turco late in 1991 was selected because of its research support and economic feasibility. This scheme uses hydrocarbon injected into the Antarctic ozone hole to form stable compounds with free chlorine, thus reducing ozone depletion. Because most polar ozone depletion takes place during a 3-4 week period each year, the hydrocarbon must be injected during this time window. A study of the hydrocarbon injection requirements determined that 100 aircraft traveling Mach 2.4 at a maximum altitude of 66,000 ft. would provide the most economic approach to preventing ozone loss. Each aircraft would require an 8,000 nm. range and be able to carry 35,000 lbs. of propane. The propane would be stored in a three-tank high pressure system. Missions would be based from airport regions located in South America and Australia. To best provide the requirements of mission analysis, an aircraft with L/D(sub cruise) = 10.5, SFC = 0.65 (the faculty advisor suggested that this number is too low) and a 250,000 lb TOGW was selected as a baseline. Modularity and multi-role functionality were selected to be key design features. Modularity provides ease of turnaround for the down-time critical mission. Multi-role functionality allows the aircraft to be used beyond its design mission, perhaps as an High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) or for high altitude research.

  18. Optimization of Turbine Blade Design for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei

    1998-01-01

    To facilitate design optimization of turbine blade shape for reusable launching vehicles, appropriate techniques need to be developed to process and estimate the characteristics of the design variables and the response of the output with respect to the variations of the design variables. The purpose of this report is to offer insight into developing appropriate techniques for supporting such design and optimization needs. Neural network and polynomial-based techniques are applied to process aerodynamic data obtained from computational simulations for flows around a two-dimensional airfoil and a generic three- dimensional wing/blade. For the two-dimensional airfoil, a two-layered radial-basis network is designed and trained. The performances of two different design functions for radial-basis networks, one based on the accuracy requirement, whereas the other one based on the limit on the network size. While the number of neurons needed to satisfactorily reproduce the information depends on the size of the data, the neural network technique is shown to be more accurate for large data set (up to 765 simulations have been used) than the polynomial-based response surface method. For the three-dimensional wing/blade case, smaller aerodynamic data sets (between 9 to 25 simulations) are considered, and both the neural network and the polynomial-based response surface techniques improve their performance as the data size increases. It is found while the relative performance of two different network types, a radial-basis network and a back-propagation network, depends on the number of input data, the number of iterations required for radial-basis network is less than that for the back-propagation network.

  19. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.21 Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional Director shall, to...) Regional Directors shall designate and publicize those areas and trails which are open to off-road...

  20. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.21 Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional Director shall, to...) Regional Directors shall designate and publicize those areas and trails which are open to off-road...

  1. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.21 Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional Director shall, to...) Regional Directors shall designate and publicize those areas and trails which are open to off-road...

  2. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.21 Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional Director shall, to...) Regional Directors shall designate and publicize those areas and trails which are open to off-road...

  3. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.21 Procedure for designating...

  4. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Anderson, Molly K.; Ewert, Mike S.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.

    2007-01-01

    In preparation for the contract award of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) produced two design reference missions for the vehicle. The design references used teams of engineers across the agency to come up with two configurations. This process helped NASA understand the conflicts and limitations in the CEV design, and investigate options to solve them.

  5. Design of a Vehicle Based Intervention System to Prevent Ozone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robin; Fisher, Daniel; Meade, Matt; Neel, James; Olson, Kristin; Pittman, Andrew; Valdivia, Anne; Wibisono, Aria; Mason, William H.; Kirschbaum, Nathan

    1995-01-01

    This project was designed to be completed over a period of three years. Overall project goals were: (1) To understand the processes that contribute to stratospheric ozone loss; (2) To determine the best prevention scheme for loss; (3) To design a delivery vehicle to accomplish the prevention scheme. The 1994-1995 design objectives included: (1) To review the results of the 1993-1994 design team, including a reevaluation of the major assumptions and criteria selected to choose a vehicle; (2) To evaluate preliminary vehicle concepts and perform quantitative trade studies to select the optimal vehicle concept.

  6. Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation of Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Scott; Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the latest human spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype architectures for a new launch and reentry spacesuit that would be suited to the new mission goals. Four prototype suits were evaluated to compare their performance and enable the selection of the preferred suit components and designs. A consolidated approach to testing was taken: concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances, and qualitative assessments of suit performance within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. It was necessary to maintain high fidelity in a mockup and use advanced motion-capture technologies in order to achieve the objectives of the study. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The construction of the mockup was such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motioncapture system. This paper describes the method used to create a space vehicle mockup compatible with use of an optical motion-capture system, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, and a way to use the complex data set resulting from a limited number of test subjects to generate hardware requirements for an entire population. Kinematics, hardware clearance, anthropometry (suited and unsuited), and subjective feedback data were recorded on 15 unsuited and 5 suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly based on their anthropometry in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male, and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited medium male subjects and were tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. The prototype spacesuits were each fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average-sized male, so select findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes of the population to anticipate likely problem areas. This extrapolation was achieved by first comparing suited subjects performance with their unsuited performance, and then applying the results to the entire range of the population. The use of a transparent space vehicle mockup enabled the collection of large amounts of data during human-in-the-loop testing. Mobility data revealed that most of the tested spacesuits had sufficient ranges of motion for the selected tasks to be performed successfully. A suited subject's inability to perform a task most often stemmed from a combination of poor field of view in a seated position, poor dexterity of the pressurized gloves, or from suit/vehicle interface issues. Seat ingress and egress testing showed that problems with anthropometric accommodation did not exclusively occur with the largest or smallest subjects, but also with specific combinations of measurements that led to narrower seat ingress/egress clearance.

  7. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Parameter Design Multiple Selection Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Joey Dewayne

    2004-01-01

    The optimization tool described herein addresses and emphasizes the use of computer tools to model a system and focuses on a concept development approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system, but more particularly the development of the optimized system using new techniques. This methodology uses new and innovative tools to run Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, and statistical models in order to optimize a design concept. The concept launch vehicle and propulsion system were modeled and optimized to determine the best design for weight and cost by varying design and technology parameters. Uncertainty levels were applied using Monte Carlo Simulations and the model output was compared to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle Main Engine. Several key conclusions are summarized here for the model results. First, the Gross Liftoff Weight and Dry Weight were 67% higher for the design case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost when compared to the weights determined by the minimization of Gross Liftoff Weight case. In turn, the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost was 53% higher for optimized Gross Liftoff Weight case when compared to the cost determined by case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost. Therefore, a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Secondly, the tool outputs define the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. A key finding was that for a Space Shuttle Main Engine thrust level the oxidizer/fuel ratio of 6.6 resulted in the lowest Gross Liftoff Weight rather than at 5.2 for the maximum specific impulse, demonstrating the relationships between specific impulse, engine weight, tank volume and tank weight. Lastly, the optimum chamber pressure for Gross Liftoff Weight minimization was 2713 pounds per square inch as compared to 3162 for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost optimization case. This chamber pressure range is close to 3000 pounds per square inch for the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  8. Estimating Basic Preliminary Design Performances of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.; Alexander, Reginald

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamics and Performance Estimation Toolset is a collection of four software programs for rapidly estimating the preliminary design performance of aerospace vehicles represented by doing simplified calculations based on ballistic trajectories, the ideal rocket equation, and supersonic wedges through standard atmosphere. The program consists of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheet subprograms. The input and output data are presented in a user-friendly format, and calculations are performed rapidly enough that the user can iterate among different trajectories and/or shapes to perform "what-if" studies. Estimates that can be computed by these programs include: 1. Ballistic trajectories as a function of departure angles, initial velocities, initial positions, and target altitudes; assuming point masses and no atmosphere. The program plots the trajectory in two-dimensions and outputs the position, pitch, and velocity along the trajectory. 2. The "Rocket Equation" program calculates and plots the trade space for a vehicle s propellant mass fraction over a range of specific impulse and mission velocity values, propellant mass fractions as functions of specific impulses and velocities. 3. "Standard Atmosphere" will estimate the temperature, speed of sound, pressure, and air density as a function of altitude in a standard atmosphere, properties of a standard atmosphere as functions of altitude. 4. "Supersonic Wedges" will calculate the free-stream, normal-shock, oblique-shock, and isentropic flow properties for a wedge-shaped body flying supersonically through a standard atmosphere. It will also calculate the maximum angle for which a shock remains attached, and the minimum Mach number for which a shock becomes attached, all as functions of the wedge angle, altitude, and Mach number.

  9. The suitability of selected multidisciplinary design and optimization techniques to conceptual aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Four methods for preliminary aerospace vehicle design are reviewed. The first three methods (classical optimization, system decomposition, and system sensitivity analysis (SSA)) employ numerical optimization techniques and numerical gradients to feed back changes in the design variables. The optimum solution is determined by stepping through a series of designs toward a final solution. Of these three, SSA is argued to be the most applicable to a large-scale highly coupled vehicle design where an accurate minimum of an objective function is required. With SSA, several tasks can be performed in parallel. The techniques of classical optimization and decomposition can be included in SSA, resulting in a very powerful design method. The Taguchi method is more of a 'smart' parametric design method that analyzes variable trends and interactions over designer specified ranges with a minimum of experimental analysis runs. Its advantages are its relative ease of use, ability to handle discrete variables, and ability to characterize the entire design space with a minimum of analysis runs.

  10. Reaction Control System Design Considerations for Mars Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Edquist, Karl T.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Wright, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The next generation of Mars exploration landers must precisely deliver scientific payloads to sites of interest, unlike previous Mars missions. The past missions, such as Viking and Pathfinder, performed landings to within 100s of kilometers from their targets using an unguided atmospheric entry. Guided entry of a capsule with a relatively high lift-to-drag ratio will allow landing to within 10s of kilometers from the target with a significantly more massive payload. Successful guided entry requires the use of a reaction control system (RCS) for both attitude correction and entry guidance maneuvers. Various aspects of the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system performance may be impacted by the operation of the RCS during entry. This paper illustrates the risks that arise from the gasdynamic interaction of the entry vehicle (EV) and RCS, and which require attention in the areas of aerodynamics and control, and aerothermal environments. This paper will review the methods to address the design challenges associated with integration of RCS into the atmospheric entry system. Among these challenges is the analysis of the potential for the aerodynamic interference due to both the direct jet plume impingement and more complex plume interactions with the wake flow. These interactions can result in enhanced aeroheating, requiring that a different approach to the thermal protection system (TPS) selection and sizing be used. The recent findings for Mars Science Laboratory and Mars Phoenix will be presented to help illustrate some of the phenomena. Current design solutions will be discussed.

  11. Deterministic Reconfigurable Control Design for the X-33 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Elaine A.; Burken, John J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wohletz, Jerry M.

    1998-01-01

    In the event of a control surface failure, the purpose of a reconfigurable control system is to redistribute the control effort among the remaining working surfaces such that satisfactory stability and performance are retained. Four reconfigurable control design methods were investigated for the X-33 vehicle: Redistributed Pseudo-Inverse, General Constrained Optimization, Automated Failure Dependent Gain Schedule, and an Off-line Nonlinear General Constrained Optimization. The Off-line Nonlinear General Constrained Optimization approach was chosen for implementation on the X-33. Two example failures are shown, a right outboard elevon jam at 25 deg. at a Mach 3 entry condition, and a left rudder jam at 30 degrees. Note however, that reconfigurable control laws have been designed for the entire flight envelope. Comparisons between responses with the nominal controller and reconfigurable controllers show the benefits of reconfiguration. Single jam aerosurface failures were considered, and failure detection and identification is considered accomplished in the actuator controller. The X-33 flight control system will incorporate reconfigurable flight control in the baseline system.

  12. Adjustment of Design Limited Imperfections for Transportation Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voges-Schwieger, Kathrin; Hübner, Sven; Behrens, Bernd-Arno

    2011-05-01

    The realization of light weight-construction without loss of passive safety in transportation vehicles is a big challenge for the next years. Considering the requirements on an automobile from consumer view a modern car should combine a high quality of comfort and standard with low operating expenses and a high safety standard. The use of lightweight design enables reductions in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions which are leading to a decrease of operating costs. The increase in passive safety is mainly characterized by an increase in strength and weight due to a concerted material selection, an enhancement of sheet metal thickness and additional compensating elements, e.g. patches. Especially for limited imperfections like cataphoretic drain holes or accesses for joining operations the strength adjustment without additional compensating elements and increasing weight possesses very much potential. The presented research investigate the possibility to reinforce local imperfections considering the material TRIP780 by combining different approaches on light-weight design. The reinforcements are realized by additional forming elements and enhance the moment of inertia. Different investigations were carried out to assess the placement and arrangement of the reinforcements in the deep drawing parts

  13. Critical engine system design characteristics for SSTO vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanciullo, Thomas J.; Judd, D. C.; Obrien, C. J.

    1992-02-01

    Engine system design characteristics are summarized for typical vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) and vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles utilizing plug nozzle configurations. Power cycle selection trades involved the unique modular platelet engine (MPE) with the use of (1) LO2 and LH2 at fixed and variable mixture ratios, (2) LO2 and propane or RP-1, and (3) dual fuels (LO2 with LH2 and C3H8). The number of thrust cells and modules were optimized. Dual chamber bell and a cluster of conventional bell nozzle configurations were examined for comparison with the plug configuration. Thrust modulation (throttling) was selected for thrust vector control. Installed thrust ratings were established to provide an additional 20 percent overthrust capability for engine out operation. Turbopumps were designed to operate at subcritical speeds to facilitate a wide range of throttling and long life. A unique dual spool arrangement with hydrostatic bearings was selected for the LH2 turbopump. Controls and health monitoring with expert systems for diagnostics are critical subsystems to ensure minimum maintenance and supportability for a less than seven day turnaround. The use of an idle mode start, in conjunction with automated health condition monitoring, allows the rocket propulsion system to operate reliably in the manner of present day aircraft propulsion.

  14. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  15. Nuclear Electric Vehicle Optimization Toolset (NEVOT): Integrated System Design Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Steincamp, James W.; Stewart, Eric T.; Patton, Bruce W.; Pannell, William P.; Newby, Ronald L.; Coffman, Mark E.; Qualls, A. L.; Bancroft, S.; Molvik, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Electric Vehicle Optimization Toolset (NEVOT) optimizes the design of all major Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) vehicle subsystems for a defined mission within constraints and optimization parameters chosen by a user. The tool uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) search technique to combine subsystem designs and evaluate the fitness of the integrated design to fulfill a mission. The fitness of an individual is used within the GA to determine its probability of survival through successive generations in which the designs with low fitness are eliminated and replaced with combinations or mutations of designs with higher fitness. The program can find optimal solutions for different sets of fitness metrics without modification and can create and evaluate vehicle designs that might never be conceived of through traditional design techniques. It is anticipated that the flexible optimization methodology will expand present knowledge of the design trade-offs inherent in designing nuclear powered space vehicles and lead to improved NEP designs.

  16. Reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components, Part I: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yimin

    2015-06-01

    The reliability-based design optimization, the reliability sensitivity analysis and robust design method are employed to present a practical and effective approach for reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components. A procedure for reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components is proposed. Application of the method is illustrated by reliability-based robust design optimization of axle and spring. Numerical results have shown that the proposed method can be trusted to perform reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components.

  17. A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-12-13

    This paper describes a hybrid vehicle simulation model which can be applied to many of the vehicles currently being considered for low pollution and high fuel economy. The code operates in batch mode with all the vehicle information stored in data files. The code calculates power train dimensions, fuel economy for three driving schedules, time for 0-96 km/h at maximum acceleration, hill climbing performance, and pollution generation rates. This paper also documents the application of the code to a hybrid vehicle that utilizes a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle. The results show the fuel economy of the vehicle as a function of vehicle mass, aerodynamic drag, engine efficiency, accessory load, and flywheel efficiency. The code also calculates the minimum flywheel energy and power to obtain a desired performance. The hydrogen hybrid vehicle analyzed in the paper has a range of 480 km (300 miles), with a predicted gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 33.7 km/liter (79.3 mpg).

  18. A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-09-15

    This paper describes a hybrid vehicle simulation model which can be applied to many of the vehicles currently being considered for low pollution and high fuel economy. The code operates in batch mode with all the vehicle information stored in data files. The code calculates fuel economy for three driving schedules, time for 0--96 km/h at maximum acceleration, hill climbing performance, power train dimensions, and pollution generation rates. This paper also documents the application of the code to a hybrid vehicle that utilizes a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle. The results show the fuel economy of the vehicle as a function of vehicle mass, aerodynamic drag, engine efficiency, accessory load, and flywheel efficiency. The code also calculates the minimum flywheel energy and power to obtain a desired performance. The hydrogen hybrid vehicle analyzed in the paper has a predicted range of 480 km (300 miles), with a gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 34.2 km/liter (80.9 mpg).

  19. A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design, revision 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves, S. M.; Smith, J. R.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes a hybrid vehicle simulation model which can be applied to many of the vehicles currently being considered for low pollution and high fuel economy. The code operates in batch mode with all the vehicle information stored in data files. The code calculates power train dimensions, fuel economy for three driving schedules, time for 0-96 km/h at maximum acceleration, hill climbing performance, and pollution generation rates. This paper also documents the application of the code to a hybrid vehicle that utilizes a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle. The results show the fuel economy of the vehicle as a function of vehicle mass, aerodynamic drag, engine efficiency, accessory load, and flywheel efficiency. The code also calculates the minimum flywheel energy and power to obtain a desired performance. The hydrogen hybrid vehicle analyzed in the paper has a range of 480 km (300 miles), with a predicted gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 33.7 km/liter (79.3 mpg).

  20. A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design. Revision 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves, S. M.; Smith, J. R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes a hybrid vehicle simulation model which can be applied to many of the vehicles currently being considered for low pollution and high fuel economy. The code operates in batch mode with all the vehicle information stored in data files. The code calculates fuel economy for three driving schedules, time for 0-96 km/h at maximum acceleration, hill climbing performance, power train dimensions, and pollution generation rates. This paper also documents the application of the code to a hybrid vehicle that utilizes a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle. The results show the fuel economy of the vehicle as a function of vehicle mass, aerodynamic drag, engine efficiency, accessory load, and flywheel efficiency. The code also calculates the minimum flywheel energy and power to obtain a desired performance. The hydrogen hybrid vehicle analyzed in the paper has a predicted range of 480 km (300 miles), with a gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 34.2 km/liter (80.9 mpg).

  1. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  2. Unmanned, space-based, reusable orbital transfer vehicle, DARVES. Volume 1: Trade analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The design of an unmanned, space-based, reusable Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is presented. This OTV will be utilized for the delivery and retrieval of satellites from geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) in conjunction with a space station assumed to be in existence in low Earth orbit (LEO). The trade analysis used to determine the vehicle design is presented, and from this study a vehicle definition is given.

  3. The Effect of Predicted Vehicle Displacement on Ground Crew Task Performance and Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA continues to explore new launch vehicle concepts that will carry astronauts to low- Earth orbit to replace the soon-to-be retired Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle. A tall vertically stacked launch vehicle (> or =300 ft) is exposed to the natural environment while positioned on the launch pad. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding cause the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. Ground crews working high on the tower and inside the vehicle during launch preparations will be subjected to this motion while conducting critical closeout tasks such as mating fluid and electrical connectors and carrying heavy objects. NASA has not experienced performing these tasks in such environments since the Saturn V, which was serviced from a movable (but rigid) service structure; commercial launchers are likewise attended by a service structure that moves away from the vehicle for launch. There is concern that vehicle displacement may hinder ground crew operations, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability. The vehicle sway assessment objective is to replicate predicted frequencies and displacements of these tall vehicles, examine typical ground crew tasks, and provide insight into potential vehicle design considerations and ground crew performance guidelines. This paper outlines the methodology, configurations, and motion testing performed while conducting the vehicle displacement assessment that will be used as a Technical Memorandum for future vertically stacked vehicle designs.

  4. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. V.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars are reported. Problem areas include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis, terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. These tasks are summarized: vehicle model design, mathematical model of vehicle dynamics, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electrochemical controls, remote control, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer subsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, and chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

  5. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Moyer, W. R.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The following tasks related to the design, construction, and evaluation of a mobile planetary vehicle for unmanned exploration of Mars are discussed: (1) design and construction of a 0.5 scale dynamic vehicle; (2) mathematical modeling of vehicle dynamics; (3) experimental 0.4 scale vehicle dynamics measurements and interpretation; (4) vehicle electro-mechanical control systems; (5) remote control systems; (6) collapsibility and deployment concepts and hardware; (7) design, construction and evaluation of a wheel with increased lateral stiffness, (8) system design optimization; (9) design of an on-board computer; (10) design and construction of a laser range finder; (11) measurement of reflectivity of terrain surfaces; (12) obstacle perception by edge detection; (13) terrain modeling based on gradients; (14) laser scan systems; (15) path selection system simulation and evaluation; (16) gas chromatograph system concepts; (17) experimental chromatograph separation measurements and chromatograph model improvement and evaluation.

  6. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks have been under study: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of a dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer sybsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

  7. Application of Skeleton Method in Interconnection of Cae Programs Used in Vehicle Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucha, Jozef; Gavačová, Jana; Milesich, Tomáš

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the application of the skeleton method as the main element of interconnection of CAE programs involved in the process of vehicle design. This article focuses on the utilization of the skeleton method for mutual connection of CATIA V5 and ADAMS/CAR. Both programs can be used simultaneously during various stages of vehicle design.

  8. Methanol reformers for fuel cell powered vehicles: Some design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel cells are being developed for use in automotive propulsion systems as alternatives for the internal combustion engine in buses, vans, passenger cars. The two most important operational requirements for a stand-alone fuel cell power system for a vehicle are the ability to start up quickly and the ability to supply the necessary power on demand for the dynamically fluctuating load. Methanol is a likely fuel for use in fuel cells for transportation applications. It is a commodity chemical that is manufactured from coal, natural gas, and other feedstocks. For use in a fuel cell, however, the methanol must first be converted (reformed) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The desired features for a methanol reformer include rapid start-up, good dynamic response, high fuel conversion, small size and weight, simple construction and operation, and low cost. In this paper the present the design considerations that are important for developing such a reformer, namely: (1) a small catalyst bed for quick starting, small size, and low weight; (2) multiple catalysts for optimum operation of the dissociation and reforming reactions; (3) reforming by direct heat transfer partial oxidation for rapid response to fluctuating loads; and (4) thermal independence from the rest of the fuel cell system. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Aceves, S.

    1995-04-01

    We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO(x) emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO(x) concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO(x). Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today's gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

  10. Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S.

    1995-04-26

    We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO{sub x} emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO{sub x} concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today`s gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

  11. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Final Project Reports. Volume 2; Project Groups 6-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of student engineers in an aerospace vehicle design course present their designs for a vehicle that can be used to resupply the Space Station Freedam and provide emergency crew return to earth capability. The vehicle's requirements include a lifetime that exceeds six years, low cost, the capability for withstanding pressurization, launch, orbit, and reentry hazards, and reliability. The vehicle's subsystems are structures, communication and command data systems, attitude and articulation control, life support and crew systems, power and propulsion, reentry and recovery systems, and mission management, planning, and costing. Special attention is given to spacecraft communications.

  12. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Volume 1: Project Groups 3-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of student engineers in an aerospace vehicle design course present their designs for a vehicle that can be used to resupply the Space Station Freedom and provide an emergency crew return to earth capability. The vehicle's requirements include a lifetime that exceeds six years, low cost, the capability for withstanding pressurization, launch, orbit, and reentry hazards, and reliability. The vehicle's subsystems are analyzed. These subsystems are structures, communication and command data systems, attitude and articulation control, life support and crew systems, power and propulsion, reentry and recovery systems, and mission management, planning, and costing.

  13. Integrating Human Factors into Crew Exploration Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Campbell, paul

    2007-01-01

    With NASA's new Vision for Exploration to send humans beyond Earth orbit, it is critical to consider the human as a system that demands early and continuous user involvement, and an iterative prototype/test/redesign process. Addressing human-system interface issues early on can be very cost effective even cost reducing when performed early in the design and development cycle. To achieve this goal within Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Project Office, human engineering (HE) team is formed. Key tasks are to apply HE requirements and guidelines to hardware/software, and provide HE design, analysis and evaluation of crew interfaces. Initial activities included many practice-orientated evaluations using low-fidelity CEV mock-ups. What follows is a description of such evaluations that focused on a HE requirement regarding Net Habitable Volume (NHV). NHV is defined as the total remaining pressurized volume available to on-orbit crew after accounting for the loss of volume due to deployed hardware and structural inefficiencies which decrease functional volume. The goal of the NHV evaluations was to develop requirements providing sufficient CEV NHV for crewmembers to live and perform tasks in support of mission goals. Efforts included development of a standard NHV calculation method using computer models and physical mockups, and crew/ stakeholder evaluations. Nine stakeholders and ten crewmembers participated in the unsuited evaluations. Six crewmembers also participated in a suited evaluation. The mock-up was outfitted with volumetric representation of sub-systems such as seats, and stowage bags. Thirteen scenarios were developed to represent mission/crew tasks and considered to be primary volume drivers (e.g., suit donning) for the CEV. Unsuited evaluations included a structured walkthrough of these tasks. Suited evaluations included timed donning of the existing launch and entry suit to simulate a contingency scenario followed by doffing/ stowing of the suits. All mockup evaluations were videotaped. Structured questionnaires were used to document user interface issues and volume impacts of layout configuration. Computer model and physical measures of the NHV agreed within 1 percent. This included measurement of the gross habitable volume, subtraction of intrusive volumes, and other non-habitable spaces. Calculation method developed was validated as a standard means of measuring NHV, and was recommended as a verification method for the NHV requirements. Evaluations confirmed that there was adequate volume for unsuited scenarios and suit donning/ doffing activity. Seats, suit design stowage and waste hygiene system noted to be critical volume drivers. The low-fidelity mock-up evaluations along with human modeling analysis generated discussions that will lead to high-level systems requirements and human-centered design decisions. This approach allowed HE requirements and operational concepts to evolve in parallel with engineering system concepts and design requirements. As the CEV design matures, these evaluations will continue and help with design decisions, and assessment, verification and validation of HE requirements.

  14. System Design of Real Time Vehicle Type Recognition Based on Video for Windows (AVI) Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wei; Luo, Zhiqing

    In this system, with technology of motion detection, the data frames include vehicle digital image can be detected automatically from a Video for Windows (AVI) File, at the same time, vehicle type will be recognized and displayed automatically. The system's process consists of five steps: Read the AVI file and decompose it into digital image frames; Motion detection; Vehicle digital image processing; Counting number of black pixels included in vehicle body contour and project on car image; Module of vehicle type classification. In particular, algorithm of vehicle recognition through counting number of black pixels included in vehicle body contour is one innovation algorithm. Experiment on actual AVI files shows: the system design is simple and effective.

  15. The effect of recent trends in vehicle design on U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled, and their projected future relationship with vehicle mass.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Tom

    2013-07-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The current NHTSA analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. LBNL's assessment of the analysis indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in the previous studies, and statistically non-significant for all but the lightest cars. The effects three recent trends in vehicle designs and technologies have on societal fatality risk per VMT are estimated, and whether these changes might affect the relationship between vehicle mass and fatality risk in the future. Side airbags are found to reduce fatality risk in cars, but not necessarily light trucks or CUVs/minivans, struck in the side by another light-duty vehicle; reducing the number of fatalities in cars struck in the side is predicted to reduce the estimated detrimental effect of footprint reduction, but increase the detrimental effect of mass reduction, in cars on societal fatality risk. Better alignment of light truck bumpers with those of other vehicles appears to result in a statistically significant reduction in risk imposed on car occupants; however, reducing this type of fatality will likely have little impact on the estimated effect of mass or footprint reduction on risk. Finally, shifting light truck drivers into safer, car-based vehicles, such as sedans, CUVs, and minivans, would result in larger reductions in societal fatalities than expected from even substantial reductions in the masses of light trucks. A strategy of shifting drivers from truck-based to car-based vehicles would reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, while improving societal safety. PMID:23631906

  16. Design and realization of an intelligent ground vehicle with modular payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmanalp, Mehmet A.; Doherty, Ryan M.; Gorges, Jeffrey; Kalauskas, Peter; Peterson, Ellen; Polido, Felipe; Nestinger, Stephen S.; Padir, Taskin

    2012-01-01

    In June 2011, Worcester Polytechnic Institute's (WPI) unmanned ground vehicle Prometheus participated in the 8th Annual Robotic Lawnmower and 19th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competitions back-to-back. This paper details the two-year design and development cycle for WPI's intelligent ground vehicle, Prometheus. The on-board intelligence algorithms include lane detection, obstacle avoidance, path planning, world representation and waypoint navigation. The authors present experimental results and discuss practical implementations of the intelligence algorithms used on the robot.

  17. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tupa, James; Merritt, Debbie; Riha, David; Burton, Lee; Kubinski, Russell; Drake, Kerry; Mann, Darrin; Turner, Ken

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is given. The mission of the FHLLVs is to place large, massive payloads into Earth orbit with payload flexibility being considered foremost in the design. The final design of three launch vehicles was found to yield a payload capacity range from 20 to 200 mt. These designs include the use of multistaged, high thrust liquid engines mounted on the core stages of the rocket.

  18. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  19. Design study of an integrated aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.; Roberts, B. B.; Nagy, K.; Taylor, P.; Gamble, J. D.; Ceremeli, C. J.; Knoll, K. R.; Li, C. P.; Reid, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) concept, which has an aerobrake structure that is integrated with the propulsion stage, is discussed. The concept vehicle is to be assembled in space and is space-based. The advantages of aeroassist over an all propulsive vehicle are discussed and it is shown that the vehicle considered is very competitive with inflatable and deployable concepts from mass and performance aspects. The aerobrake geometry is an ellipsoidally blunted, raked-off, elliptical wide-angle cone with a toroidal skirt. Propellant tanks, engines, and subsystems are integrated into a closed, isogrid aerobrake structure which provides rigidity. The vehicle has two side-firing, gimbaled RL-10 type engines and carries 38,000 kg of useable propellant. The trajectory during aerobraking is determined from an adaptive guidance logic, and the heating is determined from engineering correlations as well as 3-D Navier-Stokes solutions. The AOTV is capable of placing 13,500 kg payload into geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) or carrying a LEO-GEO-LEO round-trip payload of 7100 kg. A two-stage version considered for lunar missions results in a lunar surface delivery capability of 18,000 kg or a round-trip capability of 6800 kg with 3860 kg delivery-only capability.

  20. Rotorcraft control system design for uncertain vehicle dynamics using quantitative feedback theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which must meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. This theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear model of the BO-105C rotorcraft. Uncertainty in the vehicle model is due to the variation in the vehicle dynamics over a range of airspeeds from 0-100 kts. For purposes of exposition, the vehicle description contains no rotor or actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model. The advantage of using a sequential loop closure technique to reduce the cost of feedback is demonstrated by example.

  1. Reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components, Part II: Case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yimin

    2015-06-01

    The reliability-based optimization, the reliability- based sensitivity analysis and robust design method are employed to propose an effective approach for reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components in Part I. Applications of the method are further discussed for reliability-based robust optimization of vehicle components in this paper. Examples of axles, torsion bar, coil and composite springs are illustrated for numerical investigations. Results have shown the proposed method is an efficient method for reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components.

  2. 78 FR 68748 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Designated Seating Positions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...This document completes the agency's response to petitions for reconsideration of an October 2008 final rule that amended the definition of the term, ``designated seating position,'' as used in the Federal motor vehicle safety standards, to facilitate the determination of which areas within the interior of a vehicle meet that definition. The final rule made the new definition applicable to......

  3. 19 CFR 115.65 - Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Technical requirements for road vehicles by design type. 115.65 Section 115.65 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Procedures...

  4. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A number of problems related to the design, construction and evaluation of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle and its control and operating systems intended for an unmanned exploration of Mars are studied. Vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain sensing and modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of samples are included.

  5. Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambaugh, Imelda; Sankaran, Subra

    2010-01-01

    Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

  6. Environmental Controls and Life Support System Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambaugh, Imelda C.; Rodriguez, Branelle; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

  7. Design criteria for light high speed desert air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abulnaga, B. E.

    An evaluation is made of the applicability and prospective performance of ACVs in trans-Saharan cargo transport, in view of the unique characteristics of the dry sand environment. The lightweight/high-speed ACV concept envisioned is essentially ground effect aircraftlike, with conventional wheels as a low-speed backup suspension system. A propeller is used in ground effect cruise. Attention is given to the effects on vehicle stability and performance of sandy surface irregularities of the desert topography and of cross-winds from various directions relative to vehicle movement.

  8. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to an unmanned exploration of the planet Mars by means of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle are investigated. These problems include: design, construction and evaluation of the vehicle itself and its control and operating systems. More specifically, vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, propulsion, hazard detection systems, terrain sensing and modelling, obstacle detection concepts, path selection, decision-making systems, and chemical analyses of samples are studied. Emphasis is placed on development of a vehicle capable of gathering specimens and data for an Augmented Viking Mission or to provide the basis for a Sample Return Mission.

  9. Third Conference on Fibrous Composites in Flight Vehicle Design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of fibrous composite materials in the design of aircraft and space vehicle structures and their impact on future vehicle systems are discussed. The topics covered include: flight test work on composite components, design concepts and hardware, specialized applications, operational experience, certification and design criteria. Contributions to the design technology base include data concerning material properties, design procedures, environmental exposure effects, manufacturing procedures, and flight service reliability. By including composites as baseline design materials, significant payoffs are expected in terms of reduced structural weight fractions, longer structural life, reduced fuel consumption, reduced structural complexity, and reduced manufacturing cost.

