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1

Removal of main exhaust gases of vehicles by a double dielectric barrier discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the health effects and their contribution to climate change, the emissions of toxic gases are becoming more controlled. In order to improve the diminution of toxic gases to the atmosphere, several techniques have been developed; here it will be focus only to automotive emissions. This work deals about the treatment of toxic gases emitted from vehicles by a non-thermal plasma. Several tests were done in a 4-cylinder 2002/Z16SE motor to characterize the vehicle emissions. With these results gas mixture simulating the exhaust gases vehicles, was used in experiments at different conditions employing a double dielectric barrier reactor for their treatment. The removal efficiencies superior to 90% show the competence of the non-thermal plasma reactor to treat these gases. Experimental results are explained with the aid of a simple chemical model that suggests a possible mechanism of degradation of toxic gases. The plasma reactor employed could works at 12V supplied without difficulty by a vehicle battery.

Pacheco, M.; Alva, E.; Valdivia, R.; Pacheco, J.; Rivera, C.; Santana, A.; Huertas, J.; Lefort, B.; Estrada, N.

2012-06-01

2

Analysis of petrol and diesel vapour and vehicle engine exhaust gases using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the vapours emitted by petrol and diesel fuels and the exhaust gases from petrol (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engine vehicles fitted with catalytic converters. Only those components of these media that have significant vapour pressures at ambient temperatures were analysed and thus particulates were obviously not

David Smith; Ping Cheng; P. Špan?l

2002-01-01

3

Analysis of petrol and diesel vapour and vehicle engine exhaust gases using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We have used selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the vapours emitted by petrol and diesel fuels and the exhaust gases from petrol (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engine vehicles fitted with catalytic converters. Only those components of these media that have significant vapour pressures at ambient temperatures were analysed and thus particulates were obviously not detected. These media have been analysed using the full scope of SIFT-MS, i.e., with the three available precursor ions H3O+, NO+ and O2+. The combination of the H3O+ and NO+ analyses is seen to be essential to distinguish between different product ions at the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) especially in identifying aldehydes in the exhaust gases. The O2+ precursor ions are used to detect and quantify the large amount of nitric oxide present in the exhaust gases from both engine types. The petrol and diesel vapours consist almost exclusively of aliphatic alkanes, alkenes and alkynes (and dienes) and aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these compounds appear in the exhaust gases together with several aldehydes, viz. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, pentenal (acrolein), butenal, and also methanol and ethanol. Acetone, nitric oxide and ammonia are also present, acetone and nitric oxide being much more abundant in the diesel exhaust gas than in the petrol exhaust gas. These data were obtained from samples collected into pre-evacuated stainless steel vessels. Trapping of the volatile compounds from the gas samples is not required and analysis was completed a few minutes later. All the above compounds are detected simultaneously, which demonstrates the value of SIFT-MS in this area of research. PMID:11992517

Smith, David; Cheng, Ping; Spanel, Patrik

2002-01-01

4

Method for treating combustion exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating exhaust gases generated by incinerating industrial wastes in a combustion chamber leading to a reaction chamber is described, comprising the steps of: (a) introducing the exhaust gases from the combustion chamber to the reaction chamber while keeping a high temperature; (b) spraying the exhaust gases flowing through the reaction chamber with water to vaporize the water with the heat of the exhaust gases, reducing the temperature of the exhaust gases while forming a saturated aqueous vapor of microparticles in intimate contact with noxious materials of the exhaust gases, thereby permitting the vapor microparticles to absorb and collect the noxious materials of the exhaust graft to form an acidic, saturated aqueous vapor; (c) spraying the acidic, saturated aqueous vapor with a neutralizing agent in a primary neutralization chamber to at least substantially denature the acidic, saturated aqueous vapor to a neutralized waste liquid; and (d) collecting and evacuating the neutralized waste liquid.

Sato, Inomatsu.

1993-05-25

5

Effluent sampling of Scout D and Delta launch vehicle exhausts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterization of engine-exhaust effluents (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) has been attempted by conducting field experiments monitoring the exhaust cloud from a Scout-Algol III vehicle launch and a Delta-Thor vehicle launch. The exhaust cloud particulate size number distribution (total number of particles as a function of particle diameter), mass loading, morphology, and elemental composition have been determined within limitations. The gaseous species in the exhaust cloud have been identified. In addition to the ground-based measurements, instrumented aircraft flights through the low-altitude, stabilized-exhaust cloud provided measurements which identified CO and HCI gases and Al2O3 particles. Measurements of the initial exhaust cloud during formation and downwind at several distances have established sampling techniques which will be used for experimental verification of model predictions of effluent dispersion and fallout from exhaust clouds.

Hulten, W. C.; Storey, R. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Woods, D. C.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

1974-01-01

6

Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and

R. W. Cernosek; J. H. Small; P. S. Sawyer; J. R. Bigbie; M. T. Anderson

1998-01-01

7

Toxicity of Engine Exhaust Gases Diesel-Bromochloromethane Fuel Blend.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A single cylinder diesel engine was used to generate exhaust gases formed during the combustion of diesel fuel containing five percent by vol bromochloromethane, as a fuel additive. An exhaust gas dilution system permitted exposure of selected animal spec...

A. A. Johnston K. Springer D. Johnson D. Boenig F. Newman

1975-01-01

8

Process for eliminating diluted sulfur oxides in combustion exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for eliminating sulfur oxides from combustion exhaust gases, comprising the steps of dividing the combustion exhaust gases into a first stream and a second stream, and passing the first stream through a first activated carbon bed which was previously washed with water, thereby drying the activated carbon, cooling the first stream, and removing a substantial portion

S. Hori; T. Inoue; S. Yamamoto; K. Tatara; M. Kitagawa; M. Watanabe; Y. Okada; N. Negishi

1978-01-01

9

Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust Particle Sampling Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project obj...

A. Kasper D. Zarling D. B. Kittelson H. Burtscher J. J. Schauer J. P. Johnson U. Baltensperger W. F. Watts

2003-01-01

10

Atmospheric dilution of fume hood exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines are proposed for the design of fume hood exhaust systems such that sufficient atmospheric dilution is obtained to prevent unacceptable contamination of fresh air intakes. An empirical design criterion, which has been employed successfully at a number of large pharmaceutical research laboratories, is presented. The literature on the calculation of atmospheric dilution near buildings is reviewed, and suggestions are

JAMES HALITSKY

1982-01-01

11

Measurement of VOCs in vehicle exhaust by extractive FTIR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12 The detection of benzene and other organic compounds in vehicle exhaust by FT-IR-spectroscopy is seriously limited by the strong interference of carbon dioxide and the rather weak absorption coefficient of the gases. Therefore, a measurement device was developed which separates the components of interest (mostly VOCs) from carbon dioxide, water and nitric oxide. In addition the VOCs have to be pre- concentrated. To avoid condensation of VOCs the measurements have to take place at higher temperatures. The vehicle exhaust was led through an activated charcoal tube where the organic compounds were adsorbed. Afterwards, the charcoal tube was heated in a furnace, the VOCs were desorbed thermically and were carried by (heated) nitrogen into a gas cell with a path-length of 10 m where the concentration of the different species was measured. With the help of this measurement device a lot of VOC- components like benzene, toluene, and xylene were detected successfully. Measurements were performed on an engine test bed and a chassis dynamometer for heavy duty vehicles. The detection limit of most of the VOCs was about 2 to 3 ppb for a sampling time of 20 min. Calibration measurements showed an accuracy of 15%.

Lechner, Bernhard; Paar, H.; Sturm, Peter J.

2001-02-01

12

Vehicle's exhaust emissions under car-following model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explore each vehicle's exhaust emissions under the full velocity difference (FVD) model and the car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability during three typical traffic situations. Numerical results show that the vehicle's exhaust emissions of the second model are less than those of the first model under the three typical traffic situations, which shows that the second model can reduce each vehicle's exhaust emissions.

Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Yun-Peng

2014-12-01

13

Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators  

SciTech Connect

Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and optimizing engine performance through feedback control. In this project, the authors adapted existing acoustic wave chemical sensor technology to the high temperature environment and investigated new robust sensor materials for improving gas detection sensitivity and selectivity. This report describes one new sensor that has potential use as an exhaust stream residual hydrocarbon monitor. The sensor consists of a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator coated with a thin mesoporous silica layer ion-exchanged with palladium ions. When operated at temperatures above 300 C, the high surface area film catalyzes the combustion of the hydrocarbon vapors in the presence of oxygen. The sensor acts as a calorimeter as the exothermic reaction slightly increases the temperature, stressing the sensor surface, and producing a measurable deviation in the resonator frequency. Sensitivities as high as 0.44 (ppm-{Delta}f) and (ppm-gas) have been measured for propylene gas, with minimum detectable signals of < 50 ppm of propylene at 500 C.

Cernosek, R.W.; Small, J.H.; Sawyer, P.S.; Bigbie, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, M.T. [3M Industrial and Consumer Sector Research Lab., St. Paul, MN (United States)

1998-03-01

14

Enhanced energy recovery from the exhaust gases of basic oxygen furnaces through operation at pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical preliminary-design study indicates that it is potentially possible to produce about 14 MW of net power from the exhaust gases of three small basic oxygen furnaces in the Helwan plant of the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company, Egypt. The turbine exhaust gases would flow through one or more rotary ceramic heat exchangers, incorporating a neutral-gas purge stage, heating

N. S. Shenoy; D. G. Wilson

1985-01-01

15

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86.209-94...Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles...209-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The...

2013-07-01

16

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

1992-11-17

17

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01

18

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA) [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA) [San Pablo, CA

1992-01-01

19

Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH[sub 4]) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the

S. Subramanian; R. J. Kudla; M. S. Chattha

1992-01-01

20

Dioxin-receptor Ligands in Urban Air and Vehicle Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of extracts of urban air and vehicle exhaust particulates to bind to the dioxin receptor has been determined. It was shown that such extracts do contain significant amounts of dioxin-receptor binding activity. The level of dioxin-receptor binding found in ambient air reflects its pollution level as determined by mutagenic activity. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracts of

Grant G. F. Mason

21

Analysis of Drying Wood Waste Fuels with Boiler Exhaust Gases: Simulation, Performance, and Economics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the feasibility of retrofitting a rotary dryer to a hog fuel boiler, using the boiler exhaust gases as the drying medium. Two simulation models were developed. Each model accurately predicts system performance given site-specific para...

R. W. Kirk J. B. Wilson

1984-01-01

22

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

1935-01-01

23

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust...

2009-01-01

24

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust...

