Sample records for vehicle exhaust gases

  1. Nondispersive infrared monitoring of NO emissions in exhaust gases of vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, A. J.; Meneses, J.; Briz, S.; López, F.

    1999-07-01

    Road traffic is one of the most important contributors to air pollution, being that a small fraction of the running vehicles is responsible for more than a half of the emissions. Roadside emission monitoring of individual cars appears to be an efficient way to identify these gross polluters. In this sense, nondispersive infrared (NDIR) systems have been developed to monitor the gas emissions of individual vehicles. However, these systems do not include NOx detection because of the strong interference of NO and NO2 absorption bands with the water band. This work is focused on the roadside monitoring of NO emissions by NDIR techniques. A theoretical study of the interference between NO and H2O absorption bands in the 1800-1950 cm-1 spectral region has been performed. Two absorption lines, centered at 1876 and 1900 cm-1 have been selected due to the very low water interference. The development of a new application based on the buildup of a high order interference filter, the solid state Fabry-Pérot filter, is presented. Design of the filter system has been done, optimizing the transmittance at these two absorption lines. Finally, the ability of such a filter to discriminate NO absorption has been tested by using experimental absorption spectra measured by a commercial Fourier transform infrared spectroradiometer working in the active mode. The buildup of such a filter would permit us to increase the capabilities of on road exhaust monitoring systems using the NDIR technique, extending the range of analyzed gases to the nitrogen oxides.

  2. Effluent sampling of Scout D and Delta launch vehicle exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulten, W. C.; Storey, R. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Woods, D. C.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Characterization of engine-exhaust effluents (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) has been attempted by conducting field experiments monitoring the exhaust cloud from a Scout-Algol III vehicle launch and a Delta-Thor vehicle launch. The exhaust cloud particulate size number distribution (total number of particles as a function of particle diameter), mass loading, morphology, and elemental composition have been determined within limitations. The gaseous species in the exhaust cloud have been identified. In addition to the ground-based measurements, instrumented aircraft flights through the low-altitude, stabilized-exhaust cloud provided measurements which identified CO and HCI gases and Al2O3 particles. Measurements of the initial exhaust cloud during formation and downwind at several distances have established sampling techniques which will be used for experimental verification of model predictions of effluent dispersion and fallout from exhaust clouds.

  3. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43...Requirements § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion...under usual operating conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and...

  4. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43...Requirements § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion...under usual operating conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and...

  5. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43...Requirements § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion...under usual operating conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and...

  6. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43...Requirements § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion...under usual operating conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and...

  7. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43...Requirements § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion...under usual operating conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and...

  8. Exhaust gas purification apparatus for motor vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sohda; S. Sohda

    1981-01-01

    A device is disclosed for treating exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine having a gas inlet adapted to be connected to the exhaust of the internal combustion engine and a plurality of serially arranged interconnected reaction chambers. The first of the chambers is connected to the gas inlet and includes a gas outlet forming a gas inlet into a

  9. Power recovery from in situ combustion exhaust gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Stinson; H. C. Carpenter; J. M. Jr. Cegielski

    1975-01-01

    A small gas combustion turbine generator set was tested using the in situ combustion exhaust gases from the Sloss Unit operated by Amoco Production Co. The exhaust gases were used to supplement the liquid fuel normally used to operate the turbine. The turbine was loaded by removing compressed air as well as by generating electric power. The results of these

  10. Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tholence; M. Norell

    2005-01-01

    Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650–1050°C for 50h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (<20?m) precipitated heterogeneously deep (600?m at 950°C) into SiMo. It is argued

  11. Method and apparatus for purification of exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bramer, H.C.; Shapiro, E.

    1982-02-16

    A process and apparatus are provided whereby sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as carbon monoxides and unburned hydrocarbons are removed from internal combustion engine exhaust gases. The gases are passed through a chamber containing a sulfide and an oxide of iron, copper or zinc. The system is partially self-regenerating and can be used in conjunction with present catalytic converter units or in lieu thereof. In certain embodiments the present invention can also replace muffler units in exhaust systems.

  12. Determination of some thermodynamic characteristics in an exhaust gases supercharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casci, C.

    The pressure and temperature characteristics of gases at the intake of an exhaust gases supercharger feeding an internal combustion reciprocating engine are determined in a rigorous way from the energy point of view. The Rateau system utilizing only the gases which go out of the cylinder spontaneously, and the total system which utilizes all the gases going out of the cylinder are considered. Diagrams showing the thermodynamic characteristics of the compressor, of the engine, and of the turbine are given. Results show that the superchargers can be used at altitudes other than sea level.

  13. Power Recovery From In-Situ Combustion Exhaust Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Stinson; H. C. Carpenter

    1976-01-01

    A small gas-combustion turbine generator set was tested using in-situ combustion exhaust gases from the crude oil recovery test at Amoco Production Co.'s Sloss Unit. These gases were used to supplement the liquid fuel normally used to operate the turbine. The turbine was loaded by removing compressed air as well as by generating electrical power. Test results indicate that gas-combustion

  14. Power recovery from in-situ combustion exhaust gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Stinson; H. C. Carpenter; J. M. Cegielski Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a field evaluation of the use of a small gas-combustion turbine generator set to recover power from in situ combustion exhaust gases. Facilities were added to a gas-combustion turbine to permit the introduction of the produced gases into the combustion chamber, the removal of the compressed air from the compressor section, fuel injection into an air-rich

  15. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

  16. Vehicle's exhaust emissions under car-following model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Yun-Peng

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we explore each vehicle's exhaust emissions under the full velocity difference (FVD) model and the car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability during three typical traffic situations. Numerical results show that the vehicle's exhaust emissions of the second model are less than those of the first model under the three typical traffic situations, which shows that the second model can reduce each vehicle's exhaust emissions.

  17. Exhaust gas detoxication system for a motor vehicle combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    van Busshuysen

    1974-01-01

    An exhaust gas detoxication system for a motor vehicle combustion engine with external ignition is comprised of a distributor, an intake system, a carburetor with a throttle, and an exhaust system with a reactor. An air pump is driven by the engine to deliver secondary air into the exhaust system, and a blowoff valve, arranged in the delivery line, opens

  18. Exhaust gas recirculation system of a motor vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamanishi

    1977-01-01

    An improvement for an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system of a motor vehicle is described. The system consists of: (1) a diaphragm type EGR valve mounted on an EGR pipe which connects the exhaust manifold and the intake manifold; (2) an opening path for air from the atmosphere diverged from a connecting pipe which connects the diaphragm chamber of the

  19. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL VERIFICATION OF SIMILARITY CONCEPT FOR DISPERSION OF CAR EXHAUST GASES IN URBAN

    E-print Network

    Fedorovich, Evgeni

    EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL VERIFICATION OF SIMILARITY CONCEPT FOR DISPERSION OF CAR EXHAUST GASES conditions, car exhaust gases are often emitted inside poorly ventilated street canyons. One may suppose however that moving cars can themselves produce a certain ventilation effect in addition to natural air

  20. Vehicle performance and exhaust emission, carburetion versus timed fuel injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Jr. Freeman; Stahnan

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle performance and engine efficiency are evaluated from the point of view of carburetion versus gasoline injection. The measurement of combustion efficiency, maldistribution and fuel precipitation effects, how to determine maldistribution, heat rejection mixture strength and timing effects, exhaust gas composition and vehicle performance in road service, and octane requirement effects are discussed.

  1. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  2. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  3. Vehicle engines produce exhaust nanoparticles even when not fueled.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Heikkilä, Juha; Karjalainen, Panu; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-02-01

    Vehicle engines produce submicrometer exhaust particles affecting air quality, especially in urban environments. In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that as much as 20-30% of the number of exhaust particles larger than 3 nm may be formed during engine braking conditions-that is, during decelerations and downhill driving while the engine is not fueled. Particles appeared at size ranges extending even below 7 nm and at high number concentrations. Their small size and nonvolatility, coupled with the observation that these particles contain lube-oil-derived metals zinc, phosphorus, and calcium, are suggestive of health risks at least similar to those of exhaust particles observed before. The particles' characteristics indicate that their emissions can be reduced using exhaust after-treatment devices, although these devices have not been mandated for all relevant vehicle types. Altogether, our findings enhance the understanding of the formation vehicle emissions and allow for improved protection of human health in proximity to traffic. PMID:24397401

  4. Modeling smog chamber measurements of vehicle exhaust VOC reactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.Y.; Nance, B.I. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.; Kelly, N.A. [General Motors R and D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Vehicle exhaust VOC reactivities, measured at GM`s smog chamber facility, have been modeled using the SAPRC93 photochemical mechanism. The vehicle exhaust mixtures were generated by a single vehicle run over a portion of the Federal Test Procedure using three Auto/Oil reformulated test gasolines. For each run, up to 156 individual VOC species were identified. Initial HONO concentrations are needed to simulate reactivity measurement runs. (HONO is expected to be generated in a Tedlar bag holding the exhaust sample prior to its transfer to the smog chambers.) Measured and simulated relative incremental reactivities for the three exhaust mixtures are highly consistent. However, measured relative incremental reactivities are more sensitive to fuel effects than simulated ones. The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR)-based relative incremental reactivities, derived from individual species concentrations and MIR factors, are very close to simulated ones. A number of sensitivity simulation runs have been carried out to investigate the impact of HONO and other variables. Results show that relative reactivities of actual vehicle exhaust emissions can be measured by chamber runs in spite of the HONO effect.

  5. Lung Cancer and Vehicle Exhaust in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Rosner, Bernard; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Background An elevated risk of lung cancer in truck drivers has been attributed to diesel exhaust exposure. Interpretation of these studies specifically implicating diesel exhaust as a carcinogen has been limited because of limited exposure measurements and lack of work records relating job title to exposure-related job duties. Objectives We established a large retrospective cohort of trucking company workers to assess the association of lung cancer mortality and measures of vehicle exhaust exposure. Methods Work records were obtained for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. We assessed lung cancer mortality through 2000 using the National Death Index, and we used an industrial hygiene review and current exposure measurements to identify jobs associated with current and historical use of diesel-, gas-, and propane-powered vehicles. We indirectly adjusted for cigarette smoking based on an industry survey. Results Adjusting for age and a healthy-worker survivor effect, lung cancer hazard ratios were elevated in workers with jobs associated with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust. Mortality risk increased linearly with years of employment and was similar across job categories despite different current and historical patterns of exhaust-related particulate matter from diesel trucks, city and highway traffic, and loading dock operations. Smoking behavior did not explain variations in lung cancer risk. Conclusions Trucking industry workers who have had regular exposure to vehicle exhaust from diesel and other types of vehicles on highways, city streets, and loading docks have an elevated risk of lung cancer with increasing years of work. PMID:18941573

  6. Dioxin-receptor Ligands in Urban Air and Vehicle Exhaust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant G. F. Mason

    The ability of extracts of urban air and vehicle exhaust particulates to bind to the dioxin receptor has been determined. It was shown that such extracts do contain significant amounts of dioxin-receptor binding activity. The level of dioxin-receptor binding found in ambient air reflects its pollution level as determined by mutagenic activity. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracts of

  7. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  8. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  9. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. ...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational...

  10. The hydrocarbon composition of exhaust emitted from gasoline fuelled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. F.; Quigley, S. M.

    The non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) compositions of the exhausts from 67 vehicles in 'on the road' condition and driven through an urban driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer, have been determined. The major components were ethylene (11.2% w/w of NMHC), toluene (10.2%), acetylene (8.7%), m, p-Xylenes(6.5%), benzene (5.0%), propylene (5.0%) and i-pentane(4.8%). These compounds have also been reported as significant components in the exhausts from two similar populations of American vehicles. The NMHC compositions were found to be insensitive to the mass emission rates of hydrocarbons from the vehicles, except for the combustion-derived olefins, ethylene and propylene, which were affected by engine modifications introduced to satisfy emission control requirements. A close relationship was found between petrol composition and exhaust composition but this did not correspond simply to emissions of unburnt petrol. The aromatics are enriched relative to the alkanes in exhaust when compared with their proportions in the petrol.

  11. Methanol fuel vehicle demonstration: Exhaust emission testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, J.D. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (US). Automotive Emissions Lab.

    1993-07-01

    Ford Motor Company converted four stock 1986 Ford Crown Victoria sedans to methanol flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). During 143,108 operational miles from 1987 to 1990, the FFVs underwent more than 300 dynamometer driving tests to measure exhaust emissions, catalytic activity, fuel economy, acceleration, and driveability with gasoline and methanol blend fuels. Dynamometer driving tests included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. Exhaust emission measurements included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non- oxygenated hydrocarbons, organic material hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE), formaldehyde, and methanol. Catalytic activity was based on exhaust emissions data from active and inactive catalysts. OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} were usually lower with M85 (85% methanol, 15% gasoline) than with gasoline for both active and inactive catalysts when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near normal operating temperatures. CO was higher with M85 than with gasoline when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near ambient temperature. Formaldehyde and methanol were higher with M85. Active catalyst FTP OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} increased as vehicle mileage increased, but increased less with M85 than with gasoline. Energy based fuel economy remained almost constant with changes in fuel composition and vehicle mileage.

  12. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  13. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  15. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  16. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  17. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  18. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  19. Emission of viable bacteria in the exhaust flue gases from a hospital incinerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Blenkharn; D. Oakland

    1989-01-01

    Summary: The exhaust gases from an oil-fired hospital \\\\\\\\.aste incinerator \\\\\\\\ere examined during normal incinerator operation. The design-specified operating temperature was 800'C in the primary combustion chamber and 1000°C in the secondary chamber. Flue gas temperatures, measured from the sampling point at the base of the exhaust stack, varied over the range 186-30jaC, and bacteria were recovered from this position

  20. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  1. Dilution Rates for Tailpipe Emissions: Effects of Vehicle Shape, Tailpipe Position, and Exhaust Velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor W.-C. Chang; Lynn M. Hildemann; Cheng-hisn Chang; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; Prasad Kalluri; Steven Hoff; Dwaine Bundy; Minda Nelson; Brian Zelle; Larry Jacobson; Albert Heber; Jiqin Ni; Yuanhui Zhang; Jacek Koziel; David Beasley; Robert Joumard; Juhani Laurikko; Tuan Han; Savas Geivanidis; Zissis Samaras; Tama´s tei; Philippe Devaux; Jean-Marc Andre´; Ste´phanie Lacour; Erwin Cornelis; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim Keener; Y. Yang; Sheng-Wei Wang; Xiaogang Tang; Zhi-Hua Fan; Xiangmei Wu; Paul Lioy; Panos Georgopoulos; Augustine Quek; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian; Yi-Chi Chen; Lu-Yen Chen; Fu-Tien Jeng

    2009-01-01

    The rate at which motor vehicle exhaust undergoes dilution with ambient air will greatly affect the size distribution characteristics of the particulate emissions. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of vehicle shape, tailpipe orientation, and exhaust exit velocity on the dilution profiles under steady driving conditions for three model vehicles: a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and

  2. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs...ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.107 What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles...

  3. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs...ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.107 What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles...

  4. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine conditions is selected. It is composed of hydrocarbons (HC: propane and propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide hydrocarbons, pollutant emissions reduction hal-01056363,version1-21Aug2014 #12;1. Introduction Solid oxide

  5. SENSOR FOR MONITORING OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN DIESEL EXHAUST GASES - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Active Spectrum, Inc., proposes a novel, low-cost soot sensor for on-board measurement of soot emissions in diesel exhaust gases. The proposed technology is differentiated from existing methods by excellent sensitivity, high specificity to carbon particulates, and robustness ...

  6. H-CANYON AIR EXHAUST TUNNEL INSPECTION VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R.; Fogle, R.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-05-24

    The H-Canyon at Savannah River Site is a large concrete structure designed for chemical separation processes of radioactive material. The facility requires a large ventilation system to maintain negative pressure in process areas for radioactive contamination control and personnel protection. The ventilation exhaust is directed through a concrete tunnel under the facility which is approximately five feet wide and 8 feet tall that leads to a sand filter and stack. Acidic vapors in the exhaust have had a degrading effect on the surface of the concrete tunnels. Some areas have been inspected; however, the condition of other areas is unknown. Experience from historical inspections with remote controlled vehicles will be discussed along with the current challenge of inspecting levels below available access points. The area of interest in the exhaust tunnel must be accessed through a 14 X 14 inch concrete plug in the floor of the hot gang valve corridor. The purpose for the inspection is to determine the condition of the inside of the air tunnel and establish if there are any structural concerns. Various landmarks, pipe hangers and exposed rebar are used as reference points for the structural engineers when evaluating the current integrity of the air tunnel.

  7. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New...

  8. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New...

  9. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New...

  10. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New...

  11. Modelling of CO2 Adsorption from Exhaust Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panowski, Marcin; Klainy, Roman; Sztelder, Karol

    World tendencies in environmental protection points out necessity of reduction of CO2 emission to atmosphere. The one of the main sources of CO2 emission is placed in energy sector where electric energy and heat are produced based on fossil fuels combustion. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to perform research on CO2 emission reduction in this sector. The main aim of work presented in this paper was focused on the analysis and assessment of CO2 separation from flue gases on the total efficiency of conventional power station. The paper shows the numerical calculations performed with IPSEpro simulation software by SimTech.For the CO2 separation the PTSA (pressure-Temperature Swing Adsorption) process was chosen and the numerical as well as simulation model of such process was formulated. The calculations were made for few different adsorbents taking into account varying values of such thermodynamic parameters of separation process like temperature or pressure. Results obtained from calculations point out that mixed PTSA technology is not very energy consuming process. Owing to utilisation of waste heat for sorbent regeneration, it does not decrease the total efficiency for more than 0.6%. However, that is caused by separation only, while after that CO2 must be compressed for further treatment.

  12. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  13. The effects of the exhaust plume on the lightning triggering conditions for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Frederick J.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

    1991-01-01

    Apollo 12 and Atlas Centaur 67 are two launch vehicles that have experienced triggered lightning strikes. Serious consequences resulted from the events; in the case of Atlas Centaur 67, the vehicle and the payload were lost. These events indicate that it is necessary to develop launch rules which would prevent such occurrences. In order to develop valid lightning related rules, it is necessary to understand the effects of the plume. Some have assumed that the plume can be treated as a perfect conductor, and have computed electric field enhancement factors on that basis. The authors have looked at the plume, and believe that these models are not correct, because they ignore the fluid motion of the conducting plates. The authors developed a model which includes this flow character. In this model, the external field is excluded from the plume as it would be for any good conductor, but, in addition, the charge must distribute so that the charge density is zero at some location in the exhaust. When this condition is included in the calculation of triggering enhancement factors, they can be two to three times larger than calculated by other methods which include a conductive plume but don't include the correct boundary conditions. Here, the authors review the relevant features of rocket exhausts for the triggered lightning problem, present an approach for including flowing conductive gases, and present preliminary calculations to demonstrate the effect that the plume has on enhancement factors.

  14. Nitrogen dioxide in exhaust emissions from motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenner, Magnus

    NO 2/NO x (v/v) fractions and NO 2 exhaust emission rates were determined for diesel- and gasoline-powered passenger cars and a diesel truck, at several conditions of constant engine load and speed. Vehicles with various kinds of emission control equipment were investigated. Also, integrations of NO 2/NO x percentages during Federal Test Procedure driving cycles were made for six types of passenger car. High (> 30 %) NO 2 fractions were measured for gasoline cars with air injection, and for diesel vehicles. A gasoline car with a 3-way catalyst had low NO x totals with small (< 1 %) NO 2 fractions. A passenger diesel with particle trap yielded surprisingly small (0-2%) NO 2 fractions at moderate speeds. The results have implications for NO 2 concentration in the atmosphere of northern cities during wintertime inversions, in view of the increasing use of air injection systems for passenger cars to meet legal restrictions on vehicle emissions of hydrocarbons and CO.

  15. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section 600... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... § 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases...

  1. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section 600... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... § 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases...

  2. 40 CFR 600.108-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-78 Section 600...CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations... § 600.108-78 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for all fuel economy testing...

  3. 40 CFR 600.108-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-78 Section 600...CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and... § 600.108-78 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for all fuel economy testing...