  10. Driving modes for designing the cornering response of fully electric vehicles with multiple motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Novellis, Leonardo; Sorniotti, Aldo; Gruber, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Fully electric vehicles with multiple drivetrains allow a significant variation of the steady-state and transient cornering responses through the individual control of the electric motor drives. As a consequence, alternative driving modes can be created that provide the driver the option to select the preferred dynamic vehicle behavior. This article presents a torque-vectoring control structure based on the combination of feedforward and feedback contributions for the continuous control of vehicle yaw rate. The controller is specifically developed to be easily implementable on real-world vehicles. A novel model-based procedure for the definition of the control objectives is described in detail, together with the automated tuning process of the algorithm. The implemented control functions are demonstrated with experimental vehicle tests. The results show the possibilities of torque-vectoring control in designing the vehicle understeer characteristic.

  11. Modified Universal Design Survey: Enhancing Operability of Launch Vehicle Ground Crew Worksites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Operability is a driving requirement for next generation space launch vehicles. Launch site ground operations include numerous operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform preflight maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To promote operability, a Design Quality Evaluation Survey based on Universal Design framework was developed to support Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluation for NASA s launch vehicles. Universal Design per se is not a priority for launch vehicle processing however; applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which promotes operability. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey incorporates and tailors the seven Universal Design Principles and adds new measures for Safety and Efficiency. Adapting an approach proven to measure Universal Design Performance in Product, each principle is associated with multiple performance measures which are rated with the degree to which the statement is true. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several launch vehicle ground processing worksite analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability.

  12. Launch Vehicle with Combustible Polyethylene Case Gasification Chamber Design Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yemets, V.

    A single-stage launch vehicle equipped with a combustible tank shell of polyethylene and a moving propulsion plant is proposed. The propulsion plant is composed of a chamber for the gasification of the shell, a compressor of pyrolysed polyethylene and a magnetic powder obturator. It is shown that the “dental” structure of the gasification chamber is necessary to achieve the necessary contact area with the polyethylene shell. This conclusion is drawn from consideration of the thermo- physical properties of polyethylene, calculating quasisteady temperature field in the gasification chamber, estimating gasification rate of polyethylene, launch vehicle shortening rate and area of gasification. Experimental determination of the gasification rate is described. The gasification chamber specific mass as well as the propulsion plant weight-to-thrust ratio are estimated under some assumptions concerning the obturator and compressor. Combustible launch vehicles are compared with conventional launch vehicles taking into consideration their payload mass ratios. Combustible launchers are preferable as small launchers for micro and nano satellites. Reusable versions of such launchers seem suitable if polyethylene tank shells filled with metal or metal hydride fine dusts are used.

  13. Inflatable Re-Entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) Design Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.; Starr, Brett R.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Lindell, Michael C.; Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    2005-01-01

    Inflatable aeroshells offer several advantages over traditional rigid aeroshells for atmospheric entry. Inflatables offer increased payload volume fraction of the launch vehicle shroud and the possibility to deliver more payload mass to the surface for equivalent trajectory constraints. An inflatable s diameter is not constrained by the launch vehicle shroud. The resultant larger drag area can provide deceleration equivalent to a rigid system at higher atmospheric altitudes, thus offering access to higher landing sites. When stowed for launch and cruise, inflatable aeroshells allow access to the payload after the vehicle is integrated for launch and offer direct access to vehicle structure for structural attachment with the launch vehicle. They also offer an opportunity to eliminate system duplication between the cruise stage and entry vehicle. There are however several potential technical challenges for inflatable aeroshells. First and foremost is the fact that they are flexible structures. That flexibility could lead to unpredictable drag performance or an aerostructural dynamic instability. In addition, durability of large inflatable structures may limit their application. They are susceptible to puncture, a potentially catastrophic insult, from many possible sources. Finally, aerothermal heating during planetary entry poses a significant challenge to a thin membrane. NASA Langley Research Center and NASA's Wallops Flight Facility are jointly developing inflatable aeroshell technology for use on future NASA missions. The technology will be demonstrated in the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE). This paper will detail the development of the initial IRVE inflatable system to be launched on a Terrier/Orion sounding rocket in the fourth quarter of CY2005. The experiment will demonstrate achievable packaging efficiency of the inflatable aeroshell for launch, inflation, leak performance of the inflatable system throughout the flight regime, structural integrity when exposed to a relevant dynamic pressure and aerodynamic stability of the inflatable system. Structural integrity and structural response of the inflatable will be verified with photogrammetric measurements of the back side of the aeroshell in flight. Aerodynamic stability as well as drag performance will be verified with on board inertial measurements and radar tracking from multiple ground radar stations. The experiment will yield valuable information about zero-g vacuum deployment dynamics of the flexible inflatable structure with both inertial and photographic measurements. In addition to demonstrating inflatable technology, IRVE will validate structural, aerothermal, and trajectory modeling techniques for the inflatable. Structural response determined from photogrammetrics will validate structural models, skin temperature measurements and additional in-depth temperature measurements will validate material thermal performance models, and on board inertial measurements along with radar tracking from multiple ground radar stations will validate trajectory simulation models.

  14. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  15. A prototype computerized synthesis methodology for generic space access vehicle (SAV) conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao

    2006-04-01

    Today's and especially tomorrow's competitive launch vehicle design environment requires the development of a dedicated generic Space Access Vehicle (SAV) design methodology. A total of 115 industrial, research, and academic aircraft, helicopter, missile, and launch vehicle design synthesis methodologies have been evaluated. As the survey indicates, each synthesis methodology tends to focus on a specific flight vehicle configuration, thus precluding the key capability to systematically compare flight vehicle design alternatives. The aim of the research investigation is to provide decision-making bodies and the practicing engineer a design process and tool box for robust modeling and simulation of flight vehicles where the ultimate performance characteristics may hinge on numerical subtleties. This will enable the designer of a SAV for the first time to consistently compare different classes of SAV configurations on an impartial basis. This dissertation presents the development steps required towards a generic (configuration independent) hands-on flight vehicle conceptual design synthesis methodology. This process is developed such that it can be applied to any flight vehicle class if desired. In the present context, the methodology has been put into operation for the conceptual design of a tourist Space Access Vehicle. The case study illustrates elements of the design methodology & algorithm for the class of Horizontal Takeoff and Horizontal Landing (HTHL) SAVs. The HTHL SAV design application clearly outlines how the conceptual design process can be centrally organized, executed and documented with focus on design transparency, physical understanding and the capability to reproduce results. This approach offers the project lead and creative design team a management process and tool which iteratively refines the individual design logic chosen, leading to mature design methods and algorithms. As illustrated, the HTHL SAV hands-on design methodology offers growth potential in that the same methodology can be continually updated and extended to other SAV configuration concepts, such as the Vertical Takeoff and Vertical Landing (VTVL) SAV class. Having developed, validated and calibrated the methodology for HTHL designs in the 'hands-on' mode, the report provides an outlook how the methodology will be integrated into a prototype computerized design synthesis software AVDS-PrADOSAV in a follow-on step.

  16. Control Relevant Modeling and Design of Scramjet-Powered Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickeson, Jeffrey James

    This report provides an overview of scramjet-powered hypersonic vehicle modeling and control challenges. Such vehicles are characterized by unstable non-minimum phase dynamics with significant coupling and low thrust margins. Recent trends in hypersonic vehicle research are summarized. To illustrate control relevant design issues and tradeoffs, a generic nonlinear 3DOF longitudinal dynamics model capturing aero-elastic-propulsive interactions for wedge-shaped vehicle is used. Limitations of the model are discussed and numerous modifications have been made to address control relevant needs. Two different baseline configurations are examined over a two-stage to orbit ascent trajectory. The report highlights how vehicle level-flight static (trim) and dynamic properties change over the trajectory. Thermal choking constraints are imposed on control system design as a direct consequence of having a finite FER margin. The implication of this state-dependent nonlinear FER margin constraint, the right half plane (RHP) zero, and lightly damped flexible modes, on control system bandwidth (BW) and FPA tracking has been discussed. A control methodology has been proposed that addresses the above dynamics while providing some robustness to modeling uncertainty. Vehicle closure (the ability to fly a trajectory segment subject to constraints) is provided through a proposed vehicle design methodology. The design method attempts to use open loop metrics whenever possible to design the vehicle. The design method is applied to a vehicle/control law closed loop nonlinear simulation for validation. The 3DOF longitudinal modeling results are validated against a newly released NASA 6DOF code.

  17. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle (executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a state-of-the-art electric power train is part of a national effort to reap the potential benefit of useful urban electric passenger vehicles. Outlined in a detailed presentation are: (1) assessment of the state-of-the-art in electric vehicle technology; (2) state-of-the-art power train design; (3) improved power train; and (4) summary and recommendations.

  18. Design and fabrication of metallic thermal protection systems for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varisco, A.; Bell, P.; Wolter, W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a lightweight, efficient metallic thermal protection system (TPS) for application to future shuttle-type reentry vehicles, advanced space transports, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Technical requirements were generally derived from the space shuttle. A corrugation-stiffened beaded-skin TPS design was used as a baseline. The system was updated and modified to incorporate the latest technology developments and design criteria. The primary objective was to minimize mass for the total system.

  19. Trade-off results and preliminary designs of Near-Term Hybrid Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program involved the development of preliminary designs of electric/heat engine hybrid passenger vehicles. The preliminary designs were developed on the basis of mission analysis, performance specification, and design trade-off studies conducted independently by four contractors. THe resulting designs involve parallel hybrid (heat engine/electric) propulsion systems with significant variation in component selection, power train layout, and control strategy. Each of the four designs is projected by its developer as having the potential to substitute electrical energy for 40% to 70% of the petroleum fuel consumed annually by its conventional counterpart.

  20. Control-Relevant Modeling, Analysis, and Design for Scramjet-Powered Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Armando A.; Dickeson, Jeffrey J.; Sridharan, Srikanth; Benavides, Jose; Soloway, Don; Kelkar, Atul; Vogel, Jerald M.

    2009-01-01

    Within this paper, control-relevant vehicle design concepts are examined using a widely used 3 DOF (plus flexibility) nonlinear model for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic carrot-shaped scramjet powered hypersonic vehicle. Trade studies associated with vehicle/engine parameters are examined. The impact of parameters on control-relevant static properties (e.g. level-flight trimmable region, trim controls, AOA, thrust margin) and dynamic properties (e.g. instability and right half plane zero associated with flight path angle) are examined. Specific parameters considered include: inlet height, diffuser area ratio, lower forebody compression ramp inclination angle, engine location, center of gravity, and mass. Vehicle optimizations is also examined. Both static and dynamic considerations are addressed. The gap-metric optimized vehicle is obtained to illustrate how this control-centric concept can be used to "reduce" scheduling requirements for the final control system. A classic inner-outer loop control architecture and methodology is used to shed light on how specific vehicle/engine design parameter selections impact control system design. In short, the work represents an important first step toward revealing fundamental tradeoffs and systematically treating control-relevant vehicle design.

  1. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of problems related to control of a mobile planetary vehicle according to a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: (1) overall systems analysis; (2) vehicle configuration and dynamics; (3) toroidal wheel design and evaluation; (4) on-board navigation systems; (5) satellite-vehicle navigation systems; (6) obstacle detection systems; (7) terrain sensing, interpretation and modeling; (8) computer simulation of terrain sensor-path selection systems; and (9) chromatographic systems design concept studies. The specific tasks which have been undertaken are defined and the progress which has been achieved during the period July 1, 1971 to December 31, 1971 is summarized.

  2. System design concepts and requirements for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. E.; Cruz, M. I.; French, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is an advanced upper stage concept which will deliver spacecraft from operating systems at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) such as Space Shuttle, Earth-To-Orbit (ETO) vehicles, and Space Operations Center (SOC), to High Earth Orbit (HEO) and planetary excursions. The OTV will be driven by the need to achieve significant reductions in the operational costs for delivering payloads to Geostationary Equatorial Orbit (GEO). Aeroassist is a technological capability that has a potential for OTV's ranging from mission enhancing (reusable OTV for payload delivery) to mission enabling (manned GEO and some DOD). It is shown that the use of aeroassist for OTV's is a high leverage technology which can potentially reduce space transportation costs and enable a number of highly desirable missions.

  3. Estimating Logistics Support of Reusable Launch Vehicles During Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, N. H.; Davies, W. T.; Ebeling, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    Methods exist to define the logistics support requirements for new aircraft concepts but are not directly applicable to new launch vehicle concepts. In order to define the support requirements and to discriminate among new technologies and processing choices for these systems, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is developing new analysis methods. This paper describes several methods under development, gives their current status, and discusses the benefits and limitations associated with their use.

  4. Modular Approach to Launch Vehicle Design Based on a Common Core Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis M.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Philips, Alan D.; Waters, Eric D.; Baysinger, Mike

    2010-01-01

    With a heavy lift launch vehicle as the centerpiece of our nation's next exploration architecture's infrastructure, the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center initiated a study to examine the utilization of elements derived from a heavy lift launch vehicle for other potential launch vehicle applications. The premise of this study is to take a vehicle concept, which has been optimized for Lunar Exploration, and utilize the core stage with other existing or near existing stages and boosters to determine lift capabilities for alternative missions. This approach not only yields a vehicle matrix with a wide array of capabilities, but also produces an evolutionary pathway to a vehicle family based on a minimum development and production cost approach to a launch vehicle system architecture, instead of a purely performance driven approach. The upper stages and solid rocket booster selected for this study were chosen to reflect a cross-section of: modified existing assets in the form of a modified Delta IV upper stage and Castor-type boosters; potential near term launch vehicle component designs including an Ares I upper stage and 5-segment boosters; and longer lead vehicle components such as a Shuttle External Tank diameter upper stage. The results of this approach to a modular launch system are given in this paper.

  5. The design of an electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission for a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.; Hoff, C.J.

    1998-07-01

    An electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission has been developed for the Department of Energy's FutureCar Challenge. This project which is jointly sponsored by the DOE and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) seeks to modify a production mid-size car to reach 80 mpg, yet still maintain the safety and consumer acceptability of the original vehicle. To meet this challenge, a 1996 Ford Taurus has been modified into a parallel drive, hybrid electric vehicle. The propulsion system of this vehicle is based on a DC electric motor, which is coupled via a belt drive, in parallel, with a 1.9 liter turbo-charged, direct injection diesel engine. Both propulsion units are then coupled to the transmission. The OEM automatic transmission has been replaced with a five-speed, manual transmission, which was adapted from an earlier model year production Taurus SHO vehicle. This transmission is both lighter and more mechanically efficient than the automatic transmission. In order to provide the automatic transmission shifting capabilities expected by the consumer for a vehicle of this size, an electro-hydraulic control unit was designed and built. This unit automatically engages the clutch and shifts gears as required during vehicle operation. Gear selection is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC), which utilizes throttle and vehicle speed input signals. Additionally, the driver may select gears using a modified steering-column PRNDL selector. This paper discusses the final design of this system and provides an evaluation of its performance.

  6. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster decelerator subsystem - Air drop test vehicle/B-52 design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runkle, R. E.; Drobnik, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The air drop development test program for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery System required the design of a large drop test vehicle that would meet all the stringent requirements placed on it by structural loads, safety considerations, flight recovery system interfaces, and sequence. The drop test vehicle had to have the capability to test the drogue and the three main parachutes both separately and in the total flight deployment sequence and still be low-cost to fit in a low-budget development program. The design to test large ribbon parachutes to loads of 300,000 pounds required the detailed investigation and integration of several parameters such as carrier aircraft mechanical interface, drop test vehicle ground transportability, impact point ground penetration, salvageability, drop test vehicle intelligence, flight design hardware interfaces, and packaging fidelity.

  7. Design of an unmanned, reusable vehicle to de-orbit debris in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aziz, Shahed; Cunningham, Timothy W.; Moore-Mccassey, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The space debris problem is becoming more important because as orbital missions increase, the amount of debris increases. It was the design team's objective to present alternative designs and a problem solution for a deorbiting vehicle that will alleviate the problem by reducing the amount of large debris in earth orbit. The design team was asked to design a reusable, unmanned vehicle to de-orbit debris in earth orbit. The design team will also construct a model to demonstrate the system configuration and key operating features. The alternative designs for the unmanned, reusable vehicle were developed in three stages: selection of project requirements and success criteria, formulation of a specification list, and the creation of alternatives that would satisfy the standards set forth by the design team and their sponsor. The design team selected a Chain and Bar Shot method for deorbiting debris in earth orbit. The De-orbiting Vehicle (DOV) uses the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) as the propulsion and command modules with the deorbiting module attached to the front.

  8. Development of Response Surface Models for Rapid Analysis & Multidisciplinary Optimization of Launch Vehicle Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1999-01-01

    Multdisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the design and evaluation of launch vehicles, since it has a significant impact on performance and lifecycle cost. The objective in MDO is to search the design space to determine the values of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics subject to system constraints. Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at NASA Langley Research Center has computerized analysis tools in many of the disciplines required for the design and analysis of launch vehicles. Vehicle performance characteristics can be determined by the use of these computerized analysis tools. The next step is to optimize the system performance characteristics subject to multidisciplinary constraints. However, most of the complex sizing and performance evaluation codes used for launch vehicle design are stand-alone tools, operated by disciplinary experts. They are, in general, difficult to integrate and use directly for MDO. An alternative has been to utilize response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain polynomial models that approximate the functional relationships between performance characteristics and design variables. These approximation models, called response surface models, are then used to integrate the disciplines using mathematical programming methods for efficient system level design analysis, MDO and fast sensitivity simulations. A second-order response surface model of the form given has been commonly used in RSM since in many cases it can provide an adequate approximation especially if the region of interest is sufficiently limited.

  9. The battery designer's challenge — satisfying the ever-increasing demands of vehicle electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, John R.; Johnson, Richard T.

    The automotive battery designer of the 1990s and beyond will encounter an unprecedented array of complex challenges imposed by consumer desires, governmental mandates, and vehicle manufacturers' specifications. It is predicted that enhanced feature content in the areas of safety, convenience, performance, and guidance will result in a three- to six-fold increase in electrical power consumption in vehicles by the year 2000. In the absence of major break-throughs in vehicle electrical systems, these new loads will significantly modify the duty cycle to which the battery is subjected. The micro- and macro-environment in which the battery must survive will significantly impact the product's design and material specifications. Severe weight and size limits will be imposed on batteries in an attempt to meet mandated Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requirements and additional pre-start electrical loads may be introduced to reduce objectionable emissions. Finally, quality and reliability levels of vehicles and their component parts must undergo continuous improvement. In order to respond to these diverse and sometimes contradictory demands, the battery designer must participate as an integral part of the vehicle electrical system development team. Design considerations for the future must include elevated and multiple voltages, multiple batteries per vehicle designed for specific functions, and further improvements in power and energy density, as well as cycle-life.

  10. Flight Test Experiment Design for Characterizing Stability and Control of Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2008-01-01

    A maneuver design method that is particularly well-suited for determining the stability and control characteristics of hypersonic vehicles is described in detail. Analytical properties of the maneuver design are explained. The importance of these analytical properties for maximizing information content in flight data is discussed, along with practical implementation issues. Results from flight tests of the X-43A hypersonic research vehicle (also called Hyper-X) are used to demonstrate the excellent modeling results obtained using this maneuver design approach. A detailed design procedure for generating the maneuvers is given to allow application to other flight test programs.

  11. The design of an airfoil for a high-altitude, long-endurance remotely piloted vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughmer, Mark D.; Somers, Dan M.

    1987-01-01

    Airfoil design efforts are studied. The importance of integrating airfoil and aircraft designs was demonstrated. Realistic airfoil data was provided to aid future high altitude, long endurance aircraft preliminary design. Test cases were developed for further validation of the Eppler program. Boundary layer, not pressure distribution or shape, was designed. Substantial improvement was achieved in vehicle performance through mission specific airfoil designed utilizing the multipoint capability of the Eppler program.

  12. Design features of small Brayton cycles for autonomous underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydnor, Katherine A.

    1987-06-01

    Several alternative power systems are being considered for small autonomous submersibles to meet long duration and high speed operations. The closed cycle Brayton engine using lithium sulfur hexafluoride as the energy source is one of the more promising systems. A small closed cycle Brayton engine has been evaluated utilizing components which have been tested for space applications. Modifications were made to optimize the unit for the undersea vehicle. Computer programs were developed to facilitate this process. It was concluded that a 2 kilowatt Brayton cycle engine would occupy 50 inches of length in a 21 inch diameter space and 36 inches in a 25 inch diameter space.

  13. Theory and Design of Flight-Vehicle Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhdanov, V. T. (Editor); Kurziner, R. I. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Papers are presented on such topics as the testing of aircraft engines, errors in the experimental determination of the parameters of scramjet engines, the effect of the nonuniformity of supersonic flow with shocks on friction and heat transfer in the channel of a hypersonic ramjet engine, and the selection of the basic parameters of cooled GTE turbines. Consideration is also given to the choice of optimal total wedge angle for the acceleration of aerospace vehicles, the theory of an electromagnetic-resonator engine, the dynamic characteristics of the pumps and turbines of liquid propellant rocket engines in transition regimes, and a hierarchy of mathematical models for spacecraft control engines.

  14. Hypersonic airbreathing vehicle conceptual design (focus on aero-space plane)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Martin, John G.

    1989-01-01

    The airbreathing single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicle design environment is variable-rich, intricately networked and sensitivity intensive. As such, it represents a tremondous technology challenge. Creating a viable design will require sophisticated configuration/synthesis and the synergistic integration of advanced technologies across the discipline spectrum. In design exercises, reductions in the fuel weight-fraction requirements projected for an orbital vehicle concept can result from improvements in aerodynamics/controls, propulsion efficiencies and trajectory optimization; also, gains in the fuel weight-fraction achievable for such a concept can result from improvements in structural design, heat management techniques, and material properties. As these technology advances take place, closure on a viable vehicle design will be realizable.

  15. Function-based design process for an intelligent ground vehicle vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Robert L.; Perry, Kenneth L.; Stone, Robert B.; McAdams, Daniel A.

    2010-10-01

    An engineering design framework for an autonomous ground vehicle vision system is discussed. We present both the conceptual and physical design by following the design process, development and testing of an intelligent ground vehicle vision system constructed for the 2008 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition. During conceptual design, the requirements for the vision system are explored via functional and process analysis considering the flows into the vehicle and the transformations of those flows. The conceptual design phase concludes with a vision system design that is modular in both hardware and software and is based on a laser range finder and camera for visual perception. During physical design, prototypes are developed and tested independently, following the modular interfaces identified during conceptual design. Prototype models, once functional, are implemented into the final design. The final vision system design uses a ray-casting algorithm to process camera and laser range finder data and identify potential paths. The ray-casting algorithm is a single thread of the robot's multithreaded application. Other threads control motion, provide feedback, and process sensory data. Once integrated, both hardware and software testing are performed on the robot. We discuss the robot's performance and the lessons learned.

  16. A New Handbook for the Development of Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A new NASA document entitled "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development (NASA-HDBK-1001A) has been developed. The Handbook provides terrestrial environment information, data bases, models, recommendations, etc. for use in the design, development, trade studies, testing, and mission analyses for space (or launch) .vehicles. This document is organized into fourteen specific natural environment disciplines of which some are winds, atmospheric models, thermal radiation, precipitation-for-icing, cloud cover, atmospheric electricity, geologic hazards, toxic chemical release by propulsion systems, and sea state. Atmospheric phenomena play a significant role in the design and flight of aerospace vehicles and in the integrity of the associated aerospace systems and structures. Environmental design criteria guidelines in this document are based on measurements and observations of atmospheric and climatic phenomena relative to various aerospace development, operational, and vehicle launch locations. The natural environment criteria guidelines data presented in this Handbook were formulated based on discussions with and requests from engineers involved in aerospace vehicle development and operations. Therefore, they represent responses to actual engineering problems and are not just a general compilation of environmental data. The Handbook addresses the basis for the information presented, the interpretations of the terrestrial environment guideline given in the Handbook, and its application to the development of aerospace vehicle design requirements. Specific examples of the Handbook content and associated "lessons lenmed" are given in this paper.

  17. Structural Design and Analysis of Un-pressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinovic, Zoran N.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, NASA has defined a family of vehicles to support lunar exploration and International Space Station (ISS) re-supply missions after the Shuttle s retirement. The Un-pressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle (UCDV) has been envisioned to be an expendable logistics delivery vehicle that would be used to deliver external cargo to the ISS. It would be launched on the Crew Launch Vehicle and would replace the Crew Exploration Vehicle. The estimated cargo would be the weight of external logistics to the ISS. Determining the minimum weight design of the UCDV during conceptual design is the major issue addressed in this paper. This task was accomplished using a procedure for rapid weight estimation that was based on Finite Element Analysis and sizing of the vehicle by the use of commercially available codes. Three design concepts were analyzed and their respective weights were compared. The analytical structural weight was increased by a factor to account for structural elements that were not modeled. Significant reduction in weight of a composite design over metallic was achieved for similar panel concepts.

  18. A New Handbook for the Development of Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A new NASA document entitled "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development (NASA-HDBK-IOO1A) has been developed. The Handbook provides terrestrial environment information, data bases, models, recommendations, etc. for use in the design, development, trade studies, testing, and mission analyses for space (or launch) vehicles. This document is organized into fourteen specific natural environment disciplines of which some are winds, atmospheric models, thermal radiation, precipitation-for-icing, cloud cover, atmospheric electricity, geologic hazards, toxic chemical release by propulsion systems, and sea state. Atmospheric phenomena play a significant role in the design and flight of aerospace vehicles and in the integrity of the associated aerospace systems and structures. Environmental design criteria guidelines in this document are based on measurements and observations of atmospheric and climatic phenomena relative to various aerospace development, operational, and vehicle launch locations. The natural environment criteria guidelines data presented in this Handbook were formulated based on discussions with and requests from engineers involved in aerospace vehicle development and operations. Therefore, they represent responses to actual engineering problems and are not just a general compilation of environmental data. The Handbook addresses the basis for the information presented, the interpretations of the terrestrial environment guideline given in the Handbook, and its application to the development of aerospace vehicle design requirements. Specific examples of the Handbook content and associated "lessons lenmed" are given in this paper.

  19. Water facilities in retrospect and prospect: An illuminating tool for vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, G. E.; Peak, D. J.; Delfrate, J.; Skow, A. M.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1986-01-01

    Water facilities play a fundamental role in the design of air, ground, and marine vehicles by providing a qualitative, and sometimes quantitative, description of complex flow phenomena. Water tunnels, channels, and tow tanks used as flow-diagnostic tools have experienced a renaissance in recent years in response to the increased complexity of designs suitable for advanced technology vehicles. These vehicles are frequently characterized by large regions of steady and unsteady three-dimensional flow separation and ensuing vortical flows. The visualization and interpretation of the complicated fluid motions about isolated vehicle components and complete configurations in a time and cost effective manner in hydrodynamic test facilities is a key element in the development of flow control concepts, and, hence, improved vehicle designs. A historical perspective of the role of water facilities in the vehicle design process is presented. The application of water facilities to specific aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow problems is discussed, and the strengths and limitations of these important experimental tools are emphasized.

  20. Systems Analysis and Structural Design of an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cruz, Jonathan N.; Antol, Jeffrey; Sasamoto, Washito A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station will require a continuous supply of replacement parts for ongoing maintenance and repair after the planned retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2010. These parts are existing line-replaceable items collectively called Orbital Replacement Units, and include heavy and oversized items such as Control Moment Gyroscopes and stowed radiator arrays originally intended for delivery aboard the Space Shuttle. Current resupply spacecraft have limited to no capability to deliver these external logistics. In support of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study, a team at Langley Research Center designed an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle to deliver bulk cargo to the Space Station. The Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle was required to deliver at least 13,200 lbs of cargo mounted on at least 18 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. The Crew Launch Vehicle design recommended in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study would be used to launch one annual resupply flight to the International Space Station. The baseline vehicle design developed here has a cargo capacity of 16,000 lbs mounted on up to 20 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. Major vehicle components are a 5.5m-diameter cargo module containing two detachable cargo pallets with the payload, a Service Module to provide propulsion and power, and an aerodynamic nose cone. To reduce cost and risk, the Service Module is identical to the one used for the Crew Exploration Vehicle design.

  1. Water facilities in retrospect and prospect: An illuminating tool for vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Peake, David J.; Delfrate, John; Skow, Andrew M.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1987-01-01

    Water facilities play a fundamental role in the design of air, ground, and marine vehicles by providing a qualitative, and sometimes quantitative, description of complex flow phenomena. Water tunnels, channels, and tow tanks used as flow-diagnostic tools have experienced a renaissance in recent years in response to the increased complexity of designs suitable for advanced technology vehicles. These vehicles are frequently characterized by large regions of steady and unsteady 3-D flow separation and ensuing vortical flows. The visualization and interpretation of the complicated fluid motions about isolated vehicle components and complete configurations in a time and cost effective manner in hydrodynamic test facilities is a key element in the development of flow control concepts, and, hence, improved vehicle designs. A historical perspective of the role of water facilities in the vehicle design process is presented. The application of water facilities to specific aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow problems is discussed, and the strengths and limitations of these important experimental tools are emphasized.

  2. HASA: Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis for the Preliminary Design of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, Gary J.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the hypersonic literature indicated that a general weight and sizing analysis was not available for hypersonic orbital, transport, and fighter vehicles. The objective here is to develop such a method for the preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. This report describes the developed methodology and provides examples to illustrate the model, entitled the Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis (HASA). It can be used to predict the size and weight of hypersonic single-stage and two-stage-to-orbit vehicles and transports, and is also relevant for supersonic transports. HASA is a sizing analysis that determines vehicle length and volume, consistent with body, fuel, structural, and payload weights. The vehicle component weights are obtained from statistical equations for the body, wing, tail, thermal protection system, landing gear, thrust structure, engine, fuel tank, hydraulic system, avionics, electral system, equipment payload, and propellant. Sample size and weight predictions are given for the Space Shuttle orbiter and other proposed vehicles, including four hypersonic transports, a Mach 6 fighter, a supersonic transport (SST), a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle, a two-stage Space Shuttle with a booster and an orbiter, and two methane-fueled vehicles.

  3. Hypersonic aerospace sizing analysis for the preliminary design of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, Gary J.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the hypersonic literature indicated that a general weight and sizing analysis was not available for hypersonic orbital, transport, and fighter vehicles. The objective here is to develop such a method for the preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. This report describes the developed methodology and provides examples to illustrate the model, entitled the Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis (HASA). It can be used to predict the size and weight of hypersonic single-stage and two-stage-to-orbit vehicles and transports, and is also relevant for supersonic transports. HASA is a sizing analysis that determines vehicle length and volume, consistent with body, fuel, structural, and payload weights. The vehicle component weights are obtained from statistical equations for the body, wing, tail, thermal protection system, landing gear, thrust structure, engine, fuel tank, hydraulic system, avionics, electrical system, equipment payload, and propellant. Sample size and weight predictions are given for the Space Shuttle orbiter and other proposed vehicles, including four hypersonic transports, a Mach 6 fighter, a supersonic transport (SST), a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle, a two-stage Space Shuttle with a booster and an orbiter, and two methane-fueled vehicles.

  4. IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The conference was organized to promote wider awareness of the IPAD program and its coming impact on American industry. The program focuses on technology issues that are critical to computer aided design manufacturing. Included is a description of a representative aerospace design process and its interface with manufacturing, the design of a future IPAD integrated computer aided design system, results to date in developing IPAD products and associated technology, and industry experiences and plans to exploit these products.

  5. Design of an agile unmanned combat vehicle: a product of the DARPA UGCV program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, Lindsey D.; Walls, Alan; Arkin, Ronald C.; Beno, Joseph H.; Bergh, Chuck; Bresie, Don; Giovannetti, Anthony; Gothard, Benny M.; Matthies, Larry H.; Nogueiro, Porfirio; Scanlon, Jim; Scott, Ron; Simon, Miguel; Smith, Wilford; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    2003-09-01

    The unmanned ground compat vehicle (UGCV) design evolved by the SAIC team on the DARPA UGCV Program is summarized in this paper. This UGCV design provides exceptional performance against all of the program metrics and incorporates key attributes essential for high performance robotic combat vehicles. This performance includes protection against 7.62 mm threats, C130 and CH47 transportability, and the ability to accept several relevant weapons payloads, as well as advanced sensors and perception algorithms evolving from the PerceptOR program. The UGCV design incorporates a combination of technologies and design features, carefully selected through detailed trade studies, which provide optimum performance against mobility, payload, and endurance goals without sacrificing transportability, survivability, or life cycle cost. The design was optimized to maximize performance against all Category I metrics. In each case, the performance of this design was validated with detailed simulations, indicating that the vehicle exceeded the Category I metrics. Mobility metrics were analyzed using high fidelity VisualNastran vehicle models, which incorporate the suspension control algorithms and controller cycle times. DADS/Easy 5 3-D models and ADAMS simulations were also used to validate vehicle dynamics and control algorithms during obstacle negotiation.

  6. The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

  7. Vehicle electric power systems are under change!. Implications for design, monitoring and management of automotive batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Eberhard; Richter, Gerolf

    New technical features, the demand for fuel economy, and the potential to reduce production and operational cost are leading to additional and more powerful electrical consumers and making the overall electrical demand in vehicles increase. Vehicle electrical architecture is performing an evolutionary change to improve the efficiency of production, distribution, control and storage of electrical energy in the vehicle. New battery designs with performance patterns designed for the new architectures are needed, and some of the new demands may even exceed the capability of lead/acid batteries. Single and dual battery systems offer a wide variety of applications when combined with intelligent means to keep the batteries in an appropriate operational window. Detection of state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) is essential to help the battery to fulfil its role as a key element for vehicle functionality and safety.