2010-07-01

25

The hydrocarbon composition of exhaust emitted from gasoline fuelled vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) compositions of the exhausts from 67 vehicles in 'on the road' condition and driven through an urban driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer, have been determined. The major components were ethylene (11.2% w/w of NMHC), toluene (10.2%), acetylene (8.7%), m, p-Xylenes(6.5%), benzene (5.0%), propylene (5.0%) and i-pentane(4.8%). These compounds have also been reported as significant components in the exhausts from two similar populations of American vehicles. The NMHC compositions were found to be insensitive to the mass emission rates of hydrocarbons from the vehicles, except for the combustion-derived olefins, ethylene and propylene, which were affected by engine modifications introduced to satisfy emission control requirements. A close relationship was found between petrol composition and exhaust composition but this did not correspond simply to emissions of unburnt petrol. The aromatics are enriched relative to the alkanes in exhaust when compared with their proportions in the petrol.

Nelson, P. F.; Quigley, S. M.

26

Application of zigbee for pollution monitoring caused by automobile exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gases emitted from automobile exhausts have been monitored using a gas sensor arrays. The information from the sensor array has been transmitted to a remote location by ZigBee wireless technology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of gases has been conducted at the remote location by a computer. Programs have been developed in LabView and excel to display data and alarm conditions.

Halit Eren; Ahmed Al-Ghamdi; Jinhua Luo

2009-01-01

27

Intake fraction of nonreactive motor vehicle exhaust in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intake fraction ( iF) of nonreactive constituents of exhaust from mobile vehicles in the urban area of Hong Kong is investigated using available monitoring data for carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer of opportunity. Correcting for regional transport of carbon monoxide into Hong Kong, the annual-average iF for nonreactive motor vehicle emissions within the city is estimated to be around 270 per million. This estimated iF is much higher than values previously reported for vehicle emissions in US urban areas, Helsinki and Beijing, and somewhat lower than those reported for a densely populated street canyon in downtown Manhattan, New York City, or for emissions into indoor environments. The reported differences in intake fractions in various cities mainly result from the differences in local population densities. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the influence of upwind transport of pollutants when using ambient data to estimate iF for an urban area. For vehicle exhaust in Hong Kong, it is found that the in/near vehicle microenvironment contributes similarly to the indoor home environment when accounting for the overall iF for children and adults.

Luo, Zhiwen; Li, Yuguo; Nazaroff, William W.

2010-05-01

28

Polynuclear Aromatic Content of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the second year of this project, we developed improved sampling and analysis methods for PNA in diesel exhaust. To do this, the authors worked mainly with one engine at a few fixed speeds and loads and usually confined our emission measurements to ...

R. S. Spindt

1977-01-01

29

Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases  

DOEpatents

A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

30

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust...

2011-07-01

31

SENSOR FOR MONITORING OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN DIESEL EXHAUST GASES - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Active Spectrum, Inc., proposes a novel, low-cost soot sensor for on-board measurement of soot emissions in diesel exhaust gases. The proposed technology is differentiated from existing methods by excellent sensitivity, high specificity to carbon particulates, and robustness ...

32

State of the Art of Thermoelectric Generators Based on Heat Recovered from the Exhaust Gases of Automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovering of heat from exhaust gases in automobiles is a typical application of electricity generation using thermoelectricity. This paper is focused on reviewing the main characteristics and evolution of the different investigations performed over the last three decades concerning the use of thermoelectric generation using the heat from the exhaust gases produced in the combustion process of an automobile.

Jorge Vázquez; Miguel A. Sanz-Bobi; Rafael Palacios; Antonio Arenas; Alberto Aguilera

33

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate matter inhaled is large compared to the mass inhaled at ambient conditions. Finally, it was determined that children, infants, or people breathing at heights similar to that of a passing vehicle's tailpipe may be exposed to higher concentrations of particulate matter than those breathing at higher locations, such as adults standing up.

2009-01-01

34

Positive Streamers and Glows in Air and Exhaust Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and experimental studies have been made of the effects of sub-microsecond voltage pulses on the plasma chemistry of real flue gases in a test cell. Chemical analysis shows that, for real flue gases, the pulsed system can remove up to 90 % of NO, and 30 % of SO_2, if a residence time of ~ 30s is used. We also find that (i) water vapour is essential to the removal of SO_2, but not for the removal of NO or NO_2; and (ii) that small quantities of N_2O are produced. The removal of SO2 is primarily due to reactions with OH radicals from water vapour, producing sulphuric acid, whereas nitrogen oxides are reduced by N atoms. When a positive voltage is abruptly applied to a point in air at atmospheric pressure, positive streamers are produced. A theory is presented for the development of the first such streamer by solving the continuity equations for electrons, positive ions and negative ions, including the effects of ionisation, attachment, recombination, electron diffusion, and photoionisation, simultaneously with Poisson's equation. With an applied voltage of 20 kV across a 50 mm gap, the streamer does not reach the cathode. When the voltage is sustained in the presence of free electrons, the electric field at the anode starts to recover until positive glow pulses develop at the anode. The presence of the positive glow corona precludes any further streamer formation; this limits the number of chemical reactions stimulated by the discharge because the positive glow is confined close to the anode. Thus, a limit is set for the voltage pulse width. A theory is also presented for the current and light pulses of positive glow corona from a point in air; results are obtained by solving the continuity equations, described above, in concentric sphere geometry. A series of ``saw--toothed'' current pulses of period ~ 1 ?s are predicted with a dc current level. Accompanying the current peaks are discrete 30 ns wide pulses of light. It is found that if, in the presence of a positive glow corona, the voltage is raised at a rate less than 1 kV/?s, the the positive glow corona adjusts to the positive glow corona conditions at a higher voltage; however, if the voltage is raised at a significantly faster rate, streamers develop and propagate out into the gap. Thus, the need for sub--microsecond voltage pulses in order to produce positive streamers can be shown theoretically, and limits determined for the rise time required for the stimulation of chemical reactions.

Morrow, R.

1998-10-01

35

Vehicle Evaporative and Exhaust Emissions as Influenced by Benzene Content of Gasoline. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To better define the effect of fuel composition on benzene emissions from current production vehicles, the evaporative and exhaust emissions from five current model vehicles equipped with representative emission control systems were studied. Fuels consist...

D. E. Seizinger W. F. Marshall F. W. Cox M. W. Boyd

1986-01-01

36

Remote sensing of motor vehicle exhaust emissions: the road ahead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade interest has focused on the remote analysis of emissions from motor vehicles using spectrometric techniques, driven by recognition of the fact that a very large proportion of the environmental damage done in this way originates with a small percentage of vehicles. Several instrumentation manufacturers now market such devices, and others are developing new technologies that will offer opportunities for enhanced performance and lower cost. In this paper we review the evolution of technologies and methodologies applied to motor vehicle exhaust emissions, ranging from simple broadband sources and band-pass filters to tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. In so doing we examine the compromises and sources of error inherent in each which have earned such devices a very variable reputation, at least in the early years of development. We also look at techniques that may have the potential to solve these problem, and critically examine the reasons why these have not (yet) been applied. In conclusion, we will present initial findings and results from a European consortium studying the problems of cost-effective emissions monitoring, and validation of emissions inventory data using complementary numerical modelling techniques.

Crookell, Andrew; Kansakoski, Markku; Brook, Richard A.

2001-02-01

37

The effects of the exhaust plume on the lightning triggering conditions for launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 12 and Atlas Centaur 67 are two launch vehicles that have experienced triggered lightning strikes. Serious consequences resulted from the events; in the case of Atlas Centaur 67, the vehicle and the payload were lost. These events indicate that it is necessary to develop launch rules which would prevent such occurrences. In order to develop valid lightning related rules, it is necessary to understand the effects of the plume. Some have assumed that the plume can be treated as a perfect conductor, and have computed electric field enhancement factors on that basis. The authors have looked at the plume, and believe that these models are not correct, because they ignore the fluid motion of the conducting plates. The authors developed a model which includes this flow character. In this model, the external field is excluded from the plume as it would be for any good conductor, but, in addition, the charge must distribute so that the charge density is zero at some location in the exhaust. When this condition is included in the calculation of triggering enhancement factors, they can be two to three times larger than calculated by other methods which include a conductive plume but don't include the correct boundary conditions. Here, the authors review the relevant features of rocket exhausts for the triggered lightning problem, present an approach for including flowing conductive gases, and present preliminary calculations to demonstrate the effect that the plume has on enhancement factors.

Eriksen, Frederick J.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

1991-01-01

38

Surface nanocrystallization of Al-plated steel for application in the exhaust system of vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum-plated or aluminized steel has been used in the exhaust system of vehicles, which exhibits a reasonably high corrosion resistance in the exhaust gas condensate environment. However, due to the inhomogeneous element distribution the outmost surface layer, which is directly exposed to the exhaust gas, is more like an aluminum layer (with little intermetallic compounds) that, though corrosion-resistant, may not

C. Chen; C. J. Shang; D. Y. Li

2009-01-01

39

Development of Baseline and Controlled Exhaust Emission Rates for Off-Highway Vehicle Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to develop baseline exhaust emission rates for California off-highway vehicle engines in order to provide reliable data for the development of exhaust emission standards and regulations for the off-highway vehicle categor...

J. J. White

1993-01-01

40

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. 1037.105...1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a) The...under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given...

2013-07-01

41

Emission of viable bacteria in the exhaust flue gases from a hospital incinerator.  

PubMed

The exhaust gases from an oil-fired hospital waste incinerator were examined during normal incinerator operation. The design-specified operating temperature was 800 degrees C in the primary combustion chamber and 1000 degrees C in the secondary chamber. Flue gas temperatures, measured from the sampling point at the base of the exhaust stack, varied over the range 186-305 degrees C, and bacteria were recovered from this position in numbers up to 400 cfu m-3 (mean 56 cfu m-3). No sampling was performed at the top of the stack where flue gases were discharged to the atmosphere. Isolates were predominantly gram positive, i.e. Bacillus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus, although low numbers of gram negative species (Pseudomonas fluorescens and other pseudomonads) were also recovered. Our results suggest that incineration may not constitute an absolute method of sterilization for clinical waste. PMID:2570106

Blenkharn, J I; Oakland, D

1989-07-01

42

On-line analysis of diesel engine exhaust gases by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) has been used to analyse on-line and in real time the exhaust gas emissions from a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine under different conditions of load (idle and 50% of rated load) and speed (910, 1500 and 2200 rpm) using three types of fuel: an ultra-low-sulphur diesel, a rapeseed methyl ester and gas oil. SIFT-MS analyses of the alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons in the headspace of these fuels were also performed, but the headspace of the rapeseed methyl ester consists mainly of methanol and a compound with the molecular formula C4H8O. The exhaust gases were analysed for NO and NO2 using O2+* reagent ions and for HNO2 using H3O+ reagent ions. The following aldehydes and ketones in the exhaust gases were quantified by using the combination of H3O+ and NO+ reagent ions: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propenal, propanal, acetone, butanal, pentanal, butanone and pentanone. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and pentenal, all known respiratory irritants associated with sensitisation to asthma of workers exposed to diesel exhaust, are variously present within the range 100-2000 ppb. Hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases accessible to SIFT-MS analyses were also quantified as total concentrations of the various isomers of C3H4, C3H6, C4H6, C5H8, C5H10, C6H8, C6H10, C7H14, C6H6, C7H8, C8H10 and C9H12. PMID:15517528