  4. Emission of viable bacteria in the exhaust flue gases from a hospital incinerator.

    PubMed

    Blenkharn, J I; Oakland, D

    1989-07-01

    The exhaust gases from an oil-fired hospital waste incinerator were examined during normal incinerator operation. The design-specified operating temperature was 800 degrees C in the primary combustion chamber and 1000 degrees C in the secondary chamber. Flue gas temperatures, measured from the sampling point at the base of the exhaust stack, varied over the range 186-305 degrees C, and bacteria were recovered from this position in numbers up to 400 cfu m-3 (mean 56 cfu m-3). No sampling was performed at the top of the stack where flue gases were discharged to the atmosphere. Isolates were predominantly gram positive, i.e. Bacillus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus, although low numbers of gram negative species (Pseudomonas fluorescens and other pseudomonads) were also recovered. Our results suggest that incineration may not constitute an absolute method of sterilization for clinical waste. PMID:2570106

  5. Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, R C; Backer, R C; Sopher, I M

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations. PMID:2464951

  6. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  7. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  8. Combined remediation and lipid production using Chlorella sorokiniana grown on wastewater and exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Lizzul, A M; Hellier, P; Purton, S; Baganz, F; Ladommatos, N; Campos, L

    2014-01-01

    Substitution of conventional feedstock with waste based alternatives is one route towards both remediation and reducing costs associated with production of algal biomass. This work explores whether exhaust gases and wastewater can replace conventional feedstock in the production of biomass from Chlorella sorokiniana. Exhaust gases were used to augment production in final effluent, anaerobic digester centrate or in standard medium. Cultures were grown in 1L bottles under illumination of 80 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). The results showed an average ?max ranging between 0.04 and 0.07 h(-1), whilst the final biomass yield in different media ranged between 220 and 330 mg L(-1). Lipid yield was increased over time to 31 mg L(-1). CO2 addition resulted in complete nitrogen removal between 48 and 96 h in both final effluent and centrate. The results also indicated that levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases can be reduced by between 20% and 95%. PMID:24189380

  9. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  10. Effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is consistently associated with various diseases and subsequent death among children, adult, and elderly people worldwide. Motor vehicle exhaust contributes to a large proportion of the air pollution present. The motor vehicle exhaust systems emit a variety of toxic components, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several epidemiological studies and laboratory studies have demonstrated that these components are potentially mutagenic, carcinogenic, and endocrine disrupting agents. However, their impact on male reproductive function and associated proteins is not very clear. Therefore, a comprehensive review on the effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins is needed to better understand the risks of exhaust exposure for men. We found that motor vehicle exhaust can cause harmful effects on male reproductive functions by altering organ weights, reducing the spermatozoa qualities, and inducing oxidative stress. Remarkably, motor vehicle exhaust exposure causes significant changes in the expression patterns of proteins that are key components involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis. In conclusion, this review helps to describe the risks of vehicle exhaust exposure and its relationship to potential adverse effects on the male reproduction system. PMID:25329744

  11. Exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles: chemical composition, impact of exhaust after treatment, and fuel parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, R; Egebäck, K E

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results from the characterization of vehicle exhaust that were obtained primarily within the Swedish Urban Air Project, "Tätortsprojektet." Exhaust emissions from both gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles have been investigated with respect to regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], nitrogen oxides [NOx], and particulate), unregulated pollutants, and in bioassay tests (Ames test, TCDD receptor affinity tests). Unregulated pollutants present in both the particle- and the semi-volatile phases were characterized. Special interest was focused on the impact of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. It was confirmed that there exists a quantifiable relationship between diesel-fuel variables of the fuel blends, the chemical composition of the emissions, and their biological effects. According to the results from the multivariate analysis, the most important fuel parameters are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content, 90% distillation point, final boiling point, specific heat, aromatic content, density, and sulfur content. PMID:7529699

  12. A method for reducing exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenggang Xu; Xiaopeng Xie

    2009-01-01

    Compressed air powered engine is a type of zero-pollution engine, but its conversion efficiency is very low for its high pressure exhaust which causes much exergy loss. In this study, a control system was developed to reduce the exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine. The control system is made up of a controller, a pressure sensor, a photoelectric

  13. Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1995-06-01

    An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

  14. ydrocarbon detector for the remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    1994) A new remote sensor for measuring on-road carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbon the capability for measuring exhaust hydrocarbons and eliminates the need for liquid-nitrogen-cooled detectors important to the measurement of exhaust hydrocarbons are reported. The water vapor present in all auto

  15. Lung Cancer and Vehicle Exhaust in Trucking Industry Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Garshick; Francine Laden; Jaime E. Hart; Bernard Rosner; Mary E. Davis; Ellen A. Eisen; Thomas J. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Background: An elevated risk of lung cancer in truck drivers has been attributed to diesel exhaust exposure. Interpretation of these studies specifically implicating diesel exhaust as a carcinogen has been limited because of limited exposure measurements and lack of work records relating job title to exposure-related job duties. Objectives: We established a large retrospective cohort of trucking company workers to

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DUAL CATALYST EQUIPPED VEHICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was initiated to characterize exhaust gas emissions from an automobile equipped with a dual catalyst system. The dual catalyst system was designed by Gould, Inc. to reduce emissions of engine exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. It basically ...

  17. In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

  18. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission... The analytical gases for all fuel economy testing must meet the criteria...

  19. Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.

    1999-06-28

    A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.

  20. Real-time trace-level detection of carbon dioxide and ethylene in car exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Michael T.; Langford, Nigel; Duxbury, Geoffrey

    2005-05-01

    A direct-absorption spectrometer, based on a pulsed, distributed feedback, quantum cascade laser with a 10.26-?m wavelength and an astigmatic Herriott cell with a 66-m path length, has been developed for high-resolution IR spectroscopy. This spectrometer utilizes the intrapulse method, an example of sweep integration, in which the almost linear wavelength up-chirp obtained from a distributed feedback, quantum cascade laser yields a spectral microwindow of as many as 2.5 wave numbers/cm^-1. Within this spectral microwindow, molecular fingerprints can be monitored and recorded in real time. This system allows both the detection of carbon dioxide and ethylene and the real-time observation of the evolution of these gases in the exhaust by-products from several cars.

  1. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

  2. Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

  3. Method of modal mass analysis of exhaust gas from a motor vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mikasa; H. Kitamura

    1988-01-01

    A method of measuring the quantity of an ingredient gas in the exhaust gas from a motor vehicle during the time period of each of a sequence of driving modes, the time period of each driving mode having a starting time and an ending time, the ending time of the time period of each driving mode being the starting time

  4. The trapping system for the recirculated gases at different locations of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) pipe of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Piperel; X. Montagne; P. Dagaut

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, in diesel engines, it is typical to recycle exhaust gases (EGR) in order to decrease pollutant emissions. However, few studies report the precisely measured composition of the recycled gases. Indeed, in order to know precisely the composition of the EGR gases, they have to be sampled hot and not diluted, in contrast to the usual practice. Thus, a new

  5. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  6. Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

  7. Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an on-road study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Lähde, Tero; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2014-11-01

    Vehicle technology development and upcoming particle emission limits have increased the need for detailed analyses of particle emissions of vehicles using gasoline direct injection (GDI) techniques. In this paper the particle emission characteristics of modern GDI passenger cars were studied in a laboratory and on the road, with the focus on exhaust particle number emissions, size distributions, volatility and morphology. Both during acceleration and steady conditions the number size distribution of nonvolatile exhaust particles consisted of two modes, one with mean particle size below 30 nm and the other with mean particle size approximately 70 nm. Results indicate that both of these particles modes consisted of soot but with different morphologies. Both in laboratory and on the road, significant emissions of exhaust particles were observed also during decelerations conducted by engine braking. These particles are most likely originating from lubricant oil ash components. The semivolatile nucleation particles were observed in the laboratory experiments at high engine load conditions. Thus, in general, the study indicates that a modern gasoline vehicle can emit four distinctive types of exhaust particles. The differences in particle characteristics and formation should be taken into account in the development of emission control strategies and technologies and, on the other hand, in the assessment of the impact of particle emissions on environment and human health.

  8. Multicomponent remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions by dispersive IR and UV spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Marc M.; Kiyomiya, Eileen S.; Kumar, Sasi; Lappas, Anastasios M.; Lord, Harry C., III

    2000-12-01

    Direct remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions under real-world driving conditions is desirable for a number of reasons, including: identifying high emitters, investigating the chemical composition of the exhaust, and probing fast reactions in the plume. A remote sensor, incorporating IR and UV spectrometers, was developed. The IR spectrometer consists of a grating system mounted on a synchronous motor, optically interfaced to a room temperature PbSe detector. UV-vis measurements are made with a CCD array spectrometer. Eight optical passes through the exhaust plume allow rapid and sensitive monitoring of the exhaust stream emitted by moving vehicles on a car-by-car basis. The combination of these two techniques resulted in unprecedented, direct measurement capability of over 25 pollutants in the exhaust plume. Emissions from a fleet of vehicles powered by a range of fuels (gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and methanol) were tested. The exhaust from hot gasoline- and methanol-powered cars contained high levels of NH3, up to 1500 ppm. These emissions were up to 14 times higher than the corresponding NOx emissions. Unlike most previous work, NOx was measured as the sum of NO and NO2; N2O was also measured. Field testing at a southern California freeway on-ramp was conducted over a one week period, totaling >4,500 measurements. It was found that 66.4% of the emitted NH3 was produced by 10% of the fleet, following the (gamma) - distribution that has been reported for criteria pollutants. Mean NH3 emission rates were calculated at 138 mg km-1, nearly twice as high was previous estimates.

  9. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  10. Effects of Fresh and Aged Vehicular Exhaust Emissions on Breathing Pattern and Cellular Responses – Pilot Single Vehicle Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Edgar A.; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S.; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O3, OH and other radicals. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for five hours to either filtered room air (Sham) or one of two different atmospheres: 1. Diluted Car Exhaust (P) + Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); 2. P+MSHA+SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a non-selective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 hours after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363±66 ?g/m3 P+MSHA and 212±95 ?g/m3 P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in Total Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils in the BAL and in-vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

  11. Correlations of fuel economy, exhaust hydro-carbon concentrations, and vehicle performance efficiency

    E-print Network

    Baumann, Philip Douglas

    1974-01-01

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Civil Engineering CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Approved as to style and content by... on the part of the author. Gratitude is expressed to the Texas AEM University Civil Engineering Department and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station for funding this project and providing an assistantship for graduate study. My special thanks...

  12. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Kook Kim; Byeong-Cheol Won; Seok-Ho Rhi; Shi-Ho Kim; Jeong-Ho Yoo; Ju-Chan Jang

    2011-01-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles,\\u000a using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation\\u000a (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly\\u000a connected to the

  13. 49 CFR 176.93 - Vehicles having refrigerating or heating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...transport vehicles having refrigerating or heating equipment operated by internal combustion engines which will permit ready diffusion of exhaust gases to the open air. Passenger vehicles may not be stowed in a position adjacent to vehicles operating...

  14. Volatile organic compounds from the exhaust of light-duty diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Sheng-You; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2012-12-01

    The exhaust gas constituents of light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs), including total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by a dynamometer study following federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75) and highway fuel economy cycle. The average fuel consumption of these LDDVs was 0.126 L km-1 for FTP-75, with about 10% fuel consumption savings for highway driving. The average emission factors of NMHC, CO and NOx for light-duty vehicles were 0.158/0.132 (90% of THC), 1.395/1.138, and 1.735/1.907 g km-1 for FTP-75/Highway, respectively. Styrene, n-propylbenzene, n-undecane, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and ethylbenzene were the dominant VOCs of LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors were about 10-60 mg kg-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, butyraldehyde, and m-tolualdehyde were the major carbonyl species from LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors ranged from 1 to 10 mg km-1. The ozone formation potentials of m,p-xylene, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, o-xylene, n-propylbenzene, styrene, and isoprene were >50 mg-O3 km-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde revealed high ozone formation potential of carbonyl species, with values ranging from 10 to 95 mg-O3 km-1. Based on the exhaust constituents and ozone formation potential observed, diesel vehicles could be an important air pollution source for urban and industrial areas.

  15. Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 ?g/m3, and 0.06-19.13 ?g/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies. PMID:25411914

  16. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart...Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation...Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in...

  17. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart...Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation...Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in...

  18. Toxicity of prolonged exposure to ethanol and gasoline autoengine exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Massad, E.; Saldiva, P.H.; Saldiva, C.D.; Caldeira, M.P.; Cardoso, L.M.; de Morais, A.M.; Calheiros, D.F.; da Silva, R.; Boehm, G.M.

    1986-08-01

    A comparative chronic inhalation exposure study was performed to investigate the potential health effects of gasoline and ethanol engine exhaust fumes. Test atmospheres of gasoline and ethanol exhaust were given to Wistar rats and Balb C mice housed in inhalation chambers for a period of 5 weeks. Gas concentration and physical parameters were continually monitored during the exposure period. Several biological parameters were assessed after the exposure including pulmonary function, mutagenicity, and hematological, biochemical, and morphological examinations. The results demonstrated that the chronic toxicity of the gasoline-fueled engine is significantly higher than that of the ethanol engine.

  19. Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2011-09-01

    We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels. We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission standards to income levels, Africa introduces those standards 30-40 years later than other regions and thus makes a remarkable contribution to the global emissions in 2050 (almost half). All Asian regions (South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia) have a decreasing fractional contribution to global totals, from 32% in 2030 to around 22% in 2050. Total emissions from normal vehicles can decrease 1.3-2% per year. However, superemitters have a large effect on emission totals. They can potentially contribute more than 50% of global emissions around 2020, which suggests that they should be specifically addressed in modeling and mitigation policies. As new vehicles become cleaner, the majority of on-road emissions will come from the legacy fleet. This work establishes a modeling framework to explore policies targeted at that fleet.

  20. Experiments on the reduction of nitric oxide from exhaust gases by selective non-catalytic reactions

    E-print Network

    Narney, John Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    . The simulated exhaust gas contained varying amounts of N2, 02, H20, CO, and NO and the reactor conditions were varied with regard to temperature, residence time, and mixing. The results of these experiments show that the effect of oxygen concentration and NH3...

  1. Exhausted Plume Flow Field Prediction Near the Afterbody of Hypersonic Flight Vehicles in High Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Lynn Chen; Mach, Kervyn D.; Deng, Zheng-Tao; Liaw, Goang-Shin

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional computer code to solve the Burnett equations has been developed which computes the flow interaction between an exhausted plume and hypersonic external flow near the afterbody of a flight vehicle. This Burnett-2D code extends the capability of Navier-Stokes solver (RPLUS2D code) to include high-order Burnett source terms and slip-wall conditions for velocity and temperature. Higher-order Burnett viscous stress and heat flux terms are discretized using central-differencing and treated as source terms. Blocking logic is adopted in order to overcome the difficulty of grid generation. The computation of exhaust plume flow field is divided into two steps. In the first step, the thruster nozzle exit conditions are computed which generates inflow conditions in the base area near the afterbody. Results demonstrated that at high altitudes, the computations of nozzle exit conditions must include the effects of base flow since significant expansion exists in the base region. In the second step, Burnett equations were solved for exhaust plume flow field near the afterbody. The free stream conditions are set at an altitude equal to 80km and the Mach number is equal to 5.0. The preliminary results show that the plume expansion, as altitude increases, will eventually cause upstream flow separation.

  2. [Source profile and chemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds from vehicle exhaust].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yue-Zhen; Wang, Hong-Li; Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-Hong; Su, Lei-Yan; Zhou, Min; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Gang-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ran; Li, Li; Chen, Ming-Hua; Huang, Hai-Ying

    2012-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline taxis (LDGT) and passenger cars (LDGV), heavy-duty diesel buses (HDDB) and trucks (HDDT), gasoline motorcycles (MC) and LPG scooters (LPGS), were selected for tailpipe volatile organic compounds (VOCs) samplings by using transient dynamometer and on road test combined with SUMMA canisters technology. The samples were tested by GC-MS to analyze the concentration and species composition of VOCs. The results indicate that light-duty gasoline automobiles have higher fractions of aromatic hydrocarbons, which account for 43.38%-44.45% of the total VOCs, the main aromatic hydrocarbons are toluene and xylenes. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles have higher fractions of alkanes, which constitute 46.86%-48.57% of the total VOCs, the main alkanes are propane, n-dodecane and n-undecane. In addition, oxy-organics account for 13.28%-15.01% of the VOCs, the main oxy-organics is acetone. The major compound from MC and LPGS exhaust is acetylene, it accounts for 39.75% and 76.67% of the total VOCs, respectively. VOCs exhaust from gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles has a significantly higher chemical reactivity than those from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, which contribute 55% and 44% to the atmospheric chemical reactivity in Shanghai. The gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles are the key pollution sources affecting city and region ambient oxidation, and the key active species of toluene, xylenes, propylene, and styrene make the greatest contribution. PMID:22720548

  3. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

  4. Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Pirjola, Liisa; Ketzel, Matthias; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticle emissions from road vehicles have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their dominant contribution towards the total airborne particle number concentrations (PNCs) found in the urban atmospheric environment. In view of upcoming tighter vehicle emission standards and adoption of cleaner fuels in many parts of the world, the contribution to urban nanoparticles from non-vehicle exhaust sources (NES) may become more pronounced in future. As of now, only limited information exists on nanoparticle emissions from NES through the discretely published studies. This article presents critically synthesised information in a consolidated manner on 11 NES (i.e. road-tyre interaction, construction and demolition, aircraft, ships, municipal waste incineration, power plants, domestic biomass burning, forest fires, cigarette smoking, cooking, and secondary formation). Source characteristics and formation mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted from each NES are firstly discussed, followed by their emission strengths, airborne concentrations and physicochemical characteristics. Direct comparisons of the strengths of NES are not straightforward but an attempt has been made to discuss their importance relative to the most prominent source (i.e. road vehicles) of urban nanoparticles. Some interesting comparisons emerged such as 1 kg of fast and slow wood burning produces nearly the same number of particles as for each km driven by a heavy duty vehicle (HDV) and a light duty vehicle, respectively. About 1 min of cooking on gas can produce the similar particle numbers generated by ˜10 min of cigarette smoking or 1 m travel by a HDV. Apportioning the contribution of numerous sources from the bulk measured airborne PNCs is essential for determining their relative importance. Receptor modelling methods for estimation of source emission contributions are discussed. A further section evaluates the likely exposure risks, health and regulatory implications associated with each NES. It is concluded that much research is needed to provide adequate quantification of all nanoparticle sources, and to establish the relative toxicity of nanosize particles from each.

  5. Factors affecting cleanup of exhaust gases from a pressurized, fluidized-bed coal combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Kobak, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The cleanup of effluent gases from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal is examined. Testing conditions include the type and feed rate of the coal and the sulfur sorbent, the coal-sorbent ratio, the coal-combustion air ratio, the depth of the reactor fluidizing bed, and the technique used to physically remove fly ash from the reactor effluent gases. Tests reveal that the particulate loading matter in the effluent gases is a function not only of the reactor-bed surface gas velocity, but also of the type of coal being burnt and the time the bed is operating. At least 95 percent of the fly ash particules in the effluent gas are removed by using a gas-solids separator under controlled operating conditions. Gaseous pollutants in the effluent (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) are held within the proposed Federal limits by controlling the reactor operating conditions and the type and quantity of sorbent material.

  6. Waste heat recovery from heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust gases by medium temperature ORC system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MingShan Wei; JinLi Fang; ChaoChen Ma; Syed Noman Danish

    A medium-temperature waste-heat recovery system based on the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is designed to recover the exhaust\\u000a energy from a heavy-duty diesel engine. Analysis of the 1st law of thermodynamics for an ORC system is performed. This analysis\\u000a contains two parts. The first part is an analysis with undefined heat exchangers to gain an understanding of the ORC and

  7. Performance of the NO x sensor based on mixed potential for automobiles in exhaust gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ono; Masaharu Hasei; Akira Kunimoto; Toshiro Yamamoto; Akira Noda

    2001-01-01

    The NOx sensor based on mixed potential was made by laminating YSZ green sheets, on which electrodes including an NOx sensing electrode, an NOx conversion electrode, a Pt heater and thermocouple were printed and sintered. The output signal of this sensor was fairly independent of gas temperatures and the velocity of gas flows in the test gases. The engine test

  8. Modelling aerosol number distributions from a vehicle exhaust with an aerosol CFD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albriet, B.; Sartelet, K. N.; Lacour, S.; Carissimo, B.; Seigneur, C.