  8. A Large-Scale Design Integration Approach Developed in Conjunction with the Ares Launch Vehicle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, John W.; Shirley, Michael C.; Kinard, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for performing large-scale design integration, taking a classical 2D drawing envelope and interface approach and applying it to modern three dimensional computer aided design (3D CAD) systems. Today, the paradigm often used when performing design integration with 3D models involves a digital mockup of an overall vehicle, in the form of a massive, fully detailed, CAD assembly; therefore, adding unnecessary burden and overhead to design and product data management processes. While fully detailed data may yield a broad depth of design detail, pertinent integration features are often obscured under the excessive amounts of information, making them difficult to discern. In contrast, the envelope and interface method results in a reduction in both the amount and complexity of information necessary for design integration while yielding significant savings in time and effort when applied to today's complex design integration projects. This approach, combining classical and modern methods, proved advantageous during the complex design integration activities of the Ares I vehicle. Downstream processes, benefiting from this approach by reducing development and design cycle time, include: Creation of analysis models for the Aerodynamic discipline; Vehicle to ground interface development; Documentation development for the vehicle assembly.

  9. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  10. Design of an innovative lead-acid battery for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxa, M. S.; Weinlein, C. E.

    An innovative lead acid battery was designed specifically for use in a hybrid car. The battery has exceeded all of the minimum performance goals, and in many cases the optimistic target goals. The eV-1300, which features electrolyte circulation, has excellent energy density, power characteristics, efficiency, and cycle life. It is a good candidate battery for other hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles which require a relatively small cell size.

  11. Design and development of electric vehicle charging station equipped with RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panatarani, C.; Murtaddo, D.; Maulana, D. W.; Irawan, S.; Joni, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of electric charging station from distributed renewable for electric vehicle (EV). This designed refer to the input voltage standard of IEC 61851, plugs features of IEC 62196 and standard communication of ISO 15118. The developed electric charging station used microcontroller ATMEGA8535 and RFID as controller and identifier of the EV users, respectively. The charging station successfully developed as desired features for electric vehicle from renewable energy resources grid with solar panel, wind power and batteries storage.

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Reliability & Maintainability Parameters for Reusable Launch Vehicles using Design of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.; Lepsch, Roger A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a methodology for estimating reliability and maintainability distribution parameters for a reusable launch vehicle. A disciplinary analysis code and experimental designs are used to construct approximation models for performance characteristics. These models are then used in a simulation study to estimate performance characteristic distributions efficiently. The effectiveness and limitations of the developed methodology for launch vehicle operations simulations are also discussed.

  13. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

    2011-08-01

    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  14. Aerocapture vehicle mission design concepts for the inner and outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents mission design concepts using an aerocapture vehicle for future missions to the inner and outer planets which require substantial payloads in orbit that can not be readily realized using the present Space Transportation System (STS). Aerocapture is a mission design technique that utilizes aerodynamically controlled atmospheric entry to capture payloads into orbit as opposed to a completely propulsive orbit insertion. Results are presented which demonstrate great performance gains and acceptable accuracy using aerocapture. Attention is also given to the potential for aerocapture vehicle system design commonality for different missions, in order to demonstrate the ability of aerocapture as an interplanetary delivery technique to substantially augment the STS performance capabilities.

  15. Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

  16. A conceptual design of an unmanned test vehicle using an airbreathing propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    According to Aviation Week and Space Technology (Nov. 16, 1992), without a redefined approach to the problem of achieving single stage-to-orbit flight, the X-30 program is virtually assured of cancellation. One of the significant design goals of the X-30 program is to achieve single stage to low-earth orbit using airbreathing propulsion systems. In an attempt to avoid cancellation, the NASP Program has decided to design a test vehicle to achieve these goals. This report recommends a conceptual design of an unmanned test vehicle using an airbreathing propulsion system.

  17. Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-02-01

    Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

  18. A CLIPS-based tool for aircraft pilot-vehicle interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, Thomas D.; Rogers, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    The Pilot-Vehicle Interface of modern aircraft is the cognitive, sensory, and psychomotor link between the pilot, the avionics modules, and all other systems on board the aircraft. To assist pilot-vehicle interface designers, a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) based tool was developed that allows design information to be stored in a table that can be modified by rules representing design knowledge. Developed for the Apple Macintosh, the tool allows users without any CLIPS programming experience to form simple rules using a point and click interface.

  19. Importance of the Natural Terrestrial Environment with Regard to Advanced Launch Vehicle Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, S. D.; Vaughan, W. W.; Batts, G. W.; Jasper, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    The terrestrial environment is an important forcing function in the design and development of the launch vehicle. The scope of the terrestrial environment includes the following phenomena: Winds; Atmospheric Thermodynamic Models and Properties; Thermal Radiation; U.S. and World Surface Environment Extremes; Humidity; Precipitation, Fog, and Icing; Cloud Characteristics and Cloud Cover Models; Atmospheric Electricity; Atmospheric Constituents; Vehicle Engine Exhaust and Toxic Chemical Release; Occurrences of Tornadoes and Hurricanes; Geological Hazards, and Sea States. One must remember that the flight profile of any launch vehicle is in the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial environment definitions are usually limited to information below 90 km. Thus, a launch vehicle's operations will always be influenced to some degree by the terrestrial environment with which it interacts. As a result, the definition of the terrestrial environment and its interpretation is one of the key launch vehicle design and development inputs. This definition is a significant role, for example, in the areas of structures, control systems, trajectory shaping (performance), aerodynamic heating and take off/landing capabilities. The launch vehicle's capabilities which result from the design, in turn, determines the constraints and flight opportunities for tests and operations.

  20. Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

  1. Conceptual design of two-stage-to-orbit hybrid launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    The object of this design class was to design an earth-to orbit vehicle to replace the present NASA space shuttle. The major motivations for designing a new vehicle were to reduce the cost of putting payloads into orbit and to design a vehicle that could better service the space station with a faster turn-around time. Another factor considered in the design was that near-term technology was to be used. Materials, engines and other important technologies were to be realized in the next 10 to 15 years. The first concept put forth by NASA to meet these objectives was the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The NASP is a single-stage earth-to-orbit air-breathing vehicle. This concept ran into problems with the air-breathing engine providing enough thrust in the upper atmosphere, among other things. The solution of this design class is a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The first stage is air-breathing and the second stage is rocket-powered, similar to the space shuttle. The second stage is mounted on the top of the first stage in a piggy-back style. The vehicle takes off horizontally using only air-breathing engines, flies to Mach six at 100,000 feet, and launches the second stage towards its orbital path. The first stage, or booster, will weigh approximately 800,000 pounds and the second stage, or orbiter will weigh approximately 300,000 pounds. The major advantage of this design is the full recoverability of the first stage compared with the present solid rocket booster that are only partially recoverable and used only a few times. This reduces the cost as well as providing a more reliable and more readily available design for servicing the space station. The booster can fly an orbiter up, turn around, land, refuel, and be ready to launch another orbiter in a matter of hours.

  2. Conceptual design of two-stage-to-orbit hybrid launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The object of this design class was to design an earth-to orbit vehicle to replace the present NASA space shuttle. The major motivations for designing a new vehicle were to reduce the cost of putting payloads into orbit and to design a vehicle that could better service the space station with a faster turn-around time. Another factor considered in the design was that near-term technology was to be used. Materials, engines and other important technologies were to be realized in the next 10 to 15 years. The first concept put forth by NASA to meet these objectives was the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The NASP is a single-stage earth-to-orbit air-breathing vehicle. This concept ran into problems with the air-breathing engine providing enough thrust in the upper atmosphere, among other things. The solution of this design class is a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The first stage is air-breathing and the second stage is rocket-powered, similar to the space shuttle. The second stage is mounted on the top of the first stage in a piggy-back style. The vehicle takes off horizontally using only air-breathing engines, flies to Mach six at 100,000 feet, and launches the second stage towards its orbital path. The first stage, or booster, will weigh approximately 800,000 pounds and the second stage, or orbiter will weigh approximately 300,000 pounds. The major advantage of this design is the full recoverability of the first stage compared with the present solid rocket booster that are only partially recoverable and used only a few times. This reduces the cost as well as providing a more reliable and more readily available design for servicing the space station. The booster can fly an orbiter up, turn around, land, refuel, and be ready to launch another orbiter in a matter of hours.

  3. Small Launch Vehicle Design Approaches: Clustered Cores Compared with Multi-Stage Inline Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Beers, Benjamin; Esther, Elizabeth; Philips, Alan; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to better define small launch vehicle design options two approaches were investigated from the small launch vehicle trade space. The primary focus was to evaluate a clustered common core design against a purpose built inline vehicle. Both designs focused on liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant grade kerosene (RP-1) stages with the terminal stage later evaluated as a LOX/methane (CH4) stage. A series of performance optimization runs were done in order to minimize gross liftoff weight (GLOW) including alternative thrust levels, delivery altitude for payload, vehicle length to diameter ratio, alternative engine feed systems, re-evaluation of mass growth allowances, passive versus active guidance systems, and rail and tower launch methods. Additionally manufacturability, cost, and operations also play a large role in the benefits and detriments for each design. Presented here is the Advanced Concepts Office's Earth to Orbit Launch Team methodology and high level discussion of the performance trades and trends of both small launch vehicle solutions along with design philosophies that shaped both concepts. Without putting forth a decree stating one approach is better than the other; this discussion is meant to educate the community at large and let the reader determine which architecture is truly the most economical; since each path has such a unique set of limitations and potential payoffs.

  4. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  5. Requirements for multidisciplinary design of aerospace vehicles on high performance computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Robert G.

    1989-01-01

    The design of aerospace vehicles is becoming increasingly complex as the various contributing disciplines and physical components become more tightly coupled. This coupling leads to computational problems that will be tractable only if significant advances in high performance computing systems are made. Some of the modeling, algorithmic and software requirements generated by the design problem are discussed.

  6. A Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Structural System Modeling, Analysis and Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    A process for aerospace structural concept analysis and design is presented, with examples of a blended-wing-body fuselage, a multi-bubble fuselage concept, a notional crew exploration vehicle, and a high altitude long endurance aircraft. Aerospace vehicle structures must withstand all anticipated mission loads, yet must be designed to have optimal structural weight with the required safety margins. For a viable systems study of advanced concepts, these conflicting requirements must be imposed and analyzed early in the conceptual design cycle, preferably with a high degree of fidelity. In this design process, integrated multidisciplinary analysis tools are used in a collaborative engineering environment. First, parametric solid and surface models including the internal structural layout are developed for detailed finite element analyses. Multiple design scenarios are generated for analyzing several structural configurations and material alternatives. The structural stress, deflection, strain, and margins of safety distributions are visualized and the design is improved. Over several design cycles, the refined vehicle parts and assembly models are generated. The accumulated design data is used for the structural mass comparison and concept ranking. The present application focus on the blended-wing-body vehicle structure and advanced composite material are also discussed.

  7. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ISSUE: DEVELOPING A NEW HIGHWAY VEHICLE EMISSION ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on EPA's effort to define the design of an ideal methodology for estimating emissions from highway vehicles. The design concept will be used by EPA to focus research and promote the availability of accurate, cost effective inventory procedures within 5 to 10 yea...

  8. Decomposition-Based Decision Making for Aerospace Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Mavris, DImitri N.

    2005-01-01

    Most practical engineering systems design problems have multiple and conflicting objectives. Furthermore, the satisfactory attainment level for each objective ( requirement ) is likely uncertain early in the design process. Systems with long design cycle times will exhibit more of this uncertainty throughout the design process. This is further complicated if the system is expected to perform for a relatively long period of time, as now it will need to grow as new requirements are identified and new technologies are introduced. These points identify a need for a systems design technique that enables decision making amongst multiple objectives in the presence of uncertainty. Traditional design techniques deal with a single objective or a small number of objectives that are often aggregates of the overarching goals sought through the generation of a new system. Other requirements, although uncertain, are viewed as static constraints to this single or multiple objective optimization problem. With either of these formulations, enabling tradeoffs between the requirements, objectives, or combinations thereof is a slow, serial process that becomes increasingly complex as more criteria are added. This research proposal outlines a technique that attempts to address these and other idiosyncrasies associated with modern aerospace systems design. The proposed formulation first recasts systems design into a multiple criteria decision making problem. The now multiple objectives are decomposed to discover the critical characteristics of the objective space. Tradeoffs between the objectives are considered amongst these critical characteristics by comparison to a probabilistic ideal tradeoff solution. The proposed formulation represents a radical departure from traditional methods. A pitfall of this technique is in the validation of the solution: in a multi-objective sense, how can a decision maker justify a choice between non-dominated alternatives? A series of examples help the reader to observe how this technique can be applied to aerospace systems design and compare the results of this so-called Decomposition-Based Decision Making to more traditional design approaches.

  9. Coupled Solid Rocket Motor Ballistics and Trajectory Modeling for Higher Fidelity Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ables, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Multi-stage launch vehicles with solid rocket motors (SRMs) face design optimization challenges, especially when the mission scope changes frequently. Significant performance benefits can be realized if the solid rocket motors are optimized to the changing requirements. While SRMs represent a fixed performance at launch, rapid design iterations enable flexibility at design time, yielding significant performance gains. The streamlining and integration of SRM design and analysis can be achieved with improved analysis tools. While powerful and versatile, the Solid Performance Program (SPP) is not conducive to rapid design iteration. Performing a design iteration with SPP and a trajectory solver is a labor intensive process. To enable a better workflow, SPP, the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and the interfaces between them have been improved and automated, and a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. The GUI enables real-time visual feedback of grain and nozzle design inputs, enforces parameter dependencies, removes redundancies, and simplifies manipulation of SPP and POST's numerous options. Automating the analysis also simplifies batch analyses and trade studies. Finally, the GUI provides post-processing, visualization, and comparison of results. Wrapping legacy high-fidelity analysis codes with modern software provides the improved interface necessary to enable rapid coupled SRM ballistics and vehicle trajectory analysis. Low cost trade studies demonstrate the sensitivities of flight performance metrics to propulsion characteristics. Incorporating high fidelity analysis from SPP into vehicle design reduces performance margins and improves reliability. By flying an SRM designed with the same assumptions as the rest of the vehicle, accurate comparisons can be made between competing architectures. In summary, this flexible workflow is a critical component to designing a versatile launch vehicle model that can accommodate a volatile mission scope.

  10. ODIN - Optimal Design Integration system for synthesis of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, T. R.; Decker, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ODIN system is a new design synthesis procedure for solving multiple discipline design problems. In ODIN an unlimited number of independent technology codes can be linked together in the computer in any desired sequence. This paper describes the ODIN system, the executive program DIALOG, the data management technique, and the program library. The use of ODIN is illustrated with an application drawn from space system studies.

  11. Performance and operational considerations in the design of vehicle antennas for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milne, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the vehicle antenna requirements for mobile satellite systems. The antenna parameters are discussed in the light of the requirements and the limitations in performance imposed by the physical constraints of antenna and by vehicle geometries. Measurements of diffraction and antenna noise temperature in an operational environment are examined, as well as their effects on system margins. Mechanical versus electronic designs are compared with regards to performance, cost, reliability, and design complexity. Comparisons between open-loop and close-loop tracking systems are made and the effects of bandwidth, sidelobe levels, operational constraints, vehicle angular velocity, and acceleration are discussed. Some consideration is given to the use of hybrid systems employing both open and closed-loop tracking. Changes to antenna/terminal specifications are recommended which will provide greater design flexibility and increase the likelihood of meeting the performance and operational requirements.

  12. Rocket-powered single-stage vehicle configuration selection and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Engelund, Walter C.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Mcmillin, Mark; Wurster, Kathryn E.; Powell, Richard W.; Guinta, Anthony A.; Unal, Resit

    1993-01-01

    A reusable rocket-powered, single-stage launch vehicle has been designed as a part of NASA's Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study to examine options for a next-generation manned space transportation system. The configuration selection process utilized a response surface methodology for multidisciplinary optimization. The methodology was utilized to determine the minimum dry weight entry vehicle to meet constraints on landing velocity and on subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic trim and stability. Once the optimum configuration was determined, a multidisciplinary conceptual vehicle design was performed. This paper presents the results of the configuration selection methodology and summarizes the overall conceptual design process with special attention given to the individual disciplines of weights/ sizing, structures/materials, configuration, flight mechanics, aerodynamics, aeroheating, propulsion, and operations.

  13. Conceptual Design and Cost Estimate of a Subsonic NASA Testbed Vehicle (NTV) for Aeronautics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Frederic, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual design and cost estimate for a subsonic flight research vehicle designed to support NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project goals is presented. To investigate the technical and economic feasibility of modifying an existing aircraft, a highly modified Boeing 717 was developed for maturation of technologies supporting the three ERA project goals of reduced fuel burn, noise, and emissions. This modified 717 utilizes midfuselage mounted modern high bypass ratio engines in conjunction with engine exhaust shielding structures to provide a low noise testbed. The testbed also integrates a natural laminar flow wing section and active flow control for the vertical tail. An eight year program plan was created to incrementally modify and test the vehicle, enabling the suite of technology benefits to be isolated and quantified. Based on the conceptual design and programmatic plan for this testbed vehicle, a full cost estimate of $526M was developed, representing then-year dollars at a 50% confidence level.

  14. Design Refinement and Modeling Methods for Highly-Integrated Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrez, Sean Michael

    A method for early-stage design of high-speed airplanes is presented based on analysis of vehicle performance, including internal flow in the engine and external flows around the body. Several ways of evaluating vehicle performance are shown, including thrust maps, combustor mode stability concerns, combustor optimization and trajectory optimization. The design performance analysis relies on a routine that computes the thrust of a dual-mode scramjet, which is a geometric-compression (ramjet) engine with a combustor that can operate both subsonically and supersonically. This strategy applies to any internal flow which is predominantly one-dimensional in character. A reduced-order model for mixing and combustion has been developed that is based on non-dimensional scaling of turbulent jets in crossflow and tabulated flamelet chemistry, and is used in conjunction with conventional conservation equations for quasi one-dimensional flow to compute flowpath performance. Thrust is computed by stream-tube momentum analysis. Vehicle lift and drag are computed using a supersonic panel method, developed separately. Comparisons to computational fluid dynamics solutions and experimental data were conducted to determine the validity of the combustion modeling approach, and results of these simulations are shown. Computations for both ram-mode and scram-mode operation are compared to experimental results, and predictions are made for flight conditions of a hypersonic vehicle built around the given flowpath. Trajectory performance of the vehicle is estimated using a collocation method to find the required control inputs and fuel consumption. The combustor is optimized for minimum fuel consumption over a short scram trajectory, and the scram-mode trajectory is optimized for minimum fuel consumption over a space-access-type trajectory. A vehicle design and associated optimized trajectory are shown, and general design principles for steady and efficient operation of vehicles of this type are discussed.

  15. LifeSat engineering in-house vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, A.; Badhwar, G.; Bryant, L.; Caram, J.; Conley, G.; Crull, T.; Cuthbert, P.; Darcy, E.; Delaune, P.; Edeen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The LifeSat program was initiated to research the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on living organisms. The effects of long-term human exposure to free-space radiation fields over a range of gravitational environments has long been recognized as one of the primary design uncertainties for human space exploration. A critical design issue in the radiation biology requirements was the lack of definition of the minimum radiation absorbed dosage required to produce statistically meaningful data. The Phase A study produced a spacecraft conceptual design resembling a Discoverer configuration with a total weight of approximately 2800 pounds that would carry a 525-pound payload module (45 inches in diameter and 36 inches long) and support up to 12 rodents and a general biology module supporting lower life forms for an on-orbit duration of up to 60 days. The phase B conceptual designs focused on gravitational biology requirements and only briefly addressed the design impacts of the shift toward radiobiological science that occurred during the latter half of the Phase B studies.

  16. Design Considerations for a Crewed Mars Ascent Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration architecture studies identified the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) as one of the largest "gear ratio" items in a crewed Mars mission. Because every kilogram of mass ascended from the Martian surface requires seven kilograms or more of ascent propellant, it is desirable for the MAV to be as small and lightweight as possible. Analysis identified four key factors that drive MAV sizing: 1) Number of crew: more crew members require more equipment-and a larger cabin diameter to hold that equipment-with direct implications to structural, thermal, propulsion, and power subsystem mass. 2) Which suit is worn during ascent: Extravehicular Activity (EVA) type suits are physically larger and heavier than Intravehicular Activity (IVA) type suits and because they are less flexible, EVA suits require more elbow-room to maneuver in and out of. An empty EVA suit takes up about as much cabin volume as a crew member. 3) How much time crew spends in the MAV: less than about 12 hours and the MAV can be considered a "taxi" with few provisions for crew comfort. However, if the crew spends more than 12 consecutive hours in the MAV, it begins to look like a Habitat requiring more crew comfort items. 4) How crew get into/out of the MAV: ingress/egress method drives structural mass (for example, EVA hatch vs. pressurized tunnel vs. suit port) as well as consumables mass for lost cabin atmosphere, and has profound impacts on surface element architecture. To minimize MAV cabin mass, the following is recommended: Limit MAV usage to 24 consecutive hours or less; discard EVA suits on the surface and ascend wearing IVA suits; Limit MAV functionality to ascent only, rather than dual-use ascent/habitat functions; and ingress/egress the MAV via a detachable tunnel to another pressurized surface asset.

  17. Launch Vehicle Design and Optimization Methods and Priority for the Advanced Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Korte, John J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a research and development program that will improve collaboration among design engineers for launch vehicle conceptual design and provide the infrastructure (methods and framework) necessary to enable that environment. In this paper, three major technical challenges facing the AEE program are identified, and three specific design problems are selected to demonstrate how advanced methods can improve current design activities. References are made to studies that demonstrate these design problems and methods, and these studies will provide the detailed information and check cases to support incorporation of these methods into the AEE. This paper provides background and terminology for discussing the launch vehicle conceptual design problem so that the diverse AEE user community can participate in prioritizing the AEE development effort.

  18. Preliminary subsystem designs for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A series of design studies is presented concerning the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) for Space Station Freedom. Four alternate designs are presented for the ACRV braking and landing system. Options presented include: ballistic and lifting body reentries; the use of high-lift, high-payload aerodynamic decelerators, as well as conventional parachutes; landing systems designed for water landings, land landings, or both; and an aerial recovery system. All four design options presented combine some or all of the above attributes, and all meet performance requirements established by the ACRV Program Office. Two studies of ACRV growth options are also presented. Use of the ACRV or a similarly designed vehicle in several roles for possible future space missions is discussed, along with the required changes to a basic ACRV to allow it to perform these missions optimally. The outcome of these studies is a set of recommendations to the ACRV Program Office describing the vehicle characteristics of the basic ACRV which lend themselves most readily to be adapted for use in other missions. Finally, the impacts on the design of the ACRV due to its role as a medical emergency vehicle were studied and are presented. The use of the ACRV in this manner will impact its shape, internal configuration, and equipment.

  19. Vehicle occupancy detection camera position optimization using design of experiments and standard image references

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Peter; Hoover, Martin; Rabbani, Mojgan

    2013-03-01

    Camera positioning and orientation is important to applications in domains such as transportation since the objects to be imaged vary greatly in shape and size. In a typical transportation application that requires capturing still images, inductive loops buried in the ground or laser trigger sensors are used when a vehicle reaches the image capture zone to trigger the image capture system. The camera in such a system is in a fixed position pointed at the roadway and at a fixed orientation. Thus the problem is to determine the optimal location and orientation of the camera when capturing images from a wide variety of vehicles. Methods from Design for Six Sigma, including identifying important parameters and noise sources and performing systematically designed experiments (DOE) can be used to determine an effective set of parameter settings for the camera position and orientation under these conditions. In the transportation application of high occupancy vehicle lane enforcement, the number of passengers in the vehicle is to be counted. Past work has described front seat vehicle occupant counting using a camera mounted on an overhead gantry looking through the front windshield in order to capture images of vehicle occupants. However, viewing rear seat passengers is more problematic due to obstructions including the vehicle body frame structures and seats. One approach is to view the rear seats through the side window. In this situation the problem of optimally positioning and orienting the camera to adequately capture the rear seats through the side window can be addressed through a designed experiment. In any automated traffic enforcement system it is necessary for humans to be able to review any automatically captured digital imagery in order to verify detected infractions. Thus for defining an output to be optimized for the designed experiment, a human defined standard image reference (SIR) was used to quantify the quality of the line-of-sight to the rear seats of the vehicle. The DOE-SIR method was exercised for determining the optimal camera position and orientation for viewing vehicle rear seats over a variety of vehicle types. The resulting camera geometry was used on public roadway image capture resulting in over 95% acceptable rear seat images for human viewing.

  20. Improving Conceptual Design for Launch Vehicles. The Bimese Concept: A Study of Mission and Economic Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Tooley, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes key activities conducted in the third and final year of the cooperative agreement NCC1-229 entitled "Improving Conceptual Design for Launch Vehicles." This project has been funded by the Vehicle Analysis Branch at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. Work has been performed by the Space Systems Design Lab (SSDL) at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. Accomplishments during the first and second years of this project have been previously reported in annual progress reports. This report will focus on the third and final year of the three year activity.

  1. Computer modeling in the design and evaluation of electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.; Johnson, N.L.

    1996-08-16

    This demonstration project uses modern simulation techniques to illustrate the important technologies and design variables that an auto-designer would consider in production a high efficiency, low emissions vehicle. Simulation and modeling techniques use the idea of capturing the relationships between real components of the systems with mathematical equations. These equations are then solved on a computer to simulate the behavior or performance of the system under various conditions. In the current demonstration project, we focus on many variations of a hydrogen-powered vehicle.

  2. A numerical study for design of depth, pitch and roll control system of a towed vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Koterayama, W.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nakamura, M.; Moriyama, A.; Akamatsu, T.

    1994-12-31

    A towed vehicle system, FLYING FISH, is under development for use in making chemical and physical measurements which enable the authors to obtain spacially continuous and real time data in an ocean mixed layer. The heave, pitch and roll of FLYING FISH are controlled by a main wing and horizontal tail wings which permit its stable attitudes and assure accurate measurements. The numerical simulation of motions was carried out to design the optimal control system of this towed vehicle system and the results gave the data for the design of the mechanical parts of the control system.

  3. A New Speedometer Design for a Vehicle using K-Band Doppler Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Nagase, Tomoyuki; Araki, Makoto; Ono, Hisao

    In this paper, we present a new high-precision speedometer for vehicles using a K-band Doppler technology. The concept of our new speedometer is based on the Doppler effects phenomenon to obtain a speed of the vehicle more precisely. The experimental design, data collection and data evaluations are discussed, and the features of the new system have been appraised and compared with a conventional speedometer. The results show that our new speedometer development exhibits a phenomenal performance gains with low cost design, light weight and its performance provides a pragmatic element for emerging ITS infrastructure.

  4. Integrating Human Factors into Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina; Baggerman, Susan; Campbell, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this design process is to apply Human Engineering (HE) requirements and guidelines to hardware/software and to provide HE design, analysis and evaluation of crew interfaces. The topics include: 1) Background/Purpose; 2) HE Activities; 3) CASE STUDY: Net Habitable Volume (NHV) Study; 4) CASE STUDY: Human Modeling Approach; 5) CASE STUDY: Human Modeling Results; 6) CASE STUDY: Human Modeling Conclusions; 7) CASE STUDY: Human-in-the-Loop Evaluation Approach; 8) CASE STUDY: Unsuited Evaluation Results; 9) CASE STUDY: Suited Evaluation Results; 10) CASE STUDY: Human-in-the-Loop Evaluation Conclusions; 11) Near-Term Plan; and 12) In Conclusion

  5. Design of a remotely piloted vehicle for a low Reynolds number station keeping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Six teams of senior level Aerospace Engineering undergraduates were given a request for proposal, asking for a design concept for a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). This RPV was to be designed to fly at a target Reynolds number of 1 times 10(exp 5). The craft was to maximize loiter time and perform an indoor, closed course flight. As part of the proposal, each team was required to construct a prototype and validate their design with a flight demonstration.

  6. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) - IPAD user requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a requirements analysis task for Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) are presented. User requirements which, in part, will shape the IPAD system design are given. Requirements considered were: generation, modification, storage, retrieval, communication, reporting, and protection of information. Data manipulation and controls on the system and the information were also considered. Specific needs relative to the product design process are also discussed.

  7. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 4: Probe bus and orbiter spacecraft vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozajian, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The requirements, trades, and design descriptions for the probe bus and orbiter spacecraft configurations, structure, thermal control, and harness are defined. Designs are developed for Thor/Delta and Atlas/Centaur launch vehicles with the latter selected as the final baseline. The major issues examined in achieving the baseline design are tabulated. The importance of spin axis orientation because of the effect on science experiments and earth communications is stressed.

  8. Aerothermal Protuberance Heating Design and Test Configurations for Ascent Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Charles E.; Neumann, Richard D.; Freeman, Delma

    2010-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate protuberance heating for the purposes of vehicle design and modification. These tests represent a state of the art approach to both testing and instrumentation for defining aerothermal protuberance effects on the protuberance and surrounding areas. The testing was performed with a number of wind tunnel entries beginning with the proof of concept "pathfinder" test in the Test Section 1 (TS1) tunnel in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The TS1 section (see Figures 1a and 1b) is a lower Mach number tunnel and the Test Section 2 (TS2) has overlapping and higher Mach number capability as showin in Figure 1c. The pathfinder concept was proven and testing proceeded for a series of protuberance tests using an existing splitter aluminum protuberance mounting plate, Macor protuberances, thin film gages, total temperature and pressure gages, Kulite pressure transducers, Infra-Red camera imaging, LASER velocimetry evaluations and the UPWT data collection system. A boundary layer rake was used to identify the boundary layer profile at the protuberance locations for testing and helped protuberance design. This paper discusses the techniques and instrumentation used during the protuberance heating tests performed in the UPWT in TS1 and TS2. Runs of the protuberances were made Mach numbers of 1.5, 2.16, 2.65, and 3.51. The data set generated from this testing is for ascent protuberance effects and is termed Protuberance Heating Ascent Data (PHAD) and this testing may be termed PHAD-1 to distinguish it from future testing of this type.

  9. The design philosophy of the Phobos-Grunt space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    This paper covers the main features of Russia's Phobos-Grunt space mission, whose primary goal is to return soil samples from the Martian satellite Phobos. The mission scenario, major design solutions, and evolution of the project throughout its development are described.

  10. Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Design Study for Cargo Transfer to Earth-moon L1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Falck, Robert D.; Dudzinski, Leonard J.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    A design study for a cargo transfer vehicle using solar electric propulsion was performed for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts program. Targeted for 2016, the solar electric propulsion (SEP) transfer vehicle is required to deliver a propellant supply module with a mass of approximately 36 metric tons from Low Earth Orbit to the first Earth-Moon libration point (LL1) within 270 days. Following an examination of propulsion and power technology options, a SEP transfer vehicle design was selected that incorporated large-area (approx. 2700 sq m) thin film solar arrays and a clustered engine configuration of eight 50 kW gridded ion thrusters mounted on an articulated boom. Refinement of the SEP vehicle design was performed iteratively to properly estimate the required xenon propellant load for the out-bound orbit transfer. The SEP vehicle performance, including the xenon propellant estimation, was verified via the SNAP trajectory code. Further efforts are underway to extend this system model to other orbit transfer missions.

  11. Design of Modular, Shape-transitioning Inlets for a Conical Hypersonic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gollan, Rowan J.; Smart, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    For a hypersonic vehicle, propelled by scramjet engines, integration of the engines and airframe is highly desirable. Thus, the forward capture shape of the engine inlet should conform to the vehicle body shape. Furthermore, the use of modular engines places a constraint on the shape of the inlet sidewalls. Finally, one may desire a combustor cross- section shape that is different from that of the inlet. These shape constraints for the inlet can be accommodated by employing a streamline-tracing and lofting technique. This design technique was developed by Smart for inlets with a rectangular-to-elliptical shape transition. In this paper, we generalise that technique to produce inlets that conform to arbitrary shape requirements. As an example, we show the design of a body-integrated hypersonic inlet on a winged-cone vehicle, typical of what might be used in a three-stage orbital launch system. The special challenge of inlet design for this conical vehicle at an angle-of-attack is also discussed. That challenge is that the bow shock sits relatively close to the vehicle body.

  12. The Role of Uncertainty in Aerospace Vehicle Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective uncertainty quantification (UQ) begins at the earliest phase in the design phase for which there are adequate models and continues tightly integrated to the analysis and design cycles as the refinement of the models and the fidelity of the tools increase. It is essential that uncertainty quantification strategies provide objective information to support the processes of identifying, analyzing and accommodating for the effects of uncertainty. Assessments of uncertainty should never render the results more difficult for engineers and decision makers to comprehend, but instead provide them with critical information to assist with resource utilization decisions and risk mitigation strategies. Success would be measured by the tools to enable engineers and decision makers to effectively balance critical project resources against system requirements while accounting for the impact of uncertainty.

  13. Bioresearch Module Design Definition and Space Shuttle Vehicle Integration Study. Volume 1: Basic Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, A. L., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Preliminary designs of the Bioexplorer spacecraft, developed in an earlier study program, are analyzed and updated to conform to a new specification which includes use of both the Scout and the space shuttle vehicle for launch. The updated spacecraft is referred to as bioresearch module. It is capable of supporting a variety of small biological experiments in near-earth and highly elliptical earth orbits. The baseline spacecraft design is compatible with the Scout launch vehicle. Inboard profile drawings, weight statements, interface drawings, and spacecraft parts and aerospace ground equipment lists are provided to document the design. The baseline design was analyzed to determine the design and cost impact of a set of optional features. These include reduced experiment power and thermal load, addition of an experiment television monitor, and replacement of VHF with S-band communications. The impact of these options on power required, weight change and cost is defined.