Smith, David; Span?l, Patrik; Dabill, David; Cocker, John; Rajan, Bob

2004-01-01

43

MTBE, methane, ethylene and regulated exhaust emissions from vehicles with deactivated catalytic converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the effect of the gradual deactivation of a three-way catalytic converter on the exhaust emissions was studied. The exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (i.e. total unburned organic compounds), MTBE, methane and ethylene, before and after their catalytic treatment, in a wide range of engine operating conditions. The thermal aging of the catalytic converter resulted

S. G. Poulopoulos; C. J. Philippopoulos

2004-01-01

44

Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

2013-06-11

45

Size-dependent chemical reactivity of porous graphene for purification of exhaust gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the structural characteristics of pores evolving from the vacancy, the structure-dependent nature of localized states, and the role of electronic states in the reaction, we elucidate size effects on the chemical reactivity of porous graphene using density functional theory. The coupling of conjugated ? electrons of graphene with localized defect states allows for the reduction reaction or adsorption of exhaust gases on the edge atoms. The charge redistribution, ascertained from the coupling response, activates the weak C-C bond states at the corners, facilitating the dissociation of exhaust gas (e.g., NO). The size matching effect makes that the dissociation barrier of NO on the vacancy is smaller than 8.30 kcal/mol; whereas, larger pores only capture NO. Following the coupling-response mechanism, we propose the structural requirements for chemical applications of porous graphene: the shape and size of the pores are comparable in scale with those of purified molecules.

Si, Chen; Zhou, Gang

2012-11-01

46

Nicht limitierte Automobil-Abgaskomponenten. (Unregulated motor vehicle exhaust gas components).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume contains an overall presentation and assessment of the results of studies conducted by the Volkswagen company over the past 8 years in the field of legally unregulated motor vehicle exhaust gas components. Substantiated with numerous illustrati...

1988-01-01

47

Exhaust Heat CoGeneration System Using Phase Change Cooling for Heavy Duty Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste heat recovery system composed of a two phase cooling system, an exhaust heat exchanger, and mini-turbine (expander) has been proposed by Henry Works, Inc to generate auxiliary power via harvesting engine cooling and exhaust heat loss from heavy duty vehicles. The objective of this research is to evaluate the two phase cooling system through engine dynamometer testing and

Kiran K. Katta; Myoungjin Kim; Mike Taggett

48

A method for reducing exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed air powered engine is a type of zero-pollution engine, but its conversion efficiency is very low for its high pressure exhaust which causes much exergy loss. In this study, a control system was developed to reduce the exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine. The control system is made up of a controller, a pressure sensor, a photoelectric

Zhenggang Xu; Xiaopeng Xie

2009-01-01

49

Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution  

SciTech Connect

An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

50

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DUAL CATALYST EQUIPPED VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

A test program was initiated to characterize exhaust gas emissions from an automobile equipped with a dual catalyst system. The dual catalyst system was designed by Gould, Inc. to reduce emissions of engine exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. It basically ...

51

Analysis of drying wood waste fuels with boiler exhaust gases: simulation, performance, and economics  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the feasibility of retrofitting a rotary dryer to a hog fuel boiler, using the boiler exhaust gases as the drying medium. Two simulation models were developed. Each model accurately predicts system performance given site-specific parameters such as boiler steam demand, fue moisture content, boiler exhaust temperature and combustion excess air. Three rotary dryers/hog fuel boilers currently in operation in the forest products industry were analyzed. The data obtained were used to validate te accuracy of the simulation models and to establish the performance of boiler/dryer systems under field conditions. The boiler exhaust temperatures observed ranged from 340 to 500/sup 0/F and indicated that significant drying could be realized at moderate stack temperatures, as substantitated by experimental moisture content data. The simulation models were used to evaluate a general boiler/dryer system's sensitivity to variation in operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses indicated that under moderate conditions (400/sup 0/F boiler exhaust, etc.) the installation of a rotary dryer results in a 15% increase in boiler efficiency and a 13% decrease in fuel consumption. Both the field data and sensitivity analyses indicated that a greater increase in boiler efficiency could be realized at higher stack temperatures, approximately a 30% increase in boiler efficiency for a stack temperature of 600/sup 0/F. The cash flow basis payback periods based on hog fuel savings due to dryer installation ranged from 2.7 years for a used dryer to 3.9 years for a new dryer. The payback periods for equivalent BTU savings of gas and oil ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 for gas and from 1.3 to 2.1 years for oil. This study concludes that retrofitting a rotary dryer to an existing hog fuel boiler is an economically feasible option to the forest products industry. 31 references, 24 figures, 18 tables.

Kirk, R.W.; Wilson, J.B.

1984-09-01

52

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

53

Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow  

SciTech Connect

A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.

Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.

1999-06-28

54

Impact of higher alcohols blended in gasoline on light-duty vehicle exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

Certification gasoline was splash blended with alcohols to produce four blends: ethanol (16 vol%), n-butanol (17 vol%), i-butanol (21 vol%), and an i-butanol (12 vol%)/ethanol (7 vol%) mixture; these fuels were tested in a 2009 Honda Odyssey (a Tier 2 Bin 5 vehicle) over triplicate LA92 cycles. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, non-methane organic gases (NMOG), unburned alcohols, carbonyls, and C1-C8 hydrocarbons (particularly 1,3-butadiene and benzene) were determined. Large, statistically significant fuel effects on regulated emissions were a 29% reduction in CO from E16 and a 60% increase in formaldehyde emissions from i-butanol, compared to certification gasoline. Ethanol produced the highest unburned alcohol emissions of 1.38 mg/mile ethanol, while butanols produced much lower unburned alcohol emissions (0.17 mg/mile n-butanol, and 0.30 mg/mile i-butanol); these reductions were offset by higher emissions of carbonyls. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde were the most significant carbonyls from the n-butanol blend, while formaldehyde, acetone, and 2-methylpropanal were the most significant from the i-butanol blend. The 12% i-butanol/7% ethanol blend was designed to produce no increase in gasoline vapor pressure. This fuel's exhaust emissions contained the lowest total oxygenates among the alcohol blends and the lowest NMOG of all fuels tested. PMID:24180630

Ratcliff, Matthew A; Luecke, Jon; Williams, Aaron; Christensen, Earl; Yanowitz, Janet; Reek, Aaron; McCormick, Robert L

2013-12-01

55

Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o\\/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter

J. E. Hardy; J. O. Hylton; R. D. Joy; T. E. McKnight

1999-01-01

56

Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-01-01

57

Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.  

PubMed

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-01-01

58

Effects of exposure to vehicle exhaust on health.  

PubMed

Exposure to combustion engine exhaust and its effect on crews of roll-on roll-off ships and car ferries and on bus garage staff were studied. The peak concentrations recorded for some of the substances studied were as follows: total particulates (diesel only) 1.0 mg/m3, benzene (diesel) 0.3 mg/m3, formaldehyde (gasoline and diesel) 0.8 mg/m3, and nitrogen dioxide (diesel) 1.2 mg/m3. The highest observed concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 30 ng/m3 from gasoline and diesel exhaust. In an experimental study volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust diluted with air to achieve a nitrogen dioxide concentration of 3.8 mg/m3. Pulmonary function was affected during a workday of occupational exposure to engine emissions, but it normalized after a few days with no exposure. The impairment of pulmonary function was judged to have no appreciable, adverse, short-term impact on individual work capacity. In the experimental exposure study, no effect on pulmonary function was observed. Analyses of urinary mutagenicity and thioether excretion showed no sign of exposure to genotoxic compounds among the occupationally exposed workers or among the subjects in the experimental study. PMID:2448871

Ulfvarson, U; Alexandersson, R; Aringer, L; Svensson, E; Hedenstierna, G; Hogstedt, C; Holmberg, B; Rosén, G; Sorsa, M

1987-12-01

59

Carbon dioxide production from combustion exhaust gases with nitrogen and argon by-product recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for producing carbon dioxide and nitrogen from combustion exhaust gas containing less than about 10% oxygen by weight. It comprises treating the exhaust gas to remove particulate matter; compressing the exhaust gas to a pressure in the range from about 25 psia to about 200 psia; purifying the exhaust gas to remove trace contaminants; separating

R. Krishnamurthy; M. J. Andrecovich

1992-01-01

60

Infant leukemia and paternal exposure to motor vehicle exhaust fumes  

SciTech Connect

The children of fathers who work in gas stations, automobile or truck repair, and aircraft maintenance appear to be at increased risk for acute leukemia during their first year of life. The odds ratio was found to be about 2.5 overall, but risk appears to be greater for female offspring. A decline in sex ratio was observed for the three decades of the study, with the lowest ratio observed from 1969 through 1978. These preliminary findings suggest that exposure to one or more of the components of exhaust fumes might be of etiologic importance for this malignancy. The limitations of this investigation are discussed.

Vianna, N.J.; Kovasznay, B.; Polan, A.; Ju, C.

1984-09-01

61

Nanoparticle formation in the exhaust of vehicles running on ultra-low sulfur fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern of adverse health impacts from exposure to vehicle-emitted nanoparticles has been escalating over the past few years. In order to meet more stringent EPA emission standards for particle mass emissions, advanced exhaust after-treatment systems such as continuously regenerating diesel particle filters (CRDPFs) have to be employed on vehicles and fuel with ultra-low sulfur is to be used. Although

Hua Du; Fangqun Yu

2008-01-01

62

An Evaluation of the Environmental and Health Effects of Vehicle Exhaust Catalysts in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1993, all new gasoline-engine automobiles in the United Kingdom have been supplied with three-way vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs) containing platinum, palladium, and rhodium, to comply with European Commission Stage I limits on emissions of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. We conducted a physical and economic evaluation of the environmental and health benefits from a

Emma J. Hutchinson; Peter J. G. Pearson

2003-01-01

63

Effects of particulate matter from gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions on silicate stones sulfation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of particulate matter (PM) from diesel and leaded gasoline motor vehicles exhaust emissions on sulfation of granites, syenite and gabbro stones have been experimentally studied. Abundant gypsum crystals and corrosion features developed on stones covered with diesel PM (DPM) following 72h exposure to 100ppm SO2 at a relative humidity of 100%. In contrast, very small amounts of gypsum

J. Simão; E. Ruiz-Agudo; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2006-01-01

64

Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL

2012-01-01

65

Effects of fuel ethanol content and volatility on regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions for the latest technology gasoline vehicles.  