    2010-03-01

    Vehicular traffic contributes significantly to the aerosol number concentrations at the local scale by emitting primary soot particles and forming secondary nucleated nanoparticles. Because of their potential health effects, more attention is paid to the traffic induced aerosol number distributions. The aim of this work is to explain the phenomenology leading to the formation and the evolution of the aerosol number distributions in the vicinity of a vehicle exhaust using numerical modelling. The emissions are representative of those of a light-duty diesel truck without a diesel particle filter. The atmospheric flow is modelled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to describe the dispersion of pollutants at the local scale. The CFD code, coupled to a modal aerosol model (MAM) describing the aerosol dynamics, is used to model the tailpipe plume of a vehicle with emissions corresponding to urban driving conditions. On the basis of available measurements in Schauer et al. (1999), three surrogate species are chosen to treat the semi-volatile organic compounds in the emissions. The model simulates the formation of the aerosol distribution in the exhaust plume of a vehicle as follows. After emission to the atmosphere, particles are formed by nucleation of sulphuric acid and water vapour depending strongly on the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and on the dilution conditions. The semi-volatile organic compounds are critical for the rapid growth of nanoparticles through condensation. The semi-volatile organic compounds are also important for the evolution of primary soot particles and can contribute substantially to their chemical composition. The most influential parameters for particle formation are the sulphur fuel content, the semi-volatile organic emissions and also the mass and initial diameter of the soot particles emitted. The model is able to take into account the complex competition between nucleation, condensation and dilution, as well as the interactions among the different aerosol modes. This type of model is a useful tool to better understand the dynamics leading to the formation of traffic induced aerosol distributions. However, some key issues such as the turbulence in the exhaust plume and in the wake of the car, the magnitude and chemical composition of semi-volatile organic emissions and the possible nucleation of organic species need to be investigated further to improve our understanding of ultrafine particle formation.

  9. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  10. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  11. Real-time measurement of nitrogen dioxide in vehicle exhaust gas by mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Sumizawa, H.; Yamada, H.; Tonokura, K.

    2011-12-01

    The application of pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was demonstrated for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in automotive exhaust gas. The transition of the ? 3 vibrational band assigned to the antisymmetric stretching mode of NO2 was probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed, mid-infrared, distributed feedback, quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 6.13 ?m. The measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas from two diesel vehicles equipped with different aftertreatment devices was demonstrated using a CRDS-based NO2 sensor, which employs a HEPA filter and a membrane gas dryer to remove interference from water as well as particulates in the exhaust gas. Stable and sensitive measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas was achieved for more than 30 minutes with a time resolution of 1 s.

  12. CFD modeling of a vehicle exhaust laboratory sampling system: sulfur driven nucleation and growth in diluting diesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olin, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Dal Maso, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new exhaust aerosol model CFD-TUTEAM (Tampere University of Technology Exhaust Aerosol Model for Computational Fluid Dynamics) was developed. The model can be used to simulate particle formation and evolution in diesel exhaust. The model has an Eulerian sub-model that provides spatial information within the computational domain, and a computationally less expensive Lagrangian sub-model that can be used to examine particle formation in a high temporal resolution. Particle formation in a laboratory sampling system that includes a porous tube type diluter and an aging chamber was modeled with CFD-TUTEAM. The simulation results imply that over 99% of new particles are formed in the aging chamber region, because nucleation rate remains at high level in the aging chamber due to low dilution ratio and low nucleation exponents. The nucleation exponents for sulfuric acid in sulfuric acid-water nucleation ranging from 0.25 to 1 appeared to fit best with measurement data, which are the same values as the slopes of volatile nucleation mode number concentration vs. raw exhaust sulfuric acid concentration obtained from the measurement data. These nucleation exponents are very low compared to the nucleation exponents obtained from the classical nucleation theory of binary sulfuric acid-water nucleation. The values of nucleation exponent lower than unity suggest that other compounds, such as hydrocarbons, might have a significant role in the nucleation process.

  13. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  14. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  15. Coupled turbulence and aerosol dynamics modeling of vehicle exhaust plumes using the CTAG model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan Jason; Zhang, K. Max

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of an environmental turbulent reacting flow model, the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model. CTAG is designed to simulate transport and transformation of multiple air pollutants, e.g., from emission sources to ambient background. For the on-road and near-road applications, CTAG explicitly couples the major turbulent mixing processes, i.e., vehicle-induced turbulence (VIT), road-induced turbulence (RIT) and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence with gas-phase chemistry and aerosol dynamics. CTAG's transport model is referred to as CFD-VIT-RIT. This paper presents the evaluation of the CTAG model in simulating the dynamics of individual plumes in the “tailpipe-to-road” stage, i.e., VIT behind a moving van and aerosol dynamics in the wake of a diesel car by comparing the modeling results against the respective field measurements. Combined with sensitivity studies, we analyze the relative roles of VIT, sulfuric acid induced nucleation, condensation of organic compounds and presence of soot-mode particles in capturing the dynamics of exhaust plumes as well as their implications in vehicle emission controls.

  16. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  17. Theoretical research of carbon dioxide power cycle application in automobile industry to reduce vehicle’s fuel consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chen; P. Lundqvist; P. Platell

    2005-01-01

    The current work discusses means to utilize low-grade small-scale energy in vehicle exhaust gases, to reduce the vehicle’s fuel consumption and to make it run more environmental friendly. To utilize the energy in the exhaust gas, a CO2 bottoming system in the vehicle’s engine system is proposed. Several basic cycles—according to the different design concepts—are presented, and the efficiencies are

  18. Drive assembly, especially for motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Striebich, H.

    1981-10-13

    A drive assembly, especially for motor vehicles, of the type comprising an internal combustion engine and an exhaust gas turbine unit including an exhaust gas driven turbine is improved by virtue of structure for utilizing the heat energy of the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine in addition to the kinetic energy. According to a preferred embodiment, the exhaust gas turbine unit comprises, in addition to the exhaust gas turbine, a compressor and a secondary turbine for deriving power from the heat energy of the exhaust gases. Still further, another feature includes the provision of a heat exchanger for transferring thermal energy from the exhaust gases to a working medium after the working medium has been compressed by the compressor, the heat exchanger being formed by hollow blades of the exhaust gas driven turbine.

  19. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 ?g km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 ?g km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 ?g km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

  20. Light-Duty Drive Cycle Simulations of Diesel Engine-Out Exhaust Properties for an RCCI-Enabled Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuels to achieve low-temperature reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) can reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). Moreover, the dual-fueling RCCI is able to achieve these benefits by tailoring combustion reactivity over a wider range of engine operation than is possible with a single fuel. However, the currently demonstrated range of stable RCCI combustion just covers a portion of the engine speed-load range required in several light-duty drive cycles. This means that engines must switch from RCCI to CDC when speed and load fall outside of the stable RCCI range. In this study we investigated the impact of RCCI as it has recently been demonstrated on practical engine-out exhaust temperature and emissions by simulating a multi-mode RCCI-enabled vehicle operating over two urban and two highway driving cycles. To implement our simulations, we employed experimental engine maps for a multi-mode RCCI/CDC engine combined with a standard mid-size, automatic transmission, passenger vehicle in the Autonomie vehicle simulation platform. Our results include both detailed transient and cycle-averaged engine exhaust temperature and emissions for each case, and we note the potential implications of the modified exhaust properties on catalytic emissions control and utilization of waste heat recovery on future RCCI-enabled vehicles.

  1. Evaluation of gas removal and bacterial community diversity in a biofilter developed to treat composting exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a new, but simply constructed, biofilter system, developed to purify composting exhaust air, was evaluated. The biofilter was packed with mature compost mixed with activated carbon and sludge sourced from a wastewater treatment plant. An alternating air flow system and a bioaerosol reduction device were designed to prevent pressure drop and reduce bioaerosol release. Experimental results demonstrated that satisfactory removal efficiencies of nitrogen-containing compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, fatty acids, total hydrocarbon and odor were achieved at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 30s. No significant acidification or alkalinity in the biofilter was observed, and the system was characterized by a small pressure drop and a low level of bioaerosol emission. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used to uncover the changes in the bacterial community of the biofilter during the deodorization processes. A minimum of 16 bands were observed in the DGGE profile. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the phylum of Proteobacteria to be predominant, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, in descending order. However, the occurrence and predominance of specific bacterial species varied with the environmental conditions of the biofilter. Our results demonstrate - from both an engineering and biological point of view - the feasibility of the biofilter system described herein in purifying the gases derived from composting food waste. PMID:17113228

  2. Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of exhaust gases (NOx , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6?×?10(3), 374, 1.2?×?10(3), and 5.6?×?10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7?×?10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67%) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

  3. Pollutant constituents of exhaust emitted from light-duty diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chang, Sheng-You

    2012-02-01

    Light-duty diesel exhaust particulate matter and its constituents, including elemental carbon, organic carbon, water-soluble ionic species, elements, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured by a dynamometer study and following the driving pattern of federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75). Fuel consumption of these light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDV) was in the range of 0.106-0.132 l km -1, and the average emission factors of NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbon), CO and NO x for light-duty vehicles were 0.158 (92% of total hydrocarbon), 1.395, and 1.735 g km -1, respectively. The particulate emission factor of LDDVs was 0.172 g km -1, and PM 2.5 contributed to 88% of particulate mass. Al, S, Ca, and Fe emission factors were about 0.83-1.24 mg km -1 for PM 2.5, and the particulate mass fractions of these elements ranged from 66 to 90% in PM 2.5. Nitrate, sulfate, ammonium and nitrite were the major ionic species in diesel PM, and their emission factor ranged from 0.22 to 0.82 mg km -1 for PM 2.5. The emission factor of total PAHs was 3.62 mg km -1 in this study, with about 40% in the gas phase and 60% in the particulate phase. Acenaphylene, naphthalene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and anthracene were the dominant PAHs, and their emission factors were more than 0.19 mg km -1. The content of nitro-PAHs was low, with most less than 0.040 mg km -1.

  4. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  5. Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

    An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local authorities.

  6. Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

  7. An evaluation of the environmental and health effects of vehicle exhaust catalysts in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Emma J; Pearson, Peter J G

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, all new gasoline-engine automobiles in the United Kingdom have been supplied with three-way vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs) containing platinum, palladium, and rhodium, to comply with European Commission Stage I limits on emissions of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. We conducted a physical and economic evaluation of the environmental and health benefits from a reduction in emissions through this mandated environmental technology against the costs, with reference to urban areas in Great Britain. We made both an ex post assessment--based on available data to 1998--and an ex ante assessment--projected to 2005, the year when full penetration of VECs into the fleet is expected. Substantial health benefits in excess of the costs of VECs were indicated: By 1998 the estimated net societal health benefits were approximately 500 million British pounds, and by 2005 they were estimated to rise to as much as 2 billion British pounds. We also found through environmental surveys that although lead in road dust has fallen by 50% in urban areas, platinum accumulations near roads have risen significantly, up to 90-fold higher than natural background levels. This rapid accumulation of platinum suggests further monitoring is warranted, although as yet there is no evidence of adverse health effects. PMID:14754566

  8. Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

  9. Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2013-02-01

    Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 ?g/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 ?g/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (? B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 ?g/m3and 37.652 ?g/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

  10. A comparative study on the ultrafine particle episodes induced by vehicle exhaust: A crude oil refinery and ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Yenny; Rodríguez, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    A study on the contribution of vehicle exhausts, ships and an oil refinery emission to the ambient air concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) is presented. It is based on a data set of particle number coarser than 2.5 nm (N), black carbon (BC), gaseous pollutants (NOx, SO2, CO and O3), PM2.5 and PM10 measured from 2008 to 2010 in the ambient air of Santa Cruz de Tenerife City, where a previous study found an association between hospitalizations due to heart failure and exposure to UFPs in the ambient air. The observed relationship between N, BC and gaseous pollutants allowed segregating UFP concentrations in a set of components linked to each source. It was found that vehicle exhausts contribute to the background of UFPs, whereas high UFP episodes were due to the emissions of the refinery and ships. The concentration of UFP linked to vehicle exhaust emissions maximized in the morning (07:00-09:00 GMT, 5000-25,000 cm- 3 = 25th-75th percentile), whereas those linked to ship (15,000-45,000 cm- 3) and refinery (25,000-95,000 cm- 3) emissions maximized in the 10:00-17:00 GMT period due to the effects of meteorology and photochemistry. It was found that the UFP concentrations were more sensitive to the fresh emissions of the three sources than PM2.5, which was mostly linked to aged fine particles (0.1-1 ?m) of the urban background. BC was the better tracer of vehicle exhaust emissions. It was concluded that the simultaneous monitoring of UFP, BC and PM2.5 is a suitable strategy of tracing aerosol pollutants of different nature (fresh vs. aged) and from different sources.

  11. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  12. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.C.

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator is described for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gases produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gases pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure. 8 figs.

  13. Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the active charcoal combination filter appeared less inflammatory to A549 cells. Conclusions A cabin air inlet particle filter including an active charcoal component was highly effective in reducing both DE particulate and gaseous components, with reduced exhaust-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of cabin filters to protect subjects travelling in vehicles from diesel exhaust emissions. PMID:24621126

  14. Sorptive behavior of nitro-PAHs in street runoff and their potential as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Yamada, Junya; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2008-02-15

    This is the first report to reveal the particle-water distribution of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and to discuss their potential risks and utility as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles (DEP). Time-series samples of runoff were collected from a highway, and NPAHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study their dynamic behavior. The concentrations of total NPAHs ranged from 11 to 73 ng/L in particulate phase (>0.7 mcirom) and from 2.3 to 4.9 ng/L in dissolved phase (<0.7 microm). Like their PAH analogs, most (81-97%) NPAHs were associated with particulate matter. The organic carbon-normalized in situ partition coefficients (Koc') of NPAHs observed in runoff events (10(5.8-6.3) for 2-nitrofluoranthene and 10(5.8-6.2) for 1-nitropyrene [1-NP]) were more than 1 order of magnitude higher than those expected from their Kow, indicating great affinity for particulate matter such as soot. Concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs adjusted by potency equivalency factors and induction equivalency factors showed that the potential risks of NPAHs were smaller than those of PAHs by a factor of more than a hundred for the particulate phase and morethan fourforthe dissolved phase. Comparison of concentrations and compositions of NPAHs and PAHs among runoff, DEP, gasoline vehicle exhaust particles, boiler exhaust particles, and aerosols suggested that the ratio of 1-NP to total PAHs (1-NP/PAH) is a useful indicator of DEP for source apportionment of PAHs among traffic-related sources. Source-apportionment of PAHs in the runoff by 1-NP/PAH and methylphenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios suggested that most PAHs in the runoff except the second flush peak were derived from DEP but that other pyrogenic sources contributed to the particles at the second flush and thus to the overall runoff particles. PMID:18351085

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

  16. Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Monitoring: Review and Critical Discussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Ropkins; Joe Beebe; Hu Li; Basil Daham; James Tate; Margaret Bell; Gordon Andrews

    2009-01-01

    Traffic-related emissions represent a major component of airborne pollution. Historically, dynamometer testing has been most widely used to estimate vehicle emission rates, and these emission rates, in turn, have been used as inputs when modeling traffic-related air quality impacts. However, such conventional drive cycle testing is not considered strictly representative of vehicles under real driving conditions. Therefore, in recent years,

  17. Ammonia exhaust emissions from spark ignition vehicles over the New European Driving Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2014-11-01

    A study aiming to measure ammonia emissions from light duty vehicles has been performed in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Ammonia, known for being toxic and dangerous for the environment, also contributes to the formation of particulate matter that has been related with adverse health and environmental effects. Nine modern light duty vehicles tested over the New European Driving Cycle showed that ammonia emissions are considerable for gasoline and ethanol flexi-fuel vehicles and also for one diesel vehicle equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system, ranging from 4 mg/km to 70 mg/km. Real-time ammonia emission profiles were monitored at the tailpipe by a High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer during tests at 22 and/or -7 °C. Ammonia emissions are thoroughly discussed and compared to those of its precursors, CO and NO, and other regulated compounds.

  18. Procedures for safe handling of off-gases from electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during overcharge

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, S.J.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Loutfy, R.O.; Varma, R.

    1980-01-25

    The potential for generation of toxic gases from lead-acid batteries has long been recognized. Prior to the current interest in electric vehicles, there were no studies specificaly oriented to toxic gas release from traction batteries, however. As the Department of Energy Demonstration Project (in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program) progresses, available data from past studies and parallel health effects programs must be digested into guidance to the drivers and maintenance personnel, tailored to their contact with electric vehicles. The basic aspects of lead-acid battery operation, vehicle use, and health effects of stibine and arsine to provide electric vehicle users with the information behind the judgment that vehicle operation and testing may proceed are presented. Specifically, it is concluded that stibine generation or arsine generation at rapid enough rates to induce acute toxic response is not at all likely. Procedures to guard against low-level exposure until more definitive data on ambient concentrations of the gases are collected are presented for both charging the batteries and driving the vehicles. A research plan to collect additional quantitative data from electric traction batteries is presented.

  19. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

    2001-01-01

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  20. Detectability of vehicle exhaust hydrocarbons: the Wisconsin inspection/maintentance (I/M) analyzer and the remote vehicle emissions sensing (RVES) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cors, Rebecca; Rendahl, Craig S.

    1995-05-01

    The Wisconsin Departments of Transportation and Natural Resources evaluated the hydrocarbon (HC) detection capability of the Remote Vehicle Emissions Sensing (RVES) system, which employs remote sensing technology, and Wisconsin's I/M analyzers, which use BAR90 specifications. Both analyzers employ non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) technology. Other recent research has quantified HC measurement inaccuracies for vehicle emissions analyzers that use NDIR technology or have BAR90 specifications. This research shows that BAR90 analyzers undermeasure some water- soluble HCs and NDIR analyzers undermeasure olefinic and aromatic HCs. This evaluation was based on both field measurements and calculations that simulate these inaccuracies. These calculations give a measurement accuracy value, which estimates the fraction of the total HCs in a vehicle exhaust sample that each analyzer measures. Other calculations quantify the ozone forming potential of this measured fraction by considering the reactivity of measured HCs. Our field measurements and calculations show Wisconsin I/M analyzer HC measurements are on average 7 percent and 1 percent less than RVES, respectively. Calculations estimate that both analyzers measure at most 43 to 71 percent (an average 61 percent) of the total HCs in an emissions sample. Additional calculations estimate that the HCs measured by both analyzers have 49 to 71 percent (an average 62 percent) of the ozone forming potential of the total HCs in an emissions sample.

  1. Determination of the characteristics of gas-dust flow of exhaust gases from the gas-turbine plant to the reconstructed boilers of the Bereza State District Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachurinskii, A. N.; Smetannikov, A. S.; Stankevich, Yu. A.; Stanchits, L. K.; Stepanov, K. L.; Strelkov, A. I.

    2006-05-01

    Flow of the exhaust gases in intricately shaped gas ducts between the gas-turbine unit and the steam boiler in the steam-gas plant of the Bereza State District Power Station has been investigated. The distribution of the gasdynamic parameters of three-dimensional turbulent flow of exhaust gases in channels of different geometries has been studied. The influence of certain structural elements of the gas duct on the hydrodynamic characteristics of flow has been considered. The amplitude-frequency analysis of the natural oscillations of the gasdynamic parameters in different cross sections of the channel has been performed using fast Fourier transformation.

  2. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 ± 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep + idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

  3. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices including diesel particulate filters (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep+idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photo-oxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary and secondary fine particulate matter from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after three hours of oxidation at typical urban VOC : NOx ratios (3:1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the non-methane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas-chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species, such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 ± 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep+idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

  4. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

  5. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  6. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  7. Mathematical modeling of catalytic converter lightoff; Part III: Prediction of vehicle exhaust emissions and parametric analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Oh; J. C. Cavendish

    1985-01-01

    The converter warmup model developed previously (Oh and Cavendish, 1985) has been used to simulate the performance of a packed-bed converter during the cold-start portion of vehicle emission tests. Despite the highly transient converter inlet conditions, the model successfully predicts tailpipe mass emissions as a function of time.

  8. On-Road Remote Sensing of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions in Auckland, New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    used vehicles. In addition, New Zealand's transport fuel has historically been of low quality (high of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were 0.71%, 330ppm and 796ppm respectively region, despite its overall generally good air quality (Fisher 2000). Air quality monitoring shows carbon

  9. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Rimkus; R. P. Larsen; M. G. Zammit; J. G. Davies; G. S. Salmon; R. I. Bruetsch

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC

  10. Development of a high efficient thermoelectric stack for a waste exhaust heat recovery of vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Matsubara

    2002-01-01

    The development of a high efficiency thermoelectric (TE) stack, which is a united system of thermoelectric modules and a heat exchanger, has been made to advance the applications of electrical power generation to vehicles. The thermoelectric materials under investigation are mostly heavily doped CoSb3 and filled skutterudites RM4Sb12 (R= Ce, Yb,; M=Co, Fe, Ni, Pt, Pd). In order to maximize

  11. Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001–06: An Ecological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. Methods and Findings We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001–06) with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area—postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs)—and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD.) The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006) during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006) and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006), respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6% decrease (rate ratio [RR]?=?1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.08) in the incidence of MVEG suicide within postcode areas; a percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1999 vehicles was associated with a 3% decrease (RR?=?1.03; 95% CI 1.02–1.04) in the incidence of MVEG suicide. Conclusions Areas of Australia with fewer vehicles predating stringent CO emission laws experience lower rates of MVEG suicide. Although those emission laws were introduced primarily for environmental reasons, countries that lack them may miss the benefits of a serendipitous suicide prevention strategy. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20052278

  12. Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health. PMID:22393814

  13. Simulation and Design of Vehicle Exhaust Power Generation Systems: The Interaction Between the Heat Exchanger and the Thermoelectric Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Cong; Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Liu, Lisheng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle exhaust power generation systems (VEPGS), mainly consisting of a heat exchanger, cooling system, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and clamping device, have attracted wide interest and attention for power generation from waste heat. In this work, systematical research was conducted to investigate the thermal performance, power output, and thermal stress of a VEPGS by using the multifield coupling method. Different from previous research, this work simulates a model that integrates the heat exchanger and TEMs, focusing on the effect of the TEMs on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. It is found that the TEMs have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. When not considering the effects of the TEMs, the hot-end temperature of the TEMs would be seriously underestimated, which would result in underestimation of the power output of the VEPGS and the level of thermal stress of the TEMs. Meanwhile, when considering the effect of the TEMs, the hot-end temperature distribution exhibits significant changes, and its temperature uniformity is significantly improved. The results suggest that, in VEPGS design and optimization, the interaction between the heat exchanger and TEMs should be considered. This study also contributes to a more accurate assessment method for VEPGS design and simulation.