  14. Concepts and system design of a space emergency re-entry vehicle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Dickerson, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the spectrum of remedial concepts and realistic mission constraints. A vehicle design is presented which is offered as the 'best' solution among a number of alternative designs in terms of its cost effectiveness. The probability of the safe reentry and recovery of one to three stranded astronauts is 0.80. The vehicle is symmetrical and lenticular in shape, and exhibits a modest lift-to-drag ratio of 0.5, allowing it to reenter a two-skip trajectory with minimal gravity forces on the astronauts. Attitude control, voice and beacon communication, and impact attenuation are also provided. The vehicle could be delivered in a docked position on the Apollo Applications Program multiple docking adapter.

  15. Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) criteria as functions of vehicle design and consumer expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichel, Daniel R.

    2005-09-01

    The criteria for NVH design are to a large degree determined by the types of vehicles and the perceived desires of the purchasers of vehicles, as well as the cost of incorporating NVH measures. Vehicles may be classified into specific types, e.g., economy car, midsize passenger, near-luxury and luxury passenger cars, sports cars, vans, minivans, and sports utility vehicles of varying sizes. The owner of a luxury sedan would expect a quiet ride with minimal vibration and harshness-however, if that sedan is to display sporting characteristics, some aspects of NVH may actually have to be increased in order to enhance a feeling of driver exhilaration. A discussion of the requirements for specific types of vehicles is provided, with due regard for effects on the usability of installed sound/video systems, driver and passenger fatigue, feel of steering mechanisms and other mechanical components, consumer market research, etc. A number of examples of vehicles on the market are cited.

  16. A wireless sensor network design and implementation for vehicle detection, classification, and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljaafreh, A.; Al Assaf, A.

    2013-05-01

    Vehicle intrusion is considered a significant threat for critical zones specially the militarized zones and therefore vehicles monitoring has a great importance. In this paper a small wireless sensor network for vehicle intrusion monitoring consists of a five inexpensive sensor nodes distributed over a small area and connected with a gateway using star topology has been designed and implemented. The system is able to detect a passage of an intrusive vehicle, classify it either wheeled or tracked, and track the direction of its movement. The approach is based on Vehicle's ground vibrations for detection, vehicle's acoustic signature for classification and the Energy- based target localization for tracking. Detection and classification are implemented by using different algorithms and techniques including Analog to Digital Conversion, Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Neural Network .All of these algorithms and techniques are implemented locally in the sensor node using Microchip dsPIC digital signal controller. Results are sent from the sensor node to the gateway using ZigBee technology and then from the gateway to a web server using GPRS technology.

  17. Refinements in the Design of the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle for NASA's, Exploration Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2008-01-01

    NASA is developing a new launch vehicle fleet to fulfill the national goals of replacing the shuttle fleet, completing the International Space Station (ISS), and exploring the Moon on the way to eventual exploration of Mars and beyond. Programmatic and technical decisions during early architecture studies and subsequent design activities were focused on safe, reliable operationally efficient vehicles that could support a sustainable exploration program. A pair of launch vehicles was selected to support those goals the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. They will be the first new human-rated launch vehicles developed by NASA in more than 30 years (Figure 1). Ares I will be the first to fly, beginning space station ferry operations no later than 2015. It will be able to carry up to six astronauts to ISS or support up to four astronauts for expeditions to the moon. Ares V is scheduled to be operational in the 2020 timeframe and will provide the propulsion systems and payload to truly extend human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. (LEO).

  18. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...

  19. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  20. Advanced Usage of Vehicle Sketch Pad for CFD-Based Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual design is the most fluid phase of aircraft design. It is important to be able to perform large scale design space exploration of candidate concepts that can achieve the design intent to avoid more costly configuration changes in later stages of design. This also means that conceptual design is highly dependent on the disciplinary analysis tools to capture the underlying physics accurately. The required level of analysis fidelity can vary greatly depending on the application. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) allows the designer to easily construct aircraft concepts and make changes as the design matures. More recent development efforts have enabled VSP to bridge the gap to high-fidelity analysis disciplines such as computational fluid dynamics and structural modeling for finite element analysis. This paper focuses on the current state-of-the-art geometry modeling for the automated process of analysis and design of low-boom supersonic concepts using VSP and several capability-enhancing design tools.

  1. Applying Monte Carlo Simulation to Launch Vehicle Design and Requirements Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on applying Monte Carlo simulation to probabilistic launch vehicle design and requirements verification. The approaches developed in this paper can be applied to other complex design efforts as well. Typically the verification must show that requirement "x" is met for at least "y" % of cases, with, say, 10% consumer risk or 90% confidence. Two particular aspects of making these runs for requirements verification will be explored in this paper. First, there are several types of uncertainties that should be handled in different ways, depending on when they become known (or not). The paper describes how to handle different types of uncertainties and how to develop vehicle models that can be used to examine their characteristics. This includes items that are not known exactly during the design phase but that will be known for each assembled vehicle (can be used to determine the payload capability and overall behavior of that vehicle), other items that become known before or on flight day (can be used for flight day trajectory design and go/no go decision), and items that remain unknown on flight day. Second, this paper explains a method (order statistics) for determining whether certain probabilistic requirements are met or not and enables the user to determine how many Monte Carlo samples are required. Order statistics is not new, but may not be known in general to the GN&C community. The methods also apply to determining the design values of parameters of interest in driving the vehicle design. The paper briefly discusses when it is desirable to fit a distribution to the experimental Monte Carlo results rather than using order statistics.

  2. Development of a dedicated ethanol ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Bourn, G.; Callahan, T.; Dodge, L.; Mulik, J.; Naegeli, D.; Shouse, K.; Smith, L.; Whitney, K.

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this 3.5 year project is to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol (or ethanol blend) that can meet California`s ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards and equivalent corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency for a light-duty passenger car application. The definition of commercially competitive is independent of fuel cost, but does include technical requirements for competitive power, performance, refueling times, vehicle range, driveability, fuel handling safety, and overall emissions performance. This report summarizes a system design study completed after six months of effort on this project. The design study resulted in recommendations for ethanol-fuel blends that shall be tested for engine low-temperature cold-start performance and other criteria. The study also describes three changes to the engine, and two other changes to the vehicle to improve low-temperature starting, efficiency, and emissions. The three engine changes are to increase the compression ratio, to replace the standard fuel injectors with fine spray injectors, and to replace the powertrain controller. The two other vehicle changes involve the fuel tank and the aftertreatment system. The fuel tank will likely need to be replaced to reduce evaporative emissions. In addition to changes in the main catalyst, supplemental aftertreatment systems will be analyzed to reduce emissions before the main catalyst reaches operating temperature.

  3. Conceptual Design of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with 24-HR Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design study for a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is able to carry a 25-lb science payload for 24 hr and is able to land and take off at elevations as high as 15,000 ft without human intervention. In addition to the science payload, this vehicle must be able to carry a satellite communication system, and the vehicle must be able to be transported in a standard full-size pickup truck and assembled by only two operators. This project started with a brainstorming phase to devise possible vehicle configurations that might satisfy the requirements. A down select was performed to select a near-term solution and two advanced vehicle concepts that are better suited to the intent of the mission. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the requirements and the technology levels to obtain a better understanding of the design space. This study found that within the study assumptions the mission is feasible; the selected concepts are recommended for further development.

  4. Project EGRESS: The design of an assured crew return vehicle for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Keeping preliminary studies by NASA in mind, an Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) was developed. The system allows the escape of one or more crew members from Space Station Freedom in case of emergency. The design of the vehicle addresses propulsion, orbital operations, reentry, landing and recovery, power and communication, and life support. In light of recent modifications in Space Station design, Project EGRESS (Earthbound Guaranteed ReEntry from Space Station) pays particular attention to its impact on Space Station operations, interfaces and docking facilities, and maintenance needs. A water landing, medium lift vehicle was found to best satisfy project goals of simplicity and cost efficiency without sacrificing the safety and reliability requirements. With a single vehicle, one injured crew member could be returned to Earth with minimal pilot involvement. Since the craft is capable of returning up to five crew members, two such permanently docked vehicles would allow full evacuation of the Space Station. The craft could be constructed entirely with available 1990 technology and launched aboard a shuttle orbiter.

  5. Improved design of dynamic vibration absorber by using the inerter and its application in vehicle suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yujie; Chen, Long; Yang, Xiaofeng; Shi, Dehua; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Inerter is a recently proposed mechanical element with two terminals. The novelty of this paper is to present the improved design which aims to add traditional dynamic vibration absorber to the vehicle body by using the inerter. Based on this background, a new vehicle suspension structure called ISD suspension, including the inerter, spring and damper has been created. A dual-mass vibration model including the ISD suspension is considered in this study. Parameters are obtained by using the genetic optimizing algorithm. The frequency-domain simulation confirms that the ISD suspension can effectively improve the damping performance of the suspension system, especially at the offset frequency of the vehicle body, which is consistent with the feature of the dynamic vibration absorber added to the vehicle body mass. At last, a prototype ball screw inerter has been designed and the bench test of a quarter-car model has been undertaken. Under the conditions of the random road input, the vehicle ride comfort evaluation of body acceleration RMS value decreases by 4% at most, the suspension deflection RMS value decreases by 16% at most, the tire dynamic load RMS value decreases by 6% at most. Power spectral density results also indicate that the ISD suspension has superior damping performance than passive suspension which proves that the proposed ISD suspension is deemed effective.

  6. 75 FR 34483 - In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation AGENCY... this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons...

  7. A Capability to Generate Physics-based Mass Estimating Relationships for Conceptual Space Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Marcus, Leland

    2002-01-01

    This paper is written in support of the on-going research into conceptual space vehicle design conducted at the Space Systems Design Laboratory (SSDL) at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Research at the SSDL follows a sequence of a number of the traditional aerospace disciplines. The sequence of disciplines and interrelationship among them is shown in the Design Structure Matrix (DSM). The discipline of Weights and Sizing occupies a central location in the design of a new space vehicle. Weights and Sizing interact, either in a feed forward or feed back manner, with every other discipline in the DSM. Because of this principle location, accuracy in Weights and Sizing is integral to producing an accurate model of a space vehicle concept. Instead of using conceptual level techniques, a simplified Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique is described as applied to the problem of the Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank bending loads applied to the forward Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) tank of the Georgia Tech Air Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV).

  8. Models of cost analysis for designing hybrid engines of space vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Parametric models have been developed to make the cost analysis of hybrid engines of air-space vehicles. The models can, at early designing stages, approximately estimate the specific costs of the development and manufacture of engines. Also, the models can find economically competitive combinations of hybrid engine components. A system of equations has been given to implement the models mentioned.

  9. Engaging Inner City Students in Learning through Designing Remote Operated Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For the past year we have been developing and implementing a program in which students design and construct remote operated vehicles. In this paper, we report on a pilot study that occurred over the course of an academic year in an inner city high school. Specifically, we have been investigating whether students learn meaningful science content…

  10. Racing with the Sun: Students Learn Physics while Designing a Solar-Powered Vehicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his experience conducting an inquiry investigation in his classroom in which high school physics students design, create, and race a solar-powered vehicle. Students learn invaluable science, technology, mathematics, communication, and critical thinking skills. Fueled by their knowledge, creativity, and the…

  11. Grid Generation for Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization of an Aerospace Vehicle: Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss grid generation issues and to challenge the grid generation community to develop tools suitable for automated multidisciplinary analysis and design optimization of aerospace vehicles. Special attention is given to the grid generation issues of computational fluid dynamics and computational structural mechanics disciplines.

  12. Highway Aesthetics: The Design of Motor Vehicles. Teaching Art with Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the design of highway vehicles as one means for students to learn about forms of three-dimensional art. Focuses on the Corvette, mass-produced cars like the Chrysler Concorde, the modern semi-trailer, and an antique 1931 Dusenberg Model J Murphy Aluminum Top Coupe. (CMK)

  13. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a performance optimized engine system design for an advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine is reported. Analysis of the components and engine and the resulting drawings is discussed. The status of the orbit transfer vehicle liquid engine transient simulation computer model is given.

  14. Full Envelope Reconfigurable Control Design for the X-33 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotting, M. Christopher; Burken, John J.; Lee, Seung-Hee (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the event of a control surface failure, the purpose of a reconfigurable control system is to redistribute the control effort among the remaining working surfaces such that satisfactory stability and performance are retained. An Off-line Nonlinear General Constrained Optimization (ONCO) approach was used for the reconfigurable X-33 control design method. Three example failures are shown using a high fidelity 6 DOF simulation (case I ascent with a left body flap jammed at 25 deg.; case 2 entry with a right inboard elevon jam at 25 deg.; and case 3, landing (TAEM) with a left rudder jam at -30 deg.) Failure comparisons between responses with the nominal controller and reconfigurable controllers show the benefits of reconfiguration. Single jam aerosurface failures were considered, and failure detection and identification is considered accomplished in the actuator controller. The X-33 flight control system will incorporate reconfigurable flight control in the baseline system.

  15. Design Process of Flight Vehicle Structures for a Common Bulkhead and an MPCV Spacecraft Adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin; Hull, Patrick V.

    2015-01-01

    Design and manufacturing space flight vehicle structures is a skillset that has grown considerably at NASA during that last several years. Beginning with the Ares program and followed by the Space Launch System (SLS); in-house designs were produced for both the Upper Stage and the SLS Multipurpose crew vehicle (MPCV) spacecraft adapter. Specifically, critical design review (CDR) level analysis and flight production drawing were produced for the above mentioned hardware. In particular, the experience of this in-house design work led to increased manufacturing infrastructure for both Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF), improved skillsets in both analysis and design, and hands on experience in building and testing (MSA) full scale hardware. The hardware design and development processes from initiation to CDR and finally flight; resulted in many challenges and experiences that produced valuable lessons. This paper builds on these experiences of NASA in recent years on designing and fabricating flight hardware and examines the design/development processes used, as well as the challenges and lessons learned, i.e. from the initial design, loads estimation and mass constraints to structural optimization/affordability to release of production drawing to hardware manufacturing. While there are many documented design processes which a design engineer can follow, these unique experiences can offer insight into designing hardware in current program environments and present solutions to many of the challenges experienced by the engineering team.

  16. A Method of Integrating Aeroheating into Conceptual Reusable Launch Vehicle Design: Evaluation of Advanced Thermal Protection Techniques for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Cowart, Kris

    2001-01-01

    A method for integrating Aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle (RLV) design is presented in this thesis. This process allows for faster turn-around time to converge a RLV design through the advent of designing an optimized thermal protection system (TPS). It consists of the coupling and automation of four computer software packages: MINIVER, TPSX, TCAT, and ADS. MINIVER is an Aeroheating code that produces centerline radiation equilibrium temperatures, convective heating rates, and heat loads over simplified vehicle geometries. These include flat plates and swept cylinders that model wings and leading edges, respectively. TPSX is a NASA Ames material properties database that is available on the World Wide Web. The newly developed Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT) uses finite difference methods to carry out a transient in-depth 1-D conduction analysis over the center mold line of the vehicle. This is used along with the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) code to correctly size the vehicle's thermal protection system (TPS). The numerical optimizer ADS uses algorithms that solve constrained and unconstrained design problems. The resulting outputs for this process are TPS material types, unit thicknesses, and acreage percentages. TCAT was developed for several purposes. First, it provides a means to calculate the transient in-depth conduction seen by the surface of the TPS material that protects a vehicle during ascent and reentry. Along with the in-depth conduction, radiation from the surface of the material is calculated along with the temperatures at the backface and interior parts of the TPS material. Secondly, TCAT contributes added speed and automation to the overall design process. Another motivation in the development of TCAT is optimization. In some vehicles, the TPS accounts for a high percentage of the overall vehicle dry weight. Optimizing the weight of the TPS will thereby lower the percentage of the dry weight accounted for by the TPS. Also, this will lower the cost of the TPS and the overall cost of the vehicle.

  17. Optimal design for passive suspension of a light rail vehicle using constrained multiobjective evolutionary search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Niahn-Chung; Lin, Chun-Liang; Lin, Yu-Chen; Liang, Kuo-Zoo

    2005-07-01

    This research proposes a systematic and effective optimization process for the design of vertical passive suspension of light rail vehicles (LRVs) using new constrained multiobjective evolution algorithms. A multibody dynamic model of the three-car train set is presented and the suspension spring and damping parameters are optimally designed. A new design of the passive suspension is aided by the use of evolution algorithms to attain the best compromise between ride quality and suspension deflections due to irregular gradient tracks. Extensive simulations are performed to verify the proposed design scheme. The preliminary results show that, when the passive suspension is optimized via the proposed approach, a substantial improvement in the vertical ride quality is obtained while keeping the suspension deflections within their allowable clearance when the light rail vehicle runs onto the worst track condition.

  18. Design of Z-Pinch and Dense Plasma Focus Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; Maples, C. Daphne; Miermik, Janie N.; Statham, Geoffrey N.; Fabisinski, Leo; Santarius, John; Percy, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Z-pinch and Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) are two promising techniques for bringing fusion power to the field of in-space propulsion. A design team comprising of engineers and scientists from UAHuntsville, NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Wisconsin developed concept vehicles for a crewed round trip mission to Mars and an interstellar precursor mission. Outlined in this paper are vehicle concepts, complete with conceptual analysis of the mission profile, operations, structural and thermal analysis and power/avionics design. Additionally engineering design of the thruster itself is included. The design efforts adds greatly to the fidelity of estimates for power density (alpha) and overall performance for these thruster concepts

  19. The aerocapture vehicle mission design concept. [aerodynamically controlled capture of payload into Mars orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    Aerocapture is a mission design concept which uses an aerodynamically controlled atmospheric entry to capture payloads into orbit as opposed to a completely propulsive orbit insertion. Results are presented which demonstrate great performance gains and good accuracy using aerocapture. These results deal only with projected Mars missions; therefore, the aerocapture vehicle system design requirements deal only with Mars. It will be evident, however, that this concept can be readily applied to other atmosphere-bearing celestial bodies.

  20. Design and fabrication of elevon cove thermal protection systems for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varisco, A.; Borysewiez, A.; Wolter, W.

    1979-01-01

    The design study of a lightweight, effective, reuseable seal for use along the elevon cove of shuttle-type reentry and hypersonic cruise vehicles is presented. The study deals primarily with membrane seals, both metallic and non-metallic. This type of seal spans the cove gap between the wing and elevon, and does not depend on spring tension to maintain contact along a flexing wing span. Technical requirements and criteria were generally derived from the space shuttle and utilized for seal design.

  1. An Approach for Designing Thermal Management Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Battery Packs

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Burch, S.

    1999-01-01

    If battery packs for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are to operate effectively in all climates, thermal management of the packs is essential. In this paper, we will review a systematic approach for designing and evaluating battery pack thermal management systems. A thermal management system using air as the heat transfer medium is less complicated than a system using liquid cooling/heating. Generally, for parallel HEVs, an air thermal management system is adequate, whereas for EVs and series HEVs, liquid-based systems may be required for optimum thermal performance. Further information on battery thermal management can be found on the Web site www.ctts.nrel.gov/BTM

  2. Development of a conceptual flight vehicle design weight estimation method library and documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Andrew S.

    The state of the art in estimating the volumetric size and mass of flight vehicles is held today by an elite group of engineers in the Aerospace Conceptual Design Industry. This is not a skill readily accessible or taught in academia. To estimate flight vehicle mass properties, many aerospace engineering students are encouraged to read the latest design textbooks, learn how to use a few basic statistical equations, and plunge into the details of parametric mass properties analysis. Specifications for and a prototype of a standardized engineering "tool-box" of conceptual and preliminary design weight estimation methods were developed to manage the growing and ever-changing body of weight estimation knowledge. This also bridges the gap in Mass Properties education for aerospace engineering students. The Weight Method Library will also be used as a living document for use by future aerospace students. This "tool-box" consists of a weight estimation method bibliography containing unclassified, open-source literature for conceptual and preliminary flight vehicle design phases. Transport aircraft validation cases have been applied to each entry in the AVD Weight Method Library in order to provide a sense of context and applicability to each method. The weight methodology validation results indicate consensus and agreement of the individual methods. This generic specification of a method library will be applicable for use by other disciplines within the AVD Lab, Post-Graduate design labs, or engineering design professionals.

  3. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Roll and Reaction Control Systems Design Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Chris G.; Pitts, Hank M.; Sharp, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an update of design status following the preliminary design review of NASA s Ares I first stage roll and upper stage reaction control systems. The Ares I launch vehicle has been chosen to return humans to the moon, mars, and beyond. It consists of a first stage five segment solid rocket booster and an upper stage liquid bi-propellant J-2X engine. Similar to many launch vehicles, the Ares I has reaction control systems used to provide the vehicle with three degrees of freedom stabilization during the mission. During launch, the first stage roll control system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque. After first stage booster separation, the upper stage reaction control system will provide the upper stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. Trade studies and design assessments conducted on the roll and reaction control systems include: propellant selection, thruster arrangement, pressurization system configuration, and system component trades. Since successful completion of the preliminary design review, work has progressed towards the critical design review with accomplishments made in the following areas: pressurant / propellant tank, thruster assembly, and other component configurations, as well as thruster module design, and waterhammer mitigation approach. Also, results from early development testing are discussed along with plans for upcoming system testing. This paper concludes by summarizing the process of down selecting to the current baseline configuration for the Ares I roll and reaction control systems.

  4. Design and analysis of biomimetic joints for morphing of micro air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Grant, Daniel T; Abdulrahim, Mujahid; Lind, Rick

    2010-12-01

    Flight capability for micro air vehicles is rapidly maturing throughout the aviation community; however, mission capability has not yet matured at the same pace. Maintaining trim during a descent or in the presence of crosswinds remains challenging for fixed-wing aircraft but yet is routinely performed by birds. This paper presents an overview of designs that incorporate morphing to enhance their flight characteristics. In particular, a series of joints and structures is adopted from seagulls to alter either the dihedral or sweep of the wings and thus alter the flight characteristics. The resulting vehicles are able to trim with significantly increased angles of attack and sideslip compared to traditional fixed-wing vehicles. PMID:21098958

  5. Robust Design of Body Slip Angle Observer for Electric Vehicles and its Experimental Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Yoshifumi; Hori, Yoichi

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are inherently suitable for 2-Dimension vehicle motion control. To utilize EV's advantages, body slip angle ? and yaw rate ? play an important role. However, as sensors to measure ? are very expensive, we need to estimate ? from only variables to be measurable. In this paper, an improved estimation method for body slip angle ? for EVs is proposed. This method is based on a linear observer using side acceleration ay as well as ? information. We especially considered the design of gain matrix and succeeded in exact and robust estimation. We performed experiments by UOT MarchII. This experimental vehicle driven by four in-wheel motors was made for research on advanced control of EVs. Some experimental results are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighdoll, P.; Hahn, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Power train designs which can be implemented within the current state-of-the-art were identified by means of a review of existing electric vehicles and suitable off-the-shelf components. The affect of various motor/transmission combinations on vehicle range over the SAE J227a schedule D cycle was evaluated. The selected, state-of-the-art power train employs a dc series wound motor, SCR controller, variable speed transmission, regenerative braking, drum brakes and radial ply tires. Vehicle range over the SAE cycle can be extended by approximately 20% by the further development of separately excited, shunt wound DC motors and electrical controllers. Approaches which could improve overall power train efficiency, such as AC motor systems, are identified. However, future emphasis should remain on batteries, tires and lightweight structures if substantial range improvements are to be achieved.

  7. Reductions in vehicle fuel consumption due to refinements in aerodynamic design. [for trailer trucks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Over-the-highway fuel consumption and coastdown drag tests were performed on cab-over-engine, van type trailer trucks and modifications of these vehicles incorporating refinements in aerodynamic design. In addition, 1/25-scale models of these configurations, and derivatives of these configurations were tested in a wind tunnel to determine the effects of wind on the magnitude of the benefits that aerodynamic refinements can provide. The results of these tests are presented for a vehicle incorporating major redesign features and for a relatively simple add-on modification. These results include projected fuel savings on the basis of annual savings per vehicle year as well as probable nationwide fuel savings.

  8. Preliminary Design of a Manned Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Ryan W.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2005-02-06

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate designs must be identified for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combined analysis codes for NEP subsystems with a genetic algorithm. The use of penalty functions with scaling ratios was investigated to increase computational efficiency. Also, the selection of design variables for optimization was considered to reduce computation time without losing beneficial design search space. Finally, trend analysis of a reference mission to the asteroids yielded a group of candidate designs for further analysis.

  9. Preliminary Design of a Manned Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Ryan W.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate designs must be identified for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combined analysis codes for NEP subsystems with a genetic algorithm. The use of penalty functions with scaling ratios was investigated to increase computational efficiency. Also, the selection of design variables for optimization was considered to reduce computation time without losing beneficial design search space. Finally, trend analysis of a reference mission to the asteroids yielded a group of candidate designs for further analysis.

  10. Evaluation of Separation Mechanism Design for the Orion/Ares Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konno, Kevin E.; Catalano, Daniel A.; Krivanek, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    As a part of the preliminary design work being performed for the Orion vehicle, the Orion to Spacecraft Adaptor (SA) separation mechanism mechanism was analyzed and sized, with findings presented here. Sizing is based on worst case abort condition as a result of an anomaly driving the launch vehicle engine thrust vector control hard-over causing a severe vehicle pitch over. This worst case scenario occurs just before Upper Stage Main Engine Cut-Off (MECO) when the vehicle is the lightest and the damping effect due to propellant slosh has been reduced to a minimum. To address this scenario and others, two modeling approaches were invoked. The first approach was a detailed Simulink model to quickly assess the Service Module Engine nozzle to SA clearance for a given separation mechanism. The second approach involved the generation of an Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) model to assess secondary effects due to mass centers of gravity that were slightly off the vehicle centerline. It also captured any interference between the Solar Arrays and the Spacecraft Adapter. A comparison of modeling results and accuracy are discussed. Most notably, incorporating a larger SA flange diameter allowed for a natural separation of the Orion and its engine nozzle even at relatively large pitch rates minimizing the kickoff force. Advantages and disadvantages of the Simulink model vs. a full geometric ADAMS model are discussed as well.

  11. Evaluation of Separation Mechanism Design for the Orion/Ares Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konno, Kevin E.; Catalano, Daniel A.; Krivanek, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    As a part of the preliminary design work being performed for the Orion vehicle, the Orion to Spacecraft Adaptor (SA) separation mechanism was analyzed and sized, with findings presented here. Sizing is based on worst case abort condition as a result of an anomaly driving the launch vehicle engine thrust vector control hard-over causing a severe vehicle pitch over. This worst case scenario occurs just before Upper Stage Main Engine Cut-Off (MECO) when the vehicle is the lightest and the damping effect due to propellant slosh has been reduced to a minimum. To address this scenario and others, two modeling approaches were invoked. The first approach was a detailed Simulink model to quickly assess the Service Module Engine nozzle to SA clearance for a given separation mechanism. The second approach involved the generation of an Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) model to assess secondary effects due to mass centers of gravity that were slightly off the vehicle centerline. It also captured any interference between the Solar Arrays and the Spacecraft Adapter. A comparison of modeling results and accuracy are discussed. Most notably, incorporating a larger SA flange diameter allowed for a natural separation of the Orion and it's engine nozzle even at relatively large pitch rates minimizing the kickoff force. Advantages and disadvantages of the Simulink model vs. a full geometric ADAMS model are discussed as well.

  12. Evaluation of Separation Mechanism Design for the Orion/Ares Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konno, Kevin E.; Catalano, Daniel A.; Krivanek, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    As a part of the preliminary design work being performed for the Orion vehicle, the Orion to Spacecraft Adaptor (SA) separation mechanism was analyzed and sized, with findings presented here. Sizing is based on worst case abort condition as a result of an anomaly driving the launch vehicle engine thrust vector control hard-over causing a severe vehicle pitch over. This worst case scenario occurs just before Upper Stage Main Engine Cut-Off (MECO) when the vehicle is the lightest and the damping effect due to propellant slosh has been reduced to a minimum. To address this scenario and others, two modeling approaches were invoked. The first approach was a detailed 2-D (Simulink) model to quickly assess the Service Module Engine nozzle to SA clearance for a given separation mechanism. The second approach involved the generation of an Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) model to assess secondary effects due to mass centers of gravity that were slightly off the vehicle centerline. It also captured any interference between the Solar Arrays and the Spacecraft Adapter. A comparison of modeling results and accuracy are discussed. Most notably, incorporating a larger SA flange diameter allowed for a natural separation of the Orion and its engine nozzle even at relatively large pitch rates minimizing the kickoff force. Advantages and disadvantages of the 2-D model vs. a full 3-D (ADAMS) model are discussed as well.

  13. Design for Reliability and Safety Approach for the New NASA Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Weldon, Danny M.

    2007-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program intended for sending crew and cargo to the international Space Station (ISS), to the moon, and beyond. This program is called Constellation. As part of the Constellation program, NASA is developing new launch vehicles aimed at significantly increase safety and reliability, reduce the cost of accessing space, and provide a growth path for manned space exploration. Achieving these goals requires a rigorous process that addresses reliability, safety, and cost upfront and throughout all the phases of the life cycle of the program. This paper discusses the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the NASA new launch vehicles, the ARES I and ARES V. Specifically, the paper addresses the use of an integrated probabilistic functional analysis to support the design analysis cycle and a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to support the preliminary design and beyond.

  14. Task-based vehicle interior layout design using optimization method to enhance safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo; Yang, Jingzhou; Abdel-Malek, Karim; Nebel, Kyle

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents a virtual environment for conducting vehicle interior layout design. A virtual human called Santos that is biomechanically correct, has realistic musculoskeletal system, and natural motion/posture is created to live in this virtual world. One of the objectives of this virtual environment is to allow Santos to explore the interior package design such that one designs new defense and security vehicles without having to create a physical prototype to enhance safety, save time and cost. Different controls require different tasks, for example, pulling a clutch lever, pushing a button, turning a knob, and so on. Therefore, different tasks correspond to different human upper-body motions and hand loads, which in turn correspond to different displacement and torque at each joint. This is a dynamics problem for interior layout design with external loads. The formulation of dynamic equations of motion is implemented within optimization algorithm to predict joint profiles. This methodology allows Santos to help vehicle interior layout design while executing various tasks.

  15. Optimal trajectory designs and systems engineering analyses of reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hung-I. Bruce

    Realizing a reusable launch vehicle (RLU) that is low cost with highly effective launch capability has become the "Holy Grail" within the aerospace community world-wide. Clear understanding of the vehicle's operational limitations and flight characteristics in all phases of the flight are preponderant components in developing such a launch system. This dissertation focuses on characterizing and designing the RLU optimal trajectories in order to aid in strategic decision making during mission planning in four areas: (1) nominal ascent phase, (2) abort scenarios and trajectories during ascent phase including abort-to-orbit (ATO), transoceanic-abort-landing (TAL) and return-to-launch-site (RTLS), (3) entry phase (including footprint), and (4) systems engineering aspects of such flight trajectory design. The vehicle chosen for this study is the Lockheed Martin X-33 lifting-body design that lifts off vertically with two linear aerospike rocket engines and lands horizontally. An in-depth investigation of the optimal endo-atmospheric ascent guidance parameters such as earliest abort time, engine throttle setting, number of flight phases, flight characteristics and structural design limitations will be performed and analyzed to establish a set of benchmarks for making better trade-off decisions. Parametric analysis of the entry guidance will also be investigated to allow the trajectory designer to pinpoint relevant parameters and to generate optimal constrained trajectories. Optimal ascent and entry trajectories will be generated using a direct transcription method to cast the optimal control problem as a nonlinear programming problem. The solution to the sparse nonlinear programming problem is then solved using sequential quadratic programming. Finally, guidance system hierarchy studies such as work breakdown structure, functional analysis, fault-tree analysis, and configuration management will be developed to ensure that the guidance system meets the definition of vehicle design requirements and constraints.

  16. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jacky C. Prucz; Samir N. Shoukry; Gergis W. William

    2005-08-31

    Recent advances in the area of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) have brought these materials to a maturity stage where the technology is ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. The new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel, especially when they are selectively reinforced with carbon, silicon carbide, or aluminum oxide fibers. Most of the developments in the MMC materials have been spurred, mainly by applications that require high structural performance at elevated temperatures, the heavy vehicle industry could also benefit from this emerging technology. Increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability are the main drivers for potential insertion of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. Critical elements of a typical tractor-trailer combination, such as highly loaded sections of the structure, engine components, brakes, suspensions, joints and bearings could be improved through judicious use of MMC materials. Such an outcome would promote the DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing the fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles and reducing their life cycle costs and pollution levels. However, significant technical and economical barriers are likely to hinder or even prevent broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The tradeoffs between such expected benefits (lower weights and longer durability) and penalties (higher costs, brittle behavior, and difficult to machine) must be thoroughly investigated both from the performance and cost viewpoints, before the transfer of MMC technology to heavy vehicle systems can be properly assessed and implemented. MMC materials are considered to form one element of the comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy pursued by the High Strength/Weight Reduction (HS/WR) Materials program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for structural weight savings and quality enhancements in heavy vehicles. The research work planed for the first year of this project (June 1, 2003 through May 30, 2004) focused on a theoretical investigation of weight benefits and structural performance tradeoffs associated with the design, fabrication, and joining of MMC components for heavy-duty vehicles. This early research work conducted at West Virginia University yielded the development of integrated material-structural models that predicted marginal benefits and significant barriers to MMC applications in heavy trailers. The results also indicated that potential applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles are limited to components identified as critical for either loadings or weight savings. Therefore, the scope of the project was expanded in the following year (June 1, 2004 through May 30, 2005) focused on expanding the lightweight material-structural design concepts for heavy vehicles from the component to the system level. Thus, the following objectives were set: (1) Devise and evaluate lightweight structural configurations for heavy vehicles. (2) Study the feasibility of using Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for critical structural components and joints in heavy vehicles. (3) Develop analysis tools, methods, and validated test data for comparative assessments of innovative design and joining concepts. (4) Develop analytical models and software for durability predictions of typical heavy vehicle components made of particulate MMC or fiber-reinforced composites. This report summarizes the results of the research work conducted during the past two years in this projects.