PubMed

Oxygenate content and fuel volatility (distillation) variables are important parameters affecting vehicle exhaust emissions, and data on their effects on the latest technology vehicles are quite limited. For this study, 12 California-certified LEV to SULEV vehicles were tested on a matrix of 12 fuels with varying levels of ethanol concentration (0, 5.7, and 10 vol %), T50 (195, 215, and 235 degrees F), and T90 (295, 330, and 355 degrees F). There were statistically significant interactions between ethanol and T90 for NMHC, ethanol, and T50 for CO and ethanol and T50 for NO(x). NMHC emissions increased with increasing ethanol content at the midpoint and high level of T90 but were unaffected at the low T90 level. CO emissions decreased as the ethanol content increased from the low to the midpoint level for all levels of T50, but between the 5.7 and 10% ethanol levels, CO showed only an increase for the high level of T50. NO(x) emissions increased with ethanol content for some conditions. Non-methane organic gases (NMOG) and toxic emissions were examined for only a subset of fuels with the highest T90 level, with NMOG, acetaldehyde, benzene, and 1-,3-butadiene all found to increase with increasing ethanol content. PMID:17612190

Durbin, Thomas D; Miller, J Wayne; Younglove, Theodore; Huai, Tao; Cockert, Kathalena

2007-06-01

66

Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.  

PubMed

A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ? 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models. PMID:22894824

Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

2012-10-01

67

Hydrogen chloride measurements in launch-vehicle exhaust clouds  

SciTech Connect

An Air Force-sponsored effort to develop a versatile field sensor for the measurement of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapors from rocket launches is described. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing an infrared HCl detector with ppB range sensitivities to be used for monitoring HCl during space vehicle launches at Vandenberg AFB. HCl deposition on the community neighboring Vandenberg AFB can involve costly litigation. Monitoring is necessary to determine the amount of HCl and if it presents hazardous situations or detrimental effects. The sensor developed by LLNL is an ''in situ'' sampler, which can constantly monitor a rapidly changing concentration of HCl in air (response time is one second). It is a four-band differential absorption instrument, allowing for corrections due to system electronic and optical variations, as well as for variations in the background concentrations of methane and water vapor that also absorb at HCl wavelengths. There is also the possibility of measuring HCl droplets with this type of sensor. The detector's variable pathlength-absorption region allows for HCl detection down to 200 ppB. The instrument is remotely operable, a necessity given the rugged Vandenberg terrain and limitations placed on personnel access to the launch area. The data from the battery-powered sensor are transmitted via radio link to a central base station where they are displayed and recorded using an IBM PC. 9 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

McRae, T.; Kennedy, R.; Garvis, D.; Smith, M.D.

1987-05-01

68

Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

2011-05-01

69

Grain type and size of particulate matter from diesel vehicle exhausts analysed by transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to apply a simple and quick method of size and shape characterization by TEM to diesel exhaust particles from large-capacity, high-performance trucks. Particulate matter (PM) samples were collected while the engines were idling. Investigation of this type of emission is essential because vehicles are idling at stop lights, in traffic, or during slow movement, goods loading and unloading. In these conditions, PM emission cumulates in a small area. It was found that PM from vehicle exhaust emissions can be divided into three groups: soot, irregular-shaped particles and circular particles. Irregular-shaped particles and soot aggregates were present in the exhausts of the three types of vehicle tested. Circular particles were identified only in the samples collected from exhaust emissions from the MAN vehicle, and were present in small amounts. The average surface area was in the range of 0.06 microm2 to 0.24 microm2. Mean perimeter fluctuated from 2.09 microm to 4.14 microm, and Feret diameter from 0.21 microm to 0.31 microm. Circularity was in the range of 0.12 to 0.30. Aspect ratio was around 0.30 to 0.45. Feret diameter seems to be a good parameter to define the mean size of particles, but does not take into account the influence of the shape. Therefore, this measurement seems to be useful just in the case of spherical or very rounded particles, not for all diesel PM. Thus, it is necessary to consider circularity or aspect ratio for DPM characterization. PMID:22988640

Sielicki, Przemys?aw; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka; Namie?nik, Jacek

2012-01-01

70

Effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions on breathing pattern and cellular responses--pilot single vehicle study.  

PubMed

The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O?, OH and other radicals. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 5 h to either filtered room air (sham) or one of two different atmospheres: (i) diluted car exhaust (P)+Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); (ii) P+MSHA+secondary organic aerosol (SOA, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a nonselective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 h after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363?±?66 ?g/m³ P+MSHA and 212?±?95 µg/m³ P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in total cells, macrophages and neutrophils in the BAL and in vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

Diaz, Edgar A; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

2012-04-01

71

Critical review of nitrogen monoxide sensors for exhaust gases of lean burn engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper intends to establish a comprehensive state of the art of nitrogen monoxide sensors applicable to the exhaust gas of lean-burn engines. The drastic operating conditions imply similar requirements to the oxygen lambda gauge. To date, like for oxygen sensing, only solid electrolyte- and semiconductor oxide-based sensors can be considered for NO sensing. The results of an exhaustive literature

Francis Ménil; Véronique Coillard; Claude Lucat

2000-01-01

72

Device for conducting away the exhaust gases from internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum silencing system is described comprising an exhaust pipe, a sleeve-shaped silencer enclosing a portion of the exhaust pipe and forming a chamber around the exhaust pipe wherein the portion of the exhaust pipe enclosed by the silencer is provided with perforation. The silencer has two sleeve-shaped parts joined together. The sleeve-shaped parts are provided on one end thereof with collars for fitting the sleeve-shaped parts on the exhaust pipe and on the other end thereof with locking means for joining the sleeve-shaped parts together. The locking means comprises a profiled shape extending around the circumference of the sleeve-shaped parts wherein the profiled shape on one of the two sleeve-shaped parts is telescopically received in the profiled shape on the other of the two sleeve-shaped parts such that the sleeve shaped parts are joined together radially to their longitudinal axis.

Hardt, J.; Widrig, J.

1988-05-24

73

A fuel-based approach to estimating motor vehicle exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicles contribute significantly to air pollution problems; accurate motor vehicle emission inventories are therefore essential to air quality planning. Current travel-based inventory models use emission factors measured from potentially biased vehicle samples and predict fleet-average emissions which are often inconsistent with on-road measurements. This thesis presents a fuel-based inventory approach which uses emission factors derived from remote sensing or tunnel-based measurements of on-road vehicles. Vehicle activity is quantified by statewide monthly fuel sales data resolved to the air basin level. Development of the fuel-based approach includes (1) a method for estimating cold start emission factors, (2) an analysis showing that fuel-normalized emission factors are consistent over a range of positive vehicle loads and that most fuel use occurs during loaded-mode driving, (3) scaling factors relating infrared hydrocarbon measurements to total exhaust volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, and (4) an analysis showing that economic factors should be considered when selecting on-road sampling sites. The fuel-based approach was applied to estimate carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from warmed-up vehicles in the Los Angeles area in 1991, and CO and VOC exhaust emissions for Los Angeles in 1997. The fuel-based CO estimate for 1991 was higher by a factor of 2.3 +/- 0.5 than emissions predicted by California's MVEI 7F model. Fuel-based inventory estimates for 1997 were higher than those of California's updated MVEI 7G model by factors of 2.4 +/- 0.2 for CO and 3.5 +/- 0.6 for VOC. Fuel-based estimates indicate a 20% decrease in the mass of CO emitted, despite an 8% increase in fuel use between 1991 and 1997; official inventory models predict a 50% decrease in CO mass emissions during the same period. Cold start CO and VOC emission factors derived from parking garage measurements were lower than those predicted by the MVEI 7G model. Current inventories in California appear to understate total exhaust CO and VOC emissions, while overstating the importance of cold start emissions. The fuel-based approach yields robust, independent, and accurate estimates of on-road vehicle emissions. Fuel-based estimates should be used to validate or adjust official vehicle emission inventories before society embarks on new, more costly air pollution control programs.

Singer, Brett Craig

74

High-Performance Decomposition and Fixation of Dry Etching Exhaust Perfluoro-Compound Gases and Study of Their Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the high-performance decomposition and fixation of perfluoro compounds (PFCs) exhausted from dry etching processes and their reaction mechanism with the fixation material prepared from Ca(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 mixture. Using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC--MS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and other analysis methods, it was found that PFCs were successfully decomposed and fixated by the reaction only with calcium compounds, resulting in calcium fluoride (CaF2). Aluminum compounds existing very close to calcium compounds work as a catalyst so that the reaction progresses at much lower temperatures, in the range of 650 to 750 °C, compared with the direct decomposition by combustion. The reaction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the proposed microscopic reaction model. These results are useful for the development of more efficient abatement systems for the greenhouse gases in the exhaust of dry etching processes.

Hattori, Kei; Osato, Masaaki; Maeda, Takeshi; Okumura, Katsuya; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

2011-11-01

75

Carbonyl emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust in China and the contribution to ozone formation potential.  

PubMed

Fifteen heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested on chassis dynamometer by using typical heavy duty driving cycle and fuel economy cycle. The air from the exhaust was sampled by 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine cartridge and 23 carbonyl compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The average emission factor of carbonyls was 97.2 mg/km, higher than that of light-duty diesel vehicles and gasoline-powered vehicles. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde were the species with the highest emission factors. Main influencing factors for carbonyl emissions were vehicle type, average speed and regulated emission standard, and the impact of vehicle loading was not evident in this study. National emission of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was calculated for China, 2011, based on both vehicle miles traveled and fuel consumption. Carbonyl emission of diesel vehicle was estimated to be 45.8 Gg, and was comparable to gasoline-powered vehicles (58.4 Gg). The emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were 12.6, 6.9, 3.8 Gg, respectively. The ozone formation potential of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was 537 mg O3/km, higher than 497 mg O3/km of none-methane hydrocarbons emitted from diesel vehicles. PMID:24649697

Dong, Dong; Shao, Min; Li, Yue; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Yanjun; Ji, Zhe; Tang, Dagang

2014-01-01

76

Adsorption Air-Conditioning (AdAC) for Automobiles Using Waste Heat Recovered from Exhaust Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a cautious estimate, approximately 10% of the energy available at the crankshaft in a diesel operated vehicle is used for operating the compressor of the vehicle's air-conditioning system. This is a huge loss if one takes into account the fact that the thermal efficiencies of most diesel operated vehicles range from 20-30% when in pristine condition. The bottom

A. C. Deshpande; R. M. Pillai

2009-01-01

77

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.109-94 Exhaust...percent of a temperature change (as measured in hot silicone oil). (3) The pressure measuring system shall have an...