  14. PM 2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G Watson; Judith C Chow; James E Houck

    2001-01-01

    PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 ?m) chemical source profiles applicable to speciated emissions inventories and receptor model source apportionment are reported for geological material, motor vehicle exhaust, residential coal (RCC) and wood combustion (RWC), forest fires, geothermal hot springs; and coal-fired power generation units from northwestern Colorado during 1995. Fuels and combustion conditions are similar to those

  15. Exposure to volatile organic compounds for individuals with occupations associated with potential exposure to motor vehicle exhaust and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Kuen Jo; Ki-Berm Song

    2001-01-01

    Workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source(s), motor vehicle exhausts and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions, are suspected to be exposed to highly-elevated VOC levels during their work-time. This study confirmed this suspicion and evaluated the work-time exposure VOCs for traffic police officers, parking garage attendants, service station attendants, roadside storekeepers and underground storekeepers, by measuring the concentrations of six

  16. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...see § 86.1). (v) Hybrid electric vehicle requirements. Deterioration factors for hybrid electric vehicles shall be based on the...certification purposes only, Type A hybrid electric vehicles shall demonstrate...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...see § 86.1). (v) Hybrid electric vehicle requirements. Deterioration factors for hybrid electric vehicles shall be based on the...certification purposes only, Type A hybrid electric vehicles shall demonstrate...

  18. Exhaust gas recirculating apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nohira; K. Kobashi

    1975-01-01

    The design is given of apparatus associated with an engine on a motor vehicle for either stopping the recirculation of exhaust gas through the engine completely or allowing it at a controlled rate, depending upon the operating condition of the engine. A regulating valve provided with a pair of diaphragms is installed in the exhaust gas recirculating circuit, and a

  19. The effect of exhaust plume/afterbody interaction on installed Scramjet performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas Alan

    1988-01-01

    Newly emerging aerospace technology points to the feasibility of sustained hypersonic flight. Designing a propulsion system capable of generating the necessary thrust is now the major obstacle. First-generation vehicles will be driven by air-breathing scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engines. Because of engine size limitations, the exhaust gas leaving the nozzle will be highly underexpanded. Consequently, a significant amount of thrust and lift can be extracted by allowing the exhaust gases to expand along the underbody of the vehicle. Predicting how these forces influence overall vehicle thrust, lift, and moment is essential to a successful design. This work represents an important first step toward that objective. The UWIN code, an upwind, implicit Navier-Stokes computer program, has been applied to hypersonic exhaust plume/afterbody flow fields. The capability to solve entire vehicle geometries at hypersonic speeds, including an interacting exhaust plume, has been demonstrated for the first time. Comparison of the numerical results with available experimental data shows good agreement in all cases investigated. For moderately underexpanded jets, afterbody forces were found to vary linearly with the nozzle exit pressure, and increasing the exit pressure produced additional nose-down pitching moment. Coupling a species continuity equation to the UWIN code enabled calculations indicating that exhaust gases with low isentropic exponents (gamma) contribute larger afterbody forces than high-gamma exhaust gases. Moderately underexpanded jets, which remain attached to unswept afterbodies, underwent streamwise separation on upswept afterbodies. Highly underexpanded jets produced altogether different flow patterns, however. The highly underexpanded jet creates a strong plume shock, and the interaction of this shock with the afterbody was found to produce complicated patterns of crossflow separation. Finally, the effect of thrust vectoring on vehicle balance has been shown to alter dramatically the vehicle pitching moment.

  20. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...production of ATVs and offroad utility vehicles that are subject to...including both ATVs and offroad utility vehicles subject to the standards...section and ATVs and offroad utility vehicles certified to the standards...from advertisements or other marketing materials for any...

  1. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...such that, if a test vehicle emitted the maximum...25 times the limit of detection for the GC analyzer...such that, if a test vehicle emitted formaldehyde...25 times the limit of detection for the GC analyzer...such that, if a test vehicle emitted...

  2. Effect of Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicles -- Final Report: Phase 3; July 28, 2008 - July 27, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.

    2014-05-01

    This report covers work the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Office of Automotive Engineering has conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) in support of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct). Section 1506 of EPAct requires EPA to produce an updated fuel effects model representing the 2007 light - duty gasoline fleet, including determination of the emissions impacts of increased renewable fuel use. This report covers the exhaust emissions testing of 15 light-duty vehicles with 27 E0 through E20 test fuels, and 4 light-duty flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on an E85 fuel, as part of the EPAct Gasoline Light-Duty Exhaust Fuel Effects Test Program. This program will also be referred to as the EPAct/V2/E-89 Program based on the designations used for it by the EPA, NREL, and CRC, respectively. It is expected that this report will be an attachment or a chapter in the overall EPAct/V2/E-89 Program report prepared by EPA and NREL.

  3. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels. The scooters were the main emitters of aromatic compounds, followed by the gasoline vehicle, the diesel vehicles and the HDDV.

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation valve with adjustable pressure transducer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Dunham; W. A. Treadwell

    1980-01-01

    An exhaust gas recirculation valve assembly is provided for controlling the recirculation of exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine. The assembly includes a fixed body portion having an exhaust inlet and an exhaust outlet port and an adjustable exhaust back-pressure transducer portion movable within the valve. A diaphragm is attached to the body and to the upper and lower

  5. Infrared Emission from the Water Outgas Cloud of an Orbiting Vehicle Induced by Collisions with Atmospheric Gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kezheng

    1992-01-01

    The visible and infrared environment at surface of an outgassing spacecraft in low earth orbit was noted as "space vehicle glow" as early as the 1980's. Studies of the interaction of the large-scale outgas cloud from an orbiter platform with the ambient upper atmospheric environment led to predictions of the possibility of sufficient energy transfer to IR action molecules to produce the possibility of volume IR emission around the platform. An infrared radiation model (IR model) has been developed to study the excitation of water molecules, a major constituent of the vapor cloud surrounding manned spacecraft, by collisions with atmospheric atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen. In this work, the cylindrical symmetry about a spacecraft's velocity vector is assumed, and the effects of gravity are neglected. Chemical reactions and effects of the vehicle's surfaces are also neglected, and solar and Earth-shine excitation are not considered. The excitation energy (average internal energy ~0.5 eV for H_2O 6.3-mu m band) with respect to the relative collision energy (~2.7 eV) is neglected. The collision energy and momentum are assumed to be conserved in the collision process. The collisional cross section dependent on the collision energy and the scattering angle is used, and the velocity-distribution functions of the interacting neutral gases obtained from the neutral gases interaction model are used to calculate the productions of water excitation states. The excited water molecules are allowed to traverse a distance determined by their velocities after collision and their lifetime until they spontaneously emit an infrared photon. Using the Maxwellian average approximation for water molecule velocity-distribution, the production of the excitation and subsequent emission of IR photons from the large-scale gas cloud as a function of position and their azimuth angle from the orbital platform are presented. The results from various sets of atmospheric and outgassing conditions are presented, and the dependence of the structure and brightness of the emission on outgassing rates and altitudes is discussed. Also, a comparison of these results with some other related works and with the measured radiance levels from the space shuttle flight 51-F has been made.

  6. Infrared emission from the water outgas cloud of an orbiting vehicle induced by collisions with atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kezheng

    1992-04-01

    The visible and infrared environment at surface of an outgassing spacecraft in low earth orbit was noted as 'space vehicle glow' as early as the 1980's. Studies of the interaction of the large-scale outgas cloud from an orbiter platform with the ambient upper atmospheric environment led to predictions of the possibility of sufficient energy transfer to IR action molecules to produce the possibility of volume IR emission around the platform. An infrared radiation model (IR model) has been developed to study the excitation of water molecules, a major constituent of the vapor cloud surrounding manned spacecraft, by collisions with atmospheric atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen. In this work, the cylindrical symmetry about a spacecraft's velocity vector is assumed, and the effects of gravity are neglected. Chemical reactions and effects of the vehicle's surfaces are also neglected, and solar and Earth-shine excitation are not considered. The excitation energy (average internal energy approximately 0.5 eV for H2O 6.3-micron band) with respect to the relative collision energy (approximately 2.7 eV) is neglected. The collision energy and momentum are assumed to be conserved in the collision process. The collisional cross section dependent on the collision energy and the scattering angle is used, and the velocity-distribution functions of the interacting neutral gases obtained from the neutral gases interaction model are used to calculate the productions of water excitation states. The excited water molecules are allowed to traverse a distance determined by their velocities after collision and their lifetime until they spontaneously emit an infrared photon. Using the Maxwellian average approximation for water molecule velocity-distribution, the production of the excitation and subsequent emission of IR photons from the large-scale gas cloud as a function of position and their azimuth angle from the orbital platform are presented. The results from various sets of atmospheric and outgassing conditions are presented, and the dependence of the structure and brightness of the emission on outgassing rates and altitudes is discussed. Also, a comparison of these results with some other related works and with the measured radiance levels from the space shuttle flight 51-F has been made.

  7. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty...not requiring particulate emissions measurements. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty...not requiring particulate emissions measurements. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty...not requiring particulate emissions measurements. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty...not requiring particulate emissions measurements. (a)...

  11. Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

    2011-06-01

    Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

  12. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  13. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

  14. PM2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995.

    PubMed

    Watson, J G; Chow, J C; Houck, J E

    2001-06-01

    PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microm) chemical source profiles applicable to speciated emissions inventories and receptor model source apportionment are reported for geological material, motor vehicle exhaust, residential coal (RCC) and wood combustion (RWC), forest fires, geothermal hot springs; and coal-fired power generation units from northwestern Colorado during 1995. Fuels and combustion conditions are similar to those of other communities of the inland western US. Coal-fired power station profiles differed substantially between different units using similar coals, with the major difference being lack of selenium in emissions from the only unit that was equipped with a dry limestone sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubber. SO2 abundances relative to fine particle mass emissions in power plant emissions were seven to nine times higher than hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abundances from geothermal springs, and one to two orders of magnitude higher than SO2 abundances in RCC emissions, implying that the SO2 abundance is an important marker for primary particle contributions of non-aged coal-fired power station contributions. The sum of organic and elemental carbon ranged from 1% to 10% of fine particle mass in coal-fired power plant emissions, from 5% to 10% in geological material, >50% in forest fire emissions, >60% in RWC emissions, and >95% in RCC and vehicle exhaust emissions. Water-soluble potassium (K+) was most abundant in vegetative burning profiles. K+/K ratios ranged from 0.1 in geological material profiles to 0.9 in vegetative burning emissions, confirming previous observations that soluble potassium is a good marker for vegetative burning. PMID:11368231

  15. Comparison of mutagenicity and calf thymus DNA adducts formed by the particulate and semivolatile fractions of vehicle exhausts.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Sanna K; Lappi, Maija; Honkanen, Markku; Savela, Kirsti

    2003-01-01

    In this study we compared the ability of extractable organic material from particulate and semivolatile fractions of gasoline emission to induce mutations in bacteria and form adducts with calf thymus (CT) DNA with corresponding data obtained from diesel exhaust. Exhaust particles from gasoline-powered passenger cars were collected on filters and semivolatile compounds were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF). The mutagenicity of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) was determined in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and the DNA binding of aromatic compounds in the extracts was assessed by in vitro incubations with CT DNA and rat liver S9 (oxidative activation) or xanthine oxidase (reductive activation) followed by butanol-enhanced (32)P-postlabeling analysis. Semivolatile fractions of gasoline emission collected on PUF formed more CT DNA adducts than filter extracts under all reaction conditions, but showed a lower mutagenic potential than the corresponding particulate samples. This suggests that the capacity of PUF to collect exhaust particle-derived compounds and/or the efficiency of xanthine oxidase and enzymes in the rat liver S9 to activate these compounds to DNA binding metabolites was higher than expected. Gasoline extracts, benzo[a]pyrene and diesel particulate matter (SRM 1650) formed more S9-mediated DNA adducts as their dose increased, although a linear dose-response was not observed for the gasoline exhausts. Lower concentrations of gasoline and diesel extracts bound to DNA with greater efficiency than did 8-fold higher doses, suggesting complex interactions and/or an inhibition of S9 enzyme activities by the high doses. Diesel extracts formed higher levels of adducts than gasoline extracts, especially with the reductive activation system, suggesting that diesel extracts contain high levels of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs). The higher direct-acting Salmonella mutagenicity in diesel extracts in comparison with gasoline extracts is consistent with diesel extracts containing higher concentrations of nitro-PAHs. The results of this study indicate that diesel extracts are more mutagenic and form more DNA adducts than gasoline extracts and that the effects of extract dose on DNA adduct formation are complex. PMID:12874810

  16. Fouling effects of turbine exhaust gases on heat exchanger tubes for heat recovery systems. Research and development report for period ending March 1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogalski

    1979-01-01

    The use of heat recovery with shipboard gas turbine engine exhausts has generated a need to examine operational problem areas of waste heat boilers (WHB's). To ensure dependable boiler operation, it is necessary to minimize gas-side fouling of boiler tubes if the fouling cannot be eliminated. This fouling of a waste heat boiler will produce increased boiler core gas pressure

  17. Development of a Simple Field Test for Vehicle Exhaust to Detect Illicit Use of Dyed Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Wright, Bob W.

    2011-10-30

    The use of tax-free dyed fuel on public highways in the United States provides a convenient way of evading taxes. Current enforcement involves visual inspection for the red azo dye added to the fuel to designate its tax-free status. This approach has shortcomings such as the invasive nature of the tests and/or various deceptive tactics applied by tax evaders. A test designed to detect dyed fuel use by analyzing the exhaust would circumvent these shortcomings. This paper describes the development of a simple color spot test designed to detect the use of tax-free (dyed) diesel fuel by analyzing the engine exhaust. Development first investigated the combustion products of C.I. Solvent Red 164 (the azo dye formulation used in the United States to tag tax-free fuel). A variety of aryl amines were identified as characteristic molecular remnants that appear to survive combustion. A number of microanalytical color tests specific for aryl amines were then investigated. One test based on the use of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde seemed particularly applicable and was used in a proof-of-principle experiment. The 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde color spot test was able to clearly distinguish between engines burning regular and dyed diesel fuel. Further development will refine this color spot test to provide an easy-to-use field test for Internal Revenue Service Field Compliance specialists.

  18. Near-vent measurements of volcanic gases and aerosols with multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Schumann, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic phenomena occurring on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere are almost always distributed over a volume or area that changes progressively over time (e.g., explosive eruption plumes, lava flows, floods, toxic materials releases, wildfires). 'Snapshot' views of such phenomena traditionally capture a small part of the area or volume of the event in successive time slices. Such time series are fundamentally limited in providing accurate boundary conditions for models of such processes, or even to create descriptions or observations at spatial scales relevant to the characteristic dimensions of the process. High spatial resolution (e.g., ~1-3m/pixel) imaging views of such spatially extended phenomena that capture the entire extent of the event are not usually possible with a single low altitude aircraft, for instance. Synoptic satellite and high altitude airborne views are often at spatial resolutions that an order of magnitude coarser. Airborne in situ sampling faces a similar problem in that point measurements are acquired along a flight line in a time-series. Source conditions changing at timescales shorter than an airborne sortie interval (typical for most dynamic phenomena) render such flight line observations incomplete. The ability to capture hi-spatial resolution, synchronous, full volume or area data over dynamically evolving (possibly hazardous) features (e.g., volcanic plumes, air pollution layers, oil slicks, wildfires) requires a distributed 2D or 3D mesh of observation platforms. Small (e.g., <25kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology that can provide distributed formations or networks of observation platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured to encompass areas or volumes of interest for imaging or other kinds of in situ observations (e.g., SO2 or CO2 sampling of volcanic gas emissions). Such data are crucial for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed concentration retrievals (e.g., from multi/hyperspectral imaging platforms) or for transport modeling based on data from such platforms. For instance, for volcanic plumes, in situ cal/val data are rare to non-existent. Nevertheless, such data were in high demand during the airborne volcanic ash crisis that shut down European airspace for weeks at a time after the early 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland. Particularly for low altitude applications, small UAVs, such as the Aerovironment-built Dragon Eye (~2.5kg gross weight) or its equivalent, with small payloads (e.g., 0.5-1kg), can be economically deployed in formations or 'swarms' to provide simultaneous multiple observations over an areally or volumetrically distributed temporally evolving feature, such as a lava flow or a volcanic plume. We discuss our recent experiences and challenges in the use of such small platforms, the challenges in providing low mass sensors for such aircraft, and future applications for self-organizing airborne sensor networks. This work was carried out, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...defined as small changes in the air-fuel ratio for the purposes of optimizing vehicle...defined as the temporary use of an air-fuel ratio rich of stoichiometry at the beginning...strategy is defined as the use of an air-fuel ratio significantly greater than...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...defined as small changes in the air-fuel ratio for the purposes of optimizing vehicle...defined as the temporary use of an air-fuel ratio rich of stoichiometry at the beginning...strategy is defined as the use of an air-fuel ratio significantly greater than...

  1. Rocket motor exhaust products generated by the space shuttle vehicle during its launch phase (1976 design data)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.

  2. Analysis of possibilities of waste heat recovery in off-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, K. T.; Zybala, R.; Leszczynski, J.; Nieroda, P.; Schmidt, M.; Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of the waste heat recovery investigations for an agricultural tractor engine (7.4 dm3) and excavator engine (7.2 dm3) in real operating conditions. The temperature of exhaust gases and exhaust mass flow rate has been measured by precise portable exhaust emissions analyzer SEMTECH DS (SENSORS Inc.). The analysis shows that engines of tested vehicles operate approximately at constant speed and load. The average temperature of exhaust gases is in the range from 300 to 400 °C for maximum gas mass flows of 1100 kg/h and 1400 kg/h for tractor and excavator engine respectively. Preliminary tests show that application of TEGs in tested off-road vehicles offers much more beneficial conditions for waste heat recovery than in case of automotive engines.

  3. Effectiveness of mitigation measures in reducing future primary particulate matter emissions from on-road vehicle exhaust.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C; Streets, David G

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa. PMID:25393452

  4. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  5. Crossfire calibrated exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, R.S.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a dual-exhaust system for an internal combustion engine having a pair of spaced-apart pipes channeling exhaust gases from the engine towards a muffler. It comprises first and second additional pipes connected between the pair of spaced-apart pipes at substantially 45[degrees] angles with respect to each of the pair of pipes and at substantially a 90[degrees] angle with respect to each other; and wherein the first and second additional pipes are also interconnected with each other substantially at the midpoints thereof, measured along their respective lengths, and substantially midway between the pair of spaced-apart pipes.

  6. Catalytic automotive exhaust aftertreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grigorios C. Koltsakis; Anastasios M. Stamatelos

    1997-01-01

    Catalytic exhaust aftertreatment of vehicle engines is increasingly employed to the benefit of the atmosphere quality, especially in the large urban area of the world. Both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines benefit from the application of catalytic converters for the elimination of their main pollutants. Catalysts are further employed in various forms as regeneration aids in particulate filters of diesel engines.