  17. Design, testing, and performance of a hybrid micro vehicle---The Hopping Rotochute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Eric W.

    The Hopping Rotochute is a new hybrid micro vehicle that has been developed to robustly explore environments with rough terrain while minimizing energy consumption over long periods of time. The device consists of a small coaxial rotor system housed inside a lightweight cage. The vehicle traverses an area by intermittently powering a small electric motor which drives the rotor system, allowing the vehicle to hop over obstacles of various shapes and sizes. A movable internal mass controls the direction of travel while the egg-like exterior shape and low mass center allows the vehicle to passively reorient itself to an upright attitude when in contact with the ground. This dissertation presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a radio-controlled Hopping Rotochute prototype as well as an analytical study of the flight performance of the device. The conceptual design iterations are first outlined which were driven by the mission and system requirements assigned to the vehicle. The aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical design of a prototype is then described, based on the final conceptual design, with particular emphasis on the fundamental trades that must be negotiated for this type of hopping vehicle. The fabrication and testing of this prototype is detailed as well as experimental results obtained from a motion capture system. Basic flight performance of the prototype are reported which demonstrates that the Hopping Rotochute satisfies all appointed system requirements. A dynamic model of the Hopping Rotochute is also developed in this thesis and employed to predict the flight performance of the vehicle. The dynamic model includes aerodynamic loads from the body and rotor system as well as a soft contact model to estimate the forces and moments during ground contact. The experimental methods used to estimate the dynamic model parameters are described while comparisons between measured and simulated motion are presented. Good correlation between these motions is shown to validate the dynamic model. Using the validated dynamic model, simulations were performed to better understand the dynamics of the device. In addition, key parameters such as system weight, rotor speed, internal mass weight and location, as well as battery capacity are varied to explore and optimize flight performance characteristics such as single hop height and range, number of hops, and total achievable range. The sensitivity of the Hopping Rotochute to atmospheric winds is also investigated as is the ability of the device to perform trajectory shaping.

  18. Alloy Design and Thermomechanical Processing of a Beta Titanium Alloy for a Heavy Vehicle Application

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Peter, W.H.

    2010-07-02

    With the strength of steel, but at half the weight, titanium has the potential to offer significant benefits in the weight reduction of heavy vehicle components while possibly improving performance. However, the cost of conventional titanium fabrication is a major barrier in implementation. New reduction technologies are now available that have the potential to create a paradigm shift in the way the United States uses titanium, and the economics associated with fabrication of titanium components. This CRADA project evaluated the potential to develop a heavy vehicle component from titanium powders. The project included alloy design, development of manufacturing practices, and modeling the economics associated with the new component. New Beta alloys were designed for this project to provide the required mechanical specifications while utilizing the benefits of the new fabrication approach. Manufacturing procedures were developed specific to the heavy vehicle component. Ageing and thermal treatment optimization was performed to provide the desired microstructures. The CRADA partner established fabrication practices and targeted capital investment required for fabricating the component out of titanium. Though initial results were promising, the full project was not executed due to termination of the effort by the CRADA partner and economic trends observed in the heavy vehicle market.

  19. Buckling analysis and optimal structural design of supercavitating vehicles using finite element technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Wanil; Kim, Min Ki; Park, Kook Jin; Kim, Seung Jo; Chung, Minho; Cho, Jin Yeon; Park, Sung-Han

    2011-12-01

    The supercavitating vehicle is an underwater vehicle that is surrounded almost completely by a supercavity to reduce hydrodynamic drag substantially. Since the cruise speed of the vehicle is much higher than that of conventional submarines, the drag force is huge and a buckling may occur. The buckling phenomenon is analyzed in this study through static and dynamic approaches. Critical buckling load and pressure as well as buckling mode shapes are calculated using static buckling analysis and a stability map is obtained from dynamic buckling analysis. When the finite element method (FEM) is used for the buckling analysis, the solver requires a linear static solver and an eigenvalue solver. In this study, these two solvers are integrated and a consolidated buckling analysis module is constructed. Furthermore, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is combined in the buckling analysis module to perform a design optimization computation of a simplified supercavitating vehicle. The simplified configuration includes cylindrical shell structure with three stiffeners. The target for the design optimization process is to minimize total weight while maintaining the given structure buckling-free.

  20. Model Development and Experimental Validation of the Fusible Heat Sink Design for Exploration Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Le,Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Fusible Heat Sink is a novel vehicle heat rejection technology which combines a flow through radiator with a phase change material. The combined technologies create a multi-function device able to shield crew members against Solar Particle Events (SPE), reduce radiator extent by permitting sizing to the average vehicle heat load rather than to the peak vehicle heat load, and to substantially absorb heat load excursions from the average while constantly maintaining thermal control system setpoints. This multi-function technology provides great flexibility for mission planning, making it possible to operate a vehicle in hot or cold environments and under high or low heat load conditions for extended periods of time. This paper describes the model development and experimental validation of the Fusible Heat Sink technology. The model developed was intended to meet the radiation and heat rejection requirements of a nominal MMSEV mission. Development parameters and results, including sizing and model performance will be discussed. From this flight-sized model, a scaled test-article design was modeled, designed, and fabricated for experimental validation of the technology at Johnson Space Center thermal vacuum chamber facilities. Testing showed performance comparable to the model at nominal loads and the capability to maintain heat loads substantially greater than nominal for extended periods of time.

  1. Model Development and Experimental Validation of the Fusible Heat Sink Design for Exploration Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas; Sheth, Rubik; Le, Hung

    2013-01-01

    The Fusible Heat Sink is a novel vehicle heat rejection technology which combines a flow through radiator with a phase change material. The combined technologies create a multi-function device able to shield crew members against Solar Particle Events (SPE), reduce radiator extent by permitting sizing to the average vehicle heat load rather than to the peak vehicle heat load, and to substantially absorb heat load excursions from the average while constantly maintaining thermal control system setpoints. This multi-function technology provides great flexibility for mission planning, making it possible to operate a vehicle in hot or cold environments and under high or low heat load conditions for extended periods of time. This paper describes the modeling and experimental validation of the Fusible Heat Sink technology. The model developed was intended to meet the radiation and heat rejection requirements of a nominal MMSEV mission. Development parameters and results, including sizing and model performance will be discussed. From this flight-sized model, a scaled test-article design was modeled, designed, and fabricated for experimental validation of the technology at Johnson Space Center thermal vacuum chamber facilities. Testing showed performance comparable to the model at nominal loads and the capability to maintain heat loads substantially greater than nominal for extended periods of time.

  2. Design and analysis of the launch vehicle adapter fitting for the petite amateur navy satellite (PANSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, Brian B.

    1994-09-01

    The Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) is a small communications satellite being developed at the Naval Postgraduate School. This thesis provides a structural design and analysis for the adapter fitting which mates PANSAT to the space shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) cannister launching system. Launch vehicle loading and interface requirements were combined with PANS AT design priorities to determine design specifications. Structural Dynamics Research Corporation's 1-DEAS Masters Series software was utilized to model two adapter designs. The finite element solver in 1-DEAS was used to analyze the two designs for strength and natural frequency. Design and analysis of fasteners, used to attach the adapter fitting to PANSAT, were also conducted. The results showed that a titanium alloy adapter, which does not shadow the solar arrays, and stainless steel fasteners exceeded all design specifications.

  3. Design of an energy storage unit for fuel-cell and hybrid-electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schupbach, Roberto Marcelo

    This dissertation describes an ESU design methodology capable of minimizing the volume, weight and cost of the MES and ESU (i.e., battery pack, ultracapacitor pack and PE interfaces) while allowing for the implementation of power management in a cost-effective manner. The proposed ESU design methodology is based on a holistic approach that includes the vehicle performance requirements and allows for the optimization of the ESU with respect to predetermined goals of minimum volume, weight and cost. Substantial weight and volume reductions are accomplish when combining batteries and ultracapacitors even when considering the efficiencies of the PE interfaces. The optimized BU-ESU achieved a volume reduction of over 37% (from 135 liters to 84 liters) and a weight reduction of over 66% (from 333 kg to 148 kg) when compared to a 'classic' BO-ESU design. The benefits of the optimized BU-ESU are not limited to weight and volume reductions since sweeping the battery cost in $/kW predicts that the BU-ESU provides the lowest cost path to meet the vehicles energy and power requirements. Additional benefits, such as improve ESU efficiency, vehicle acceleration, regenerative braking capabilities, and battery life are also identified in this research work. The proposed ESU design and optimization procedure also includes the associated PE interfaces by selecting and designing the most suitable converter topology. The design is carried out by encompassing the wide output-to-input voltage ratio variation and output power typical on this automotive application. The comparison process identifies the half-bridge converter topology as the most cost-effective converter topology for this application. A novel design approach that incorporated a ratio defined as transitioning power ratio is proposed to overcome shortcoming of the 'classical' approach. This novel design approach allows the minimization of inductor size requirements and current stresses present in active components when designing converters with wide output-to-input voltage ratio.

  4. Needs and Opportunities for Uncertainty-Based Multidisciplinary Design Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Kenny, Sean P; Luckring, James M.; Maghami, Peiman; Padula, Sharon L.; Stroud, W. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    This report consists of a survey of the state of the art in uncertainty-based design together with recommendations for a Base research activity in this area for the NASA Langley Research Center. This report identifies the needs and opportunities for computational and experimental methods that provide accurate, efficient solutions to nondeterministic multidisciplinary aerospace vehicle design problems. Barriers to the adoption of uncertainty-based design methods are identified. and the benefits of the use of such methods are explained. Particular research needs are listed.

  5. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the ARES Atmospheric Flight Vehicle Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasbarre, J. F.; Dillman, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a proposed 2007 Mars Scout Mission that will be the first mission to deploy an atmospheric flight vehicle (AFV) on another planet. This paper will describe the preliminary design and analysis of the AFV thermal control system for its flight through the Martian atmosphere and also present other analyses broadening the scope of that design to include other phases of the ARES mission. Initial analyses are discussed and results of trade studies are presented which detail the design process for AFV thermal control. Finally, results of the most recent AFV thermal analysis are shown and the plans for future work are discussed.

  6. Preliminary structural design of a lunar transfer vehicle aerobrake. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Lance B.

    1992-01-01

    An aerobrake concept for a Lunar transfer vehicle was weight optimized through the use of the Taguchi design method, structural finite element analyses and structural sizing routines. Six design parameters were chosen to represent the aerobrake structural configuration. The design parameters included honeycomb core thickness, diameter to depth ratio, shape, material, number of concentric ring frames, and number of radial frames. Each parameter was assigned three levels. The minimum weight aerobrake configuration resulting from the study was approx. half the weight of the average of all twenty seven experimental configurations. The parameters having the most significant impact on the aerobrake structural weight were identified.

  7. Conceptual design of the AE481 Demon Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailes, Chris; Kolver, Jill; Nestor, Julie; Patterson, Mike; Selow, Jan; Sagdeo, Pradip; Katz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    This project report presents a conceptual design for a high speed remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). The AE481 Demon RPV is capable of performing video reconnaissance missions and electronic jamming over hostile territory. The RPV cruises at a speed of Mach 0.8 and an altitude of 300 feet above the ground throughout its mission. It incorporates a rocket assisted takeoff and a parachute-airbag landing. Missions are preprogrammed, but in-flight changes are possible. The Demon is the answer to a military need for a high speed, low altitude RPV. The design methods, onboard systems, and avionics payload are discussed in this conceptual design report along with economic viability.

  8. Building Operations Efficiencies into NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Davis, Stephan R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration guides the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) challenging missions that expand humanity's boundaries and open new routes to the space frontier. With the Agency's commitment to complete the International Space Station (ISS) and to retire the venerable Space Shuttle by 2010, the NASA Administrator commissioned the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005 to analyze options for safe, simple, cost-efficient launch solutions that could deliver human-rated space transportation capabilities in a timely manner within fixed budget guidelines. The Exploration Launch Projects (ELP) Office, chartered by the Constellation Program in October 2005, has been conducting systems engineering studies and business planning to successively refine the design configurations and better align vehicle concepts with customer and stakeholder requirements, such as significantly reduced life-cycle costs. As the Agency begins the process of replacing the Shuttle with a new generation of spacecraft destined for missions beyond low-Earth orbit to the Moon and Mars, NASA is designing the follow-on crew and cargo launch systems for maximum operational efficiencies. To sustain the long-term exploration of space, it is imperative to reduce the $4 billion NASA typically spends on space transportation each year. This paper gives toplevel information about how the follow-on Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is being designed for improved safety and reliability, coupled with reduced operations costs. These methods include carefully developing operational requirements; conducting operability design and analysis; using the latest information technology tools to design and simulate the vehicle; and developing a learning culture across the workforce to ensure a smooth transition between Space Shuttle operations and Ares vehicle development.

  9. Design of a Flush Airdata System (FADS) for the Hypersonic Air Launched Option (HALO) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Deets, Dwain A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a design study for a pressure based Flush airdata system (FADS) on the Hypersonic Air Launched Option (HALO) Vehicle. The analysis will demonstrate the feasibility of using a pressure based airdata system for the HALO and provide measurement uncertainty estimates along a candidate trajectory. The HALO is a conceived as a man-rated vehicle to be air launched from an SR-71 platform and is proposed as a testbed for an airbreathing hydrogen scramjet. A feasibility study has been performed and indicates that the proposed trajectory is possible with minimal modifications to the existing SR71 vehicle. The mission consists of launching the HALO off the top of an SR-71 at Mach 3 and 80,000 ft. A rocket motor is then used to accelerate the vehicle to the test condition. After the scramjet test is completed the vehicle will glide to a lakebed runway landing. This option provides reusability of the vehicle and scramjet engine. The HALO design will also allow for various scramjet engine and flowpath designs to be flight tested. For the HALO flights, measurements of freestream airdata are considered to be a mission critical to perform gain scheduling and trajectory optimization. One approach taken to obtaining airdata involves measurement of certain parameters such as external atmospheric winds, temperature, etc to estimate the airdata quantities. This study takes an alternate approach. Here the feasibility of obtaining airdata using a pressure-based flush airdata system (FADS) methods is assessed. The analysis, although it is performed using the HALO configuration and trajectory, is generally applicable to other hypersonic vehicles. The method to be presented offers the distinct advantage of inferring total pressure, Mach number, and flow incidence angles, without stagnating the freestream flow. This approach allows for airdata measurements to be made using blunt surfaces and significantly diminishes the heating load at the sensor. In the FADS concept a matrix of flush ports is placed in the vicinity of the aircraft nose, and the airdata are inferred indirectly from the measured pressures.

  10. Quantum dots as a platform for nanoparticle drug delivery vehicle design

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Christine E.; Zrazhevskiy, Pavel; Bagalkot, Vaishali; Gao, Xiaohu

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based drug delivery (NDD) has emerged as a promising approach to improving upon the efficacy of existing drugs and enabling the development of new therapies. Proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated the potential for NDD systems to simultaneously achieve reduced drug toxicity, improved bio-availability, increased circulation times, controlled drug release, and targeting. However, clinical translation of NDD vehicles with the goal of treating particularly challenging diseases, such as cancer, will require a thorough understanding of how nanoparticle properties influence their fate in biological systems, especially in vivo. Consequently, a model system for systematic evaluation of all stages of NDD with high sensitivity, high resolution, and low cost is highly desirable. In theory, this system should maintain the properties and behavior of the original NDD vehicle, while providing mechanisms for monitoring intracellular and systemic nanocarrier distribution, degradation, drug release, and clearance. For such a model system, quantum dots (QDots) offer great potential. QDots feature small size and versatile surface chemistry, allowing their incorporation within virtually any NDD vehicle with minimal effect on overall characteristics, and offer superb optical properties for real-time monitoring of NDD vehicle transport and drug release at both cellular and systemic levels. Though the direct use of QDots for drug delivery remains questionable due to their potential long-term toxicity, the QDot core can be easily replaced with other organic drug carriers or more biocompatible inorganic contrast agents (such as gold and magnetic nanoparticles) by their similar size and surface properties, facilitating translation of well characterized NDD vehicles to the clinic, maintaining NDD imaging capabilities, and potentially providing additional therapeutic functionalities such as photothermal therapy and magneto-transfection. In this review we outline unique features that make QDots an ideal platform for nanocarrier design and discuss how this model has been applied to study NDD vehicle behavior for diverse drug delivery applications. PMID:23000745

  11. Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Newnham, R. H.; Ozgun, H.; Fleming, F. A.

    A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active-materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium.

  12. Concept Design of High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Manzella, David H.; Falck, Robert D.; Cikanek, Harry A., III; Klem, Mark D.; Free, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as one option to achieve human exploration missions beyond Earth orbit because of its favorable mass efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. This paper describes the unique challenges associated with developing a large-scale high-power (300-kWe class) SEP vehicle and design concepts that have potential to meet those challenges. An assessment of factors at the subsystem level that must be considered in developing an SEP vehicle for future exploration missions is presented. Overall concepts, design tradeoffs and pathways to achieve development readiness are discussed.

  13. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Integrated information processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The engineering-specified requirements for integrated information processing by means of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system are presented. A data model is described and is based on the design process of a typical aerospace vehicle. General data management requirements are specified for data storage, retrieval, generation, communication, and maintenance. Information management requirements are specified for a two-component data model. In the general portion, data sets are managed as entities, and in the specific portion, data elements and the relationships between elements are managed by the system, allowing user access to individual elements for the purpose of query. Computer program management requirements are specified for support of a computer program library, control of computer programs, and installation of computer programs into IPAD.

  14. Model-based testing of a vehicle instrument cluster for design validation using machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yingping; McMurran, Ross; Dhadyalla, Gunwant; Jones, R. Peter; Mouzakitis, Alexandros

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents an advanced testing system, combining model-based testing and machine vision technologies, for automated design validation of a vehicle instrument cluster. In the system, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tester, supported by model-based approaches, simulates vehicle operations in real time and dynamically provides all essential signals to the instrument cluster under test. A machine vision system with advanced image processing algorithms is designed to inspect the visual displays. Experiments demonstrate that the system developed is accurate for measuring the pointer position, bar graph position, pointer angular velocity and indicator flash rate, and is highly robust for validating various functionalities including warning lights status, symbol and text displays. Moreover, the system developed greatly eases the task of tedious validation testing and makes onerous repeated tests possible.

  15. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, João; Rodrigues, Ana; Silva, Carlos; Dentinho, Tomaz

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city's urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE's characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  16. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The methodology used for vehicle layout and component definition is described as well as techniques for system optimization and energy evaluation. The preliminary design is examined with particular attention given to body and structure; propulsion system; crash analysis and handling; internal combustion engine; DC motor separately excited; Ni-Zn battery; transmission; control system; vehicle auxiliarries; weight breakdown, and life cycle costs. Formulas are given for the quantification of energy consumption and results are compared with the reference vehicle.

  17. A graphical weather system design for the NASA transport systems research vehicle B-737

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    A graphical weather system was designed for testing in the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737 airplane and simulator. The purpose of these tests was to measure the impact of graphical weather products on aircrew decision processes, weather situation awareness, reroute clearances, workload, and weather monitoring. The flight crew graphical weather interface is described along with integration of the weather system with the flight navigation system, and data link transmission methods for sending weather data to the airplane.

  18. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  19. Design and research on the two-joint mating system of underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhong-lin; Wang, Li-quan

    2013-03-01

    In the 21st century, people have come to the era of ocean science and ocean economy. With the development of ocean science and technology and the thorough research on the ocean, underwater mating technique has been widely used in such fields as sunk ship salvage, deep ocean workstation, submarine lifesaving aid and military affairs. In this paper, researches are made home and abroad on mating technology. Two-joint mating system of underwater vehicle is designed including plane system, three-dimensional assembly system and control system in order to increase the capacity of adapting platform obliquity and adopting rotational skirt scheme. It is clear that the system fits the working space of underwater vehicle passageway and there is no interference phenomenon in assembly design. The finite element model of the system shell and the pressurization of the joint are established. The results of the finite element computing and the pressing test are accordant, and thus it can testify that the shell material meet the need of intension and joint pressurization is reliable. Modeling of the control system is accomplished, and simulation and analysis are made, which can provide directions for the controller design of mating system of underwater vehicles.

  20. Conceptual Design of a Flight Validation Mission for a Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Wie, Bong; Steiner, Mark; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits approach or cross Earth s orbit. NEOs have collided with our planet in the past, sometimes to devastating effect, and continue to do so today. Collisions with NEOs large enough to do significant damage to the ground are fortunately infrequent, but such events can occur at any time and we therefore need to develop and validate the techniques and technologies necessary to prevent the Earth impact of an incoming NEO. In this paper we provide background on the hazard posed to Earth by NEOs and present the results of a recent study performed by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center s Mission Design Lab (MDL) in collaboration with Iowa State University s Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC) to design a flight validation mission for a Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) as part of a Phase 2 NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) research project. The HAIV is a two-body vehicle consisting of a leading kinetic impactor and trailing follower carrying a Nuclear Explosive Device (NED) payload. The HAIV detonates the NED inside the crater in the NEO s surface created by the lead kinetic impactor portion of the vehicle, effecting a powerful subsurface detonation to disrupt the NEO. For the flight validation mission, only a simple mass proxy for the NED is carried in the HAIV. Ongoing and future research topics are discussed following the presentation of the detailed flight validation mission design results produced in the MDL.

  1. Sustainable design for automotive products: dismantling and recycling of end-of-life vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin; Chen, Ming

    2014-02-01

    The growth in automotive production has increased the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) annually. The traditional approach ELV processing involves dismantling, shredding, and landfill disposal. The "3R" (i.e., reduce, reuse, and recycle) principle has been increasingly employed in processing ELVs, particularly ELV parts, to promote sustainable development. The first step in processing ELVs is dismantling. However, certain parts of the vehicle are difficult to disassemble and use in practice. The extended producer responsibility policy requires carmakers to contribute in the processing of scrap cars either for their own developmental needs or for social responsibility. The design for dismantling approach can be an effective solution to the existing difficulties in dismantling ELVs. This approach can also provide guidelines in the design of automotive products. This paper illustrates the difficulty of handling polymers in dashboards. The physical properties of polymers prevent easy separation and recycling by using mechanical methods. Thus, dealers have to rely on chemical methods such as pyrolysis. Therefore, car designers should use a single material to benefit dealers. The use of materials for effective end-of-life processing without sacrificing the original performance requirements of the vehicle should be explored. PMID:24326159

  2. Conceptual design of a flight validation mission for a Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Wie, Bong; Steiner, Mark; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits approach or cross Earth's orbit. NEOs have collided with our planet in the past, sometimes to devastating effect, and continue to do so today. Collisions with NEOs large enough to do significant damage to the ground are fortunately infrequent, but such events can occur at any time and we therefore need to develop and validate the techniques and technologies necessary to prevent the Earth impact of an incoming NEO. In this paper we provide background on the hazard posed to Earth by NEOs and present the results of a recent study performed by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Mission Design Lab (MDL) in collaboration with Iowa State University's Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC) to design a flight validation mission for a Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) as part of a Phase 2 NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) research project. The HAIV is a two-body vehicle consisting of a leading kinetic impactor and trailing follower carrying a Nuclear Explosive Device (NED) payload. The HAIV detonates the NED inside the crater in the NEO's surface created by the lead kinetic impactor portion of the vehicle, effecting a powerful subsurface detonation to disrupt the NEO. For the flight validation mission, only a simple mass proxy for the NED is carried in the HAIV. Ongoing and future research topics are discussed following the presentation of the detailed flight validation mission design results produced in the MDL.

  3. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Full Vehicle with High Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, R. J.; Gu, L.; Tho, C. H.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2001-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a full vehicle under the constraints of crashworthiness, NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and other performance attributes is one of the imperative goals for automotive industry. However, it is often infeasible due to the lack of computational resources, robust simulation capabilities, and efficient optimization methodologies. This paper intends to move closer towards that goal by using parallel computers for the intensive computation and combining different approximations for dissimilar analyses in the MDO process. The MDO process presented in this paper is an extension of the previous work reported by Sobieski et al. In addition to the roof crush, two full vehicle crash modes are added: full frontal impact and 50% frontal offset crash. Instead of using an adaptive polynomial response surface method, this paper employs a DOE/RSM method for exploring the design space and constructing highly nonlinear crash functions. Two NMO strategies are used and results are compared. This paper demonstrates that with high performance computing, a conventionally intractable real world full vehicle multidisciplinary optimization problem considering all performance attributes with large number of design variables become feasible.

  4. Applying Monte Carlo Simulation to Launch Vehicle Design and Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, J. M.; Beard, B. B.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) is meant to address a number of topics related to the application of Monte Carlo simulation to launch vehicle design and requirements analysis. Although the focus is on a launch vehicle application, the methods may be applied to other complex systems as well. The TP is organized so that all the important topics are covered in the main text, and detailed derivations are in the appendices. The TP first introduces Monte Carlo simulation and the major topics to be discussed, including discussion of the input distributions for Monte Carlo runs, testing the simulation, how many runs are necessary for verification of requirements, what to do if results are desired for events that happen only rarely, and postprocessing, including analyzing any failed runs, examples of useful output products, and statistical information for generating desired results from the output data. Topics in the appendices include some tables for requirements verification, derivation of the number of runs required and generation of output probabilistic data with consumer risk included, derivation of launch vehicle models to include possible variations of assembled vehicles, minimization of a consumable to achieve a two-dimensional statistical result, recontact probability during staging, ensuring duplicated Monte Carlo random variations, and importance sampling.

  5. Design for Reliability and Safety Approach for the NASA New Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal, M.; Weldon, Danny M.

    2007-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program intended for sending crew and cargo to the international Space Station (ISS), to the moon, and beyond. This program is called Constellation. As part of the Constellation program, NASA is developing new launch vehicles aimed at significantly increase safety and reliability, reduce the cost of accessing space, and provide a growth path for manned space exploration. Achieving these goals requires a rigorous process that addresses reliability, safety, and cost upfront and throughout all the phases of the life cycle of the program. This paper discusses the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the NASA new crew launch vehicle called ARES I. The ARES I is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Constellation program. The ARES I consists of three major Elements: A solid First Stage (FS), an Upper Stage (US), and liquid Upper Stage Engine (USE). Stacked on top of the ARES I is the Crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The CEV consists of a Launch Abort System (LAS), Crew Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and a Spacecraft Adapter (SA). The CEV development is being led by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Designing for high reliability and safety require a good integrated working environment and a sound technical design approach. The "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach addressed in this paper discusses both the environment and the technical process put in place to support the ARES I design. To address the integrated working environment, the ARES I project office has established a risk based design group called "Operability Design and Analysis" (OD&A) group. This group is an integrated group intended to bring together the engineering, design, and safety organizations together to optimize the system design for safety, reliability, and cost. On the technical side, the ARES I project has, through the OD&A environment, implemented a probabilistic approach to analyze and evaluate design uncertainties and understand their impact on safety, reliability, and cost. This paper focuses on the use of the various probabilistic approaches that have been pursued by the ARES I project. Specifically, the paper discusses an integrated functional probabilistic analysis approach that addresses upffont some key areas to support the ARES I Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) pre Preliminary Design (PD) Phase. This functional approach is a probabilistic physics based approach that combines failure probabilities with system dynamics and engineering failure impact models to identify key system risk drivers and potential system design requirements. The paper also discusses other probabilistic risk assessment approaches planned by the ARES I project to support the PD phase and beyond.

  6. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 4: IPAD system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, W.; Carpenter, L. C.; Redhed, D. D.; Hansen, S. D.; Anderson, L. O.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    The computing system design of IPAD is described and the requirements which form the basis for the system design are discussed. The system is presented in terms of a functional design description and technical design specifications. The functional design specifications give the detailed description of the system design using top-down structured programming methodology. Human behavioral characteristics, which specify the system design at the user interface, security considerations, and standards for system design, implementation, and maintenance are also part of the technical design specifications. Detailed specifications of the two most common computing system types in use by the major aerospace companies which could support the IPAD system design are presented. The report of a study to investigate migration of IPAD software between the two candidate 3rd generation host computing systems and from these systems to a 4th generation system is included.

  7. Designing cathodic protection systems for marine structures and vehicles. ASTM special technical publication 1370

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, H.P.

    1999-07-01

    Cathodic protection is an important method of protecting structures and ships from the corrosive effects of seawater. Poor designs can be far more costly to implement than optimal designs, Improper design can cause overprotection, with resulting paint blistering and accelerated corrosion of some alloys, underprotection, with resultant structure corrosion, or stray current corrosion of nearby structures. The first ASTM symposium specifically aimed at cathodic protection in seawater was intended to compile all the criteria and philosophy for designing both sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems for structures and vehicles in seawater. The papers which are included in this STP are significant in that they summarize the major seawater cathodic protection system design philosophies. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  8. Next Generation Civil Transport Aircraft Design Considerations for Improving Vehicle and System-Level Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Diana M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Wahls, Richard A.; DelRosario, Ruben,

    2013-01-01

    The future of aviation will benefit from research in aircraft design and air transportation management aimed at improving efficiency and reducing environmental impacts. This paper presents civil transport aircraft design trends and opportunities for improving vehicle and system-level efficiency. Aircraft design concepts and the emerging technologies critical to reducing thrust specific fuel consumption, reducing weight, and increasing lift to drag ratio currently being developed by NASA are discussed. Advancements in the air transportation system aimed towards system-level efficiency are discussed as well. Finally, the paper describes the relationship between the air transportation system, aircraft, and efficiency. This relationship is characterized by operational constraints imposed by the air transportation system that influence aircraft design, and operational capabilities inherent to an aircraft design that impact the air transportation system.

  9. Overview of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    To respond to national needs for improved productivity in engineering design and manufacturing, a NASA supported joint industry/government project is underway denoted Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD). The objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer technology. It focuses on development of data base management technology and associated software for integrated company wide management of engineering and manufacturing information. Results to date on the IPAD project include an in depth documentation of a representative design process for a large engineering project, the definition and design of computer aided design software needed to support that process, and the release of prototype software to manage engineering information. This paper provides an overview of the IPAD project and summarizes progress to date and future plans.

  10. A Design Comparison of Atmospheric Flight Vehicles for the Exploration of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Wright, Henry S.; Lewis, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is one of the most scientifically interesting locations in the Solar System. With a very cold atmosphere that is five times as dense as Earth s, and one and a half times the surface pressure, it also provides one of the most aeronautically fascinating environments known to humankind. While this may seem the ideal place to attempt atmospheric flight, many challenges await any vehicle attempting to navigate through it. In addition to these physical challenges, any scientific exploration mission to Titan will most likely have several operational constraints. One difficult constraint is the desire for a global survey of the planet and thus, a long duration flight within the atmosphere. Since many of the scientific measurements that would be unique to a vehicle flying through the atmosphere (as opposed to an orbiting spacecraft) desire near-surface positioning of their associated instruments, the vehicle must also be able to fly within the first scale height of the atmosphere. Another difficult constraint is that interaction with the surface, whether by landing or dropped probe, is also highly desirable from a scientific perspective. Two common atmospheric flight platforms that might be used for this mission are the airplane and airship. Under the assumption of a mission architecture that would involve an orbiting relay spacecraft delivered via aerocapture and an atmospheric flight vehicle delivered via direct entry, designs were developed for both platforms that are unique to Titan. Consequently, after a viable design was achieved for each platform, their advantages and disadvantages were compared. This comparison included such factors as deployment risk, surface interaction capability, mass, and design heritage. When considering all factors, the preferred candidate platform for a global survey of Titan is an airship.

  11. Development and application of ride-quality criteria. [considering vehicle vibration damping design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    Ride quality vibration criteria applicable to the design and evaluation of air and surface transportation systems are described. Consideration is given to the magnitude of vehicle vibration experienced by the passenger, the frequency of vibration, the direction of vibration measurements are presented for a variety of air and surface transportation systems. In addition, simulator data on seat dynamics and passenger response are presented. Results suggest the relative merits of various physical descriptors and measurement locations for characterizing the vibration in terms suitable for the design and/or evaluation of transportation systems.

  12. Thixoforming -- New opportunities for lightweight design in transportation and vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, G.; Witulski, T.; Cremer, R.; Winkelmann, A.; Zillgen-Lammersdorf, M.

    1996-10-01

    The fuel consumption and environmental compatibility targets defined today will continue to call for significant weight reductions in the design of transportation systems, including land-based vehicles. Among the range of low-weight design approaches, the use of light alloys has come to play an increasingly important role despite higher material costs. The use of more expensive materials makes it necessary to employ particularly efficient and cost-effective production methods. In this context, the technology of forming metals to near-net shape in their partly solidified state (thixoforming, semi-solid metal forming) is gaining growing importance as an alternative to classic manufacturing routes such as casting or forging.

  13. Cryogenic gear technology for an orbital transfer vehicle engine and tester design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calandra, M.; Duncan, G.