2013-07-01

78

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from internal combustion engine exhaust is described that is uncomplicated by moving parts, thus avoiding problems associated with prior-art recirculation systems. The system also results in preheating and improved mixing of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. A recycling duct receives the exhaust gases at a restricted

Waitzmann

1974-01-01

79

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust is described that provides for the reduction of recirculation during engine idling without the prior-art complexities of moving parts. The system also achieves preheating and improved mixing and carburetion of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. Exhaust gases are recycled by means of a swirl

Sarto

1974-01-01

80

Toxicity of prolonged exposure to ethanol and gasoline autoengine exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

A comparative chronic inhalation exposure study was performed to investigate the potential health effects of gasoline and ethanol engine exhaust fumes. Test atmospheres of gasoline and ethanol exhaust were given to Wistar rats and Balb C mice housed in inhalation chambers for a period of 5 weeks. Gas concentration and physical parameters were continually monitored during the exposure period. Several biological parameters were assessed after the exposure including pulmonary function, mutagenicity, and hematological, biochemical, and morphological examinations. The results demonstrated that the chronic toxicity of the gasoline-fueled engine is significantly higher than that of the ethanol engine.

Massad, E.; Saldiva, P.H.; Saldiva, C.D.; Caldeira, M.P.; Cardoso, L.M.; de Morais, A.M.; Calheiros, D.F.; da Silva, R.; Boehm, G.M.

1986-08-01

81

Perceived annoyance and asthmatic symptoms in relation to vehicle exhaust levels outside home: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Exhaust emissions from vehicles is a well known problem with both epidemiological and experimental studies showing increasing adverse health effects with elevating levels. Many of the studies concerning vehicle exhausts and health are focused on health outcomes where the proportion attributed to exhaust is low, while there is less information on early and more frequent subjective indicators of adverse effects. Methods The primary aim of this study was to study perceived annoyance in relation to vehicle exhaust concentrations using modelled levels of nitrogen dioxide outside the home as an indicator with high spatial resolution. Almost 2800 persons in a random sample from three Swedish cities (Umea, Uppsala and Gothenburg) responded to our questionnaire. Questions were asked to determine the degree of annoyance related to vehicle exhausts and also the prevalence of irritating and asthmatic symptoms. Exposure was described for each participants home address by meteorological dispersion models with a 50 meter resolution. Results We found a significant increase of peoples' self-assessed annoyance with rising levels of NO2. The odds of being very annoyed by vehicle exhausts increased by 14% per 1 ?g/m3 increase of the NO2 level (odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–1.18), and the odds of reporting the air as daily or almost daily irritating increased by 9% (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.13). Also the odds of reporting asthmatic symptoms increased significantly with elevated NO2 levels (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01–1.07). Conclusion This study found the degree of annoyance related to vehicle exhaust and irritating and asthmatic symptoms to be significantly dependant on the levels of traffic related pollutants outside the home. The detailed exposure assessment lowers the degree of misclassification as compared to between-city analyses, which makes the results more accurate and applicable on the local scale.

Modig, Lars; Forsberg, Bertil

2007-01-01

82

Exhausted Plume Flow Field Prediction Near the Afterbody of Hypersonic Flight Vehicles in High Altitudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional computer code to solve the Burnett equations has been developed which computes the flow interaction between an exhausted plume and hypersonic external flow near the afterbody of a flight vehicle. This Burnett-2D code extends the capability of Navier-Stokes solver (RPLUS2D code) to include high-order Burnett source terms and slip-wall conditions for velocity and temperature. Higher-order Burnett viscous stress and heat flux terms are discretized using central-differencing and treated as source terms. Blocking logic is adopted in order to overcome the difficulty of grid generation. The computation of exhaust plume flow field is divided into two steps. In the first step, the thruster nozzle exit conditions are computed which generates inflow conditions in the base area near the afterbody. Results demonstrated that at high altitudes, the computations of nozzle exit conditions must include the effects of base flow since significant expansion exists in the base region. In the second step, Burnett equations were solved for exhaust plume flow field near the afterbody. The free stream conditions are set at an altitude equal to 80km and the Mach number is equal to 5.0. The preliminary results show that the plume expansion, as altitude increases, will eventually cause upstream flow separation.

Chou, Lynn Chen; Mach, Kervyn D.; Deng, Zheng-Tao; Liaw, Goang-Shin

1995-01-01

83

Factors affecting cleanup of exhaust gases from a pressurized, fluidized-bed coal combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cleanup of effluent gases from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal is examined. Testing conditions include the type and feed rate of the coal and the sulfur sorbent, the coal-sorbent ratio, the coal-combustion air ratio, the depth of the reactor fluidizing bed, and the technique used to physically remove fly ash from the reactor effluent gases. Tests reveal that the particulate loading matter in the effluent gases is a function not only of the reactor-bed surface gas velocity, but also of the type of coal being burnt and the time the bed is operating. At least 95 percent of the fly ash particules in the effluent gas are removed by using a gas-solids separator under controlled operating conditions. Gaseous pollutants in the effluent (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) are held within the proposed Federal limits by controlling the reactor operating conditions and the type and quantity of sorbent material.

Rollbuhler, R. J.; Kobak, J. A.

1980-01-01

84

Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources - A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle emissions from road vehicles have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their dominant contribution towards the total airborne particle number concentrations (PNCs) found in the urban atmospheric environment. In view of upcoming tighter vehicle emission standards and adoption of cleaner fuels in many parts of the world, the contribution to urban nanoparticles from non-vehicle exhaust sources (NES) may become more pronounced in future. As of now, only limited information exists on nanoparticle emissions from NES through the discretely published studies. This article presents critically synthesised information in a consolidated manner on 11 NES (i.e. road-tyre interaction, construction and demolition, aircraft, ships, municipal waste incineration, power plants, domestic biomass burning, forest fires, cigarette smoking, cooking, and secondary formation). Source characteristics and formation mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted from each NES are firstly discussed, followed by their emission strengths, airborne concentrations and physicochemical characteristics. Direct comparisons of the strengths of NES are not straightforward but an attempt has been made to discuss their importance relative to the most prominent source (i.e. road vehicles) of urban nanoparticles. Some interesting comparisons emerged such as 1 kg of fast and slow wood burning produces nearly the same number of particles as for each km driven by a heavy duty vehicle (HDV) and a light duty vehicle, respectively. About 1 min of cooking on gas can produce the similar particle numbers generated by ˜10 min of cigarette smoking or 1 m travel by a HDV. Apportioning the contribution of numerous sources from the bulk measured airborne PNCs is essential for determining their relative importance. Receptor modelling methods for estimation of source emission contributions are discussed. A further section evaluates the likely exposure risks, health and regulatory implications associated with each NES. It is concluded that much research is needed to provide adequate quantification of all nanoparticle sources, and to establish the relative toxicity of nanosize particles from each.

Kumar, Prashant; Pirjola, Liisa; Ketzel, Matthias; Harrison, Roy M.

2013-03-01

85

Pseudoelectret filter for micrometer-sized particles in exhaust gases at 210°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pseudoelectret fibers developed at the Applied Electrostatics Research Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, have been used to build an unlimited-life high-efficiency filter for micron-sized particles entrained in up to 300°C hot exhaust gas. This pseudoelectret filter has considerable advantages when compared to mechanical or conventional electret-type filters. In a comparable unblinded mechanical filter, the pressure drop

Ion I. Inculet; G. S. Peter Castle; Mircea Slanina; Mihai Duca

2002-01-01

86

Catalyst for the combustion of harmful substances contained in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines operated with alcohol and process for the production of the catalyst  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A catalyst is disclosed for combustion of pollutants contained in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines operated with alcohol. The catalyst consists of a metal carrier, a coating deposited on it made of a catalytically active aluminum oxide and an amount of palladium deposited on said coating. A production process for the catalyst is described which provides a final activation in oxidizing atmosphere or a formation in the stream of the exhaust gas that is to be purified at certain temperatures as well as the use of the catalyst for the simultaneous elimination of aldehydes, alcohols, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons present in the exhaust gas.

1984-05-22

87

Effect of leaded and unleaded gasoline on the mutagenicity of vehicle exhaust particulate matter.  

PubMed

With the removal of lead from gasoline and the use of new technologies, there have been some changes in vehicle emissions. In order to find out if the unleaded gasoline has the ability to reduce the emission of pollutants, leaded and unleaded gasoline were tested on a Santana engine dynamometer under a standard test cycle. The concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in emission were analyzed. The extracts of total exhaust particles were also collected and the components were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A series of different end point genotoxicity tests, including the Ames test, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, and micronucleus induction assay, were performed to investigate the mutagenicity in the two kinds of gasoline. We found that unleaded gasoline could reduce the emission of CO and HC and significantly decrease the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matter by 60%. As for the component analysis, only 23 kinds of organic substances adsorbed onto the particles were identified in the unleaded gasoline, while 32 kinds of compounds were detected in the leaded gasoline. The genotoxicity tests indicated that both types of gasoline could enhance the number of histidine-independent colonies in the Ames test, cause DNA damage, and increase the frequency of induced micronucleus in the Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. For the same particle weight, no difference was found between their mutagenicity. Because of the decrease in the emission of CO, HC, and particles in unleaded gasoline, this gasoline has some benefits for the environment and human health. PMID:10905507

Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S

2000-01-01

88

The trapping system for the recirculated gases at different locations of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) pipe of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, in diesel engines, it is typical to recycle exhaust gases (EGR) in order to decrease pollutant emissions. However, few studies report the precisely measured composition of the recycled gases. Indeed, in order to know precisely the composition of the EGR gases, they have to be sampled hot and not diluted, in contrast to the usual practice. Thus, a new system to collect such samples was developed. With this new trapping system, it is possible to measure the concentrations of NOx, CO, CO2, O2, hydrocarbons (HCs) in the range C1-C9, aldehydes, ketones and PAHs. The trapping system and the analytical protocol used are described in this paper.

Piperel, A.; Montagne, X.; Dagaut, P.

2008-10-01

89

Real-time measurement of nitrogen dioxide in vehicle exhaust gas by mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was demonstrated for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in automotive exhaust gas. The transition of the ? 3 vibrational band assigned to the antisymmetric stretching mode of NO2 was probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed, mid-infrared, distributed feedback, quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 6.13 ?m. The measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas from two diesel vehicles equipped with different aftertreatment devices was demonstrated using a CRDS-based NO2 sensor, which employs a HEPA filter and a membrane gas dryer to remove interference from water as well as particulates in the exhaust gas. Stable and sensitive measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas was achieved for more than 30 minutes with a time resolution of 1 s.

Yamamoto, Y.; Sumizawa, H.; Yamada, H.; Tonokura, K.