  7. In vitro genotoxicity of exhaust emissions of diesel and gasoline engine vehicles operated on a unified driving cycle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Qing; Keane, Michael; Ensell, Mang; Miller, William; Kashon, Michael; Ong, Tong-man; Mauderly, Joe; Lawson, Doug; Gautam, Mridul; Zielinska, Barbara; Whitney, Kevin; Eberhardt, James; Wallace, William

    2005-01-01

    Acetone extracts of engine exhaust particulate matter (PM) and of vapor-phase semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) collected from a set of 1998-2000 model year normal emitter diesel engine automobile or light trucks and from a set of 1982-1996 normal emitter gasoline engine automobiles or light trucks operated on the California Unified Driving Cycle at 22 [degree]C were assayed for in vitro genotoxic activities. Gasoline and diesel PM were comparably positive mutagens for Salmonella typhimurium strains YG1024 and YG1029 on a mass of PM extract basis with diesel higher on a mileage basis; gasoline SVOC was more active than diesel on an extracted-mass basis, with diesel SVOC more active on a mileage basis. For chromosomal damage indicated by micronucleus induction in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells), diesel PM expressed about one-tenth that of gasoline PM on a mass of extract basis, but was comparably active on a mileage basis; diesel SVOC was inactive. For DNA damage in V79 cells indicated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, gasoline PM was positive while diesel PM was active at the higher doses; gasoline SVOC was active with toxicity preventing measurement at high doses, while diesel SVOC was inactive at all but the highest dose. PMID:15614403

  8. Sensor modeling and fusion algorithms for NOx measures towards zero emissions vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Giampà; Esa Petri; Sergio Saponara; Pierangelo Terreni

    2009-01-01

    Measuring NOx concentration in exhaust gases of vehicles is essential for emissions monitoring and control. Commercial NOx sensors provide a measure influenced both by the temperature and by the presence of other substances to which the device is sensitive. This paper describes a technique to correct the measure obtained from the NOx sensor by exploiting additional compensating sensors. Thanks to

  9. Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Stupfel, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

  10. Quick Access Rocket Exhaust Rig Testing of Coated GRCop-84 Sheets Used to Aid Coating Selection for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation of reusable launch vehicles calls for using GRCop-84 copper alloy liners based on a composition1 invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center: Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb. Many of the properties of this alloy have been shown to be far superior to those of other conventional copper alloys, such as NARloy-Z. Despite this considerable advantage, it is expected that GRCop-84 will suffer from some type of environmental degradation depending on the type of rocket fuel utilized. In a liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid oxygen (LO2) booster engine, copper alloys undergo repeated cycles of oxidation of the copper matrix and subsequent reduction of the copper oxide, a process termed "blanching". Blanching results in increased surface roughness and poor heat-transfer capabilities, local hot spots, decreased engine performance, and premature failure of the liner material. This environmental degradation coupled with the effects of thermomechanical stresses, creep, and high thermal gradients can distort the cooling channel severely, ultimately leading to its failure.

  11. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J.; Sioutas, C.

    2008-03-01

    A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusion charger, an Aethalometer, and a continuous particle counter were used along with other real-time instruments to characterize the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (p-PAH) content, and the physical/chemical characteristics of aerosols collected a) in Wilmington (CA) near the Los Angeles port and close to 2 major freeways, and b) at a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA), where 3 diesel trucks were tested. In Wilmington, the p-PAH, surface area, particle number, and "black" carbon concentrations were 4-8 times higher at 09:00-11:00 a.m. than between 17:00 and 18:00 p.m., suggesting that during rush hour traffic people living in that area are exposed to a higher number of diesel combustion particles enriched in p-PAH coatings. Dynamometer tests revealed that the p-PAH emissions from the "baseline" truck (no catalytic converter) were up to 200 times higher than those from the 2 vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies, and increased when the truck was accelerating. In Wilmington, integrated filter samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of the most abundant p-PAHs. A correlation between the total p-PAH concentration (?g/m3) and the measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA) was also established. Estimated ambient p-PAH concentrations (Average=0.64 ng/m3; Standard deviation=0.46 ng/m3 were in good agreement with those reported in previous studies conducted in Los Angeles during a similar time period. Finally, we calculated the approximate theoretical lifetime (70 years per 24-h/day) lung-cancer risk in the Wilmington area due to inhalation of multi-component p-PAHs and "black" carbon. Our results indicate that the lung-cancer risk is highest during rush hour traffic and lowest in the afternoon, and that the genotoxic risk of the considered p-PAHs does not seem to contribute to a significant part of the total lung-cancer risk attributable to "black" carbon.

  12. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J.; Sioutas, C.

    2007-12-01

    A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusion charger, an Aethalometer, and a continuous particle counter were used along with other real-time instruments to characterize the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (p-PAH) content, and the physical/chemical characteristics of aerosols collected a) in Wilmington (CA) near the Los Angeles port and close to 2 major freeways, and b) at a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA), where 3 diesel trucks were tested. In Wilmington, the p-PAH, surface area, particle number, and "black" carbon concentrations were 4-8 times higher at 09:00-11:00 a.m. than between 17:00 and 18:00 p.m., suggesting that during rush hour traffic people living in that area are exposed to a higher number of diesel combustion particles enriched in p-PAH coatings. Dynamometer tests revealed that the p-PAH emissions from the "baseline" truck (no catalytic converted) were up to 200 times higher than those from the 2 vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies, and increased when the truck was accelerating. In Wilmington, integrated filter samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of the most abundant p-PAHs. A correlation between the total p-PAH concentration (?g/m3) and the measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA) was also established. Estimated ambient p-PAH concentrations (Average = 0.64 ng/m3; Standard deviation = 0.46 ng/m3) were in good agreement with those reported in previous studies conducted in Los Angeles during a similar time period. Finally, we calculated the approximate theoretical lifetime (70 years per 24-h/day) lung-cancer risk in the Wilmington area due to inhalation of multi-component p-PAHs and "black" carbon. Our results indicate that the lung-cancer risk is highest during rush hour traffic and lowest in the afternoon, and that the genotoxic risk of the considered p-PAHs does not seem to contribute to a significant part of the total lung-cancer risk attributable to "black" carbon.

  13. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...for methanol-fueled vehicles) for the determination...petroleum-fueled diesel vehicles (may also be used with methanol-fueled diesel vehicles), Figure B90-5...using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas...

  14. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 ?g g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  15. 40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...electric vehicles. (a) Determine fuel economy values for electric vehicles as...

  16. 76 FR 57691 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Jersey; Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...establish a new exhaust emission test for gasoline fueled vehicles and the...Jersey include a new exhaust emission test for gasoline fueled vehicles; the extension...establishment of a new exhaust emission test for gasoline fueled vehicles. The...

  17. 77 FR 15263 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Jersey; Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...establish a new exhaust emission test for gasoline fueled vehicles and the...Jersey include a new exhaust emission test for gasoline fueled vehicles; the extension...establishment of a new exhaust emission test for gasoline fueled vehicles. The...

  18. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08...

  19. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08...

  20. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08...

  1. INFLUENCE OF OXYGENETAED COMPOUNDS IN GASOLINE ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. KATSIKARIS; A. VRACHNOS; S. POULOPOULOS

    The effect of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol addition in unleaded gasoline, on exhaust gases emissions from an OPEL 1.61 motor of General Motors equipped with a catalytic converter and a power absorption unit, was studied. It was observed that with oxygenated fuels, HC and CO emissions were significantly lower. Similar differences were confirmed at the exhaust gases

  2. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROCKET EXHAUST SCRUBBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an engineering study and design of methods for scrubbing the exhaust of static-tested solid rockets. Pollutants of major concern were hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases. The best process for removing these gases was found to be a gas-atomize...

  3. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...petroleum-fueled diesel- cycle vehicles (may also be used with...methanol-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), Figure B94-5...using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical...methanol-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), Figure B94-5...using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas...

  4. Internal combustion engine with exhaust emission control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Allione; F. Cavallino; P. Martinez; R. Schiavuzzi

    1981-01-01

    A four cylinder spark ignition internal combustion engine has an exhaust emission control system including means for admitting fresh air into the exhaust system in order to promote a further combustion of partly burnt components in the gases coming from the combustion chambers, this means include a ''reed'' valve connected to the exhaust ports leading from the first and fourth

  5. 78 FR 34375 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...request (ICR), ``Exhaust Emissions of Light-duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...population for the project will include light-duty cars and trucks certified to...

  6. CeO 2-ZrO 2La 2O 3Al 2O 3 composite oxide and its supported palladium catalyst for the treatment of exhaust of natural gas engined vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyu Zhang; Enyan Long; Yile Li; Jiaxiu Guo; Lijuan Zhang; Maochu Gong; Minghua Wang; Yaoqiang Chen

    2009-01-01

    Composite supports CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 (CZA) and CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3-La2O3 (CZALa) were prepared by co-precipitation method. Palladium catalysts were prepared by impregnation and their purification ability for CH4, CO and NOx in the mixture gas simulated the exhaust from natural gas vehicles (NGVs) operated under stoichiometric condition was investigated. The effect of La2O3 on the physicochemical properties of supports and catalysts was characterized by

  7. Sensor Modeling, Low-Complexity Fusion Algorithms, and Mixed-Signal IC Prototyping for Gas Measures in Low-Emission Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Saponara; Esa Petri; Luca Fanucci; Pierangelo Terreni

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the detection of hydrogen leaks for safety warning systems in automotive applications and the measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration in exhaust gases of zero-emission vehicles. The presented approach is based on the development of accurate models (including nonlinearity and error sources of real building components) for all the system elements: sensors and acquisition chain. This methodology enables

  8. Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

  9. 40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...electric vehicles. (a) Determine fuel economy label values for electric vehicles...

  10. 40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...electric vehicles. (a) Determine fuel economy values for electric vehicles as...

  11. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  12. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  13. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

  14. Examples of past vehicle-related projects at the University of Alabama: Diesel Exhaust Treatment Using Catalyst/Zeolite-II-collaborative UAB/UA project funded by

    E-print Network

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    of Alabama to study the effectiveness of low-cost zeolite catalytic materials for treating diesel exhaust to minimize pollutant emissions. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Fuel Injector System for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Applications- project funded by CFD Research Co. to assess the effectiveness

  15. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...8 °C)) for methanol-fueled vehicles) for the determination of hydrocarbons...derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

  16. Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air

    E-print Network

    Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The recovery of waste energy in furnace exhaust gases is gaining in importance as fuel costs continue to escalate. Installation of a recuperator in the furnace exhaust stream to preheat the combustion air can result in considerable savings in fuel...

  17. Quasi non-intrusive sampling and analysis of gases associated with the boundary layer on the tethered satellite and similar supersonic and hypersonic research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishel, C.; Niederriter, S.; Brown, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect that one candidate inlet, an assembly of capillary openings in a thin glass plate (a multichannel plate), might have on the overall sampling process is considered. The flow characteristics of the plate, under a variety of conditions of external pressure and mass flow, is evaluated. A review of capillary flow theory is presented with some development of the pertinent equations. The predicted mass flow will be compared to that determined perimentally to assess the effect that mass flow through one capillary might have upon a neighboring capillary. Mass spectrometric measurements of mixtures flowing through the multichannel plate (MCP) is also considered. In the first part of the experiments, the flow was in a direction normal to the surface of the plate. The experimental gases were Argon and mixtures of carbon dioxide in air. Ongoing experiments are discussed which are conducted with the flow parallel to the surface of the plate, a simulation of the kind of flow that a flight vehicle would experience.

  18. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated aftertreatment, high-molecular-weight fuel components and unburned lubricant were emitted at higher rates than in vehicles in good repair, with functioning emissions systems. Light-duty gasoline, medium-duty diesel, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles produced more particles with fresh oil than with aged oil. The opposite trend was observed in light- and medium-duty high PM emitters. This effect was not readily apparent with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, perhaps because the lubricant represented a much smaller fraction of the total PM in those trucks.

  19. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  20. Effects of jet exhaust gas properties on exhaust simulation and afterbody drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1975-01-01

    The effect of varying the jet exhaust's ratio of specific heats, gas constant, and temperature on airplane afterbody drag was investigated. Jet exhaust simulation parameters were evaluated also. Subsonic and transonic tests were made using a single nacelle model with afterbodies having boattail angles of 10 deg and 20 deg. Besides air, three other jet exhaust gases were investigated. The ratios of specific heats, gas constants, and total temperatures of the four exhaust gases ranged from 1.40 to 1.26, 287 to 376 J/kg-K, and 300 to 1013 K, respectively. For steep boattail angles, and transonic speeds and typical turbojet pressure ratios, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a dry turbojet exhaust can result in an overprediction of afterbody drag as high as 17 percent of the dry turbojet value.

  1. Axisymmetric & non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced-effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 1: Data presentation. [conducted in Ames 11-foot transonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, W. C.; Ordonez, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A 1/8 scale jet-effects model was tested in the NASA Ames 11 ft transonic tunnel at static conditions and over a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. The data presented show that significant differences in aeropropulsion performance can be expected by varying the exhaust nozzle type and its geometric parameters on a V/STOL underwing nacelle installation.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...purchased in the NTR by state governments. In determining the quantity...vehicles that are reported by the purchasing government in a timely letter, containing...determined by a Selective Enforcement Audit, recall testing, or...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1811-17 - Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...standard. For multi-fueled vehicles, calculate fleet-average emission levels based only on emission levels for testing with gasoline or diesel fuel. You may generate emission credits for banking and trading and you may use banked or...

  4. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Otani, J.

    1982-10-19

    An exhaust system for an engine of a motorcycle is disclosed having catalytic and silencing mufflers arranged in adjacent side -by-side series flow relationship, the catalytic muffler extending rearwardly of the motorcycle, and, adjacent its rear end, being interconnected with the silencing muffler, the silencing muffler including plural expansion chambers which are interconnected in flow reversal relationship for gases to be exhausted rearwardly of the motorcycle.

  5. Injection of Nuclear Rocket Engine Exhaust into Deep Unsaturated Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. A.; Decker, D.

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear rocket engine technology is being considered as a means of interplanetary vehicle propulsion for a manned mission to Mars. To achieve this, a test and development facility must be constructed to safely run nuclear engines. The testing of nuclear engines in the 1950's and 1960's was accomplished by exhausting the engine gases into the atmosphere, a practice that is no longer acceptable. Injection into deep unsaturated zones of radioactive exhaust gases and water vapor associated with the testing of nuclear rocket engines is being considered as a way of sequestering radionuclides from the environment. Numerical simulations were conducted to determine the ability of an unsaturated zone with the hydraulic properties of Frenchman Flat alluvium at the Nevada Test Site to contain gas-phase radionuclides. Gas and water vapor were injected for two hours at rates of 14.5 kg s-1 and 15 kg s-1, respectively, in an interval between 100 and 430 m below the land surface into alluvium with an intrinsic permeability of 10-11 m2 and porosity of 0.35. The results show that during a test of an engine, radionuclides with at least greater than 10-year half-lives may reach the land surface within several years after injection. Radionuclide transport is primarily controlled by the upward pressure gradient from the point of injection to the lower (atmospheric) pressure boundary condition at the land surface. Radionuclides with half-lives on the order of days should undergo enough decay prior to reaching the land surface. A cooling water vapor injected into the unsaturated zone simultaneously with the exhaust gas will condense within several meters of the injection point and drain downward toward the water table. However, the nearly horizontal hydraulic groundwater gradient present in several of the basins at NTS should limit lateral migration of radionuclides away from the vicinity of injection.

  6. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  7. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  8. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  9. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

  10. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quayle, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

  11. An experimental study of jet exhaust simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1975-01-01

    Afterbody drag predictions for jet aircraft are usually made experimentally with the jet exhaust flow simulated. The physical gas properties of the fluid used for the model jet exhaust can affect the accuracy of simulation of the airplane's jet exhaust plume. The effect of the accuracy of this simulation on afterbody drag was investigated by wind-tunnel tests with single engine model. In addition to unheated air as the exhaust gas, the decomposition products of three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were utilized. The air jet simulation consistently resulted in higher boattail drag than hydrogen peroxide simulation. The differences in drag for the various exhaust gases are attributed to different plume shapes and entrainment properties of the gases. The largest differences in drag due to exhaust gas properties were obtained for the combination of high transonic Mach numbers and high boattail angles. For these conditions, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a nonafterburning turbojet exhaust can result in an increase in afterbody amounting to 20 percent of the nonafterburning turbojet value.

  12. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  13. 102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Diesel exhaust particulate trap with axially stacked filters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. H.

    1983-12-06

    An elongated particulate trap is disclosed, to fit the area usually occupied by the vertical cylindrical muffler, as on a large diesel truck, consists of rings of axial flow filter elements and a disc-like axial flow end filter element stacked in a trap housing, having an exhaust inlet and outlet at opposite ends, so as to provide a central flow passage for entry of exhaust gases via the exhaust inlet and so as to define with the trap housing and exhaust passage in flow communication with the exhaust outlet. The filter elements are stacked in spaced apart relationship to each other whereby to provide an axial gap therebetween to allow radial flow on one face of the filter elements. The axial gaps are sealed alternately on inner and outer radial ends to define outlet and inlet passages, respectively and to force axial flow through the filter elements whereby particulates will be removed from the exhaust gases.

  15. 40 CFR 600.007-08 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the...

  16. 40 CFR 600.007-80 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the...

  17. Rocket Engine Clustering and Vehicle Integration as Influenced by Base Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; McAnelly, William B.

    1966-01-01

    Clustered rocket engines create severe thermal environments in the base of rocket vehicle stages. Boosters burning hydrocarbon fuels experience severe radiant heating early in flight; as the plumes interact at higher altitudes, convective heating becomes significant. For hydrogen-fueled upper stages radiation is not important, but convective heating is severe during the entire stage operation. Predicted and measured heating rates are discussed. The base region thermal environments of stages with clustered engines present a variety of engine/vehicle interaction problems. Components and structures in the base region, including the rocket engines, cannot survive radiant and convective heating from engine exhausts without such remedies as protective insulation, shielding, air-scooping, and proper disposal of the fuel-rich turbine exhaust gases. Different thermal protection concepts evolve for booster and upper stages due to the differences in ground test and flight environments. Solutions to the engine/vehicle interaction and design integration problems are described.

  18. Exhaust recycle to carburetor of an internal combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1984-01-01

    A hot slipstream from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine is used directly, that is without valving it, to heat and vaporize fuel as it is sprayed from the fuel nozzle of a carburetor having a booster venturi above the throttle plate, provided the ratio of the volume of slipstream to the volume of exhaust gases is self-regulated within

  19. NOBLE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Noble Gases symposium, on which this report is based, provided comprehensive coverage of the noble gases. The coverage included, but was not limited to, the properties, biokinetics, bioeffects, production and release to the environment, detection techniques, standards, and ap...

  20. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CFCs CO Additional Information Introduction What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds present in Earth's atmosphere behave ... a greenhouse gas. Carbon Monoxide and other reactive gases Carbon monoxide (CO) is not considered a direct ...

  1. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  2. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. 86.159-08...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. 86.160-00...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles? 1051.103...ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.103 What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles? (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. 86.159-08...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. 86.160-00...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  8. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  9. Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1980-02-01

    This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described.

  10. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...screen candidate vehicles for their exhaust THC emissions to place them within the emitter...vehicles may be tested for their exhaust THC emissions using the Federal test procedure...vehicles may be screened for their exhaust THC emissions with the IM240 short test...

  11. Combination exhaust-gas cleaner and muffler for an automobile engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Tokura; K. Masaki; H. Nagaisi

    1978-01-01

    A combination exhaust-gas cleaner and muffler for particular use in an exhaust system of an automotive engine is described. The system contains a catalytic converter using a granular catalyst which is responsible for emission of dust particles of oxides of base or noble metal, comprising at least one centrifugal separator for separating the dust particles from the exhaust gases by

  12. Power Production Technique Using Exhaust Gas From Present Automobiles via Convergent-Divergent Nozzle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Venkatesh

    2006-01-01

    IC engines lose 42% of their energy to exhaust. So a number of methods to increase the performance of the internal combustion automobile engines have been established. A better method of utilizing the exhaust is being achieved by this paper. The method uses the exhaust gases from an optimal sized engine currently used. This pressure and temperature is being used

  13. Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Colella; M. Z. Jacobson; D. M. Golden

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by

  14. Electronegative gases

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined.

  15. Exhaust system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.H.

    1983-07-19

    The present invention provides an exhaust system comprising an elongated hollow casing having an upstream muffler chamber containing an insulated removable cartridge for sound absorbing and sound collecting, an intermediate chamber containing a removable spark and moisture arrester and a downstream chamber having a removable and replaceable cartridge containing exhaust gas purifying material. In one embodiment the cartridge provides dual chambers, one for absorbing and absorbing exhaust gas pollutants and the other for catalytic conversion of the same or different exhaust gases. The purifying cartridge is constructed of a foraminous material such as heat and corrosion resistant wire mesh or screen. Similarly, the muffler cartridge is an elongated hollow shell formed of a foraminous heat and corrosion resistant material such as wire mesh or screen. The annular space around the muffler cartridge is preferably filled with a heat-resistant, sound-absorbing, gas previous material. The purifier chamber is provided with guide vanes to direct the exhaust gases over the purifier material and through and out of the purifying chamber. In another embodiment the muffler cartridge is provided with a plurality of sound attenuating chambers.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1340-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations...Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...except diesels), CH4 (natural gas-fueled engines only), CO, CO2 . and...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1340-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations...Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...except diesels), CH4 (natural gas-fueled engines only), CO, CO2 . and...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1340-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations...Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...except diesels), CH4 (natural gas-fueled engines only), CO, CO2 . and...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1340-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations...Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...except diesels), CH4 (natural gas-fueled engines only), CO, CO2 . and...