    1986-01-01

    Technology available for gears used in advanced Orbital Transfer Vehicle rocket engines and the design of a cryogenic adapted tester used for evaluating advanced gears are presented. The only high-speed, unlubricated gears currently in cryogenic service are used in the RL10 rocket engine turbomachinery. Advanced rocket engine gear systems experience operational load conditions and rotational speed that are beyond current experience levels. The work under this task consisted of a technology assessment and requirements definition followed by design of a self-contained portable cryogenic adapted gear test rig system.

  14. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    A number of problems related to unmanned exploration of planets or other extraterrestrial bodies with Mars as a case in point were investigated. The design and evaluation of a prototype rover concept with emphasis on mobility, maneuverability, stability, control and propulsion is described along with the development of terrain sensor concepts and associated software for the autonomous control of any planetary rover. Results are applicable not only to the design of a mission rover but the vehicle is used as a test bed for the rigorous evaluation of alternative autonomous control systems.

  15. Design of outer-rotor-type multipolar switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kazumi; Kikuchi, Shinki; Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2006-04-01

    In an electric vehicle (EV) with in-wheel motors, reducing the weight of the motor is a very important problem in order to improve the driving performance. In this paper, we examine the lightweight design of an outer-rotor-type multipolar switched reluctance (SR) motor applied to a prototype EV. We design three SR motors which have different yoke widths and calculate the motor characteristics at a steady rotational speed based on a finite element method. We discuss the optimum relationship between a pole and yoke widths.

  16. Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambaugh, Imelda; Baccus, Shelley; Buffington, Jessie; Hood, Andrew; Naids, Adam; Borrego, Melissa; Hanford, Anthony J.; Eckhardt, Brad; Allada, Rama Kumar; Yagoda, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV). The purpose of the MMSEV is to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), or Deep Space missions by using pressurized exploration vehicles. The MMSEV, formerly known as the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), employs ground prototype hardware for various systems and tests it in manned and unmanned configurations. Eventually, the system hardware will evolve and become part of a flight vehicle capable of supporting different design reference missions. This paper will discuss the latest MMSEV ECLSS architectures developed for a variety of design reference missions, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, lessons learned from testing prototype hardware, and the plan to advance the ECLSS toward a flight design.

  17. Integration of Launch Vehicle Simulation/Analysis Tools and Lunar Cargo Lander Design. Part 1/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, Yeu-Sheng Paul

    2005-01-01

    Simulation and analysis of vehicle performance is essential for design of a new launch vehicle system. It is more and more demand to have an integrated, highly efficient, robust simulation tool with graphical user interface (GUI) for vehicle performance and simulations. The objectives of this project are to integrate and develop launch vehicle simulation and analysis tools in MATLAB/Simulink under PC Platform, to develop a vehicle capable of being launched on a Delta-IV Heavy Launch Vehicle which can land on the moon with the goal of pre-implanting cargo for a new lunar mission, also with the capability of selecting other launch vehicles that are capable of inserting a payload into Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI). The vehicle flight simulation software, MAVERIC-II (Marshall Aerospace VEhicle Representation In 'C'), developed by Marshall Space Flight Center was selected as a starting point for integration of simulation/analysis tools. The goals are to convert MAVERIC-II from UNIX to PC platform and build input/output GUI s in the MATLAB environment, and then integrate them under MATLAB/Simulink with other modules. Currently, MAVERIC-II has been successfully converted from UNIX to PC using Microsoft Services for UNIX subsystem on PC. Input/Output GUI's have been done for some key input/output files. Calling MAVERIC-II from Simulink has been tested. Details regarding Lunar Cargo Lander Design are described in Part 2/2 of the paper on page X-1.

  18. Design and analysis of aluminum/air battery system for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaohua; Knickle, Harold

    Aluminum (Al)/air batteries have the potential to be used to produce power to operate cars and other vehicles. These batteries might be important on a long-term interim basis as the world passes through the transition from gasoline cars to hydrogen fuel cell cars. The Al/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to gasoline powered cars. From our design analysis, it can be seen that the cost of aluminum as an anode can be as low as US 1.1/kg as long as the reaction product is recycled. The total fuel efficiency during the cycle process in Al/air electric vehicles (EVs) can be 15% (present stage) or 20% (projected) comparable to that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEs) (13%). The design battery energy density is 1300 Wh/kg (present) or 2000 Wh/kg (projected). The cost of battery system chosen to evaluate is US 30/kW (present) or US$ 29/kW (projected). Al/air EVs life-cycle analysis was conducted and compared to lead/acid and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) EVs. Only the Al/air EVs can be projected to have a travel range comparable to ICEs. From this analysis, Al/air EVs are the most promising candidates compared to ICEs in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life-cycle cost.

  19. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. A.; Wooldridge, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The state-of-the-art (SOTA) of electric vehicles built since 1965 was reviewed to establish a base for the preliminary design of a power train for a SOTA electric vehicle. The performance of existing electric vehicles were evaluated to establish preliminary specifications for a power train design using state-of-the-art technology and commercially available components. Power train components were evaluated and selected using a computer simulation of the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle. Predicted range was determined for a number of motor and controller combinations in conjunction with the mechanical elements of power trains and a battery pack of sixteen lead-acid batteries - 471.7 kg at 0.093 MJ/Kg (1040 lbs. at 11.7 Whr/lb). On the basis of maximum range and overall system efficiency using the Schedule D cycle, an induction motor and 3 phase inverter/controller was selected as the optimum combination when used with a two-speed transaxle and steel belted radial tires. The predicted Schedule D range is 90.4 km (56.2 mi). Four near term improvements to the SOTA were identified, evaluated, and predicted to increase range approximately 7%.

  20. Design of a data-driven predictive controller for start-up process of AMT vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohui; Chen, Hong; Wang, Ping; Gao, Bingzhao

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a data-driven predictive controller is designed for the start-up process of vehicles with automated manual transmissions (AMTs). It is obtained directly from the input-output data of a driveline simulation model constructed by the commercial software AMESim. In order to obtain offset-free control for the reference input, the predictor equation is gained with incremental inputs and outputs. Because of the physical characteristics, the input and output constraints are considered explicitly in the problem formulation. The contradictory requirements of less friction losses and less driveline shock are included in the objective function. The designed controller is tested under nominal conditions and changed conditions. The simulation results show that, during the start-up process, the AMT clutch with the proposed controller works very well, and the process meets the control objectives: fast clutch lockup time, small friction losses, and the preservation of driver comfort, i.e., smooth acceleration of the vehicle. At the same time, the closed-loop system has the ability to reject uncertainties, such as the vehicle mass and road grade. PMID:21954207

  1. Aerospace Meteorology Lessons Learned Relative to Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Aerospace Meteorology came into being in the 1950s as the development of rockets for military and civilian usage grew in the United States. The term was coined to identify those involved in the development of natural environment models, design/operational requirements, and environment measurement systems to support the needs of aerospace vehicles, both launch vehicles and spacecraft. It encompassed the atmospheric environment of the Earth, including Earth orbit environments. Several groups within the United States were active in this area, including the Department of Defense, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and a few of the aerospace industry groups. Some aerospace meteorology efforts were similar to those being undertaken relative to aviation interests. As part of the aerospace meteorology activities a number of lessons learned resulted that produced follow on efforts which benefited from these experiences, thus leading to the rather efficient and technologically current descriptions of terrestrial environment design requirements, prelaunch monitoring systems, and forecast capabilities available to support the development and operations of aerospace vehicles.

  2. Biconic cargo return vehicle with an advanced recovery system. Volume 1: Conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The conceptual design of the biconic Cargo Return Vehicle (CRV) is presented. The CRV will be able to meet all of the Space Station Freedom (SSF's) resupply needs. Worth note is the absence of a backup recovery chute in case of Advanced Recovery System (ARS) failure. The high reliability of ram-air parachutes does not warrant the penalty weight that such a system would create on successful missions. The CRV will launch vertically integrated with an Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) vehicle and meets all NASA restrictions on fuel type for all phases of the mission. Because of the downscaled Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program, the CRV has been designed to be able to transfer cargo by docking directly to the Space Station Freedom as well as with OMV assistance. The CRV will cover enough crossrange to reach its primary landing site, Edwards Airforce Base, and all secondary landing sites with the exception of one orbit. Transportation back to KSC will be via the Boeing Super Guppy. Due to difficulties with man-rating the CRV, it will not be used in a CERV role. A brief summary of the CRV's specifications is given.

  3. Design of an autonomous teleoperated cargo transporting vehicle for lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James; Lao, Tom; Monali, Nkoy

    1989-01-01

    At the turn of the century NASA plans to begin construction of a lunar base. The base will likely consist of developed areas (i.e., habitation, laboratory, landing and launching sites, power plant) separated from each other due to safety considerations. The Self-Repositioning Track Vehicle (SRTV) was designed to transport cargo between these base facilities. The SRTV operates by using two robotic arms to raise and position segments of track upon which the vehicle travels. The SRTV utilizes the semiautonomous mobility (SAM) method of teleoperation; actuator-controlled interlocking track sections; two robotic arms each with five degrees of freedom; and these materials: titanium for structural members and aluminum for shell members, with the possible use of light-weight, high-strength composites.

  4. Development of an Expert Judgement Elicitation and Calibration Methodology for Risk Analysis in Conceptual Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Keating, Charles; Conway, Bruce; Chytka, Trina

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive expert-judgment elicitation methodology to quantify input parameter uncertainty and analysis tool uncertainty in a conceptual launch vehicle design analysis has been developed. The ten-phase methodology seeks to obtain expert judgment opinion for quantifying uncertainties as a probability distribution so that multidisciplinary risk analysis studies can be performed. The calibration and aggregation techniques presented as part of the methodology are aimed at improving individual expert estimates, and provide an approach to aggregate multiple expert judgments into a single probability distribution. The purpose of this report is to document the methodology development and its validation through application to a reference aerospace vehicle. A detailed summary of the application exercise, including calibration and aggregation results is presented. A discussion of possible future steps in this research area is given.

  5. Containment control of networked autonomous underwater vehicles: A predictor-based neural DSC design.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhouhua; Wang, Dan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lu

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the containment control problem of networked autonomous underwater vehicles in the presence of model uncertainty and unknown ocean disturbances. A predictor-based neural dynamic surface control design method is presented to develop the distributed adaptive containment controllers, under which the trajectories of follower vehicles nearly converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by multiple reference trajectories over a directed network. Prediction errors, rather than tracking errors, are used to update the neural adaptation laws, which are independent of the tracking error dynamics, resulting in two time-scales to govern the entire system. The stability property of the closed-loop network is established via Lyapunov analysis, and transient property is quantified in terms of L2 norms of the derivatives of neural weights, which are shown to be smaller than the classical neural dynamic surface control approach. Comparative studies are given to show the substantial improvements of the proposed new method. PMID:26506019

  6. Design and vibration control of military vehicle suspension system using magnetorheological damper and disc spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Seong, Min-Sang; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes a new type of magnetorheological (MR) fluid based suspension system and applies it to military vehicles for vibration control. The suspension system consists of a gas spring, a MR damper and a safety passive damper (disc spring). Firstly, a dynamic model of the MR damper is derived by considering the pressure drop due to the viscosity and the yield stress of the MR fluid. A dynamic model of the disc spring is then established for its evaluation as a safety damper with respect to load and pressure. Secondly, a full military vehicle is adopted for the integration of the MR suspension system. A skyhook controller associated with a semi-active actuating condition is then designed to reduce the imposed vibration. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MR suspension system, a computer simulation is undertaken showing the vibration control performance of such properties as vertical displacement and pitch angle, evaluated for a bumpy road profile.

  7. DUKSUP: A Computer Program for High Thrust Launch Vehicle Trajectory Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, O. Frank; Williams, Craig H.

    2015-01-01

    From the late 1960s through 1997, the leadership of NASAs Intermediate and Large class unmanned expendable launch vehicle projects resided at the NASA Lewis (now Glenn) Research Center (LeRC). One of LeRCs primary responsibilities --- trajectory design and performance analysis --- was accomplished by an internally-developed analytic three dimensional computer program called DUKSUP. Because of its Calculus of Variations-based optimization routine, this code was generally more capable of finding optimal solutions than its contemporaries. A derivation of optimal control using the Calculus of Variations is summarized including transversality, intermediate, and final conditions. The two point boundary value problem is explained. A brief summary of the codes operation is provided, including iteration via the Newton-Raphson scheme and integration of variational and motion equations via a 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Main subroutines are discussed. The history of the LeRC trajectory design efforts in the early 1960s is explained within the context of supporting the Centaur upper stage program. How the code was constructed based on the operation of the AtlasCentaur launch vehicle, the limits of the computers of that era, the limits of the computer programming languages, and the missions it supported are discussed. The vehicles DUKSUP supported (AtlasCentaur, TitanCentaur, and ShuttleCentaur) are briefly described. The types of missions, including Earth orbital and interplanetary, are described. The roles of flight constraints and their impact on launch operations are detailed (such as jettisoning hardware on heating, Range Safety, ground station tracking, and elliptical parking orbits). The computer main frames on which the code was hosted are described. The applications of the code are detailed, including independent check of contractor analysis, benchmarking, leading edge analysis, and vehicle performance improvement assessments. Several of DUKSUPs many major impacts on launches are discussed including Intelsat, Voyager, Pioneer Venus, HEAO, Galileo, and Cassini.

  8. DUKSUP: A Computer Program for High Thrust Launch Vehicle Trajectory Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. H.; Spurlock, O. F.

    2014-01-01

    From the late 1960's through 1997, the leadership of NASA's Intermediate and Large class unmanned expendable launch vehicle projects resided at the NASA Lewis (now Glenn) Research Center (LeRC). One of LeRC's primary responsibilities --- trajectory design and performance analysis --- was accomplished by an internally-developed analytic three dimensional computer program called DUKSUP. Because of its Calculus of Variations-based optimization routine, this code was generally more capable of finding optimal solutions than its contemporaries. A derivation of optimal control using the Calculus of Variations is summarized including transversality, intermediate, and final conditions. The two point boundary value problem is explained. A brief summary of the code's operation is provided, including iteration via the Newton-Raphson scheme and integration of variational and motion equations via a 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Main subroutines are discussed. The history of the LeRC trajectory design efforts in the early 1960's is explained within the context of supporting the Centaur upper stage program. How the code was constructed based on the operation of the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle, the limits of the computers of that era, the limits of the computer programming languages, and the missions it supported are discussed. The vehicles DUKSUP supported (Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur) are briefly described. The types of missions, including Earth orbital and interplanetary, are described. The roles of flight constraints and their impact on launch operations are detailed (such as jettisoning hardware on heating, Range Safety, ground station tracking, and elliptical parking orbits). The computer main frames on which the code was hosted are described. The applications of the code are detailed, including independent check of contractor analysis, benchmarking, leading edge analysis, and vehicle performance improvement assessments. Several of DUKSUP's many major impacts on launches are discussed including Intelsat, Voyager, Pioneer Venus, HEAO, Galileo, and Cassini.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Artificial Gravity Impacts to Deep-Space Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. Kent

    2007-01-01

    Even after more than thirty years of scientific investigation, serious concerns regarding human physiological effects of long-duration microgravity exposure remain. These include loss of bone mineral density, skeletal muscle atrophy, and orthostatic hypertension, among others. In particular, "Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions," states "loss of bone density, which apparently occurs at a rate of 1% per month in microgravity, is relatively manageable on the short-duration missions of the space shuttle, but it becomes problematic on the ISS [International Space Station]. ...If this loss is not mitigated, interplanetary missions will be impossible." While extensive investigations into potential countermeasures are planned on the ISS, the delay in attaining full crew complement and onboard facilities, and the potential for extending crews tours of duty threaten the timely (< 20 years!) accumulation of sufficient data for countermeasures formulation. Indeed, there is no guarantee that even with the data, a practical or sufficiently robust set of countermeasures will be forthcoming. Providing an artificial gravity (AG) environment by crew centrifugation aboard deep-space human exploration vehicles, long a staple technique of science fiction, has received surprisingly limited engineering assessment. This is most likely due to a number of factors: the lack of definitive design requirements, especially acceptable artificial gravity levels and rotation rates, the perception of high vehicle mass and performance penalties, the incompatibility of resulting vehicle configurations with space propulsion options (i.e., aerocapture), the perception of complications associated with de-spun components such as antennae and photovoltaic arrays, and the expectation of effective crew micro-gravity countermeasures. These perception and concerns may have been overstated, or may be acceptable alternatives to countermeasures of limited efficacy. This study was undertaken as an initial step to try to understand the implications of and potential solutions to incorporating artificial gravity in the design of human deep-space exploration vehicles. Of prime interest will be the mass penalties incurred by incorporating AG, along with any mission performance degradation.

  10. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Project: Forward Plan to Preliminary Design Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Reuter, James L.

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Launch Projects Office, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, conducted the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle System Requirements Review (SRR) at the end of 2006, a mere year after the project team was assembled. In Ares' first year, extensive trade studies and evaluations were conducted to refine the design initially recommended by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, conceptual designs were analyzed for fitness, and the contractual framework was assembled to enable a development effort unparalleled in American space flight since the Space Shuttle. Now, the project turns its focus to the Preliminary Design Review (PDR), scheduled for 2008. Taking into consideration the findings of the SRR, the design of the Ares I is being tightened and refined to meet the operability, reliability, and affordability goals outlined by the Constellation Program. As directed in NASA Procedure and Regulation (NPR) 7123, NASA Systems Engineering Procedural Requirements, the Ares I SRR examined "the functional and performance requirements defined for the system and the preliminary program or project plan and ensures that the requirements and the selected concept will satisfy the mission." The SRR was conducted to ensure the system- and element-level design and interface requirements are defined prior to proceeding into the project's design phase. The Exploration Launch Projects Control Board convened on December 19,2006, and accepted the findings of the SRR and the go-forward plan proceeding to PDR. Based upon these findings, the Ares project believes that operability must drive the vehicle's design, and that a number of design challenges, including system mass and reliability, must be addressed as part of the progress to PDR.

  11. Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

  12. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two Stage to Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system were developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design was optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance. The resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs and only requires about 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems /IPAD/ An executive summary. II. [for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.; Hansen, S. D.; Redhed, D. D.; Southall, J. W.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems with particular attention to Integrated Program for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) project. An analysis of all the ingredients of IPAD indicates the feasibility of a significant cost and flowtime reduction in the product design process involved. It is also concluded that an IPAD-supported design process will provide a framework for configuration control, whereby the engineering costs for design, analysis and testing can be controlled during the air vehicle development cycle.

  14. Mission analysis and guidance, navigation, and control design for rendezvous and docking phase of advanced reentry vehicle mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strippoli, L.; Colmenarejo, P.; Strauch, H.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV) belongs to the family of vehicles designed to perform rendezvous and docking (RvD) with the International space station (ISS) [1]. Differently from its predecessor ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle), the ARV will transport a reentry capsule, equipped with a heatshield and able to bring back cargo, experiments, or, as a possible future development, even crew, being this latter scenario very attracting in view of the Space Shuttle retirement. GMV, as subcontractor of EADS-Astrium Germany, is in charge of the RvD and departure mission analysis and GNC (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) design of ARV mission. This paper will present the main outcomes of the study.

  15. Human Exploration Using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO)- Crew Telerobotic Control Vehicle (CTCV) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Chato, David; Fincannon, James; Landis, Geoff; Sandifer, Carl; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; Packard, Tom; McCurdy, Dave; Gyekenyesi, John

    2010-01-01

    The HERRO concept allows real time investigation of planets and small bodies by sending astronauts to orbit these targets and telerobotically explore them using robotic systems. Several targets have been put forward by past studies including Mars, Venus, and near Earth asteroids. A conceptual design study was funded by the NASA Innovation Fund to explore what the HERRO concept and it's vehicles would look like and what technological challenges need to be met. This design study chose Mars as the target destination. In this way the HERRO studies can define the endpoint design concepts for an all-up telerobotic exploration of the number one target of interest Mars. This endpoint design will serve to help planners define combined precursor telerobotics science missions and technology development flights. A suggested set of these technologies and demonstrator missions is shown in Appendix B. The HERRO concept includes a crewed telerobotics orbit vehicle as well three Truck rovers, each supporting two teleoperated geologist robots Rockhounds (each truck/Rockhounds set is landed using a commercially launched aeroshell landing system.) Options include a sample ascent system teamed with an orbital telerobotic sample rendezvous and return spacecraft (S/C) (yet to be designed). Each truck rover would be landed in a science location with the ability to traverse a 100 km diameter area, carrying the Rockhounds to 100 m diameter science areas for several week science activities. The truck is not only responsible for transporting the Rockhounds to science areas, but also for relaying telecontrol and high-res communications to/from the Rockhound and powering/heating the Rockhound during the non-science times (including night-time). The Rockhounds take the place of human geologists by providing an agile robotic platform with real-time telerobotics control to the Rockhound from the crew telerobotics orbiter. The designs of the Truck rovers and Rockhounds will be described in other publications. This document focuses on the CTCV design.

  16. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1999-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to a sensitivity based Concurrent Subspace Optimization (CSSO) NMO algorithm; the development of a neural network response surface based CSSO-MDO algorithm; and the integration of distributed computing and process scheduling into the MDO environment. This report overviews research efforts in each of these focus. A complete bibliography of research produced with support of this grant is attached.

  17. NASA/USRA advanced space design program: The laser powered interorbital vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary design is presented for a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an earth space station and a lunar base. The LPIV receives its power from two iodide laser stations, one orbiting the earth and the other located on the surface of the moon. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring 8 days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional 9 days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box beam truss, a payload module, and fuel tanks. The total mass of the vehicle fully loaded is 63300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables which allow the vehicle to thrust tangentially to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of the 23 m diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18000 kg of cargo. The module is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks which allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing and tracking system which can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. Additionally an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.

  18. Design of rocker switches for work-vehicles--an application of Kansei Engineering.

    PubMed

    Schütte, Simon; Eklund, Jörgen

    2005-09-01

    Rocker switches used in vehicles meet high demands partly due to the increased focus on customer satisfaction. Previous studies focused on ergonomics and usability rather than design for emotions and affection. The aim of this study was to determine how and to what extent engineering properties influence the perception of rocker switches. Secondary aims were to compare two types of rating scales and to determine consistency over time of the ratings. As a method Kansei Engineering was used, describing a product domain from a physical and semantic point of view. A model was built and validated, and recommendations for new designs were given. It was seen that the subjective impressions of robustness, precision and design are strongly influenced by the zero position, the contact position, the form-ratio, shape and the surface of rocker switches. A 7-point scale was found suitable. The Kansei ratings were consistent over time. PMID:15950167

  19. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. PMID:24534328

  20. High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) longitudinal controller: Design, analyses, and simulation resultss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.; Rivers, Robert A.; Messina, Michael D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Bacon, Barton J.; Foster, John F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design, analysis, and nonlinear simulation results (batch and piloted) for a longitudinal controller which is scheduled to be flight-tested on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is an F-18 airplane modified for and equipped with multi-axis thrust vectoring. The paper includes a description of the facilities, a detailed review of the feedback controller design, linear analysis results of the feedback controller, a description of the feed-forward controller design, nonlinear batch simulation results, and piloted simulation results. Batch simulation results include maximum pitch stick agility responses, angle of attack alpha captures, and alpha regulation for full lateral stick rolls at several alpha's. Piloted simulation results include task descriptions for several types of maneuvers, task guidelines, the corresponding Cooper-Harper ratings from three test pilots, and some pilot comments. The ratings show that desirable criteria are achieved for almost all of the piloted simulation tasks.

  1. Building Operations Efficiencies into NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration guides the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) challenging missions that expand humanity s boundaries and open new routes to the space frontier. With the Agency's commitment to complete the International Space Station (ISS) and to retire the venerable Space Shuttle by 2010, the NASA Administrator commissioned the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in mid 2005 to analyze options for safe, simple, cost-efficient launch solutions that could deliver human-rated space transportation capabilities in a timely manner within fixed budget guidelines. The Exploration Launch Projects Office, chartered in October 2005, has been conducting systems engineering studies and business planning over the past few months to successively refine the design configurations and better align vehicle concepts with customer and stakeholder requirements, such as significantly reduced life-cycle costs. As the Agency begins the process of replacing the Shuttle with a new generation of spacecraft destined for missions beyond low-Earth orbit to the Moon and Mars, NASA is designing the follow-on crew and cargo launch systems for maximum operational efficiencies. To sustain the long-term exploration of space, it is imperative to reduce the $4.5 billion NASA typically spends on space transportation each year. This paper gives top-level information about how the follow-on Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is being designed for improved safety and reliability, coupled with reduced operations costs.

  2. Design of an airborne launch vehicle for an air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Chin; Choi, Rich; Cohen, Scott; Dumont, Brian; Gibin, Mauricius; Jorden, Rob; Poth, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.

  3. Design of cryogenic tanks for space vehicles shell structures analytical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copper, Charles; Mccarthy, K.; Pilkey, W. D.; Haviland, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    The initial objective was to study the use of superplastically formed corrugated hat section stringers and frames in place of integrally machined stringers over separate frames for the tanks of large launch vehicles subjected to high buckling loads. The ALS was used as an example. The objective of the follow-on project was to study methods of designing shell structures subjected to severe combinations of structural loads and thermal gradients, with emphasis on new combinations of structural arrangements and materials. Typical applications would be to fuselage sections of high speed civil transports and to cryogenic tanks on the National Aerospace Plane.

  4. Design of an airborne launch vehicle for an air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Chin; Choi, Rich; Cohen, Scott; Dumont, Brian; Gibin, Mauricius; Jorden, Rob; Poth, Stefan

    1993-12-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.

  5. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    Control of multiple autonomous aircraft for search and exploration, is a topic of current research interest for applications such as weather monitoring, geographical surveys, search and rescue, tactical reconnaissance, and extra-terrestrial exploration, and the need to distribute sensing is driven by considerations of efficiency, reliability, cost and scalability. Hence, this problem has been extensively studied in the fields of controls and artificial intelligence. The task of persistent surveillance is different from a coverage/exploration problem, in that all areas need to be continuously searched, minimizing the time between visitations to each region in the target space. This distinction does not allow a straightforward application of most exploration techniques to the problem, although ideas from these methods can still be used. The use of aerial vehicles is motivated by their ability to cover larger spaces and their relative insensitivity to terrain. However, the dynamics of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) adds complexity to the control problem. Most of the work in the literature decouples the vehicle dynamics and control policies, but their interaction is particularly interesting for a surveillance mission. Stochastic environments and UAV failures further enrich the problem by requiring the control policies to be robust, and this aspect is particularly important for hardware implementations. For a persistent mission, it becomes imperative to consider the range/endurance constraints of the vehicles. The coupling of the control policy with the endurance constraints of the vehicles is an aspect that has not been sufficiently explored. Design of UAVs for desirable mission performance is also an issue of considerable significance. The use of a single monolithic optimization for such a problem has practical limitations, and decomposition-based design is a potential alternative. In this research high-level control policies are devised, that are scalable, reliable, efficient, and robust to changes in the environment. Most of the existing techniques that carry performance guarantees are not scalable or robust to changes. The scalable techniques are often heuristic in nature, resulting in lack of reliability and performance. Our policies are tested in a multi-UAV simulation environment developed for this problem, and shown to be near-optimal in spite of being completely reactive in nature. We explicitly account for the coupling between aircraft dynamics and control policies as well, and suggest modifications to improve performance under dynamic constraints. A smart refueling policy is also developed to account for limited endurance, and large performance benefits are observed. The method is based on the solution of a linear program that can be efficiently solved online in a distributed setting, unlike previous work. The Vehicle Swarm Technology Laboratory (VSTL), a hardware testbed developed at Boeing Research and Technology for evaluating swarm of UAVs, is described next and used to test the control strategy in a real-world scenario. The simplicity and robustness of the strategy allows easy implementation and near replication of the performance observed in simulation. Finally, an architecture for system-of-systems design based on Collaborative Optimization (CO) is presented. Earlier work coupling operations and design has used frameworks that make certain assumptions not valid for this problem. The efficacy of our approach is illustrated through preliminary design results, and extension to more realistic settings is also demonstrated.

  6. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the IPM machine reflects industry's confidence in this market-proven design that exhibits a power density surpassed by no other machine design.

  7. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1998-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. Three Principal Investigators; Drs. Renaud, Brockman and Batill directed this effort. During the four and a half year grant period, six Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student received full or partial support, while four Computer Science and Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student were supported. During each of the summers up to four undergraduate students were involved in related research activities. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (N4DO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to a sensitivity based Concurrent Subspace Optimization (CSSO) MDO algorithm; the development of a neural network response surface based CSSO-MDO algorithm; and the integration of distributed computing and process scheduling into the MDO environment. This report overviews research efforts in each of these focus. A complete bibliography of research produced with support of this grant is attached.

  8. Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) ceramic design manual

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This ceramic component design manual was an element of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). The ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the ceramic automotive gas turbine engine as a primary power plant. Of the several technologies requiring development before such an engine could become a commercial reality, structural ceramic components represented the greatest technical challenge, and was the prime focus of the program. HVTE-TS, which was created to support the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program, continued the efforts begun in ATTAP to develop ceramic components for an automotive gas turbine engine. In HVTE-TS, the program focus was extended to make this technology applicable to the automotive gas turbine engines that form the basis of hybrid automotive propulsion systems consisting of combined batteries, electric drives, and on-board power generators as well as a primary power source. The purpose of the ceramic design manual is to document the process by which ceramic components are designed, analyzed, fabricated, assembled, and tested in a gas turbine engine. Interaction with ceramic component vendors is also emphasized. The main elements of the ceramic design manual are: an overview of design methodology; design process for the AGT-5 ceramic gasifier turbine rotor; and references. Some reference also is made to the design of turbine static structure components to show methods of attaching static hot section ceramic components to supporting metallic structures.

  9. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prucz, Jacky C; Shoukry, Samir N; William, Gergis W; Evans, Thomas H

    2006-09-30

    The extensive research and development effort was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2002 at West Virginia University (WVU) in order to investigate practical ways of reducing the structural weight and increasing the durability of heavy vehicles through the judicious use of lightweight composite materials. While this project was initially focused on specific Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) material, namely Aluminum/Silicon Carbide (Al/SiC) commercially referenced as ''LANXIDE'', the current research effort was expanded from the component level to the system level and from MMC to other composite material systems. Broadening the scope of this research is warranted not only by the structural and economical deficiencies of the ''LANXIDE'' MMC material, but also by the strong coupling that exists between the material and the geometric characteristics of the structure. Such coupling requires a truly integrated design approach, focused on the heaviest sections of a van trailer. Obviously, the lightweight design methods developed in this study will not be implemented by the commercial industry unless the weight savings are indeed impressive and proven to be economically beneficial in the context of Life Cycle Costs (LCC). ''Bulk Haul'' carriers run their vehicles at maximum certified weight, so that each pound saved in structural weight would translate into additional pound of cargo, and fewer vehicles necessary to transport a given amount of freight. It is reasonable to ascertain that a typical operator would be ready to pay a premium of about $3-4 for every additional pound of cargo, or every pound saved in structural weight. The overall scope of this project is to devise innovative, lightweight design and joining concepts for heavy vehicle structures, including cost effective applications of components made of metal matrix composite (MMC) and other composite materials in selected sections of such systems. The major findings generated by this research effort in its first two years have been summarized in the 2003 and 2004 Annual Progress Reports of DOE's Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies Program. Consistent interactions with producers of heavy trailers, such as Great Dane and Wabash, as well as with their users, such as Old Dominion Freight Lines, have continued during this period to ensure that the research conducted at WVU will yield practical results that will benefit the industry in the near future. Furthermore, Dr. Gergis William and Mr. Thomas Evans participated in the 2005 Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) annual meeting held in Tampa, Florida, in February 2005. This event offered the WVU researchers an effective opportunity to explore various technical needs and concerns of the industry, both from the performance and maintenance viewpoints, as well as to assess realistically potential benefits and barriers associated with practical implementation of lightweight materials and design technologies in heavy vehicle structures.

  10. Design of a nonlinear robust controller for a complete unmanned aerial vehicle mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadraey, Mohammad Hashem

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control systems must be capable of delivering the required performance while handling nonlinearities and uncertainties in the vehicle model, the atmosphere, and ambient wind. These factors necessitate the development of nonlinear flight control system design methods that can handle large nonlinearities and uncertainties. Variable approaches to the linear control of UAVs have been discussed in the recent literature. However, the development of a nonlinear robust autopilot has not been addressed to any significant degree. The development of a nonlinear autopilot based on robust control methods will be discussed in this dissertation. In this design technique, the nonlinear UAV model is not linearized. The control law is designed using the Hinfinity technique. This dissertation presents the results of an exploratory study to examine robust autopilot nonlinear design methods for the UAV and compare this new approach with existing PID, LQR, and linear Hinfinity techniques. Since the method must then be verified, its flight simulation will be done using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Verification, validation and robustness tests are documented at the end of this dissertation. The airplane examined is called the Hawkeye. It was designed and built by KU students in the fall of 2004. It is a small, 14 foot wingspan, remotely controlled airplane made from composite materials with a maximum takeoff weight of 90 lbs. It will be used in the future as a small UAV for research programs at KU. The mission includes take-off, climb, cruise, a one and a half circle accomplished in a level turn, and a return back to its original airfield accomplished by cruising back, descending, and completing an approach and landing. After take-off, the airplane is required to climb to 1,000 ft altitude, and then it travels 5,000 ft over the ground into the target area. It will then take some photos of that target using its camera. The complete mission for the UAV lasts about 180 seconds.