2011-12-01

90

Ions in motor vehicle exhaust and their dispersion near busy roads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements in the exhaust plume of a petrol-driven motor car showed that molecular cluster ions of both signs were present in approximately equal amounts. The emission rate increased sharply with engine speed while the charge symmetry remained unchanged. Measurements at the kerbside of nine motorways and five city roads showed that the mean total cluster ion concentration near city roads (603 cm -3) was about one-half of that near motorways (1211 cm -3) and about twice as high as that in the urban background (269 cm -3). Both positive and negative ion concentrations near a motorway showed a significant linear increase with traffic density ( R2 = 0.3 at p < 0.05) and correlated well with each other in real time ( R2 = 0.87 at p < 0.01). Heavy duty diesel vehicles comprised the main source of ions near busy roads. Measurements were conducted as a function of downwind distance from two motorways carrying around 120-150 vehicles per minute. Total traffic-related cluster ion concentrations decreased rapidly with distance, falling by one-half from the closest approach of 2 m to 5 m of the kerb. Measured concentrations decreased to background at about 15 m from the kerb when the wind speed was 1.3 m s -1, this distance being greater at higher wind speed. The number and net charge concentrations of aerosol particles were also measured. Unlike particles that were carried downwind to distances of a few hundred metres, cluster ions emitted by motor vehicles were not present at more than a few tens of metres from the road.

Jayaratne, E. R.; Ling, X.; Morawska, L.

2010-09-01

91

Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 ?g km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 ?g km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 ?g km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

2014-01-01

92

Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.  

PubMed

The emissions of exhaust gases (NO x , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6?×?10(3), 374, 1.2?×?10(3), and 5.6?×?10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7?×?10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67 %) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

2014-05-01

93

Light-Duty Drive Cycle Simulations of Diesel Engine-Out Exhaust Properties for an RCCI-Enabled Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuels to achieve low-temperature reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) can reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). Moreover, the dual-fueling RCCI is able to achieve these benefits by tailoring combustion reactivity over a wider range of engine operation than is possible with a single fuel. However, the currently demonstrated range of stable RCCI combustion just covers a portion of the engine speed-load range required in several light-duty drive cycles. This means that engines must switch from RCCI to CDC when speed and load fall outside of the stable RCCI range. In this study we investigated the impact of RCCI as it has recently been demonstrated on practical engine-out exhaust temperature and emissions by simulating a multi-mode RCCI-enabled vehicle operating over two urban and two highway driving cycles. To implement our simulations, we employed experimental engine maps for a multi-mode RCCI/CDC engine combined with a standard mid-size, automatic transmission, passenger vehicle in the Autonomie vehicle simulation platform. Our results include both detailed transient and cycle-averaged engine exhaust temperature and emissions for each case, and we note the potential implications of the modified exhaust properties on catalytic emissions control and utilization of waste heat recovery on future RCCI-enabled vehicles.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01

94

An evaluation of the environmental and health effects of vehicle exhaust catalysts in the UK.  

PubMed Central

Since 1993, all new gasoline-engine automobiles in the United Kingdom have been supplied with three-way vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs) containing platinum, palladium, and rhodium, to comply with European Commission Stage I limits on emissions of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. We conducted a physical and economic evaluation of the environmental and health benefits from a reduction in emissions through this mandated environmental technology against the costs, with reference to urban areas in Great Britain. We made both an ex post assessment--based on available data to 1998--and an ex ante assessment--projected to 2005, the year when full penetration of VECs into the fleet is expected. Substantial health benefits in excess of the costs of VECs were indicated: By 1998 the estimated net societal health benefits were approximately 500 million British pounds, and by 2005 they were estimated to rise to as much as 2 billion British pounds. We also found through environmental surveys that although lead in road dust has fallen by 50% in urban areas, platinum accumulations near roads have risen significantly, up to 90-fold higher than natural background levels. This rapid accumulation of platinum suggests further monitoring is warranted, although as yet there is no evidence of adverse health effects.

Hutchinson, Emma J; Pearson, Peter J G

2004-01-01

95

Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.  

PubMed

An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

2014-01-01

96

Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption  

PubMed Central

An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

Su, Jye-Chau

2014-01-01

97

Trends in exhaust emissions from in-use Mexico City vehicles, 2000-2006. A remote sensing study.  

PubMed

A remote sensing study was conducted in year 2006 in four locations of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). Two of the sites were the same studied back by us in year 2000 and by others in year 1994. A database was compiled containing 11,289 valid measurements for the carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitric oxide (NO) exhaust vehicles emissions. Valid measurements were binned for each pollutant by the vehicle specific power (between -5 and 20 kW tonne(-1)) for the 2000 and 2006 databases. The mean average CO, THC, and NO emissions for year 2006 were determined to be 1.10 +/- 0.18 vol.%, 299 +/- 88.4 ppm, and 610 +/- 115.0 ppm, respectively. Matching the vehicle driving patterns of the fleet measured in year 2000 with the emissions factors obtained in this work, allows estimating the trends in the exhaust emissions of vehicles in the MAMC. The adjusted results of the remote sensing study performed in year 2006 shows that the fleet has decrease 22% in CO and 17% in NO emissions, with small change in total hydrocarbons emissions. The improvements could be related with the introduction in year 2001 of vehicles that met tighter emissions standards, particularly for nitrogen oxides. PMID:17503197

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; Durán, J; Chávez, O

2008-02-01

98

Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

2014-06-01

99

Exhaust emissions from uncontrolled vehicles and related equipment using internal combustion engines. Final report. Part 5. Heavy-duty farm, construction, and industrial engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test data, documentation, and discussion on detailed emissions characterization of eight diesel engines and four gasoline engines, as well as estimated emission factors and national emissions impact for farm, construction, and industrial applications are reported as part of a study of exhaust emissions from uncontrolled vehicles and related equipment using internal combustion engines. The exhaust products measured include total hydrocarbons,

C. T. Hare; K. J. Springer

1973-01-01

100

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Exhaust Particle Dispersion and Concentration Fields in the Near-Wake Region of the Studied Ground Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the interaction effects of different vehicle speeds and exhaust tailpipe exit velocity and temperature conditions on the three-dimensional flow structure, exhaust particle dynamic behavior, formation and evolution processes (i.e., nucleation, coagulation, condensation, and dispersion), number and volume concentration, and nucleation rate fields in the near-wake region behind the studied ground vehicle in urban road microenvironment were

Y. H. Liu; Z. He; T. L. Chan

2011-01-01

101

A fuel-based inventory of motor vehicle exhaust emissions in the Los Angeles area during summer 1997  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fuel-based approach was used to estimate stabilized exhaust carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Fleet-average emission factors of 80±7 g l -1 CO and 9.3±1.5 g l -1 VOC were calculated from more than 60,000 infrared remote sensor measurements collected at 35 sites throughout the greater Los Angeles area during summer 1997. Fuel use by SoCAB cars and light/medium-duty trucks was estimated to be 5.9±0.3×10 7 l day -1 based on statewide gasoline sales during summer 1997. Fuel-based estimates of 4700±500 metric tons day -1 CO and 550±90 metric tons day -1 VOC are higher than stabilized exhaust emissions estimates of California's MVEI 7G model by factors of 2.4±0.2 for CO and 3.5±0.6 for VOC. According to fuel-based inventory estimates, stabilized CO emissions in 1997 were lower by 20% than emissions during summer 1991. Fuel use increased by 8% during this period while the CO emission factor decreased by 26%. The relationship between income level and vehicle emissions was examined using census data resolved to the zip code level. On average, CO and VOC emission factors of vehicles registered in the lowest income areas were double those of vehicles registered in the highest income areas. Differences in vehicle emissions between neighborhoods were due in part to differences in the prevalence of older vehicles, but also resulted because vehicles of the same age had higher emissions in lower-income areas.

Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

102

Exhaust emission control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

Eng, J.W.

1991-09-24

103

Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.  

PubMed

While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity. PMID:10560539

Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

1999-06-01

104

Smog and particulate collection system for use on vehicles with internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating exhaust gases emitted from an internal combustion engine; the internal combustion engine being coupled to a fuel tank which is capable of holding a derivative of petroleum and being mounted on a vehicle. It comprises transporting the exhaust gases from an exhaust gas manifold coupled to the internal combustion engine to an air intake; accelerating the exhaust gases by conveying the exhaust gases from the air intake to an air cyclone accelerator; separating a particulate from the exhaust gases using a spiral vortex separation column connected to the air cyclone accelerator; collecting and storing the particulate in a particulate storage tank coupled to the spiral vortex separation column and mounted on the vehicle; and recycling the particulate periodically by removing the particulate from the particulate storage tank when the fuel tank needs refilling.

Barry, W.R.

1992-04-07

105

The potential of a partial-flow constant dilution ratio sampling system as a candidate for vehicle exhaust aerosol measurements.  

PubMed

This paper presents the measurement of airborne particle properties with use of a dedicated sampling protocol and a measurement setup directly installed in the exhaust line of vehicles and engines. The sampling system dilutes a small part of the exhaust directly at the tailpipe without the need of exhaust gas transfer lines that may lead to sampling artifacts. Dilution takes place in two steps with a primary dilution ratio universally set at a value of 12.5:1 for all vehicles and engines tested, and subsequent dilution steps reducing particle concentration within the measuring range of the instruments used. Dilution air temperature and residence time were set at 32 degrees C and 2.5 sec respectively, to allow repeatable measurement of nucleation-mode particles. The paper summarizes the specifications of the system, evaluates its performance in comparison to real-world dilution (chasing experiments), and presents the repeatability and reproducibility of measurements performed in different laboratories. In general, after taking precautions for the setup and condition of instruments, both measurement quality indices reached levels similar to the measurement of particulate matter (PM) mass. Application of the system, using the same protocol, to measure many light-duty vehicles and engines is finally demonstrated, providing useful conclusions for the emission performance of different sized engines. The study concludes that the use of partial-flow sampling systems may offer advantages for the measurement of particle emissions from low-emission engines compared with constant volume sampling facilities, including lower cost of purchase and operation, versatility, lack of artifacts, and possibilities for standardization in different environments. PMID:21090550

Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Samaras, Zissis

2010-10-01

106

Method for detection of NO x in exhaust gases by pulsed discharge measurements using standard zirconia-based lambda sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a measurement approach to differentiate reliably exhaust gas components using standard zirconia-based thimble-type potentiometric lambda sensors. A self-discharge characteristic after applying different voltage pulses between the sensor electrodes is used as a measurement parameter which depends on the gas component and its concentration in the exhaust. The detection of NO in the lower ppm range is demonstrated. In

S. Fischer; R. Pohle; B. Farber; R. Proch; J. Kaniuk; M. Fleischer; R. Moos

2010-01-01

107

Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the active charcoal combination filter appeared less inflammatory to A549 cells. Conclusions A cabin air inlet particle filter including an active charcoal component was highly effective in reducing both DE particulate and gaseous components, with reduced exhaust-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of cabin filters to protect subjects travelling in vehicles from diesel exhaust emissions.