  20. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...applicable unless the exhaust system of such vehicle is (a) free from defects which affect sound reduction; (b) equipped with a muffler or other noise dissipative device; and (c) not equipped with any cut-out, bypass, or similar...

  1. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...applicable unless the exhaust system of such vehicle is (a) free from defects which affect sound reduction; (b) equipped with a muffler or other noise dissipative device; and (c) not equipped with any cut-out, bypass, or similar...

  2. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...applicable unless the exhaust system of such vehicle is (a) free from defects which affect sound reduction; (b) equipped with a muffler or other noise dissipative device; and (c) not equipped with any cut-out, bypass, or similar...

  3. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...applicable unless the exhaust system of such vehicle is (a) free from defects which affect sound reduction; (b) equipped with a muffler or other noise dissipative device; and (c) not equipped with any cut-out, bypass, or similar...

  4. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...applicable unless the exhaust system of such vehicle is (a) free from defects which affect sound reduction; (b) equipped with a muffler or other noise dissipative device; and (c) not equipped with any cut-out, bypass, or similar...

  5. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty... Calculations; exhaust emissions. The provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty... Calculations; exhaust emissions. The provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty... Calculations; exhaust emissions. The provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty... Calculations; exhaust emissions. The provisions...

  9. Liquid cooled exhaust flange

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, W.E.

    1990-04-24

    This patent describes a liquid-cooled exhaust flange for mating a liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system to a conventional internal combustion engine turbo charger discharge port. It comprises: a generally cylindrical elongated exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in sandwiched relationship between the turbo charger housing and the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; a cooling liquid-jacket housing internally and concentrically connected to the exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in fluidly communicating relationship with a flow of cooling liquid within the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; the liquid-jacket housing covering a substantial portion of the external surface area of the exhaust conduit member so as to reduce the temperature of the external surface of the exhaust flange.

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling...utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet...

  11. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling...utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.101 - Compressed gases (general requirements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...1910.6. (b) Compressed gases. The in-plant handling...utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet...

  13. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling...utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.101 - Compressed gases (general requirements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1910.6. (b) Compressed gases. The in-plant handling...utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet...

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling...utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.101 - Compressed gases (general requirements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...1910.6. (b) Compressed gases. The in-plant handling...utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling...utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet...

  18. Monitoring and Assessment of Exhaust Emission in Bangkok Street Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Muttamara; Shing Tet Leong

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of the exhaust emission from gasoline-powered motor vehicles in Bangkok were performed on chassis dynamometer. A fleet of 10 vehicles of different model, years and manufacturers were selected to measure the air pollutants in the exhaust effluent. The study revealed that the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions averaged 32.3–64.2 and 1.82–2.98 g km-1, respectively, for 1990–1992 cars and decreased

  19. Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

  20. Combination catalytic converter and muffler for an exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.A.

    1980-06-24

    A combination muffler and catalytic converter for an exhaust system is desclosed. The unit comprises an outer housing having an inlet to receive exhaust gases, and a venturi is located within the housing and provides an aspirating effect to draw air into the housing from the atmosphere for the catalytic conversion. The venturi includes a diverging conical outlet section, and the gases are discharged from the outlet section through a plurality of perforations which aids in obtaining a uniform distribution of the gases to the catalytic unit that is located centrally of the housing. After passing through the catalytic unit, the gases are discharged from the housing through a discharge pipe having a closed inner end and perforations in its wall through which the gases flow. The perforated discharge pipe provides a selfcontrolling system which prevents overheating of the catalyst.

  1. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission...derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...2).) (ii) For natural gas vehicles, the manufacturer has the option...

  6. Developing a "Research Test Bed" to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Stephen J.

    2012-05-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's "clean and green" image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water & Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal "vehicle emissions research environment" supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  7. Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

    2006-03-01

    For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were not detectable. PMID:16265462

  8. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

  9. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

  10. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above...

  11. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A.; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M. C.; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. RESULTS: The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel exhaust. Further studies are warranted to evaluate more efficient treatment devices to reduce adverse reactions to diesel exhaust in the airways.   PMID:10492649

  12. Blood gases

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood gases are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine ... taking a sample of blood from the wrist area. The health care provider will insert a small ...

  13. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-86 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-87 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  15. 40 CFR 600.006-89 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-89 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  16. 40 CFR 600.006-08 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. 600.006-08 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES USING METHANOL AND METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDED FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions were examined from vehicles fueled with methanol or a gasoline-methanol blend. Regulated automobile pollutants, as well as detailed hydrocarbons, methanol, and aldehydes were measured, and exhaust emission trends were obtained for vehicle operati...

  18. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  19. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  20. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...group. (1) Each vehicle with an exhaust total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions rate which is less than or equal to twice the applicable...the normal emitter group. (2) Each vehicle with an exhaust THC emissions rate which is greater than two times the...

  1. Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Dah Y. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

  2. Influence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Poulopoulos; C. Philippopoulos

    2000-01-01

    The effect of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) addition into gasoline on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines was studied. A four-cylinder OPEL 1.6l engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. Fuels containing 0.0–11.0% MTBE were used in a wide range of engine operations, and the exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (total unburned

  3. Exhaust gas purifying device

    SciTech Connect

    Haneda, Y.; Hiraoka, S.; Sakuraya, Y.

    1980-08-19

    An exhaust gas purifying device is disclosed for removing harmful solid particles, sparks and flames contained in exhaust gas discharged from an internal combustion engine. The devices consists of a cylindrical body member connected to a muffler in an exhaust gas system of the engine. The cylindrical body member is separated into front and rear chambers by an intermediate partition plate. The front chamber includes an exhaust gas introducing hole in a front wall thereof and displaced with respect to a communicating hole formed in the central portion of the partition plate to thereby effectively remove the harmful particles at low flow rate of the exhaust gas. The rear chamber includes a swirl-generating means on the upstream side thereof and a solid particle collecting chamber on the outer periphery thereof to thereby remove the harmful particles at high flow rates of the exhaust gas.

  4. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  5. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wake, J.; Matsuda, H.

    1980-01-01

    An exhaust gas recirculation passageway leads from an engine exhaust passageway to an engine induction passageway downstream of a throttle valve. A fuel control member of an injection pump moves the throttle valve in the opening direction to reduce the vacuum in the induction passageway and thereby the amount of exhaust gas recirculation only when the fuel control member is moved beyond a predetermined position in the fuel increasing direction. A stopper limits movement of the throttle valve in the closing direction.

  6. Comparison of Flexible Fuel Vehicle and Life-Cycle Fuel Consumption and Emissions of Selected Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases for Ethanol 85 Versus Gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haibo Zhai; H. Christopher Frey; Nagui M. Rouphail; Gonçalo A. Gonçalves; Tiago L. Farias; Veronica Figueroa; Kevin Mackie; Nick Guarriello; C. Cooper; Gary Bishop; Ryan Stadtmuller; Donald Stedman; John Ray; William Faulkner; L. Goodrich; Venkata Botlaguduru; Sergio Capareda; Calvin Parnell; Feng Zhen; Nigel Clark; Clinton Bedick; Mridul Gautam; W. Wayne; Gregory Thompson; Donald Lyons; Richard Atkinson; David McKain; Joo-Youp Lee; Kyungmin Cho; Lei Cheng; Tim Keener; Gautham Jegadeesan; Souhail Al-Abed; Raymond Hoff; Hai Zhang; Nikisa Jordan; Ana Prados; Jill Engel-Cox; Amy Huff; Stephanie Weber; Erica Zell; Shobha Kondragunta; James Szykman; Brad Johns; Fred Dimmick; Anthony Wimmers; Jay Al-Saadi; Chieko Kittaka; Shih-Chieh Hsu; Chungsying Lu; Vicente Martínez-Soria; Carmen Gabaldo´n; Josep Penya-Roja; Jordi Palau; F. lvarez-Hornos; Feliu Sempere; Carlos Soriano; Brett Grover; Norman Eatough; Woods Woolwine; Delbert Eatough; Robert Cary

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus

  7. Atmospheric gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2003-01-01

    Which gases make up the atmosphere? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the gaseous components of the atmosphere. Students explore the main gases of the atmosphere using a pop-up pie chart. Descriptions of the gases and their percentages in the atmosphere are provided. Students read about water vapor in the atmosphere, and an animation shows a simplified process of precipitation. A pop-up window explains the effects of dust on the atmosphere, and a photograph shows how large amounts of dust in the atmosphere create the reds and oranges displayed in sunsets. Finally, ozone is introduced to students as a necessary component of human life on Earth. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  8. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82%, respectively. PMID:19728485

  9. Suicidal carbon monoxide inhalation of exhaust fumes. Investigation of cases

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunenari, S.; Yonemitsu, K.; Kanda, M.; Yoshida, S.

    1985-09-01

    The inhalation of automobile exhaust gases is a relatively frequent suicidal method. Two such cases of special interest to forensic pathology and toxicology have been introduced. In case 1, a suicide note disclosed the victim's mental state, the inside conditions of the car, and toxic effects of automobile exhaust. In case 2, a reconstruction experiment has revealed important factors for the investigation of the scene, such as the size of a vinyl hose, the conditions of connecting site of the hose with the exhaust pipe, etc.

  10. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  11. Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kammel, R.A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

  12. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  13. Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicle emission (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6?h/d?×?50?d, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein, 3-nitrotyrosine and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

  14. Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

  15. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  16. Greenhouse Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson where learners engage in a radiating heat activity and an activity that measures temperature in models with and without greenhouse gases. Learners will draw conclusions about the effect of greenhouse gases on temperature and on human life and kinesthetically model the absorbing and re-radiation of heat. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 3 in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase students’ awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

  17. Characterization of Soot Deposition and Particle Nucleation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Singh Bika; Alok Warey; David Long; Sandro Balestrino; Patrick Szymkowicz

    2012-01-01

    Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is used to control engine out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions from modern diesel engines by re-circulating a portion of the exhaust gases into the intake manifold of an engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger commonly referred to as an EGR cooler. However, EGR cooler fouling due to presence of soot particles and

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL, CELLULAR, AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust is a major source of pollution especially in urban areas. The contribution of the diesel exhaust particles and gases to increases in deaths, asthma symptoms, lung infections, and other health effects is unclear. This study will examine the lung, blood, heart, and o...

  19. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  20. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  1. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST (Final 2002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment examined information regarding the possible health hazards associated with exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DE), which is a mixture of gases and particles. The assessment concludes that long-term (i.e., chronic) inhalation exposure is likely to pose a l...

  2. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  3. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  4. Ventilation control for improved cabin air quality and vehicle safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosmas Galatsis; W. Wlodarski; Yongxiang Li; K. Kalantar-zadeh

    2001-01-01

    Motor vehicles are a prime pollution source. In certain circumstances, the vehicle's exhaust may enter the vehicle cabin causing driver discomfort and adverse health effects. As a result, driver reflexes decrease and fatigue may be exhibited. Oxygen depletion due to vehicle occupant breathing can also threaten vehicle safety. Cabin air filters and ventilation control are capable of improving passenger comfort,

  5. 77 FR 74745 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...converters in U.S. vehicle exhaust systems...component of motor vehicles after the Rule's...seat belts. Dual driver and front passenger...are mandated for vehicles built after September...for all passenger vehicles manufactured after...obvious importance to vehicle safety. The...

  6. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  8. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  9. Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

  10. Ionospheric effects of rocket exhaust products (HEAO-C, Skylab and SPS-HLLV)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, J; Sutherland, D; Stone, S N; Duncan, L M; Behnke, R

    1980-10-01

    This paper reviews the current state of our understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit-circularization maneuver at apogee. The second-stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 56 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit-circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. Also described are experimental airglow and incoherent-scatter radar measurements performed in conjunction with the 1979 launch of satellite HEAO-C, together with prelaunch and post-launch computations of the ionospheric effects. Several improvements in the model have been driven by the experimental observations. The computer model is described in some detail.

  11. Handbook of infrared radiation from combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Reardon, J. E.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Goulard, R. (editor)

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of radiant emission and absorption by combustion gases are discussed. Typical applications include: (1) rocket combustion chambers and exhausts, (2) turbojet engines and exhausts, and (3) industrial furnaces. Some mention is made of radiant heat transfer problems in planetary atmospheres, in stellar atmospheres, and in reentry plasmas. Particular consideration is given to the temperature range from 500K to 3000K and the pressure range from 0.001 atmosphere to 30 atmospheres. Strong emphasis is given to the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen, specifically to carbon dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxide. In addition, species such as HF, HC1, CN, OH, and NO are treated.

  12. 40 CFR 600.007-08 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model...will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the...

  13. Exhaust backpressure tester

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, F.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a method for measuring exhaust backpressure in an internal combustion engine. It comprises: providing a pressure indicating device of the type having an elongate probe which communicates fluid pressure to an interior portion of the device; locating a wall of a manifold, pipe, muffler, catalytic converter or which is in fluid communication with an exhaust port of the internal combustion engine; creating a bore through the wall of a size sufficient to just receive the probe therethrough; inserting the probe in the bore in unsealed and unthreaded relation therewith; reading the backpressure indicated by the device; withdrawing the probe from the bore; and inserting a plug into the bore. The plug having a diameter sufficient to frictionally engage the radially inner surface of the bore thereby plugging the bore against exhaust leakage.

  14. Production with exhaustible resources

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with the examination of efficient and optimal economic planning in the theory of exhaustible resources. In the model, exhaustible resources are incorporated directly into the production function as the constraint on a social welfare function. The social welfare function is then maximized to obtain the optimal program. This study consists of a series of essays testing the optimal program under conditions of certainty and uncertainty. Chapter III presents the basic neoclassical model of optimal growth in a certain world. As an input to the production function, an exhaustible resource is introduced to maximize the discounted utility stream of consumption. In chapter IV the effects of resource reserve uncertainty are investigated. Pindyck's framework for stochastic dynamic programming is used. Finally, exploratory activity is introduced as a means of expanding the quantity of reserves as well as reducing the variance of the stochastic fluctuations in reserves.

  15. Pressure swing adsorption for carbon dioxide sequestration from exhaust gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent G. Gomes; Kevin W. K. Yee

    2002-01-01

    Carbon dioxide removal using pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. CO2 is the more strongly adsorbed compared to nitrogen in a flue gas with suitable molecular sieve adsorbents. Zeolite 13X was found to be suitable for CO2 sequestration on testing several adsorbents for sorption-based separation. Numerical simulations indicate that the purity of nitrogen gas recovered

  16. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  17. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  18. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  19. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification – F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called ‘Grounding’, a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients’ average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = ?3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = ?0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = ?.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = ?0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R2 = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. PMID:24134551

  20. Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  1. Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  2. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  3. Results of an investigation of jet plume effects on an 0.010-scale model (75-OTS) of the space shuttle integrated vehicle in the 9 x 7-foot leg of the NASA/Ames unitary wind tunnel (IA82B), volume 1. [an exhaust flow simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    The base pressure environment was investigated for the first and second stage mated vehicle in a supersonic flow field from Mach 1.55 through 2.20 with simulated rocket engine exhaust plumes. The pressure environment was investigated for the orbiter at various vent port locations at these same freestream conditions. The Mach number environment around the base of the model with rocket plumes simulated was examined. Data were obtained at angles of attack from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero yaw, and at yaw angles from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero angle of attack, with rocket plume sizes varying from smaller than nominal to much greater than nominal. Failed orbiter engine data were also obtained. Elevon hinge moments and wing panel load data were obtained during all runs. Photographs of the tested configurations are shown.

  4. Solids Liquids and Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Salter

    2009-10-22

    Compare and contrast the three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases. First you will begin by looking at characteristics of each solids, liquids and gasesGases, Liquids and Solids Facts. Then you will look at examples of each stateSolids, Liquids and Gases Video. Demonstrate an understanding of solids, liquids and gases by playing interactive gameSolids, Liquids and Gases Game. Graphic Organizer is here to be filled out as you learn during this lesson. Use the red ...

  5. ROUND ROBIN ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOL AND CARBONYL SYNTHETIC EXHAUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent changes in regulatory practices have brought about a need for speciated analysis of the volatile organic components of vehicle exhaust. he purpose of this study was to allow interested laboratories to participate in a Round Robin so that each could assess their speciation ...

  6. Soot removal from exhaust gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method. It comprises producing an exhaust gas stream from a diesel engine; adding a wetting agent to a water supply; contacting the exhaust gas stream with the water from the water supply having the wetting agent in a contact zone to produce a substantially water saturated exhaust gas stream; electrically charging particles and droplets in the

  7. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses two tracer gas studies, to quantify the extent to which exhaust gases from indoor radon reduction systems are re-entrained into pitched-roof houses (exposing persons indoors), and the manner in which the exhausts disperse outdoors (exposing persons outside the...

  8. 40 CFR 600.010-08 - Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...manufacturer shall generate FTP fuel economy data by testing according to the...

  9. 40 CFR 600.010-86 - Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...manufacturer shall generate city fuel economy data by testing according to the...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123 Aeronautics...Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and...

  20. Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness

    E-print Network

    Dale, J. R.

    produced was oxygen. For years, the means of production was the cryogenic cycle and supply was served either by a pipeline or cylinder delivery. In the 1950's, technical change brought the concept of liquid delivery of gaseous products... required to produce a cubic foot of gas was about 3.0 kilowatt-hours per hundred cubic feet of gas produced (kwh/ccf). During the late 1970's development work was also going on to produce gas by non-cryogenic means. Carbon molecular sieve and zeolite...

  1. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  2. Soot removal from exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.E.

    1992-06-30

    This patent describes a method. It comprises producing an exhaust gas stream from a diesel engine; adding a wetting agent to a water supply; contacting the exhaust gas stream with the water from the water supply having the wetting agent in a contact zone to produce a substantially water saturated exhaust gas stream; electrically charging particles and droplets in the water saturated exhaust gas stream in an ionizing zone; and electrostatically attracting and de-entraining soot and soot containing water droplets from the gas stream containing electrically charged particles and droplets in a collection zone to produce a substantially soot free exhaust gas stream.

  3. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wuebbles, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Robbie D.; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide. PMID:24091789

  5. Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Girling, Robbie D; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A; Poppy, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide. PMID:24091789

  6. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  7. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  8. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  9. Effects of filter loading and filter type on the mutagenicity and composition of diesel exhaust particulate extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorse, R. A.; Salmeen, I. T.; Clark, C. R.

    Diesel vehicle exhaust particles were simultaneously collected from a dilution tube on three commonly used types of filters. Sampling was performed over single cycles and over 7 or 10cycles of the 1974 Hot-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP/H). Particulate loadings on the filters ranged from 48 to 660 ?g cm -2. The filters were extracted with dichloromethane and the extracts were characterized by the Ames Salmonella-histidine reversion assay (strains TA98 and TA 100, without microsomal activation) and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. It was found that the extracts from lightly loaded filters of the three types were indistinguishable. A similar conclusion obtains for the heavily loaded filters, confirming our results from an earlier study (Clark C. R., Truex T. J., Lee K. S. C. and Salmeen I. T. et al., 1981 Atmospheric Environment15, 397-402). The percentage of extractable material in the paniculate matter, the fluorescent intensities of two of the four HPLC fractions and the Ames assay activities (revertants per ?g of extract) each increase linearly with paniculate loading on the filters. We attribute these increases to reactions between the particle-bound organic material and reactive gases in the exhaust stream.