  11. Design and Performance of Insect-Scale Flapping-Wing Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, John Peter

    Micro-air vehicles (MAVs)---small versions of full-scale aircraft---are the product of a continued path of miniaturization which extends across many fields of engineering. Increasingly, MAVs approach the scale of small birds, and most recently, their sizes have dipped into the realm of hummingbirds and flying insects. However, these non-traditional biologically-inspired designs are without well-established design methods, and manufacturing complex devices at these tiny scales is not feasible using conventional manufacturing methods. This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of new MAV design and manufacturing methods, as applicable to insect-scale hovering flight. New design methods combine an energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include analytical expressions for maximum flight endurance and range, and predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass. To meet manufacturing constraints, the use of passive wing dynamics to simplify vehicle design and control was investigated; supporting tests included the first synchronized measurements of real-time forces and three-dimensional kinematics generated by insect-scale flapping wings. These experimental methods were then expanded to study optimal wing shapes and high-efficiency flapping kinematics. To support the development of high-fidelity test devices and fully-functional flight hardware, a new class of manufacturing methods was developed, combining elements of rigid-flex printed circuit board fabrication with "pop-up book" folding mechanisms. In addition to their current and future support of insect-scale MAV development, these new manufacturing techniques are likely to prove an essential element to future advances in micro-optomechanics, micro-surgery, and many other fields.

  12. Human Factors in the Design of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Byrne, Vicky; Holden, Kritina

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Space Exploration vision for humans to venture to the moon and beyond provides interesting human factors opportunities and challenges. The Human Engineering group at NASA has been involved in the initial phases of development of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Orion. Getting involved at the ground level, Human Factors engineers are beginning to influence design; this involvement is expected to continue throughout the development lifecycle. The information presented here describes what has been done to date, what is currently going on, and what is expected in the future. During Phase 1, prior to the contract award to Lockheed Martin, the Human Engineering group was involved in generating requirements, conducting preliminary task analyses based on interviews with subject matter experts in all vehicle systems areas, and developing preliminary concepts of operations based on the task analysis results. In addition, some early evaluations to look at CEV net habitable volume were also conducted. The program is currently in Phase 2, which is broken down into design cycles, including System Readiness Review, Preliminary Design Review, and Critical Design Review. Currently, there are ongoing Human Engineering Technical Interchange Meetings being held with both NASA and Lockheed Martin in order to establish processes, desired products, and schedules. Multiple design trades and quick-look evaluations (e.g. display device layout and external window size) are also in progress. Future Human Engineering activities include requirement verification assessments and crew/stakeholder evaluations of increasing fidelity. During actual flights of the CEV, the Human Engineering group is expected to be involved in in-situ testing and lessons learned reporting, in order to benefit human space flight beyond the initial CEV program.

  13. Preliminary Subsystem Designs for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV), volumes 1-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A long term manned facility in space must include provisions for the safety of the crew. The resolution of this need was the design of an Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV). The main focus is on the braking and landing system of the ACRV. This subsystem of the ACRV was divided into three phases. The Phase 1 analysis showed that the use of a tether to aid in the reentry of the ACRV was infeasible due to cost and efficiency. Therefore, a standard rocket would be used for reentry. It was also found that the continental United States was an achievable landing site for the ACRV. The Phase 2 analysis determined the L/D of the vehicle to be 1.8, thus requiring the use of a lifting body for reentry. It was also determined that shuttle tiles would be used for the thermal protection system. In addition, a parachute sequence for further deceleration was included, namely a ringslot drogue chute, a pilot chute, and finally a ringsail main parachute. This sequence was found to be capable of slowing the vehicle to a descent velocity of 9 to 10 m/s, which is the required velocity for aerial recovery. The Phase 3 analysis proved that a Sikorsky CH-53E helicopter is capable of retrieving the ACRV at 5.5 km altitude with minimal g-forces induced on the ACRV and minimal induced moments on the helicopter upon hookup. The helicopter would be modified such that it could stabilize the ACRV close to the bottom of helicopter and carry it to the nearest designated trauma center.

  14. Habitability as a Tier One Criterion in Exploration Mission and Vehicle Design. Part 1; Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Constance M.; McCurdy, Matthew Riegel

    1999-01-01

    Habitability and human factors are necessary criteria to include in the iterative process of Tier I mission design. Bringing these criteria in at the first, conceptual stage of design for exploration and other human-rated missions can greatly reduce mission development costs, raise the level of efficiency and viability, and improve the chances of success. In offering a rationale for this argument, the authors give an example of how the habitability expert can contribute to early mission and vehicle architecture by defining the formal implications of a habitable vehicle, assessing the viability of units already proposed for exploration missions on the basis of these criteria, and finally, by offering an optimal set of solutions for an example mission. In this, the first of three papers, we summarize the basic factors associated with habitability, delineate their formal implications for crew accommodations in a long-duration environment, and show examples of how these principles have been applied in two projects at NASA's Johnson Space Center: the BIO-Plex test facility, and TransHab.

  15. Hardware-Based Non-Optimum Factors for Launch Vehicle Structural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    During aerospace vehicle conceptual and preliminary design, empirical non-optimum factors are typically applied to predicted structural component weights to account for undefined manufacturing and design details. Non-optimum factors are developed here for 32 aluminum-lithium 2195 orthogrid panels comprising the liquid hydrogen tank barrel of the Space Shuttle External Tank using measured panel weights and manufacturing drawings. Minimum values for skin thickness, axial and circumferential blade stiffener thickness and spacing, and overall panel thickness are used to estimate individual panel weights. Panel non-optimum factors computed using a coarse weights model range from 1.21 to 1.77, and a refined weights model (including weld lands and skin and stiffener transition details) yields non-optimum factors of between 1.02 and 1.54. Acreage panels have an average 1.24 non-optimum factor using the coarse model, and 1.03 with the refined version. The observed consistency of these acreage non-optimum factors suggests that relatively simple models can be used to accurately predict large structural component weights for future launch vehicles.

  16. Design of overload vehicle monitoring and response system based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Liu, Yiheng; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2014-03-01

    The overload vehicles are making much more damage to the road surface than the regular ones. Many roads and bridges are equipped with structural health monitoring system (SHM) to provide early-warning to these damage and evaluate the safety of road and bridge. However, because of the complex nature of SHM system, it's expensive to manufacture, difficult to install and not well-suited for the regular bridges and roads. Based on this application background, this paper designs a compact structural health monitoring system based on DSP, which is highly integrated, low-power, easy to install and inexpensive to manufacture. The designed system is made up of sensor arrays, the charge amplifier module, the DSP processing unit, the alarm system for overload, and the estimate for damage of the road and bridge structure. The signals coming from sensor arrays go through the charge amplifier. DSP processing unit will receive the amplified signals, estimate whether it is an overload signal or not, and convert analog variables into digital ones so that they are compatible with the back-end digital circuit for further processing. The system will also restrict certain vehicles that are overweight, by taking image of the car brand, sending the alarm, and transferring the collected pressure data to remote data center for further monitoring analysis by rain-flow counting method.

  17. A Generic Model Driven Approach for Safer Mission and Vehicle Management Software Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudillet, O.; Person, T.; Genevoix, M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of a spacecraft, whether an observation or telecommunication satellite, a lander, a chaser as the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) or a launcher is to perform a mission. A mission is composed of several modes, the number of modes being generally representative of the complexity of the mission assigned to the spacecraft. The Mission and Vehicle Management Software (MVMS) plays the role of an orchestra conductor that will internally control the proper behaviour of the spacecraft and all its avionics element inter-cooperation during its lifetime, and therefore the safety of the mission. The MVMS can either be one function of the main onboard software, or a fully piece of segregated software running on a dedicated processing unit or distributed on several hardware or functional nodes. This paper presents a generic design that can be used for low to medium complexity system, or, in case of highly complex systems, for the most critical MVMS functions. The design is model based oriented. SCADE Suite (from Esterel Technologies) has being selected for its very high adequacy for MVMS implementation and its capability to satisfy high safety requirements: The purpose is to make use of the autocoding facility offered by SCADE, knowing that a Criticality A (DO178B standard) certification kit is available for the generator.

  18. Concurrent Computational and Dimensional Analyses of Design of Vehicle Floor-Plates for Landmine-Blast Survivability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of military vehicles capable of surviving landmine blast is seldom done using full-scale prototype testing because of the associated prohibitively-high cost, the destructive nature of testing, and the requirements for major large-scale experimental-test facilities and a large crew of engineers committed to the task. Instead, tests of small-scale models are generally employed and the model-based results are scaled up to the full-size vehicle. In these scale-up efforts, various dimensional analyses are used whose establishment and validation requires major experimental testing efforts and different-scale models. In the present work, an approach is proposed within which concurrent and interactive applications of the computational analyses (of landmine detonation and the interaction of detonation products and soil ejecta with the vehicle hull-floor) and the corresponding dimensional analysis are utilized. It is argued that this approach can guide the design of military-vehicle hull-floors which provide the required level of protection to the vehicle occupants under landmine blast attack without introducing unnecessarily high weight to the vehicle. To validate this approach, a combined Eulerian/Lagrangian formulation for landmine detonation and the interaction of detonation products and soil ejecta with the vehicle hull-floor (developed in our previous work) has been utilized along with the experimental results pertaining to small-scale model and full-scale vehicle testing.

  19. Design and performance analysis of a conical-aerobrake, orbital-transfer vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, G. P.; Park, C.; Wilson, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    A Shuttle-compatible systems design based on the core concept of attachable modules for the major vehicle components is proposed. The principal features include a disposable cargo/extra-propellant tank module; a porous, radiative, backscattering drag-brake surface material of thin silica cloth; and a lightweight carbon-composite support structure. The mission payload capability for delivery, retrieval, and combined operations is determined for a broad range of missions including NASA/DOD requirements and extending through cis-lunar space. The effects of finite-rate surface catalysis, negative lift, and multiple atmospheric passes in reducing the aerothermal heating rates are also investigated. In addition, the structural and thermal-protection problems of the drag-brake support apparatus are analyzed and recommendations are proposed for future design refinements.

  20. Design and Performance Analysis of a Conical Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul; Wilson, John F.

    1985-01-01

    A Shuttle-compatible systems design based on the core concept of attachable modules for the major vehicle components is proposed. The principal features include a disposable cargo/extra-propellant tank module; a porous, radiative, back-scattering drag-brake surface material of thin silica cloth; and a lightweight carbon-composite support structure. The mission payload capability for delivery, retrieval, and combined operations is determined for a broad range of missions including NASA/DOD requirements and extending through cislunar space. The effects of finite-rate surface catalysis, negative lift, and multiple atmospheric passes in reducing the aerothermodynamic heating rates are also investigated. In addition, the structural and thermal protection problems of the drag-brake support apparatus are analyzed, and recommendations are proposed for future design refinements.

  1. Design and performance analysis of an aeromaneuvering orbital-transfer vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Systems requirements for design-optimized, lateral-turn performance were determined for reusable, space-based applications and low-earth orbits involving large multiple plane-inclination changes. The aerothermodynamic analysis is the most advanced available for rarefied-hypersonic flow over lifting surfaces at incidence. The effects of leading-edge bluntness, low-density viscous phenomena, and finite-rate flow-field chemistry and surface catalysis are accounted for. The predicted aerothermal heating characteristics are correlated with thermal-control and flight-performance capabilities. The mission payload capacity for delivery, retrieval, and combined operations was determined for round-trip sorties extending to polar orbits. Recommendations are given for future design refinements. The results help to identify technology issues required to develop prototype operational vehicles.

  2. Design of permanent magnet brushless motors with asymmetric air gap for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, K. T.; Cui, Wei; Jiang, J. Z.; Wang, Zheng

    2006-04-01

    This paper proposes a cost-effective approach to design permanent magnet brushless dc motors for electric vehicles. The key is to shape the pole arc in such a way that the air gap length is at a maximum at the leading edge of each rotor pole arc and at a minimum at the trailing edge of the same pole arc, hence resulting in an asymmetric air gap. Thus, for a specified rotational direction, the distortion of air gap flux density and hence the torque ripple can be significantly suppressed. Also, with the use of advanced conduction angle control, the motor can achieve a wide speed range. The proposed motor drive is designed and implemented for a low-voltage battery-powered electric motorcycle.

  3. Robust, nonlinear, high angle-of-attack control design for a supermaneuverable vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    High angle-of-attack flight control laws are developed for a supermaneuverable fighter aircraft. The methods of dynamic inversion and structured singular value synthesis are combined into an approach which addresses both the nonlinearity and robustness problems of flight at extreme operating conditions. The primary purpose of the dynamic inversion control elements is to linearize the vehicle response across the flight envelope. Structured singular value synthesis is used to design a dynamic controller which provides robust tracking to pilot commands. The resulting control system achieves desired flying qualities and guarantees a large margin of robustness to uncertainties for high angle-of-attack flight conditions. The results of linear simulation and structured singular value stability analysis are presented to demonstrate satisfaction of the design criteria. High fidelity nonlinear simulation results show that the combined dynamics inversion/structured singular value synthesis control law achieves a high level of performance in a realistic environment.

  4. The Role of Habitability Studies in Space Facility and Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Constance M.

    1999-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the role of the space architect in designing a space vehicle with habitability as a chief concern. Habitability is composed of the qualities of the environment or system which support the crew in working and living. All the impacts from habitability are interdependent; i.e., impacts to well-being can impact performance, safety or efficiency. After reviewing the issues relating to habitability the presentation discusses the application of these issues in two case studies. The first studies the Bio-Plex Hab chamber which includes designs of the living and working areas. The second case study is the ISS-TransHab which is being studied as a prototype for Mars transit.

  5. Design and performance analysis of an aero-maneuvering orbital-transfer vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Systems requirements for design-optimized, lateral-turn performance were determined for reusable, space-based applications and low-Earth orbits involving large multiple plane-inclination changes. The aerothermodynamic analysis is the most advanced available for rarefield-hypersonic flow over lifting surfaces at incidence. The effects of leading-edge bluntness, low-density viscous phenomena, and finite-rate flow-field chemistry and surface catalysis are accounted for. The predicted aerothermal heating characteristics are correlated with thermal-control and flight-performance capabilities. The mission payload capacity for delivery, retrieval, and combined operations was determined for round-trip sorties extending to polar orbits. Recommendations are given for future design refinements. The results help to identify technology issues required to develop prototype operational vehicles.

  6. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  7. Conceptual Design of a Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) Flight Validation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Wie, Bong; Steiner, Mark; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed overview of the MDL study results and subsequent advances in the design of GNC algorithms for accurate terminal guidance during hypervelocity NEO intercept. The MDL study produced a conceptual con guration of the two-body HAIV and its subsystems; a mission scenario and trajectory design for a notional flight validation mission to a selected candidate target NEO; GNC results regarding the ability of the HAIV to reliably intercept small (50 m) NEOs at hypervelocity (typically greater than 10 km/s); candidate launch vehicle selection; a notional operations concept and cost estimate for the flight validation mission; and a list of topics to address during the remainder of our NIAC Phase II study.

  8. Design and test of a situation-augmented display for an unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring task.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jen-Li; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Chao, Chin-Jung

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a situation-augmented display for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) monitoring was designed, and its effects on operator performance and mental workload were examined. The display design was augmented with the knowledge that there is an invariant flight trajectory (formed by the relationship between altitude and velocity) for every flight, from takeoff to landing. 56 participants were randomly assigned to the situation-augmented display or a conventional display condition to work on 4 (number of abnormalities) x 2 (noise level) UAV monitoring tasks three times. Results showed that the effects of situation-augmented display on flight completion time and time to detect abnormalities were robust under various workload conditions, but error rate and perceived mental workload were unaffected by the display type. Results suggest that the UAV monitoring task is extremely difficult, and that display devices providing high-level situation-awareness may improve operator monitoring performance. PMID:24422345

  9. Euler Calculations at Off-Design Conditions for an Inlet of Inward Turning RBCC-SSTO Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, N.; Kothari, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    The inviscid performance of an inward turning inlet design is calculated computationally for the first time. Hypersonic vehicle designs based on the inward turning inlets have been shown analytically to have increased effective specific impulse and lower heat load than comparably designed vehicles with two-dimensional inlets. The inward turning inlets are designed inversely from inviscid stream surfaces of known flow fields. The computational study is performed on a Mach 12 inlet design to validate the performance predicted by the design code (HAVDAC) and calculate its off-design Mach number performance. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved for Mach 4, 8, and 12 using a software package called SAM, which consists of an unstructured mesh generator (SAMmesh), a three-dimensional unstructured mesh flow solver (SAMcfd), and a CAD-based software (SAMcad). The computed momentum averaged inlet throat pressure is within 6% of the design inlet throat pressure. The mass-flux at the inlet throat is also within 7 % of the value predicted by the design code thereby validating the accuracy of the design code. The off-design Mach number results show that flow spillage is minimal, and the variation in the mass capture ratio with Mach number is comparable to an ideal 2-D inlet. The results from the inviscid flow calculations of a Mach 12 inward turning inlet indicate that the inlet design has very good on and off-design performance which makes it a promising design candidate for future air-breathing hypersonic vehicles.

  10. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the IPM machine reflects industry's confidence in this market-proven design that exhibits a high power density.

  11. Arcjet exploratory tests of ARC optical window design for the AFE vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Ellis E.; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Craig, Roger A.; Sobeck, Charles K.; Sarver, George L., III; Salerno, Louis J.; Love, Wendell; Maa, Scott; Covington, AL

    1991-01-01

    Tests were made in the 20 MW arc jet facility at the NASA ARC to determine the suitability of sapphire and fused silica as window materials for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) entry vehicle. Twenty nine tests were made; 25 at a heating rate about 80 percent of that expected during the AFE entry and 4 at approximately the full, 100 percent AFE heating rate profile, that produces a temperature of about 2900 F on the surface of the tiles that protect the vehicle. These tests show that a conductively cooled window design using mechanical thermal contacts and sapphire is probably not practical. Cooling the window using mechanical thermal contacts produces thermal stresses in the sapphire that cause the window to crack. An insulated design using sapphire, that cools the window as little as possible, appears promising although some spectral data in the vacuum-ultra-violet (VUV) will be lost due to the high temperature reached by the sapphire. The surface of the insulated sapphire windows, tested at the 100 percent AFE heating rate, showed some slight ablation, and cracks appeared in two of three test windows. One small group of cracks were obviously caused by mechanical binding of the window in the assembly, which can be eliminated with improved design. Other cracks were long, straight, thin crystallographic cracks that have very little effect on the optical transmission of the window. Also, the windows did not fall apart along these crystallographic cracks when the windows were removed from their assemblies. Theoretical results from the thermal analysis computer program SINDA indicate that increasing the window thickness from 4 to 8 mm may enable surface ablation to be avoided. An insulated design using a fused silica window tested at the nominal AFE heating rate experienced severe ablation, thus fused silica is not considered to be an acceptable window material.

  12. Design and optimization of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid power sources for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lijun

    Fuel Cell powered Hybrid electric Vehicles (FCHVs) are considered to be the most promising alternatives of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) vehicles. One of the most important research aspects of FCHVs is their hybrid power sources study; however, current research is insufficient and there are many open problems to be further studied, such as hybrid power sources topology analysis, vehicle power sources design and optimization, and related dynamic models construction. Also a powerful simulation package of FCHVs is indispensable to evaluate and support the related research. Addressing these problems, this dissertation carries out a series of studies step by step which includes the following three parts. The first part is focused on modeling electrochemical components. A novel fully dynamic lithium-ion battery model is developed, which accounts for battery nonlinear equilibrium potentials, rate- and temperature-dependencies, thermal effects and response to transient power demand. A multi-stage resistor capacitor ladder supercapacitor model is constructed with unique characteristics including automatic order selection and capacity scaling. In the modeling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, each component is first modeled separately, and then these modules are coupled together into an integrative unit. The second part concentrates on the study of hybrid power source topology analysis. Firstly, the concepts of passive hybrid and active hybrid are defined. Secondly, an active hybrid is constructed and explored through both experiments and simulations. Finally, the comparison of passive and active hybrids, along with battery alone, is undertaken to study the performance extension of power sources using power converters. The study process is further extended and applied in hybrid power source design for FCHVs. In the third part, a complete simulation package for FCHVs is constructed in the Virtual Test Bed (VTB) computational environment. The modeling approach is forward looking (causal) and the system setup is modular, thus the package recognizes the dynamic interaction among different vehicle components and provides a powerful capability to simulate different topologies. After that, a novel 8-step energy component size determination and optimization method is proposed, which is based on the operation of the decreasing rearrangement distribution function of drive cycles.

  13. The 7.5K lbf thrust engine preliminary design for Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Warren R.; Sabiers, Ralph; Schneider, Judy

    1994-01-01

    This document summarizes the preliminary design of the Aerojet version of the Orbit Transfer Vehicle main engine. The concept of a 7500 lbf thrust LO2/GH2 engine using the dual expander cycle for optimum efficiency is validated through power balance and thermal calculations. The engine is capable of 10:1 throttling from a nominal 2000 psia to a 200 psia chamber pressure. Reservations are detailed on the feasibility of a tank head start, but the design incorporates low speed turbopumps to mitigate the problem. The mechanically separate high speed turbopumps use hydrostatic bearings to meet engine life requirements, and operate at sub-critical speed for better throttling ability. All components were successfully packaged in the restricted envelope set by the clearances for the extendible/retractable nozzle. Gimbal design uses an innovative primary and engine out gimbal system to meet the +/- 20 deg gimbal requirement. The hydrogen regenerator and LOX/GH2 heat exchanger uses the Aerojet platelet structures approach for a highly compact component design. The extendible/retractable nozzle assembly uses an electric motor driven jack-screw design and a one segment carbon-carbon or silicide coated columbium nozzle with an area ratio, when extended, of 1430:1. A reliability analysis and risk assessment concludes the report.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Biomimetic Turtle Hydrofoil for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Siegentahler, Cedric; Pallejà, Tomàs; Teixidó, Mercè; Pradalier, Cedric; Palacin, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a turtle hydrofoil for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The final design of the AUV must have navigation performance like a turtle, which has also been the biomimetic inspiration for the design of the hydrofoil and propulsion system. The hydrofoil design is based on a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0014 hydrodynamic profile. During the design stage, four different propulsion systems were compared in terms of propulsion path, compactness, sealing and required power. The final implementation is based on a ball-and-socket mechanism because it is very compact and provides three degrees of freedom (DoF) to the hydrofoil with very few restrictions on the propulsion path. The propulsion obtained with the final implementation of the hydrofoil has been empirically evaluated in a water channel comparing different motion strategies. The results obtained have confirmed that the proposed turtle hydrofoil controlled with a mechanism with three DoF generates can be used in the future implementation of the planned AUV. PMID:22247660

  15. Design of a Lunar Quick-Attach Mechanism to Hummer Vehicle Mounting Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grismore, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents my work experiences while I was an intern with NASA (National Aeronautic and Space Administration) in the Spring of2010 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch facility in Cape Canaveral, Florida as a member of the NASA USRP (Undergraduate Student Research Program) program. I worked in the Surface Systems (NE-S) group during the internship. Within NE-S, two ASRC (Arctic Slope Regional Corporation) contract engineers, A.J. Nick and Jason Schuler, had developed a "Quick-Attach" mechanism for the Chariot Rover, the next generation lunar rover. My project was to design, analyze, and possibly fabricate a mounting interface between their "Quick-Attach" and a Hummer vehicle. This interface was needed because it would increase their capabilities to test the Quick Attach and its various attachments, as they do not have access to a Chariot Rover at KSC. I utilized both Pro Engineer, a 3D CAD software package, and a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) known as a FAROarm to collect data and create my design. I relied on hand calculations and the Mechanica analysis tool within Pro Engineer to perform stress analysis on the design. After finishing the design, I began working on creating professional level CAD drawings and issuing them into the KSC design database known as DDMS before the end of the internship.

  16. Design and implementation of a biomimetic turtle hydrofoil for an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    PubMed

    Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Siegentahler, Cedric; Pallejà, Tomàs; Teixidó, Mercè; Pradalier, Cedric; Palacin, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a turtle hydrofoil for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The final design of the AUV must have navigation performance like a turtle, which has also been the biomimetic inspiration for the design of the hydrofoil and propulsion system. The hydrofoil design is based on a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0014 hydrodynamic profile. During the design stage, four different propulsion systems were compared in terms of propulsion path, compactness, sealing and required power. The final implementation is based on a ball-and-socket mechanism because it is very compact and provides three degrees of freedom (DoF) to the hydrofoil with very few restrictions on the propulsion path. The propulsion obtained with the final implementation of the hydrofoil has been empirically evaluated in a water channel comparing different motion strategies. The results obtained have confirmed that the proposed turtle hydrofoil controlled with a mechanism with three DoF generates can be used in the future implementation of the planned AUV. PMID:22247660

  17. Nozzle design study for a quasi-axisymmetric scramjet-powered vehicle at Mach 7.9 flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimizu, Katsuyoshi; Mee, David J.; Stalker, Raymond J.; Jacobs, Peter A.

    2013-09-01

    A nozzle shape optimization study for a quasi-axisymmetric scramjet has been performed for a Mach 7.9 operating condition with hydrogen fuel, aiming at the application of a hypersonic airbreathing vehicle. In this study, the nozzle geometry which is parameterized by a set of design variables, is optimized for the single objective of maximum net thrust using an in-house CFD solver for inviscid flowfields with a simple force prediction methodology. The combustion is modelled using a simple chemical reaction code. The effects of the nozzle design on the overall vehicle performance are discussed. For the present geometry, net thrust is achieved for the optimized vehicle design. The results of the nozzle-optimization study show that performance is limited by the nozzle area ratio that can be incorporated into the vehicle without leading to too large a base diameter of the vehicle and increasing the external drag of the vehicle. This study indicates that it is very difficult to achieve positive thrust at Mach 7.9 using the basic geometry investigated.

  18. Aerothermodynamics in the Heart of the Reentry Vehicles Shape Design and Mission Analysis Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosson, E.; Thivet, F.; Soler, J.; Tran, Ph.; Spel, M.; Dieudonne, W.; Paulat, J.-C.; Prampolini, M.; Moulin, J.

    2005-02-01

    /RESUME On the path to a Reusable Space Transportation System, Europe first reviewed the gaps to fulfil. Then, a step-by-step master plan with both on-ground and in-flight tests was drawn up with the uppermost goal to secure the development of the future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and get proof of its economic efficiency. With the potential budgets and programmatics foreseeable milestones throughout Europe, CNES, the French Space Agency, has engaged since late 2000 a feasibility study of a low-cost experimental vehicle, dubbed Pre-X, with EADS SPACE Transportation as leading contractor. A System Concept Review was held in June 2002. Then, prior to a full-scale development and its integration within a European Programme, studies have been pursued in the way to deepen the feasibility level of the Pre-X vehicle and in order to enforce both the project objectives and the technical definition. During the so-called Phase A1 of the Pre-X project, from October 2003 to October 2004, the emphasis is notably put on the aeroshape consolidation and the mission analysis, whose goal is to decrease the heat fluxes. This paper aims at showing how aerothermodynamics studies can support and direct those two activities. As far as the shape design is concerned, aerothermodynamics (ATD) analyses have permitted for instance to bring out a critical issue related to the occurrence of a shock wave/shock wave interaction on the flaps, resulting in an unacceptable heating. ATD studies have moreover provided input data for the mission analysis by determining the re-entry corridor with the related thermal limits: oxidation process on the nosecap, as well as limit temperatures on the nosecap, the windward side and the flaps. For that purpose, both Euler + Boundary Layer computations and Navier-Stokes computations have been performed.

  19. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  20. Aerodynamic Design Criteria for Class 8 Heavy Vehicles Trailer Base Devices to Attain Optimum Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; Ortega, J

    2010-12-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction techniques and concepts for significant on the road fuel economy improvements. As part of this effort a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design for aerodynamic drag reduction devices has been established. The objective of this report is to provide design guidance for trailer base devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. These devices are commonly referred to as boattails, base flaps, tail devices, and etc. The information provided here is based on past research and our most recent full-scale experimental investigations in collaboration with Navistar Inc. Additional supporting data from LLNL/Navistar wind tunnel, track test, and on the road test will be published soon. The trailer base devices can be identified by 4 flat panels that are attached to the rear edges of the trailer base to form a closed cavity. These devices have been engineered in many different forms such as, inflatable and non-inflatable, 3 and 4-sided, closed and open cavity, and etc. The following is an in-depth discussion with some recommendations, based on existing data and current research activities, of changes that could be made to these devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. There are 6 primary factors that could influence the aerodynamic performance of trailer base devices: (1) Deflection angle; (2) Boattail length; (3) Sealing of edges and corners; (4) 3 versus 4-sided, Position of the 4th plate; (5) Boattail vertical extension, Skirt - boattail transition; and (6) Closed versus open cavity.

  1. Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies Being Designed for Orbit Transfer Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Falck, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing interest in employing Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) for new missions requiring transfer from low Earth orbit to the Earth-Moon Lagrange point, L1. Mission architecture plans place the Gateway Habitat at L1 in the 2011 to 2016 timeframe. The Gateway Habitat is envisioned to be used for Lunar exploration, space telescopes, and planetary mission staging. In these scenarios, an SEP stage, or "tug," is used to transport payloads to L1--such as the habitat module, lunar excursion and return vehicles, and chemical propellant for return crew trips. SEP tugs are attractive because they are able to efficiently transport large (less than 10,000 kg) payloads while minimizing propellant requirements. To meet the needs of these missions, a preliminary conceptual design for a general-purpose SEP tug was developed that incorporates several of the advanced space power and in-space propulsion technologies (such as high-power gridded ion and Hall thrusters, high-performance thin-film photovoltaics, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced high-voltage power processing) being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A spreadsheet-based vehicle system model was developed for component sizing and is currently being used for mission planning. This model incorporates a low-thrust orbit transfer algorithm to make preliminary determinations of transfer times and propellant requirements. Results from this combined tug mass estimation and orbit transfer model will be used in a higher fidelity trajectory model to refine the analysis.

  2. Design considerations for a lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide electric vehicle battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Shimotake, H.; Barney, D. L.; Kawahara, K.; Goto, K.

    A study has been made of battery-vehicle design interactions using a Toyota Carina converted to electric drive with a Li-Al/FeS battery used as a power and energy source. Energy and power requirements were calculated based on a range of 120 or 200 km with acceleration requirements typical of today's internal-combustion automobiles. Cell modeling analysis was employed to relate the specific energy of the battery to its power capability in terms of the P/E ratio, and this relationship was then used to estimate the battery weight and volume. Based on the results of the study, the specifications and performance of a compact electric automobile have been derived. It is concluded that, when fully developed, the Li-Al/FeS battery can provide a power source of high energy and power density for a personal electric vehicle. The battery is safe, rugged, requires no maintenance, and may offer the possibility of range extension through quick recharge.

  3. Design and Analysis for SFCL Combined System Utilizing On-line Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S.; Jang, G.

    The various concepts of the wireless power transportation system have been already studied including the efficiency and harmonics issue as well as system stability. This paper deals with a utilizing process about superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) at the distribution level to prepare the fault condition of the nearby system with On-Line Electric Vehicle (OLEV), which is designed using the resonance support system. These inductive power conversion systems are being considered to build closely to utility grid because the charging system could generate low voltage condition. Therefore, adoption of the current limiter on the system can be a possible solution to the terminal distribution system. Furthermore, the OLEV system utilizes resonance charging system which can respond fault condition immediately with segregated state. In this paper, combined SFCL system is introduced to solve the fault current issue under the low voltage distribution system by using the concept of the proposed OLEV and SFCL. The algorithm for the charging system of electric vehicles has been set for the examination of several operating condition, including default status.

  4. Design considerations to improve cognitive ergonomic issues of unmanned vehicle interfaces utilizing video game controllers.

    PubMed

    Oppold, P; Rupp, M; Mouloua, M; Hancock, P A; Martin, J

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned (UAVs, UCAVs, and UGVs) systems still have major human factors and ergonomic challenges related to the effective design of their control interface systems, crucial to their efficient operation, maintenance, and safety. Unmanned system interfaces with a human centered approach promote intuitive interfaces that are easier to learn, and reduce human errors and other cognitive ergonomic issues with interface design. Automation has shifted workload from physical to cognitive, thus control interfaces for unmanned systems need to reduce mental workload on the operators and facilitate the interaction between vehicle and operator. Two-handed video game controllers provide wide usability within the overall population, prior exposure for new operators, and a variety of interface complexity levels to match the complexity level of the task and reduce cognitive load. This paper categorizes and provides taxonomy for 121 haptic interfaces from the entertainment industry that can be utilized as control interfaces for unmanned systems. Five categories of controllers were based on the complexity of the buttons, control pads, joysticks, and switches on the controller. This allows the selection of the level of complexity needed for a specific task without creating an entirely new design or utilizing an overly complex design. PMID:22317628

  5. Development and Design of a Zero-G Liquid Quantity Gauge for a Solar Thermal Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steven T.; Petullo, Steven P.; VanDresar, Neil T.; Taylor, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The development and design of a cryogenic liquid quantity gauge for zero-g applications is described. The gauge, named the Compression Mass Gauge (CMG), operates on the principle of slightly changing the volume of the tank by an oscillating bellows. The resulting pressure change is measured and used to predict the volume of vapor in the tank, from which the volume of liquid is computed. For each gauging instance, pressures are measured for several different bellows frequencies to enable minor real-gas effects to be quantified and thereby to obtain a gauging accuracy of +/- 1% of tank volume. Southwest Research Institute (Tm) and NASA-GRC (Glenn Research Center) have developed several previous breadboard and engineering development gauges and tested them in cryogenic hydrogen and nitrogen to establish the gauge capabilities, to resolve several design issues, and to formulate data processing algorithms. The CMG has been selected by NASA's Future X program for a flight demonstration on the USAF (United States Air Force) / Boeing Solar Thermal Vehicle Space Experiment (SOTVSE). This paper reviews the design trade studies needed to satisfy the SOTVSE limitations on CMG power, volume, and mass, and describes the mechanical design of the CMG.