2014-01-01

108

A fuel-based approach to estimating motor vehicle exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicles contribute significantly to air pollution problems; accurate motor vehicle emission inventories are therefore essential to air quality planning. Current travel-based inventory models use emission factors measured from potentially biased vehicle samples and predict fleet-average emissions which are often inconsistent with on-road measurements. This thesis presents a fuel-based inventory approach which uses emission factors derived from remote sensing or

Brett Craig Singer

1998-01-01

109

Modal Analysis and Study of the Vibration Characteristics of the Thermoelectric Modules of Vehicle Exhaust Power-Generation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric (TE) materials and modules are important components of vehicle exhaust power-generation systems. The road and the engine, the main sources of vibration of TE modules, have substantial effects on the vibration characteristics of TE modules. In this work, modal analysis and the vibration characteristics of TE modules were investigated in detail. On the basis of the TE modules and their service environment, simulations for modal analysis were performed by use of the finite-element method, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the TE modules were obtained. The numerical results were used to compare the natural frequencies of TE modules under different contact stiffness with the range of excitation frequencies of road and engine, in an attempt to prevent severe resonance. The effects on the vibration characteristics of geometric dimensions, service temperature, and thermal stress of the TE modules are also discussed in detail. The results reveal the vibration characteristics of the TE modules and provide theoretical guidance for structure optimization in the design of vehicle exhaust power-generation systems.

Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Zhai, Pengcheng; Yu, Rui; Li, Guodong; Zhang, Qingjie

2014-06-01

110

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

111

Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Monitoring: Review and Critical Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic-related emissions represent a major component of airborne pollution. Historically, dynamometer testing has been most widely used to estimate vehicle emission rates, and these emission rates, in turn, have been used as inputs when modeling traffic-related air quality impacts. However, such conventional drive cycle testing is not considered strictly representative of vehicles under real driving conditions. Therefore, in recent years,

Karl Ropkins; Joe Beebe; Hu Li; Basil Daham; James Tate; Margaret Bell; Gordon Andrews

2009-01-01

112

On-line measurements of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel vehicle exhaust by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitro-organic compounds, some of which cause adverse health effects in humans, are emitted in diesel engine exhaust. Speciation and quantification of these nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust particles have been extensively conducted; however, investigations into the emissions of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust have not. In the present study, the properties of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust were investigated through time-resolved measurement with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer. Three diesel trucks were tested, each with a different type of exhaust-gas treatment system (i.e., aftertreatment). Among the nitro-organic compounds detected, the emission of nitromethane was commonly observed and found to be related to the emissions of carbon monoxide, benzene, and acetone. The emission of other nitro-organic compounds, such as nitrophenol, depended on the vehicle, possibly due to the type of aftertreatment installed.

Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fujitani, Yuji; Sekimoto, Kanako; Sato, Kei; Fushimi, Akihiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hori, Shigeo; Kumazawa, Yasuko; Shimono, Akio; Hikida, Toshihide

2013-07-01

113

MATHEMATICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON NOX RECOVERY IN FLUIDIZED BED ADSORBERS FOR EXHAUST GASES OF NITRIC ACID PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for sorption of NOx from exhaust gas of nitric acid plants by activated carbon (AC) in a fluidized bed is proposed based on two-phase flow theory of fluidization. To solve the proposed model a computer program has been developed. The output of this program reveals the effects of various parameters such as temperature, inlet gas velocity, particle

D. MOWLA; S. RAZAVI

2004-01-01

114

Exhaust Particle Characterization for Lean and Stoichiometric DI Vehicles Operating on Ethanol-Gasoline Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engi...

2013-01-01

115

Light-Duty Motor Vehicle Exhaust Particulate Matter Measurement in the Denver, Colorado, Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of particulate matter (PM) emissions from in-use, light-duty vehicles was conducted during the summer of 1996 and the winter of 1997 in the Denver, CO, region. Vehicles were tested as received on chassis dynamometers on the Federal Test Procedure Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the IM240 driving schedule. Both PM10 and regulated emissions were measured for each

Steven H. Cadle; Patricia Mulawa; Eric C. Hunsanger; Ken Nelson; Ronald A. Ragazzi; Richard Barrett; Gerald L. Gallagher; Douglas R. Lawson; Kenneth T. Knapp; Richard Snow

1999-01-01

116

Procedures for safe handling of off-gases from electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during overcharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for generation of toxic gases from lead-acid batteries has long been recognized. Prior to the current interest in electric vehicles, there were no studies specificaly oriented to toxic gas release from traction batteries, however. As the Department of Energy Demonstration Project (in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program) progresses, available data from past studies and parallel health effects programs must be digested into guidance to the drivers and maintenance personnel, tailored to their contact with electric vehicles. The basic aspects of lead-acid battery operation, vehicle use, and health effects of stibine and arsine to provide electric vehicle users with the information behind the judgment that vehicle operation and testing may proceed are presented. Specifically, it is concluded that stibine generation or arsine generation at rapid enough rates to induce acute toxic response is not at all likely. Procedures to guard against low-level exposure until more definitive data on ambient concentrations of the gases are collected are presented for both charging the batteries and driving the vehicles. A research plan to collect additional quantitative data from electric traction batteries is presented.

Labelle, S. J.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Loutfy, R. O.; Varma, R.

1980-01-01

117

Procedures for safe handling of off-gases from electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during overcharge  

SciTech Connect

The potential for generation of toxic gases from lead-acid batteries has long been recognized. Prior to the current interest in electric vehicles, there were no studies specificaly oriented to toxic gas release from traction batteries, however. As the Department of Energy Demonstration Project (in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program) progresses, available data from past studies and parallel health effects programs must be digested into guidance to the drivers and maintenance personnel, tailored to their contact with electric vehicles. The basic aspects of lead-acid battery operation, vehicle use, and health effects of stibine and arsine to provide electric vehicle users with the information behind the judgment that vehicle operation and testing may proceed are presented. Specifically, it is concluded that stibine generation or arsine generation at rapid enough rates to induce acute toxic response is not at all likely. Procedures to guard against low-level exposure until more definitive data on ambient concentrations of the gases are collected are presented for both charging the batteries and driving the vehicles. A research plan to collect additional quantitative data from electric traction batteries is presented.

LaBelle, S.J.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Loutfy, R.O.; Varma, R.

1980-01-25

118

Emission characteristics of exhaust gases and nanoparticles from a diesel engine with biodiesel-diesel blended fuel (BD20)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study sought to investigate the characteristics of the exhaust emissions, and nanoparticle size distribution\\u000a of particulate matter (PM) emitted from diesel engines fueled with 20% biodiesel-diesel blended fuel (BD20). The study also\\u000a investigated the conversion efficiency of the warm-up catalytic converter (WCC). The emission characteristics of HC, CO, NOx\\u000a and nano-sized PM were also observed according to engine

Hwanam Kim; Byungchul Choi

2009-01-01

119

Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 ± 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep + idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

2014-05-01

120

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL

2012-01-01

121

Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices including diesel particulate filters (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep+idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photo-oxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary and secondary fine particulate matter from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after three hours of oxidation at typical urban VOC : NOx ratios (3:1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the non-methane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas-chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species, such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 ± 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep+idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

2013-09-01

122

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. Improved understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and PAH emissions is needed to determine whether fuel reformulation is a viable approach for reducing PAH emissions. PAH concentrations were quantified in gasoline and diesel fuel samples collected in summer 1997 in northern California. Naphthalene was the predominant PAH

Linsey C. Marr; Thomas W. Kirchstetter; Robert A. Harley; S. K. Hammond; A. H. Miguel

1999-01-01

123

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...separator is optional. (3) Losses of methanol due to condensation of water in the duct connecting the vehicle tail pipe to the dilation tunnel must be minimized. This may be accomplished by: (i) The use of a duct of unrestricted length maintained at...

2010-07-01

124

Removal of organic air pollutants from exhaust gases in the trickle-bed bioreactor. Effect of oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes some reaction engineering fundamentals of the separation of organic air pollutants (volatile organic\\u000a compounds) from waste gases using fixed-bacteria monocultures (biocatalysts) in a trickle-bed reactor. In particular the influence\\u000a of pollutant concentration and oxygen concentration are investigated. The separation efficiency of certain substances such\\u000a as acetone and isopropanol depends strongly on the oxygen concentration. The results obtained

K. Kirchner; S. Wagner; H.-J. Rehm

1996-01-01

125

Investigation of remote sensing devices for chemical characterization of motor vehicle exhaust. Final report, February 1995--September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes results of tests to (1) evaluate the accuracy and precision of two different remote sensing devices (RSDs) for measuring carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs), and nitric oxide (NO), and (2) evaluating the capabilities of three RSDs for characterizing fleet emissions of NO. `Puff` tests (in which simulated motor vehicle exhaust gas was repeatedly injected in bursts or puffs into the RSDs) were conducted. The accuracy and precision of data from these measurements, which showed a generally linear response over a range of concentrations, were in the order CO > HCs > NO. Subsequently, three vehicles were driven at constant speed on a dynamometer and on a test track. The average emissions data measured by the three RSDs at the track, when compared to the dynanmometer emissions data (which were used as the standard), in general showed just the opposite result; i.e., NO > HCs > CO. However, the test track data showed a considerable amount of variation. The three RSDs were tested for several hours on a freeway ramp in Raleigh, NC.

Jones, J.W.; Ripberger, C.T.; Vescio, N.

1998-12-01

126

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987–2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen–Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions – temperatures of 25–100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1–600 ?g m?3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

127

Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.  

PubMed

This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health. PMID:22393814

Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

2012-01-01

128

Development of a simple field test for vehicle exhaust to detect illicit use of dyed diesel fuel.  

PubMed

Tax-free diesel fuel is intended for off-road uses such as agricultural operations, but illicit use of this fuel does occur and is a convenient way of evading payment of excise taxes. Current enforcement to prevent this practice involves visual inspection for the red azo dye added to the fuel to indicate its tax-free status. This approach, while very effective, has shortcomings such as the invasive nature of the tests and/or various deceptive tactics applied by tax evaders. A test designed to detect illicit dyed-fuel use by analyzing the vehicle exhaust would circumvent these shortcomings. This paper describes the development of a simple color spot test designed to detect the use of tax-free (i.e., dyed) fuel by analyzing the engine exhaust. Development efforts first investigated the combustion products of C.I. Solvent Red 164 (the azo dye formulation used in the United States to tag tax-free fuel). A variety of aryl amines were identified as characteristic molecular remnants that appear to survive combustion. A number of micro-analytical color tests specific for aryl amines were then investigated. One test that detected aryl amines by reacting with 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde seemed to be particularly applicable and was used in a proof-of-principle experiment. The 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde color spot test was able to clearly distinguish between engines that were burning regular fuel and those that were burning dyed diesel fuel. Further development will refine this color spot test to provide an easy-to-use field test. PMID:22063524

Harvey, Scott D; Wright, Bob W

2011-10-30

129

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile during the specified bag of the...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile over Bag Y at temperature X...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile over the âcityâ portion of...