  10. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

  11. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-06-01

    Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  12. INHERENT FUEL CONSUMPTION AND EXHAUST EMISSION OF THE CNG-PETROL BIFUEL ENGINE BASED AT NON-LOADED OPERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAHMAT MOHSIN; ZULKEFLI YAACOB; ZULKIFLI ABDUL MAJID; SHAMEED ASHRAF

    2008-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is the most successful and widely used alternative fuel for vehicles in the market today. Petrol fuelled vehicles are fitted with natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion kit to enable bi-fuel operation between CNG and petrol. This experimental approach is focused on the fuel consumption, exhaust emission and fuel cost between natural gas and petrol operations. The

  13. Evaluation of diesel engine performance with intake and exhaust system throttling. Volume I. Text and appendixes A through H. Final report, November 1972May 1974

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hern; B. Eccleston; W. Marshall

    1975-01-01

    The diesel engine itself is an important source of diesel powered vehicle noise, and becomes dominant after proper treatment of intake\\/exhaust and cooling system noise at vehicle speeds below fifty miles per hour. An investigation was conducted to quantify the effects of intake and exhaust restrictions and load-speed scheduling on the radiated noise from four diesel truck engines produced by

  14. An Investigation of Reentrainment of Chemical Fume Hood Exhaust Air in a Heat Recovery Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. KHOURY; S. N. CHANG; D. A. LESSLEY; A. A. ABDELGHANI; A. C. ANDERSON

    1988-01-01

    Energy conservation measures such as air-to-air heat exchangers provide financial savings but also may produce contamination of fresh air by the exhaust. An investigation was conducted to determine the existence and extent of reentrainment of gases and vapors from building exhaust into the fresh-air supply of a rotary air-to-air heat recovery system, the heat wheel (a revolving cylinder made up

  15. 40 CFR 86.1713-99 - Light-duty exhaust durability programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Light-duty exhaust durability programs. 86.1713-99...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1713-99 Light-duty...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1713-99 - Light-duty exhaust durability programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Light-duty exhaust durability programs. 86.1713-99...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1713-99 Light-duty...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1713-99 - Light-duty exhaust durability programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Light-duty exhaust durability programs. 86.1713-99...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1713-99 Light-duty...

  18. Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine exhaust particulate matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Harris; M. Matti Maricq

    2001-01-01

    The size distributions of diesel exhaust particulate matter measured from a large number of vehicles and test engines, using a variety of diesel fuels, collapse onto a single characteristic lognormal distribution, when normalized by total particle number and plotted against a scaled diameter. Distinctly different characteristic distributions are observed for direct injection and for port injection gasoline vehicles. These signature

  19. Assessment of Benzene and Toluene Emissions from Automobile Exhaust in Bangkok

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Muttamara; Shing Tet Leong; I. Lertvisansak

    1999-01-01

    The use of unleaded gasoline, together with an increase in the number of vehicles in Bangkok, has significantly influenced benzene and toluene concentrations in vehicular emissions and contributes to the air pollution problem. As a matter of practical necessity, a quick test program is done for the measurement of emission concentrations\\/rates for vehicles driven on the road. Exhaust emission measurement

  20. 49 CFR 173.245 - Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). 173.245 Section...extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). When § 172...Associate Administrator. (b) Cargo tank motor vehicles and portable tanks, when...

  1. 49 CFR 173.245 - Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). 173.245 Section...extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). When § 172...Associate Administrator. (b) Cargo tank motor vehicles and portable tanks, when...

  2. Engineering task plan for rotary mode core sampling exhausters CAM high radiation interlock

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-05-19

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system is primarily made up of the Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) and the RMCS Exhausters. During RMCS operations an Exhauster is connected to a tank riser and withdraws gases from the tank dome vapor space at approximately 200 Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). The gases are passed through two High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters before passing out the exhaust stack to the atmosphere. A Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) monitors the exhaust gases in the exhaust stack for beta particle and gamma radiation. The CAM has a high radiation alarm output and a detector fail alarm output. The CAM alarms are currently connected to the data logger only. The CAM alarms require operator response per procedure LMHC 1998 but no automatic functions are initiated by the CAM alarms. Currently, there are three events that can cause an automatic shut down of the Exhauster. These are, Low Tank Pressure, Highnow Stack Flow and High HEPA Filter Differential Pressure (DP).

  3. Secondary organic aerosol formation from road vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieber, Simone M.; Platt, Stephen M.; El Haddad, Imad; Zardini, Alessandro A.; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Slowik, Jay G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Drinovec, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadogna; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Organic aerosol particles (OA) are a major fraction of the submicron particulate matter. OA consists of directly emitted primary (POA) and secondary OA (SOA). SOA is formed in-situ in the atmosphere via the reaction of volatile organic precursors. The partitioning of SOA species depends not only on the exposure to oxidants, but for instance also on temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the absorptive mass chemical composition (presence of inorganics) and concentration. Vehicle exhaust is a known source of POA and likely contributes to SOA formation in urban areas [1;2]. This has recently been estimated by (i) analyzing ambient data from urban areas combined with fuel consumption data [3], (ii) by examining the chemical composition of raw fuels [4], or (iii) smog chamber studies [5, 6]. Contradictory and thus somewhat controversial results in the relative quantity of SOA from diesel vs. gasoline vehicle exhaust were observed. In order to elucidate the impact of variable ambient conditions on the potential SOA formation of vehicle exhaust, and its relation to the emitted gas phase species, we studied SOA formed from the exhaust of passenger cars and trucks as a function of fuel and engine type (gasoline, diesel) at different temperatures (T 22 vs. -7oC) and RH (40 vs. 90%), as well as with different levels of inorganic salt concentrations. The exhaust was sampled at the tailpipe during regulatory driving cycles on chassis dynamometers, diluted (200 - 400x) and introduced into the PSI mobile smog chamber [6], where the emissions were subjected to simulated atmospheric ageing. Particle phase instruments (HR-ToF-AMS, aethalometers, CPC, SMPS) and gas phase instruments (PTR-TOF-MS, CO, CO2, CH4, THC, NH3 and other gases) were used online during the experiments. We found that gasoline emissions, because of cold starts, were generally larger than diesel, especially during cold temperatures driving cycles. Gasoline vehicles also showed the highest SOA formation. Furthermore, we observed that vehicle emissions and SOA are significantly affected by temperature and RH: doubling the RH in the chamber resulted in significantly increased SOA formation. Primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation from diesel and gasoline vehicles will be compared at different temperature and RH. Also the interaction and influence of inorganics on organics will be discussed. References: [1] Robinson, A.L., et al. (2007) Science 315, 1259. [2] Weitkamp, E.A., et al. (2007) Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 6969. [3] Bahreini, R., et al. (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L06805. [4] Gentner, D.R. et al. (2012) PNAS 109, 18318. [5] Gordon, T.D. et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 13, 23173. [6] Platt, S.M., et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 12, 28343.

  4. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the information...criteria to be met are: (1) A fuel economy data vehicle may have...

  5. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the information...criteria to be met are: (1) A fuel economy data vehicle may have...

  6. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the information...criteria to be met are: (1) A fuel economy data vehicle may have...

  7. Overview of Thermoelectric Generation for Hybrid Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaodong Zhang; K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan

    2008-01-01

    With ever increasing concern on oil prices and energy conservation, there is a fast growing interest in hybrid vehicles globally. Currently, all hybrid vehicles, including micro, mild and full hybrids, adopt internal combustion engines which are inefficient in general. The corresponding waste heat of exhaust gas constitutes up to 40% of the fuel consumption. So, it is a pressing need

  8. Tuned exhaust processor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, M.G.; Arthur, J.C.; Usleman, R.T.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes an exhaust processor assembly. It comprises a housing formed to include an inlet and an outlet, a partition positioned within the housing to define first and second flow passages extending through the housing to provide communication between the inlet and the outlet of the housing, a substrate situated in the first flow passage and configured to collect particulate matter entrained in combustion product introduced into the first flow passage through the inlet, and a muffler situated in the second flow passage to attenuate noise generated by combustion product passing through the second flow passage toward the outlet, the muffler including a plurality of baffles defining a plurality of muffler chambers and at least one tube configured and positioned to interconnect selected muffler chambers to define means for conducting combustion product introduced into the muffler toward the housing outlet.

  9. Electrical breakdown of gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Meek; J. D. Craggs

    1978-01-01

    A collection of individual works on electrical discharges is presented. Topics covered include: fundamental processes in the electrical breakdown of gases; vacuum breakdown; spark breakdown in uniform fields; corona discharge; spark breakdown in non-uniform fields; breakdown voltage characteristics; irradiation and time lags; high-frequency breakdown of gases; laser-induced electrical breakdown of gases; spark channels; and electrode phenomena. (GHT)

  10. Engine exhaust gas recirculation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nishimura; T. Shioya; T. Umemoto

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a recirculation control valve in a passageway connecting the engine exhaust passage to the engine intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. An air conduit having an air control valve therein furnishes atmospheric air to the intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. Vacuum responsive actuators are provided for

  11. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Koermer, Gerald (Basking Ridge, NJ)

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  12. Exhaust hood energy saving device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isom

    1978-01-01

    The specification discloses an exhaust ventilation system with a vented hood arrangement over a cooking area which is controlled automatically by the presence of a cook at a cooking station. The primary exhaust fan is automatically turned off a predetermined period of time after the cook has left the cooking station. A fresh air fan is similarly controlled by the

  13. Characterization of exhaust emissions from trap-equipped light-duty diesels. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the project was to thoroughly characterize and quantify the criteria and toxic-pollutant emissions from two different types of trap-equipped light-duty diesel vehicles. These vehicles included a 1986 Mercedes-Benz 300 SDL, which utilizes a catalyzed trap system, and a prototype Volkswagen, which utilizes an additive trap system (organometallic iron additive). Exhaust emissions from the two vehicles were evaluated

  14. California's Zero Emission Vehicle Program Cleaner air needed

    E-print Network

    Gille, Sarah T.

    also eliminate the evaporative emissions that escape from gasoline vehicles. And, gasoline vehicles-forming gases (ROG+NOx); includes gasoline marketing emissions ** Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle - cleanest gasoline powered vehicle *** Includes powerplant emissions Studies estimate that EV maintenance will cost

  15. Flow analysis and design optimization methods for nozzle afterbody of a hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, Oktay

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods developed for the aerodynamic analysis and the shape optimization of the nozzle-afterbody section of a hypersonic vehicle. Initially, exhaust gases were assumed to be air. Internal-external flows around a single scramjet module were analyzed by solving the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Then, exhaust gases were simulated by a cold mixture of Freon and Argon. Two different models were used to compute these multispecies flows as they mixed with the hypersonic airflow. Surface and off-surface properties were successfully compared with the experimental data. In the second phase of this project, the Aerodynamic Design Optimization with Sensitivity analysis (ADOS) was developed. Pre and post optimization sensitivity coefficients were derived and used in this quasi-analytical method. These coefficients were also used to predict inexpensively the flow field around a changed shape when the flow field of an unchanged shape was given. Starting with totally arbitrary initial afterbody shapes, independent computations were converged to the same optimum shape, which rendered the maximum axial thrust.

  16. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

  17. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

  18. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

  19. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

  1. 40 CFR 600.006-08 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-08 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  2. 40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. 600.006 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. (a) For...

  3. 40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. 600.006 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. (a) For...

  4. 40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. 600.006 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. (a) For...

  5. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations. 600.114-08 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later...

  6. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-86 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  7. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-87 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  8. 40 CFR 600.006-89 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-89 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  9. 76 FR 57696 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York; Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...continuous or periodic functional tests of specific components and vehicle...evaporative system, oxygen sensor, heated oxygen sensor, and exhaust gas recirculation...vehicle is scanned at an OBD-I/M test site, these monitors can appear...

  10. Research on self-inverting exhaust muffler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Daizhi; Chen Daimin; Yang Yanjun; Sun Binghan

    2010-01-01

    Self-inverting exhaust muffler is an active control muffler based on acoustic interference principle. Compared with the passive exhaust muffler, the exhaust resistance of self-inverting exhaust muffler is smaller. Therefore, the engine power loss is smaller. Compared with the active exhaust muffler, the electric power loss of self-inverting exhaust muffler is smaller and structure is simpler, so that it can be

  11. EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Su

    1999-09-29

    The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

  12. Implementation of microwave transmissions for rocket exhaust plume diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutu, Nicholas George

    Rocket-launched vehicles produce a trail of exhaust that contains ions, free electrons, and soot. The exhaust plume increases the effective conductor length of the rocket. A conductor in the presence of an electric field (e.g. near the electric charge stored within a cloud) can channel an electric discharge. The electrical conductivity of the exhaust plume is related to its concentration of free electrons. The risk of a lightning strike in-flight is a function of both the conductivity of the body and its effective length. This paper presents an approach that relates the electron number density of the exhaust plume to its propagation constant. Estimated values of the collision frequency and electron number density generated from a numerical simulation of a rocket plume are used to guide the design of the experimental apparatus. Test par meters are identified for the apparatus designed to transmit a signal sweep form 4 GHz to 7 GHz through the exhaust plume of a J-class solid rocket motor. Measurements of the scattering parameters imply that the transmission does not penetrate the plume, but instead diffracts around it. The electron density 20 cm downstream from the nozzle exit is estimated to be between 2.7x1014 m--3 and 5.6x10 15 m--3.

  13. Detection of mutagenic activity in automobile exhaust.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Y; Kachi, K; Sato, K; Tahara, I; Takeyoshi, H; Tokiwa, H

    1980-03-01

    Using the Ames Salmonella-microsome system, we detected mutagenic activity in the exhaust from two kinds of 4-cycle gasoline engines of unregulated and regulated cars, and from diesel engines, as well as in the particulates from air collected in tunnels. The mutagenicity of particulates from a car equipped with a catalyst (regulated car), as compared with that from an unregulated car, was reduced very much (down to 500 from 4500 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA98). However, the mutagenicity of the ether-soluble acid and neutral fractions from the condensed water of emissions from a regulated car was still high (down to 2880 from 10 900 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA100). The mutagenic activity of emission exhaust from old diesel car engines was very high; the particulates showed 9140 and 19 600 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 incubated with an activating rat-liver S9 fraction. A small diesel engine of the type used for the generation of electric power or in farm machinery also produced exhaust with highly mutagenic particulates. The mutagenic activity of a methanol extract of particulate air pollutants collected in a highway tunnel showed 39 revertants/plate/m3 toward strain TA98 and 87 toward strain TA100. The ether-soluble neutral fraction yielded 86 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 and 100 from strain TA100. This fraction also contained carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene and chrysene. Very high mutagenic activity was detected, especially in the particulate air pollutants collected at night, in another tunnel on a superhighway: 60-88 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA100 for the sample collected by day, but 121-238, by night. Night traffic includes many more diesel-powered vehicles compared with gasoline-powered automobiles. PMID:6155611

  14. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  15. Supporting design information for portable exhauster installation at tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, S-107

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-10-09

    This document provides supporting calculations and equipment dedication plans for portable exhausters and ductwork installed on tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, and S-107. The exhausters will ventilate the tanks during saltwell pumping to prevent the potential accumulation of flammable gases.

  16. Divergent Electrocardiographic Responses to Whole and Particle-Free Diesel Exhaust Inhalation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to traffic-related fine PM2.5. While inroads have been made in understanding the mechanisms of PM related health effects, DE?s complex mixture of PM, gases and volatile organics makes it difficult to determine how the constituents contri...

  17. Benzene, toluene and xylenes levels in new and used vehicles of the same model.

    PubMed

    Faber, Joanna; Brodzik, Krzysztof; Golda-Kopek, Anna; Lomankiewicz, Damian

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the level of benzene, toluene, o-xylene and m, p-xylene (BTX) in air samples collected from the cabins of new and used vehicles of the same model. Ten new vehicles were examined in order to check interior emission from materials used to equip the passenger compartment. In order to compare and define the impact of exhaust gases, air samples were also collected from two used cars, at different mileages (up to 20,000 km). All vehicles tested were of the same type. Samples were collected onto Carbograph 1TD sorbent, thermally desorbed and examined with the use of gas chromatography with flame ionisation and mass spectrometry detectors. All results obtained were referred to Polish and German requirements for indoor air quality (both in public buildings and in workspace environments). Average benzene, toluene, o-xylene and m, p-xylene concentrations in new cars were determined at the level of 11.8 microg/m3, 82.7 micro/m3, 21.2 microg/m3 and 89.5 micro/m3, respectively. In the used cars, BTX concentration increased with increasing vehicle mileage. The most significant increase of BTX concentration was observed above 11,000 km mileage. PMID:24552062

  18. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  19. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI); Koskinen, Jari (Karhula, FI)

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  20. Natural Cycles, Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Rood, R. B.; Aikin, A. C.; Stolarski, R. S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Fahey, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The major gaseous components of the exhaust of stratospheric aircraft are expected to be the products of combustion (CO2 and H2O), odd nitrogen (NO, NO2 HNO3), and products indicating combustion inefficiencies (CO and total unburned hydrocarbons). The species distributions are produced by a balance of photochemical and transport processes. A necessary element in evaluating the impact of aircraft exhaust on the lower stratospheric composition is to place the aircraft emissions in perspective within the natural cycles of stratospheric species. Following are a description of mass transport in the lower stratosphere and a discussion of the natural behavior of the major gaseous components of the stratospheric aircraft exhaust.

  1. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere. Estimates are given for the emissions, summarizing relevant earlier work (CIAP) and reviewing current propulsion research efforts. The chemical evolution and the mixing and vortical motion of the exhaust are analyzed to track the exhaust and its speciation as the emissions are mixed to atmospheric scales. The species tracked include those that could be heterogeneously reactive on the surfaces of the condensed solid water (ice) particles and on exhaust soot particle surfaces. Dispersion and reaction of chemical constituents in the far wake are studied with a Lagrangian air parcel model, in conjunction with a radiation code to calculate the net heating/cooling. Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous chemistry of aqueous sulfuric acid and nitric acid hydrates are also described. Results include the solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid which is a key parameter for modeling stratospheric processing. We also report initial results for condensation of nitric acid trihydrate from gas phase H2O and HNO3.

  2. Trends in source gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

  3. New Technology of Thermodynamic Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery of Vehicle Gasoline Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Xin Zhang; Ke Zeng; Mao gang He

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the exothermic distribution of fuel was studied detailedly through conducting thermal equilibrium experiment when the vehicle gasoline engine was at different working conditions. Considering the characteristic of the exhaust temperature of the vehicle gasoline engine, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) was adopted for the exhaust recovery. The thermodynamic parameter and thermodynamic performance of the main state points

  4. Commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, A.B. (McGuire Engineers, Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This article addresses design requirements for commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems. The topics of the article include design considerations, toilet exhaust, dishwasher exhaust, grease hood exhaust, codes and standards, design concerns, common problems, and fire suppression. A side bar on ducts, plenums and housings is also included.

  5. Commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McGuire

    1993-01-01

    This article addresses design requirements for commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems. The topics of the article include design considerations, toilet exhaust, dishwasher exhaust, grease hood exhaust, codes and standards, design concerns, common problems, and fire suppression. A side bar on ducts, plenums and housings is also included.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123 Aeronautics...Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power...the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123 Aeronautics...Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power...the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123 Aeronautics...Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power...the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123 Aeronautics...Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power...the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123 Aeronautics...Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power...the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion...

  11. DEPARTMENTAL AUTHORIZATION FOR USE OF PERSONAL VEHICLE ON UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA BUSINESS

    E-print Network

    of a claim or loss. · Vehicle owner agrees that UA insurance for auto liability while driving on UA business personal auto liability insurance limits are exhausted. · Vehicle owner agrees to maintain at least minimum any insurance coverage for damage to his/her personal vehicle. Vehicle owner is responsible

  12. Life cycle optimization of ownership costs and emissions reduction in US vehicle retirement decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David V. Spitzley; Darby E. Grande; Gregory A. Keoleian; Hyung Chul Kim

    2005-01-01

    Vehicle scrappage programs have emerged in the US to address the challenge of regional fleets that contain older, often inefficient vehicles with higher emissions and lower fuel economy. These programs provide an incentive for removal of old vehicles from the road before their economic lifetimes have been exhausted. Scrappage programs operate on the assumption that newer vehicles will offer more

  13. 40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  14. Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

  15. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1993-01-01

    Progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere is documented. A kinetic condensation model was implemented to predict heterogeneous condensation in the plume regime behind an HSCT flying in the lower stratosphere. Simulations were performed to illustrate the parametric dependence of contrail droplet growth on the exhaust condensation nuclei number density and size distribution. Model results indicate that the condensation of water vapor is strongly dependent on the number density of activated CN. Incorporation of estimates for dilution factors into a Lagrangian box model of the far-wake regime with scale-dependent diffusion indicates negligible decrease in ozone and enhancement of water concentrations of 6-13 times background, which decrease rapidly over 1-3 days. Radiative calculations indicate a net differential cooling rate of the plume about 3K/day at the beginning of the wake regime, with a total subsidence ranging between 0.4 and 1 km. Results from the Lagrangian plume model were used to estimate the effect of repeated superposition of aircraft plumes on the concentrations of water and NO(y) along a flight corridor. Results of laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry are also described. Kinetics of HCl, N2O5 and ClONO2 uptake on liquid sulfuric acid were measured as a function of composition and temperature. Refined measurements of the thermodynamics of nitric acid hydrates indicate that metastable dihydrate may play a role in the nucleation of more stable trihydrates PSC's.