  6. Design, building, and testing of the postlanding systems for the assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosterman, Kenneth C.; Anderson, Loren A.

    1991-01-01

    The design, building, and testing of the postlanding support systems for a water-landing Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) are presented. One ACRV will be permanently docked to Space Station Freedom, fulfilling NASA's commitment to Assured Crew Return Capability in the event of an accident or illness. The configuration of the ACRV is based on an Apollo Command Module (ACM) derivative. The 1990-1991 effort concentrated on the design, building, and testing of a one-fifth scale model of the egress and stabilization systems. The objective was to determine the feasibility of (1) stabilizing the ACM out of the range of motions that cause seasickness and (2) the safe and rapid removal of a sick or injured crew member from the ACRV. The development of the ACRV postlanding systems model was performed at the University of Central Florida with guidance from the Kennedy Space Center ACRV program managers. Emphasis was placed on four major areas. First was design and construction of a one-fifth scale model of the ACM derivative to accommodate the egress and stabilization systems for testing. Second was the identification of a water test facility suitable for testing the model in all possible configurations. Third was the construction of the rapid egress mechanism designed in the previous academic year for incorporation into the ACRV model. The fourth area was construction and motion response testing of the attitude ring and underwater parachute systems.

  7. Development and design of a zero-G liquid quantity gauge for a solar thermal vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steven T.; Petullo, Steven P.; van Dresar, Neil T.

    2002-01-01

    The development and design of a cryogenic liquid quantity gauge for zero-g applications is described. The gauge, named the Compression Mass Gauge (CMG), operates on the principle of slightly changing the volume of the tank by an oscillating bellows. The resulting pressure change is measured and used to predict the volume of vapor in the tank, from which the volume of liquid is computed. For each gauging instance, pressures are measured for several different bellows frequencies to enable minor real-gas effects to be quantified and thereby to obtain a gauging accuracy of +/-1% of tank volume. Southwest Research Institute™ and NASA-GRC have developed several previous breadboard and engineering development gauges and tested them in cryogenic hydrogen and nitrogen to establish the gauge capabilities, to resolve several design issues, and to formulate data processing algorithms. The CMG has been selected by NASA's Future X program for a flight demonstration on the USAF/Boeing Solar Thermal Vehicle Space Experiment (SOTVSE). This paper reviews the design trade studies needed to satisfy the SOTVSE limitations on CMG power, volume, and mass, and describes the mechanical design of the CMG. .

  8. Integrated Optimization of Airframe Design and Flight Trajectory for Advanced Space Transportation Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito; Ishikawa, Yoshio

    Authors have been attempting to develop a multidisciplinary design optimization tool for a large-scale system using Genetic Algorithm (GA), and to apply this tool to the integrated optimization problem of the airframe design and its flight trajectory for an advanced space transportation vehicle that is a spaceplane. The results of the latest calculation for the problem above obtained by the developed tool showed that airframes (solutions) converged on four areas in the solution space and sensitivity of design variables of the airframe shape was remarkably different in each convergence area. Although high-ranking solutions having good value of the performance index have various airframe configurations, those flight trajectories hardly changed. The best solution showed that it is necessary to reduce the weights of airframe components and to improve the performance of air-breathing engine for realizing a feasible airframe size. It is suggested that this tool is absolutely useful for searching a solution at the conceptual designing phase of a spaceplane.

  9. Design and performance of an insect-inspired nano air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontemps, A.; Vanneste, T.; Paquet, J.-B.; Dietsch, T.; Grondel, S.; Cattan, E.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the structural design, actuation and performance of an insect-inspired nano air vehicle. For this purpose, an original design concept of resonant wings using indirect actuation and concise transmission to allow large and symmetrical bending angles, passive wing torsion and to minimize energy expenditure is presented. A simplified analytical model and a numerical approach for the transmission between the actuator and the wings are then proposed to validate the design. The all-polymer prototypes were obtained using micromachining SU-8 photoresist technology. An electromagnetic actuator was added to control the vibrating amplitudes and create passive wing torsion. The actuator was optimized to make it more effective whilst at the same time minimizing its mass. Prototypes with a global wingspan of 3.5 cm and a mass of 22 mg due to the structure and actuator are presented. Bending amplitudes of the wings up to 60° were measured with these prototypes. The resonant frequency of the wings varied according to the design and mass. It was demonstrated that it is possible to obtain, without an important driving mechanism a very promising kinematics.

  10. The Role of Design-of-Experiments in Managing Flow in Compact Air Vehicle Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Miller, Daniel N.; Gridley, Marvin C.; Agrell, Johan

    2003-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to demonstrate the viability and economy of Design-of-Experiments methodologies to arrive at microscale secondary flow control array designs that maintain optimal inlet performance over a wide range of the mission variables and to explore how these statistical methods provide a better understanding of the management of flow in compact air vehicle inlets. These statistical design concepts were used to investigate the robustness properties of low unit strength micro-effector arrays. Low unit strength micro-effectors are micro-vanes set at very low angles-of-incidence with very long chord lengths. They were designed to influence the near wall inlet flow over an extended streamwise distance, and their advantage lies in low total pressure loss and high effectiveness in managing engine face distortion. The term robustness is used in this paper in the same sense as it is used in the industrial problem solving community. It refers to minimizing the effects of the hard-to-control factors that influence the development of a product or process. In Robustness Engineering, the effects of the hard-to-control factors are often called noise , and the hard-to-control factors themselves are referred to as the environmental variables or sometimes as the Taguchi noise variables. Hence Robust Optimization refers to minimizing the effects of the environmental or noise variables on the development (design) of a product or process. In the management of flow in compact inlets, the environmental or noise variables can be identified with the mission variables. Therefore this paper formulates a statistical design methodology that minimizes the impact of variations in the mission variables on inlet performance and demonstrates that these statistical design concepts can lead to simpler inlet flow management systems.

  11. A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Blake Almy

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are problematic for design space exploration. To begin addressing the current gaps in fuel cell aircraft development, a methodology has been developed to explore and characterize the near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs. The first step of the methodology is the development of a valid MDA. This is accomplished by using propagated uncertainty estimates to guide the decomposition of a MDA into key contributing analyses (CAs) that can be individually refined and validated to increase the overall accuracy of the MDA. To assist in MDA development, a flexible framework for simultaneously solving the CAs is specified. This enables the MDA to be easily adapted to changes in technology and the changes in data that occur throughout a design process. Various CAs that model a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) UAV are developed, validated, and shown to be in agreement with hardware-in-the-loop simulations of a fully developed fuel cell propulsion system. After creating a valid MDA, the final step of the methodology is the synthesis of the MDA with an uncertainty propagation analysis, an optimization routine, and a chance constrained problem formulation. This synthesis allows an efficient calculation of the probabilistic constraint boundaries and Pareto frontiers that will govern the design space and influence design decisions relating to optimization and uncertainty mitigation. A key element of the methodology is uncertainty propagation. The methodology uses Systems Sensitivity Analysis (SSA) to estimate the uncertainty of key performance metrics due to uncertainties in design variables and uncertainties in the accuracy of the CAs. A summary of SSA is provided and key rules for properly decomposing a MDA for use with SSA are provided. Verification of SSA uncertainty estimates via Monte Carlo simulations is provided for both an example problem as well as a detailed MDA of a fuel cell UAV. Implementation of the methodology was performed on a small fuel cell UAV designed to carry a 2.2 kg payload with 24 hours of endurance. Uncertainty distributions for both design

  12. Design of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle to Calibrate the Europa Clipper Ice-Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, W.; Siegel, V.; Kimball, P.; Richmond, K.; Flesher, C.; Hogan, B.; Lelievre, S.

    2013-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa has been prioritized as the target for the Europa Clipper flyby mission. A key science objective for the mission is to remotely characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange. This objective is a critical component of the mission's overarching goal of assessing the habitability of Europa. The instrument targeted for addressing key aspects of this goal is an ice-penetrating radar (IPR). As a primary goal of our work, we will tightly couple airborne IPR studies of the Ross Ice Shelf by the Europa Clipper radar team with ground-truth data to be obtained from sub-glacial sonar and bio-geochemical mapping of the corresponding ice-water and water-rock interfaces using an advanced autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The ARTEMIS vehicle - a heavily morphed long-range, low drag variant of the highly successful 4-degree-of-freedom hovering sub-ice ENDURANCE bot -- will be deployed from a sea-ice drill hole adjacent the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) and will perform three classes of missions. The first includes original exploration and high definition mapping of both the ice-water interface and the benthic interface on a length scale (approximately 10 kilometers under-ice penetration radius) that will definitively tie it to the synchronous airborne IPR over-flights. These exploration and mapping missions will be conducted at up to 10 different locations along the MIS in order to capture varying ice thickness and seawater intrusion into the ice shelf. Following initial mapping characterization, the vehicle will conduct astrobiology-relevant proximity operations using bio-assay sensors (custom-designed UV fluorescence and machine-vision-processed optical imagery) followed by point-targeted studies at regions of interest. Sample returns from the ice-water interface will be triggered autonomously using real-time-processed instrument data and onboard decision-to-collect algorithms. ARTEMIS will be capable of conducting precision hovering proximity science in an unexplored environment, followed by high speed (1.5 m/s) return to the melt hole. The navigation system will significantly advance upon the successes of the prior DEPTHX and ENDURANCE systems and several novel pose-drift correction technologies will be developed and tested under ice during the project. The method of down-hole deployment and auto-docking return will be extended to a vertically-deployed, horizontally-recovered concept that is depth independent and highly relevant to an ice-water deployment on an icy moon. The presentation will discuss the mission down-select architecture for the ARTEMIS vehicle and its implications for the design of a Europa 'fast mover' carrier AUV, the onboard instrument suite, and the Antarctic mission CONOPS. The vehicle and crew will deploy to Antarctica in the 2015/2016 season.

  13. Reconfigurable Flight Control Designs With Application to the X-33 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zhenglu

    1999-01-01

    Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the right body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

  14. Design of a radiation surveillance unit for an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Kurvinen, K; Smolander, P; Pöllänen, R; Kuukankorpi, S; Kettunen, M; Lyytinen, J

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype of a compact environmental radiation surveillance instrument designed for a Ranger unmanned aerial vehicle. The instrument, which can be used for tracking a radioactive plume, mapping fallout and searching for point sources, consists of three different detector types (GM, NaI(Tl) and CZT) and an air sampling unit. In addition to the standard electronics for data acquisition, the system contains an onboard computer, a GPS receiver and environmental sensors, all enclosed in a single housing manufactured of fiberglass-reinforced composite material. The data collected during the flight is transmitted in real-time to the ground station via a TETRA radio network. The radiation surveillance unit is an independent module and as such can be used in, for example, airplanes, helicopters and cars. PMID:15748656

  15. Design of a Multi-Sensor Cooperation Travel Environment Perception System for Autonomous Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Li, Qingquan; Li, Ming; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the environment perception system designed for intelligent vehicle SmartV-II, which won the 2010 Future Challenge. This system utilizes the cooperation of multiple lasers and cameras to realize several necessary functions of autonomous navigation: road curb detection, lane detection and traffic sign recognition. Multiple single scan lasers are integrated to detect the road curb based on Z-variance method. Vision based lane detection is realized by two scans method combining with image model. Haar-like feature based method is applied for traffic sign detection and SURF matching method is used for sign classification. The results of experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the whole system.

  16. The role of fracture mechanics in the design of fuel tanks in space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, S. J.; Liu, C. K.

    1976-01-01

    With special reference to design of fuel tanks in space vehicles, the principles of fracture mechanics are reviewed. An approximate but extremely simple relationship is derived among the operating stress level, the length of crack, and the number of cycles of failure. Any one of the variables can be computed approximately from the knowledge of the other two, if the loading schedule (mission of the tank) is not greatly altered. Two sample examples illustrating the procedures of determining the allowable safe operating stress corresponding to a set of assumed loading schedule are included. The selection of sample examples is limited by the relatively meager available data on the candidate material for various stress ratios in the cycling.

  17. Trajectory design and navigation analysis for Cargo Transfer Vehicle proximity operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. M.; White, B. D.

    1992-08-01

    The paper documents an investigation of alternative (or off-nominal) final approach trajectories and terminal guidance algorithms for Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) automated rendezvous and proximity operation in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF). Ten candidate trajectory designs, representing a survey of all approaches that reasonably satisfy the mission constraints, are compared qualitatively and quantitatively. It is shown that several fundamentally different types of approach strategies are feasible in the CTV application and enjoy more favorable passive collision avoidance and plume impingement properties than the nominal. They are, however, generally more costly in propellant. The extent to which an alternative approach is more costly is determined largely by the abort (or specifically the 'hold' or 'wave-off') requirements. These approach techniques are verified in a software simulation using a parametrically defined candidate navigation system, and proximity sensor accuracy requirements are derived.

  18. Novel transport-vehicle design for moving optic modules in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grasz, E.; Tiszauer, D.

    1998-05-07

    The National Ignition Facility, currently under design and construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, will be the world`s largest laser when complete. The NIF will use about 8,000 large optics of 26 different types to focus up to 192 laser beams on a dime-size target. Given the constraints of the NIF operating environment, the tasks associated with optics transport and handling require a novel, versatile transport system. The system will consist of a computer system containing guidance, traffic management and order entry functions, and four or more automated laser-guided vehicles. This transport system will transport optics enclosures that are essentially portable clean rooms and will lift, align, and position them as needed to contact and engage mating points on the laser support structure.

  19. Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Crushable Energy Absorber for a Passive Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Corliss, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual study was performed to investigate the impact response of a crushable energy absorber for a passive Earth entry vehicle. The spherical energy-absorbing concept consisted of a foam-filled composite cellular structure capable of omni-directional impact-load attenuation as well as penetration resistance. Five composite cellular samples of hemispherical geometry were fabricated and tested dynamically with impact speeds varying from 30 to 42 meters per second. Theoretical crush load predictions were obtained with the aid of a generalized theory which accounts for the energy dissipated during the folding deformation of the cell-walls. Excellent correlation was obtained between theoretical predictions and experimental tests on characteristic cell-web intersections. Good correlation of theory with experiment was also found to exist for the more complex spherical cellular structures. All preliminary design requirements were met by the cellular structure concept, which exhibited a near-ideal sustained crush-load and approximately 90% crush stroke.

  20. Aerodynamic heating and surface temperatures on vehicles for computer-aided design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Kania, L. A.; Chitty, A.

    1983-01-01

    A computer subprogram has been developed to calculate aerodynamic and radiative heating rates and to determine surface temperatures by integrating the heating rates along the trajectory of a vehicle. Convective heating rates are calculated by applying the axisymmetric analogue to inviscid surface streamlines and using relatively simple techniques to calculate laminar, transitional, or turbulent heating rates. Options are provided for the selection of gas model, transition criterion, turbulent heating method, Reynolds Analogy factor, and entropy-layer swallowing effects. Heating rates are compared to experimental data, and the time history of surface temperatures are given for a high-speed trajectory. The computer subprogram is developed for preliminary design and mission analysis where parametric studies are needed at all speeds.

  1. Analysis, Design and Optimization of Non-Cylindrical Fuselage for Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Kosaka, I.; Quinn, G.; Charpentier, C.

    2002-01-01

    Initial results of an investigation towards finding an efficient non-cylindrical fuselage configuration for a conceptual blended-wing-body flight vehicle were presented. A simplified 2-D beam column analysis and optimization was performed first. Then a set of detailed finite element models of deep sandwich panel and ribbed shell construction concepts were analyzed and optimized. Generally these concepts with flat surfaces were found to be structurally inefficient to withstand internal pressure and resultant compressive loads simultaneously. Alternatively, a set of multi-bubble fuselage configuration concepts were developed for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls. An outer-ribbed shell was designed to prevent buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. Initial results from finite element analysis appear to be promising. These concepts should be developed further to exploit their inherent structurally efficiency.

  2. Thermal Design and Analysis of the Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Pauken, Michael; Sunada, Eric; Gray, Sandria

    2013-01-01

    The thermal design and analysis of the experimental Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) vehicle is presented. The SFDT vehicle is currently being designed as a platform to help demonstrate key technologies for NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project. The LDSD project is charged by NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) with the task of advancing the state of the art in Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by developing and testing three new technologies required for landing heavier payloads on Mars. The enabling technologies under development consist of a large 33.5 meter diameter Supersonic Ringsail (SSRS) parachute and two different types of Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) devices - a robotic class, SIAD-R, that inflates to a 6 meter diameter torus, and an exploration class, SIAD-E, that inflates to an 8 meter diameter isotensoid. As part of the technology development effort, the various elements of the new supersonic decelerator system must be tested in a Mars-like environment. This is currently planned to be accomplished by sending a series of SFDT vehicles into Earth's stratosphere. Each SFDT vehicle will be lifted to a stable float altitude by a large helium carrier balloon. Once at altitude, the SFDT vehicles will be released from their carrier balloon and spun up via spin motors to provide trajectory stability. An onboard third stage solid rocket motor will propel each test vehicle to supersonic flight in the upper atmosphere. After main engine burnout, each vehicle will be despun and testing of the deceleration system will begin: first an inflatable decelerator will be deployed around the aeroshell to increase the drag surface area, and then the large parachute will be deployed to continue the deceleration and return the vehicle back to the Earth's surface. The SFDT vehicle thermal system must passively protect the vehicle structure and its components from cold temperatures experienced during the ascent phase of the mission as well as from the extreme heat fluxes produced during the supersonic test phase by the main motor plume and aeroheating. The passive thermal design approach for the SFDT vehicle relies upon careful and complex bounding analysis of all three modes of heat transfer - conduction, convection, and radiation - coupled with a tightly managed transient power dissipation timeline for onboard electronics components throughout all mission phases.

  3. Design and Testing of a Prototype Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSLRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    This handbook describes a two-semester senior design course sponsored by the NASA Office of Education, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and the NASA Space Grant Consortium. The course was developed and implemented by the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department (MAE) at Utah State University. The course final outcome is a packaged senior design course that can be readily incorporated into the instructional curriculum at universities across the country. The course materials adhere to the standards of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and is constructed to be relevant to key research areas identified by ESMD. The design project challenged students to apply systems engineering concepts to define research and training requirements for a terrestrial-based lunar landing simulator. This project developed a flying prototype for a Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSRV). Per NASA specifications the concept accounts for reduced lunar gravity, and allows the terminal stage of lunar descent to be flown either by remote pilot or autonomously. This free-flying platform was designed to be sufficiently-flexible to allow both sensor evaluation and pilot training. This handbook outlines the course materials, describes the systems engineering processes developed to facilitate design fabrication, integration, and testing. This handbook presents sufficient details of the final design configuration to allow an independent group to reproduce the design. The design evolution and details regarding the verification testing used to characterize the system are presented in a separate project final design report. Details of the experimental apparatus used for system characterization may be found in Appendix F, G, and I of that report. A brief summary of the ground testing and systems verification is also included in Appendix A of this report. Details of the flight tests will be documented in a separate flight test report. This flight test report serves as a complement to the course handbook presented here. This project was extremely ambitious, and achieving all of the design and test objectives was a daunting task. The schedule ran slightly longer than a single academic year with the complete design closure not occurring until early April. Integration and verification testing spilled over into late May and the first flight did not occur until mid to late June. The academic year at Utah State University ended on May 8, 2010. Following the end of the academic year, testing and integration was performed by the faculty advisor, paid research assistants, and volunteer student help

  4. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 3: Computer program listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A description and listing is presented of two computer programs: Hybrid Vehicle Design Program (HYVELD) and Hybrid Vehicle Simulation Program (HYVEC). Both of the programs are modifications and extensions of similar programs developed as part of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project.

  5. Applied Virtual Reality in Reusable Launch Vehicle Design, Operations Development, and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Application of Virtual Reality (VR) technology offers much promise to enhance and accelerate the development of Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) infrastructure and operations while simultaneously reducing developmental and operational costs. One of the primary cost areas in the RLV concept that is receiving special attention is maintenance and refurbishment operations. To produce and operate a cost effective RLV, turnaround cost must be minimized. Designing for maintainability is a necessary requirement in developing RLVs. VR can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is beginning to utilize VR for design, operations development, and design analysis for RLVs. A VR applications program has been under development at NASA/MSFC since 1989. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, mission operations training and science training. The NASA/MSFC VR capability has also been utilized in several applications. These include: 1) the assessment of the design of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA), the control room from which onboard payload operations are managed; 2) a viewing analysis of the Tethered Satellite System's (TSS) "end-of-reel" tether marking options; 3) development of a virtual mockup of the International Space Welding Experiment for science viewing analyses from the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System elbow camera and as a trainer for ground controllers; and 4) teleoperations using VR. This presentation will give a general overview of the MSFC VR Applications Program and describe the use of VR in design analyses, operations development, and training for RLVs.

  6. Use of Probabilistic Engineering Methods in the Detailed Design and Development Phases of the NASA Ares Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayssal, Safie; Weldon, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program called Constellation to send crew and cargo to the international Space Station, to the moon, and beyond. As part of the Constellation program, a new launch vehicle, Ares I, is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Designing a launch vehicle with high reliability and increased safety requires a significant effort in understanding design variability and design uncertainty at the various levels of the design (system, element, subsystem, component, etc.) and throughout the various design phases (conceptual, preliminary design, etc.). In a previous paper [1] we discussed a probabilistic functional failure analysis approach intended mainly to support system requirements definition, system design, and element design during the early design phases. This paper provides an overview of the application of probabilistic engineering methods to support the detailed subsystem/component design and development as part of the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the new Ares I Launch Vehicle. Specifically, the paper discusses probabilistic engineering design analysis cases that had major impact on the design and manufacturing of the Space Shuttle hardware. The cases represent important lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Program and clearly demonstrate the significance of probabilistic engineering analysis in better understanding design deficiencies and identifying potential design improvement for Ares I. The paper also discusses the probabilistic functional failure analysis approach applied during the early design phases of Ares I and the forward plans for probabilistic design analysis in the detailed design and development phases.

  7. Design and Analysis of Subscale and Full-Scale Buckling-Critical Cylinders for Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Rankin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project has the goal of developing new analysis-based shell buckling design factors (knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale levels. This paper describes the design and analysis of three different orthogrid-stiffeNed metallic cylindrical-shell test articles. Two of the test articles are 8-ft-diameter, 6-ft-long test articles, and one test article is a 27.5-ft-diameter, 20-ft-long Space Shuttle External Tank-derived test article.

  8. Vehicle Sketch Pad: a Parametric Geometry Modeler for Conceptual Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual aircraft designer is faced with a dilemma, how to strike the best balance between productivity and fidelity? Historically, handbook methods have required only the coarsest of geometric parameterizations in order to perform analysis. Increasingly, there has been a drive to upgrade analysis methods, but these require considerably more precise and detailed geometry. Attempts have been made to use computer-aided design packages to fill this void, but their cost and steep learning curve have made them unwieldy at best. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) has been developed over several years to better fill this void. While no substitute for the full feature set of computer-aided design packages, VSP allows even novices to quickly become proficient in defining three-dimensional, watertight aircraft geometries that are adequate for producing multi-disciplinary meta-models for higher order analysis methods, wind tunnel and display models, as well as a starting point for animation models. This paper will give an overview of the development and future course of VSP.

  9. A Water Vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR Design for Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, Russell J.; Mead, Patricia F.

    2004-01-01

    This system study proposes the deployment of a water vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system on an Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform. The Altair offers improved payload weight and volume performance, and longer total flight time as compared to other commercial UAV's. This study has generated a preliminary design for an Altair based water vapor DIAL system. The design includes a proposed DIAL schematic, a review of mechanical challenges such as temperature and humidity stresses on UAV deployed DIAL systems, an assessment of the available capacity for additional instrumentation (based on the proposed design), and an overview of possible weight and volume improvements associated with the use of customized electronic and computer hardware, and through the integration of advanced fiber-optic and laser products. The results of the study show that less than 17% of the available weight, less than 19% of the volume capacity, and approximately 11% of the electrical capacity is utilized by the proposed water vapor DIAL system on the Altair UAV.

  10. Aerodynamic Design Exploration for Reusable Launch Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithm with Navier Stokes Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsukawa, Tomoaki; Nonomura, Taku; Oyama, Akira; Fujii, Kozo

    In this study, aerodynamic design exploration for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is conducted using genetic algorithm with Navier-Stokes solver to understand the aerodynamic characteristics for various body configurations and find design information such as tradeoff information among objectives. The multi-objective aerodynamic design optimization for minimizing zero-lift drag at supersonic condition, maximizing maximum lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) at subsonic condition, maximizing maximum L/D at supersonic condition, and maximizing volume of shape is conducted for bi-conical shape RLV based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The total number of evaluation in multi-objective optimization is 400, and it is necessary for evaluating one body configuration to conduct 8 CFD runs. In total, 3200 CFD runs are conducted. The analysis of Pareto-optimal solutions shows that there are various trade-off relations among objectives clearly, and the analysis of flow fields shows that the shape for the minimum drag configuration is almost the same as that of the shape for the maximum L/D configuration at supersonic condition. The shape for the maximum L/D at subsonic condition obtains additional lift at the kink compared with the minimum drag configuration. It leads to enhancement of L/D.

  11. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  12. Development and Design of Zero-g Liquid Quantity Gauge for Solar Thermal Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steven T.; Petullo, Steven P.; VanDresar, Neil T.

    2002-01-01

    The development and design of a cryogenic liquid quantity gauge for zero-gravity (zero-g) applications are described. The gauge, named the compression mass gauge (CMG), operates on the principle of slightly changing the volume of the tank by an oscillating bellows. The resulting pressure change is measured and used to predict the volume of vapor in the tank, from which the volume of liquid is computed. For each gauging instance, pressures are measured for several different bellows frequencies to enable minor real-gas effects to be quantified and thereby to obtain a gauging accuracy of 11 percent of tank volume. The CMG has been selected by NASA's Future-X program for a flight demonstration on the United States Air Force-Boeing Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle Space Experiment (SOTVSE). This report reviews the design trade studies needed for the CMG to satisfy the SOTVSE limitations on its power, volume, and mass and also describes the mechanical design of the CMG.

  13. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob

    2014-01-29

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  14. Bridging the Design-Manufacturing-Materials Data Gap: Material Properties for Optimum Design and Manufacturing Performance in Light Vehicle Steel-Intensive Body Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, Blake K.

    2012-09-01

    As safety and fuel economy regulations become increasingly more challenging around the world, light vehicle manufacturers are facing increasing pressure to reduce the weight of their vehicles cost effectively while maintaining or improving safety performance. Optimum light vehicle steel body structure weight and performance are achieved when the constraints of design, manufacturing, and material properties are considered simultaneously. ArcelorMittal has invested heavily over the past several years to close the gap between material property knowledge and the inter-relation between material performance and design and manufacturing efficiency. Knowledge gained through this process is presented and the importance of achieving this simultaneous 3-way optimization is illustrated by a lightweight steel door design example from ArcelorMittal's S-in motion catalog of lightweight steel solutions.

  15. Design and analysis of multifunctional structures for embedded electronics in unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Rushabh M.

    Multifunctional structures are a new trend in the aerospace industry for the next generation structural design. Many future structures are expected to be something in addition to a load bearing structure. The design and analysis of multifunctional structures combining structural, electrical and thermal functionalities are presented here. The sandwich beam is considered as a starting point for the load bearing structure and then it is modified with a cavity to embed avionics and thermal controls. The embedded avionics inside the load bearing structure would allow weight reduction of the aerospace vehicle due to elimination of separate electronics housing, interconnects, cables etc. The cavity reduces strength of the structure so various reinforcements methods are evaluated. The result of various reinforcements and their effectiveness are presented. The current generation of electronics produce massive amount of heat. In the case of embedded electronics, the excessive heat presents a major challenge to the structural and heat transfer engineers. The embedded nature of electronics prevents the use of the classical heat dissipative methods such as fans and high velocity air flows, etc. The integrated thermal control of the electronics has been designed using passive heat transfer device and highly optimized particulate composite thermal interface material (TIM). The TIMs are used to fill the air gaps and reduce contact resistance between two surfaces, such as electronics and heat dissipators. The efficiency of TIM directly affects the overall heat transfer ability of the integrated thermal control system. The effect of the particles at micron and nano scales are studied for the particulate composite TIM. The thermal boundary resistance study for the particulate composite TIM with nano silica particles is presented in this thesis. The FEA analysis is used to model thermal boundary resistance and compared with the theoretical micromechanics model. The heat pipes are chosen as a part of passive heat transfer device due to their durability and excellent thermal conductivities. The multifunctional system consisting of all above components is modeled for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at subsonic air speeds to demonstrate the validity of the design.

  16. Assessment, design and control strategy development of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle for CSU's EcoCAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Matthew D.

    Advanced automotive technology assessment and powertrain design are increasingly performed through modeling, simulation, and optimization. But technology assessments usually target many competing criteria making any individual optimization challenging and arbitrary. Further, independent design simulations and optimizations take considerable time to execute, and design constraints and objectives change throughout the design process. Changes in design considerations usually require re-processing of simulations and more time. In this thesis, these challenges are confronted through CSU's participation in the EcoCAR2 hybrid vehicle design competition. The complexity of the competition's design objectives leveraged development of a decision support system tool to aid in multi-criteria decision making across technologies and to perform powertrain optimization. To make the decision support system interactive, and bypass the problem of long simulation times, a new approach was taken. The result of this research is CSU's architecture selection and component sizing, which optimizes a composite objective function representing the competition score. The selected architecture is an electric vehicle with an onboard range extending hydrogen fuel cell system. The vehicle has a 145kW traction motor, 18.9kWh of lithium ion battery, a 15kW fuel cell system, and 5kg of hydrogen storage capacity. Finally, a control strategy was developed that improves the vehicles performance throughout the driving range under variable driving conditions. In conclusion, the design process used in this research is reviewed and evaluated against other common design methodologies. I conclude, through the highlighted case studies, that the approach is more comprehensive than other popular design methodologies and is likely to lead to a higher quality product. The upfront modeling work and decision support system formulation will pay off in superior and timely knowledge transfer and more informed design decisions. The hypothesis is supported by the three case studies examined in this thesis.

  17. Project EGRESS: Earthbound Guaranteed Reentry from Space Station. the Design of an Assured Crew Recovery Vehicle for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Unlike previously designed space-based working environments, the shuttle orbiter servicing the space station will not remain docked the entire time the station is occupied. While an Apollo capsule was permanently available on Skylab, plans for Space Station Freedom call for a shuttle orbiter to be docked at the space station for no more than two weeks four times each year. Consideration of crew safety inspired the design of an Assured Crew Recovery Vehicle (ACRV). A conceptual design of an ACRV was developed. The system allows the escape of one or more crew members from Space Station Freedom in case of emergency. The design of the vehicle addresses propulsion, orbital operations, reentry, landing and recovery, power and communication, and life support. In light of recent modifications in space station design, Project EGRESS (Earthbound Guaranteed ReEntry from Space Station) pays particular attention to its impact on space station operations, interfaces and docking facilities, and maintenance needs. A water-landing medium-lift vehicle was found to best satisfy project goals of simplicity and cost efficiency without sacrificing safety and reliability requirements. One or more seriously injured crew members could be returned to an earth-based health facility with minimal pilot involvement. Since the craft is capable of returning up to five crew members, two such permanently docked vehicles would allow a full evacuation of the space station. The craft could be constructed entirely with available 1990 technology, and launched aboard a shuttle orbiter.

  18. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

  19. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/vehicle design options for future NASA missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1995-09-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

  20. Fuzzy logic control algorithms for MagneShock semiactive vehicle shock absorbers: design and experimental evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Michael J.; Buckner, Gregory D.; Anderson, Richard D.

    2003-07-01

    Automotive ride quality and handling performance remain challenging design tradeoffs for modern, passive automobile suspension systems. Despite extensive published research outlining the benefits of active vehicle suspensions in addressing this tradeoff, the cost and complexity of these systems frequently prohibit commercial adoption. Semi-active suspensions can provide performance benefits over passive suspensions without the cost and complexity associated with fully active systems. This paper outlines the development and experimental evaluation of a fuzzy logic control algorithm for a commercial semi-active suspension component, Carrera's MagneShockTM shock absorber. The MagneShockTM utilizes an electromagnet to change the viscosity of magnetorheological (MR) fluid, which changes the damping characteristics of the shock. Damping for each shock is controlled by manipulating the coil current using real-time algorithms. The performance capabilities of fuzzy logic control (FLC) algorithms are demonstrated through experimental evaluations on a passenger vehicle. Results show reductions of 25% or more in sprung mass absorbed power (U.S. Army 6 Watt Absorbed Power Criterion) as compared to typical passive shock absorbers over urban terrains in both simulation and experimentation. Average sprung-mass RMS accelerations were also reduced by as much as 9%, but usually with an increase in total suspension travel over the passive systems. Additionally, a negligible decrease in RMS tire normal force was documented through computer simulations. And although the FLC absorbed power was comparable to that of the fixed-current MagneShockTM the FLC revealed reduced average RMS sprung-mass accelerations over the fixed-current MagneShocks by 2-9%. Possible means for improvement of this system include reducing the suspension spring stiffness and increasing the dynamic damping range of the MagneShockTM.