  16. Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom for a Delta Wing and a Swept Wing-Body Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Lake, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic travel is not allowed over populated areas due to the disturbance caused by the sonic boom. Research has been performed on sonic boom reduction and has included the contribution of the exhaust nozzle plume. Plume effect on sonic boom has progressed from the study of isolated nozzles to a study with four exhaust plumes integrated with a wing-body vehicle. This report provides a baseline analysis of the generic wing-body vehicle to demonstrate the effect of the nozzle exhaust on the near-field pressure profile. Reductions occurred in the peak-to-peak magnitude of the pressure profile for a swept wing-body vehicle. The exhaust plumes also had a favorable effect as the nozzles were moved outward along the wing-span.

  17. Effect of the Sequence of the Thermoelectric Generator and the Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Exhaust Gas Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuqi; Tong, Naiqiang; Xu, Yuman; Chen, Shan; Liu, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has increased with recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The problem with using thermoelectric generators for vehicle applications is whether the device is compatible with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on ANSYS CFX simulation analysis of the impact of two positional relationships between the TEG and three-way catalytic converter in the exhaust system on the working efficiency of both elements, it is concluded that the layout with the front three-way catalytic converter has an advantage over the other layout mode under current conditions. New ideas for an improvement program are proposed to provide the basis for further research.

  18. 40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...this section must comply with the fuel specifications for exhaust emissions...are necessary. (1 ) Testing of hydrocarbon emissions and equipment associated...CFR 86.1330. (d) The clean-fuel vehicle aftermarket conversion...

  19. 40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...this section must comply with the fuel specifications for exhaust emissions...are necessary. (1 ) Testing of hydrocarbon emissions and equipment associated...CFR 86.1330. (d) The clean-fuel vehicle aftermarket conversion...

  20. 40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...this section must comply with the fuel specifications for exhaust emissions...are necessary. (1 ) Testing of hydrocarbon emissions and equipment associated...CFR 86.1330. (d) The clean-fuel vehicle aftermarket conversion...

  1. 40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...this section must comply with the fuel specifications for exhaust emissions...are necessary. (1 ) Testing of hydrocarbon emissions and equipment associated...CFR 86.1330. (d) The clean-fuel vehicle aftermarket conversion...

  2. 40 CFR 88.306-94 - Requirements for a converted vehicle to qualify as a clean-fuel fleet vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...this section must comply with the fuel specifications for exhaust emissions...are necessary. (1 ) Testing of hydrocarbon emissions and equipment associated...CFR 86.1330. (d) The clean-fuel vehicle aftermarket conversion...

  3. Hydrophobic Catalysts For Removal Of NOx From Flue Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Improved catalysts for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) from combustion flue gases formulated as composites of vanadium pentoxide in carbon molecular sieves. Promotes highly efficient selective catalytic reduction of NOx at relatively low temperatures while not being adversely affected by presence of water vapor and sulfur oxide gases in flue gas. Apparatus utilizing catalyst of this type easily integrated into exhaust stream of power plant to remove nitrogen oxides, generated in combustion of fossil fuels and contribute to formation of acid rain and photochemical smog.

  4. Transport of Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    Trace gases measurements are used to diagnose both the chemistry and transport of the atmosphere. These lectures emphasize the interpretation of trace gases measurements and techniques used to untangle chemistry and transport effects. I will discuss PV transform, trajectory techniques, and age-of-air as far as the circulation of the stratosphere.

  5. Biomass - Investigating Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Eric Benson

    In this lab activity students generate their own biomass gases by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best by their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

  6. ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOL GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1992, EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory initiated a nationwide QA program on the suppliers of EPA Protocol Gases. he program has three goals: to increase the acceptance and use of Protocol Gases by the air monitoring community, to provide a QA check...

  7. Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and hydrocarbon denuded diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Lucas, Donald; Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Koshland, Catherine P

    2007-11-01

    In vitro studies with the organic extracts of diesel particles have suggested that hydrocarbons such as PAH may play a role in an inflammatory response, but these have been limited by the possible artifacts introduced in the particle collection and processing. In this study, we avoid these artifacts and use an activated carbon denuder to remove hydrocarbons from the exhaust stream to investigate their role in the inflammatory response. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o) were exposed at the air-cell interface to diluted and aged exhaust from a diesel generator operated at partial and no load conditions. When particles were removed with a filter before cell exposure, exhaust gases accounted for almost half of the response compared to the whole exhaust. Removal of gas phase and a portion of the particle phase hydrocarbons with the denuder decreased the interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion to unexposed levels. PMID:17767946

  8. Vehicle emissions and energy consumption impacts of modal shifts

    E-print Network

    Mallett, Vickie Lynn

    1993-01-01

    , mobile sources were the major contributor of lead in ambient air. However, lead is incompatible with the catalysts in catalytic converters which are now used to meet exhaust standards and has been phased down by the EPA. Consequently, lead emissions...). While ozone is not directly emitted from mobile sources, it is strongly linked to vehicle travel and emissions. The reason for this is that two of the primary vehicle exhaust emissions, hydrocarbons and nitrous oxides, contribute to its formation...

  9. Secondary organic aerosol formation from in-use motor vehicle emissions using a potential aerosol mass reactor.

    PubMed

    Tkacik, Daniel S; Lambe, Andrew T; Jathar, Shantanu; Li, Xiang; Presto, Albert A; Zhao, Yunliang; Blake, Donald; Meinardi, Simone; Jayne, John T; Croteau, Philip L; Robinson, Allen L

    2014-10-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from in-use vehicle emissions was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) flow reactor deployed in a highway tunnel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Experiments consisted of passing exhaust-dominated tunnel air through a PAM reactor over integrated hydroxyl radical (OH) exposures ranging from ? 0.3 to 9.3 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Experiments were performed during heavy traffic periods when the fleet was at least 80% light-duty gasoline vehicles on a fuel-consumption basis. The peak SOA production occurred after 2-3 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Additional OH exposure decreased the SOA production presumably due to a shift from functionalization to fragmentation dominated reaction mechanisms. Photo-oxidation also produced substantial ammonium nitrate, often exceeding the mass of SOA. Analysis with an SOA model highlight that unspeciated organics (i.e., unresolved complex mixture) are a very important class of precursors and that multigenerational processing of both gases and particles is important at longer time scales. The chemical evolution of the organic aerosol inside the PAM reactor appears to be similar to that observed in the atmosphere. The mass spectrum of the unoxidized primary organic aerosol closely resembles ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA). After aging the exhaust equivalent to a few hours of atmospheric oxidation, the organic aerosol most closely resembles semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA) and then low-volatility organic aerosol (LV-OOA) at higher OH exposures. Scaling the data suggests that mobile sources contribute ? 2.9 ± 1.6 Tg SOA yr(-1) in the United States, which is a factor of 6 greater than all mobile source particulate matter emissions reported by the National Emissions Inventory. This highlights the important contribution of SOA formation from vehicle exhaust to ambient particulate matter concentrations in urban areas. PMID:25188317

  10. HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA

  11. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  13. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  14. Dilution and aerosol dynamics within a diesel car exhaust plume—CFD simulations of on-road measurement conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Uhrner; S. von Löwis; H. Vehkamäki; B. Wehner; S. Bräsel; M. Hermann; F. Stratmann; M. Kulmala; A. Wiedensohler

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle particle emissions are studied extensively because of their health effects, contribution to ambient PM levels and possible impact on climate. The aim of this work was to obtain a better understanding of secondary particle formation and growth in a diluting vehicle exhaust plume using 3-d information of simulations together with measurements. Detailed coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and aerosol

  15. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  16. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  17. Design and construction of a solar-electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Bhavnani

    1994-01-01

    Recent concerns relating to global warming caused by greenhouse gases, coupled with a growing awareness of the limited available resources of fossil fuels, have spurred an interest in alternative energy powered vehicles. This paper describes the analysis, development, and testing of an aerodynamic vehicle powered by photovoltaic cells. The primary components of the vehicle are the composite material body, the

  18. Determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in vehicles escape fumes by GF-AAS and ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Antonio; Domínguez, José R; Alvarado, José

    2008-04-15

    Automotive exhaust gases from vehicles using catalytic converters were filtered through cellulose filter papers to collect suspended particles expulsed along with the engine's escape fumes. A specially designed sample collector was used for supporting the filter papers during collection. The collector was manufactured from a new car's exhaust pipe. A cellulose circular paper filter, 11 cm diameter, was attached to one end of the pipe and kept centered by pressing it against the borders of the pipe by means of a perforated aluminum cap, slightly wider than the pipe, used to cover this end of the collector. Filter papers loaded with the solid particles were acid-digested using a modified domestic microwave oven to bring the solid material into solution. The resulting solutions were analyzed for Pt by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) and for Pd and Rh by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Results indicate that concentration of these analytes in the particulate is higher for new vehicles, having new catalytic converters, than for old ones. Maximum Pd, Pt and Rh in the samples analyzed were found to be 5.36, 12.60 and 1.03 microg g(-1), respectively. PMID:18371916

  19. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications for Ozone Production

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from production potentials of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and nontailpipe gasoline emissions. Per mass indicate that gasoline sources are responsible for 69-96% of emissions and 79-97% of the ozone formation

  20. Regulating Greenhouse Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KQED

    This video highlights the work of climate scientists in the Amazon who research the relationship between deforestation, construction of new dams, and increased amounts of greenhouse gases being exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  1. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    E-print Network

    Bakr, W.

    Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

  2. Supersonic investigation of two dimensional hypersonic exhaust nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carboni, Jeanne D.; Shyne, Rickey J.; Leavitt, Laurence D.; Taylor, John G.; Lamb, Milton

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA Lewis 10 x 10 ft supersonic Wind Tunnel to determine the performance characteristics of 2D hypersonic exhaust nozzles/afterbodies at low supersonic conditions. Generally, this type of application requires a single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) that is highly integrated with the airframe of the hypersonic vehicle. At design conditions (hypersonic speeds), the nozzle generally exhibits acceptable performance. At off-design conditions (transonic to mid-supersonic speeds), nozzle performance of a fixed geometry configuration is generally poor. Various 2-D nozzle configurations were tested at off-design conditions from Mach 2.0 to 3.5. Performance data is presented at nozzle pressure ratios from 1 to 35. Jet exhaust was simulated with high-pressure air. To study performance of different geometries, nozzle configurations were varied by interchanging the following model parts: internal upstream contour, expansion ramp, sidewalls, and cowl.

  3. Photochemistry of biogenic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases.

  4. Secondary air control in vehicle exhaust purification system

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Y.

    1980-01-15

    Control of secondary air flow to a reactor during normal operating condition of an engine is provided by relieving a predetermined portion of the secondary air discharged from an air pump to a point intermediate the reactor and a muffler installed downstream of the reactor. When the engine is operating under heavy load and/or at high speeds, all of the secondary air from the air pump is supplied to the reactor, while when the engine is operating at full load all of the secondary air from the air pump is relieved to the ambient atmosphere.

  5. Hydrogen chloride measurements in launch-vehicle exhaust clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Tom; Kennedy, Randall; Garvis, Darrel; Smith, Mark D.

    1987-01-01

    An in situ field sensor which is capable of monitoring rapidly changing concentrations of HCl vapors from rocket launches with a response time of one second is described. The present four-band differential absorption instrument allows for corrections for system electronic and optical variations, as well as for variations in the background concentrations of methane and water vapor (that also absorb at HCL wavelengths). HCl detection down to 200 ppb is possible. The instrument is remotely operable, and data from the battery-powered sensor are transmitted via radio link to a central base station.

  6. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-12-26

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

  8. Engine exhaust purifier-muffler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    An engine purifier-muffler is described comprising a box type body, a cylindrical filter connected to the exhaust pipe of engine located at rear bottom corner inside the box, a plurality of perforated plate filter elements stepwisely disposed inside the box to reach toward the top, under the ceiling, a filter of square cross section further provided, after the said filter,

  9. Jet Engine Exhaust Aerosol Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Petzold; F. P. Schröder

    1998-01-01

    Jet engine exhaust aerosol was characterized with respect to mass concentration and composition of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction and the particulate sulfate as a function of engine power setting for fuel with low-sulfur content (6 ppm) and high-sulfur content (3000 ppm). The ratio of black carbon (BC) to total carbon (TC) varied from 11% with the engine in idle run

  10. Exhaust gas recirculation control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kawamoto; Y. Otobe

    1983-01-01

    A control valve in an exhaust gas recirculation line for an engine is operated by vacuum pressure from a regulating valve. The regulating valve has a vacuum chamber positioned between two orifices mounted in a line leading to atmospheric air intake. An air valve located downstream from said regulating valve and orifices controls vacuum pressure from a control suction air

  11. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel…

  12. Exhaust gas turbine type supercharger

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, S.

    1988-05-24

    This patent describes an exhaust gas turbine engine type supercharger for an engine, the supercharger having a turbine and a compressor, a casing means for receiving the turbine, partition wall means for dividing the casing means into two scroll chambers, and means for supplying an exhaust gas to the two scroll chambers to rotate the turbine and to feed the engine with supercharged air through the compressor. The supercharger comprises a bypass passage means for connecting one of the scroll chambers to a portion downstream of the turbine, a first flow rate control valve means for controlling a flow rate of the exhaust gas passing through the bypass passage means, and a second flow rate control valve means for controlling a flow rate of the exhaust gas being fed to the other of the scroll chambers, and means for controlling the first and second flow rate control valve means in accordance with an electric signal representing an engine RPM corresponding to a supercharged pressure.

  13. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  15. Diesel exhaust and asthma: hypotheses and molecular mechanisms of action.

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Robert J; Solomon, Gina; Kinner, Amy; Balmes, John R

    2002-01-01

    Several components of air pollution have been linked to asthma. In addition to the well-studied critera air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, diesel exhaust and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) also appear to play a role in respiratory and allergic diseases. Diesel exhaust is composed of vapors, gases, and fine particles emitted by diesel-fueled compression-ignition engines. DEPs can act as nonspecific airway irritants at relatively high levels. At lower levels, DEPs promote release of specific cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, and oxidants in the upper and lower airway. Release of these mediators of the allergic and inflammatory response initiates a cascade that can culminate in airway inflammation, mucus secretion, serum leakage into the airways, and bronchial smooth muscle contraction. DEPs also may promote expression of the T(subscript)H(/subscript)2 immunologic response phenotype that has been associated with asthma and allergic disease. DEPs appear to have greater immunologic effects in the presence of environmental allergens than they do alone. This immunologic evidence may help explain the epidemiologic studies indicating that children living along major trucking thoroughfares are at increased risk for asthmatic and allergic symptoms and are more likely to have objective evidence of respiratory dysfunction. PMID:11834468

  16. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...streams before emission sampling, you may configure the exhaust system with turbulence generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing. We recommend a minimum Reynolds number, Re# , of 4000 for the combined exhaust stream,...

  17. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  18. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...installations and associated cooling sytems must be built in accordance...Regulations. (b) Horizontal dry exhaust pipes are permitted...penetration. (c) When the exhaust cooling system is separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable...

  19. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...installations and associated cooling systems must be built in...Regulations. (b) Horizontal dry exhaust pipes are permitted...penetration. (c) When the exhaust cooling system is separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable...

  20. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...installations and associated cooling sytems must be built in accordance...Regulations. (b) Horizontal dry exhaust pipes are permitted...penetration. (c) When the exhaust cooling system is separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable...

  1. Gasoline containing exhaust emission reducing additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niebylski

    1981-01-01

    Exhaust hydrocarbon emissions from an internal combustion engine being operated on gasoline containing a cyclopentadienyl manganese antiknock are reduced by the addition of an exhaust emission reducing amount of a polyester of a polymerized carboxylic acid to the gasoline.

  2. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  3. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  4. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  5. Program listing for the REEDM (Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model) computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, J. R.; Dumbauld, R. K.; Cheney, C. S.; Geary, H. V.

    1982-01-01

    The program listing for the REEDM Computer Program is provided. A mathematical description of the atmospheric dispersion models, cloud-rise models, and other formulas used in the REEDM model; vehicle and source parameters, other pertinent physical properties of the rocket exhaust cloud and meteorological layering techniques; user's instructions for the REEDM computer program; and worked example problems are contained in NASA CR-3646.

  6. Recovering "Waste" from "WTEs"? Heat Attaching devices to flues and exhaust pipes could harvest waste heat-

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    saving that would be especially relevant in hybrid petrol/electric devices where the battery is recharged that convert heat into electricity to chimney stacks and vehicle exhausts, to squeeze more useful energy from power generation. The technology to do so has existed for years. If one end of an electrical conductor

  7. Development of quantitative measuring technique to find critical flow conditions for preventing soot deposit accumulated in the diesel exhaust system using main muffler composed of three chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-H. Song; Y.-H. Choi

    2009-01-01

    If a vehicle that meets emission regulations operates sufficiently for a long time under low speed and low load conditions,\\u000a soot contained in the exhaust gas is accumulated on the inner surface of the exhaust system. This soot deposition problem\\u000a occurs frequently in all diesel cars. However, when a vehicle is placed under the conditions of sudden start and sudden

  8. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Questions & Answers

    Cancer.gov

    The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of exposure to diesel exhaust.

  9. UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change Toxic gases coming from industry, combustion plants or vehicle emissions that are responsible for increasing emitted by industries related to the production of fertilizers, plastics and coal burning plants

  10. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...and CO2 respectively using nitrogen as the diluent. (2) Gases...of the nominal value, using nitrogen as the diluent. (5...allowable zero gas (air or nitrogen) impurity...

  11. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...and CO2 respectively using nitrogen as the diluent. (2) Gases...of the nominal value, using nitrogen as the diluent. (5...allowable zero gas (air or nitrogen) impurity...

  12. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...and CO2 respectively using nitrogen as the diluent. (2) Gases...of the nominal value, using nitrogen as the diluent. (5...allowable zero gas (air or nitrogen) impurity...

  13. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...and CO2 respectively using nitrogen as the diluent. (2) Gases...of the nominal value, using nitrogen as the diluent. (5...allowable zero gas (air or nitrogen) impurity...

  14. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...and CO2 respectively using nitrogen as the diluent. (2) Gases...of the nominal value, using nitrogen as the diluent. (5...allowable zero gas (air or nitrogen) impurity...

  15. PERFORMANCE AUDIT OF INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE CALIBRATION GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the audit was to determine the accuracy of inspection and maintenance calibration gases for motor vehicle emission analyzers. Cylinders containing approximately 1.6 percent carbon monoxide and 640 parts per million propane in nitrogen were purchased from 13 special...

  16. Thermoelectric exhaust-gas energy recovery: An integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. V.; Kaltzoglou, A.; Vaqueiro, P.; Min, G.; Garcia-Cañadas, J.; Stobart, R. K.; Li, J.; Dong, G.; Wijewardane, A.

    2012-06-01

    Here we describe the first results from an interdisciplinary project that seeks to develop a skutterudite-based thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery system for a vehicle exhaust stream. Filled skutterudites have been prepared and characterised and their thermal stability evaluated. Thermoelements fabricated from these skutterudites have been used to evaluate the compatibility of materials required for the construction of TE modules. The results of modelling studies for the optimization of heat exchanger design and the creation of a component in the loop test facility are also described.

  17. Reduction in (pro-)inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust treated with a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Müller, Loretta L.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Increasingly stringent regulation of particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles has led to the widespread use of diesel particle filters (DPFs), the effect of which on exhaust toxicity is so far poorly understood. We exposed a cellular model of the human respiratory epithelium at the air-liquid interface to non-catalyzed wall-flow DPF-filtered diesel exhaust and compared the resulting biological responses to the ones observed upon exposure to unfiltered exhaust. Filtered diesel exhaust acted highly oxidative, even though to a lesser extent than unfiltered exhaust (quantification of total reduced glutathione), and both exhaust types triggered comparable responses to oxidative stress (measurement of heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD1) gene expression). Further, diesel exhaust filtration significantly reduced pro-inflammatory responses (measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and quantification of the secretion of their gene products TNF-? and IL-8). Because inflammatory processes are central to the onset of adverse respiratory health effects caused by diesel exhaust inhalation, our results imply that DPFs may make a valuable contribution to the detoxification of diesel vehicle emissions. The induction of significant oxidative stress by filtered diesel exhaust however, also implies that the non-particulate exhaust components also need to be considered for lung cell risk assessment.

  18. ENHANCEMENTS OF REMOTE SENSING FOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS IN TUNNELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The University of Denver in cooperation with the Desert Research Institute, U.S. EPA, and General Motors Corporation have successfully adapted the University of Denver's remote sensing system for vehicle exhaust to the measurement of vehicles in a tunnel environment. wo studies c...

  19. Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Smith; M. Thornton

    2009-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8

  20. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST...Procedures § 600.112-08 Exhaust sample analysis. The exhaust sample...