2013-07-01

130

Platinum, palladium and rhodium release from vehicle exhaust catalysts and road dust exposed to simulated lung fluids.  

PubMed

The risk associated with the inhalation of platinum group element (PGE) emissions from vehicle exhaust catalysts (VECs) has been investigated by extracting road dust and milled auto catalyst with simulated lung fluids. Gamble's solution (representative of the interstitial fluid of the deep lung) and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) (representative of the more acidic environment within the lung) were employed as extraction fluids. The highest PGE release was observed in ALF, implying that inhaled particles would have to be phagocytized before significant amounts of PGEs dissolve. The greatest percentage (up to 88%) of PGEs was released from road dust, possibly due to the presence of mobile PGE species formed in the roadside environment. Pt showed the highest absolute bioavailability, due to its greater concentration in the environmental samples. Pd and Rh had higher percentage of release, however, because of their more soluble nature. From the toxicological perspective, the results demonstrate potential health risks due to the likely formation of PGE-chloride complexes in the respiratory tract, such species having well-known toxic and allergenic effects on human beings and living organisms. PMID:18206235

Colombo, Claudia; Monhemius, A John; Plant, Jane A

2008-11-01

131

Real-time Characterization of Particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Aerosols and From Motor-Vehicles Exhausts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the spring of 2007 a diffusion charger (DC), a photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS), and a condensation particle counter (CPC) were operated a) in Wilmington (CA), an urban area near the Los Angeles port heavily influenced by a mix of industrial and gasoline- / diesel-fuelled vehicle emissions, and b) at the California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Test Laboratory (HDETL), a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA). During the dynamometer tests, we characterized the exhausts of several individual types of vehicles, equipped with different emission control technologies, and operated under different driving conditions. Information about the chemical composition, active surface area, and particle number concentration from the PAS, DC, and CPC were combined to identify the main chemical and physical characteristics of the studied aerosols. In particular, the ratio between the PAS and the DC signals (PAS/DC) provided a reliable measurement of the amount of particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pPAH) per unit area of the active surface of the particles. This quantity may be directly related to the amount of pPAHs transported into the human respiratory tract. Plots of the PAS/DC ratio versus the average surface particle diameter (Dp; estimated by combining DC and CPC measurements) were then used to distinguish between the presence/absence of nuclei mode particles and the presence/absence of an adsorbed layer on accumulation mode particles, for both ambient and dynamometer-tests data. All results were then complemented with measurements of the particle size distribution (SMPS) and of the black carbon (BC) aerosol content to obtain further insights on the pPAHs emitted by motor-vehicles and other sources. Integrated 24-h filter samples were also collected in Wilmington, solvent extracted and analyzed by GC/MS to determine the relative concentrations of the 11 most abundant pPAHs found at the urban site. Finally, these results were used to establish correlations between the concentrations of each individual PAH species and the measured PAS signal (from fA to ? g/m3).

Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Sioutas, C.

2007-12-01

132

Exposure to volatile organic compounds for individuals with occupations associated with potential exposure to motor vehicle exhaust and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source(s), motor vehicle exhausts and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions, are suspected to be exposed to highly-elevated VOC levels during their work-time. This study confirmed this suspicion and evaluated the work-time exposure VOCs for traffic police officers, parking garage attendants, service station attendants, roadside storekeepers and underground storekeepers, by measuring the concentrations of six

Wan-Kuen Jo; Ki-Berm Song

2001-01-01

133

Acute inhalation toxicity of diesel fuels, MIL-F-46162Referee Grade I(Arctic) and MIL-F-46162 Referee Grade II(regular), used in Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke Systems (VEESS). Technical report, February-May 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic studies were conducted with rats and guinea pigs to determine acute effects from single exposures to M60A1 tank-generated MIL-F-46162-Referee (Arctic) and (Regular) Grade diesel-fuel smoke and\\/or exhaust clouds under static airflow conditions. Emissions were disseminated with the Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke System (VEESS) and exposure periods ranged from 15-180 min in the case of the smoke\\/exhaust emissions and 60-180

J. F. Callahan; C. L. Crouse; G. E. Affleck; R. L. Farrand; R. W. Dorsey

1983-01-01

134

Vapor absorption refrigeration in road transport vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study includes an experimental investigation into the use of vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) systems in road transport vehicles using the waste heat in the exhaust gases of the main propulsion unit as the energy source. This would provide an alternative to the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system and its associated internal combustion engine. The performance of a VAR system fired by natural gas is compared with that of the same system driven by engine exhaust gases. This showed that the exhaust-gas-driven system produced the same performance characteristics as the gas-fired system. It also suggested that, with careful design, inserting the VAR system generator into the main engine exhaust system need not impair the performance of the vehicle propulsion unit. A comparison of the capital and running costs of the conventional and proposed alternative system is made. Suggestions are also made regarding operation of the VAR system during off-road/slow running conditions.

Horuz, I. [Univ. of Uludag, Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of Uludag, Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1999-08-01

135

Automobile exhaust level of CO: study in Chidambaram town.  

PubMed

The exhaust gases from automobiles constitute about 75% of air pollution. Among the various pollutants emitted from vehicles, CO is the primary pollutant and very toxic one. The CO monitor method was used to predict the CO level in Chidambaram town. From the study it is evident that the pollution level is closely related to the density of motor vehicles on the roads. With increase in number of motor vehicles pollution level also increases which pollutes the roadside environment severely in future. PMID:12968723

Ramamurthy, N; Thirumarran, M

2002-01-01

136

Exhaust support system  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust support system is described for a midship engine rear wheel drive-type vehicle having a transversely mounted engine, which consists of: a first cylindrical exhaust device having an inlet opening at a first longitudinal end thereof and an outlet opening at a second longitudinal end thereof and a horizontal longitudinal centerline running therethrough; a first exhaust pipe having an inlet opening and an outlet opening, the inlet opening communicating with the engine and the outlet opening communicating with the first cylindrical exhaust device; a second cylindrical exhaust device having an inlet opening at a first longitudinal end thereof and an outlet opening at a second longitudinal end thereof, the second cylindrical exhaust device having a horizontal longitudinal centerline running therethrough and being provided in a substantially parallel relationship with the centerline of the first exhaust device, and the first cylindrical exhaust device is located alongside of the second exhaust device such that the longitudinal centerlines of the first and second exhaust devices are located in substantially adjacent horizontal planes; a second exhaust pipe communicating the outlet opening of the first exhaust device with the inlet opening of the second exhaust device; and a bracket means for securing the first exhaust pipe to the second exhaust device, the bracket means being made of at least one sheet of metal, the at least one sheet of metal being secured to an extending perpendicularly between an outer peripheral flange of the first exhaust pipe and an outer peripheral portion of the second exhaust device, the at least one sheet of metal having a substantially flat surface which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal longitudinal centerlines of the first and the second exhaust devices.

Teshima, H.

1986-06-24

137

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... emissions, use the appropriate CO2 grams/mile values instead of CREE values in...the carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile during bag Y of the FTP test conducted...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile over the city portion of the...

2013-07-01

138

Probabilistic Evaluation of Mobile Source Air Pollution: Volume 1. Probabilistic Modeling of Exhaust Emissions from Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emission factors for light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) are typically developed based upon laboratory testing of vehicles for prescribed driving cycles. In this project, selected LDGV data sets and modeling assumptions used to develop Mobile5a were revis...

H. C. Frey M. D. Kini

1997-01-01

139

The effect of exhaust plume/afterbody interaction on installed Scramjet performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newly emerging aerospace technology points to the feasibility of sustained hypersonic flight. Designing a propulsion system capable of generating the necessary thrust is now the major obstacle. First-generation vehicles will be driven by air-breathing scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engines. Because of engine size limitations, the exhaust gas leaving the nozzle will be highly underexpanded. Consequently, a significant amount of thrust and lift can be extracted by allowing the exhaust gases to expand along the underbody of the vehicle. Predicting how these forces influence overall vehicle thrust, lift, and moment is essential to a successful design. This work represents an important first step toward that objective. The UWIN code, an upwind, implicit Navier-Stokes computer program, has been applied to hypersonic exhaust plume/afterbody flow fields. The capability to solve entire vehicle geometries at hypersonic speeds, including an interacting exhaust plume, has been demonstrated for the first time. Comparison of the numerical results with available experimental data shows good agreement in all cases investigated. For moderately underexpanded jets, afterbody forces were found to vary linearly with the nozzle exit pressure, and increasing the exit pressure produced additional nose-down pitching moment. Coupling a species continuity equation to the UWIN code enabled calculations indicating that exhaust gases with low isentropic exponents (gamma) contribute larger afterbody forces than high-gamma exhaust gases. Moderately underexpanded jets, which remain attached to unswept afterbodies, underwent streamwise separation on upswept afterbodies. Highly underexpanded jets produced altogether different flow patterns, however. The highly underexpanded jet creates a strong plume shock, and the interaction of this shock with the afterbody was found to produce complicated patterns of crossflow separation. Finally, the effect of thrust vectoring on vehicle balance has been shown to alter dramatically the vehicle pitching moment.

Edwards, Thomas Alan

1988-01-01

140

Exhaust Emissions from a Passenger Car Equipped With a DuPont Exhaust Emission Control System Using 1975 Test Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exhaust emission characteristics of a vehicle equipped with a DuPont exhaust emission control system were measured to provide a comparison with other low emission vehicles having the potential for meeting proposed 1975 Federal standards. The vehicle u...

J. C. Thomson

1970-01-01

141

Diesel engine exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

According to the results of tests carried out on monorail diesel engines in the Federal Republic of Germany, nitrogen oxides, rather than carbon monoxide, are the most dangerous components of exhaust emissions, and require larger volumes of air to dilute them. The harmful gas concentrations which are measured and the maximum permissible concentrations of the gases exhausted by diesel engines determine the necessary amounts of air by which the fumes are diluted. Opinions on maximum permissible values, especially in the case of nitrogen oxides, and the methods used for determining the amount of air necessary for dilution, vary from country to country. In general, though, only diesel engines which produce extremely small amounts of harmful gases should be used underground. If a diesel engine draws in air containing methane, the concentration of harmful gases emitted in the exhaust fumes varies according to methane content, engine speed, and engine load.

Not Available

1980-01-01

142

Acute inhalation toxicity of diesel fuels, MIL-F-46162-Referee Grade I(Arctic) and MIL-F-46162 Referee Grade II(regular), used in Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke Systems (VEESS). Technical report, February-May 1980  

SciTech Connect

Toxic studies were conducted with rats and guinea pigs to determine acute effects from single exposures to M60A1 tank-generated MIL-F-46162-Referee (Arctic) and (Regular) Grade diesel-fuel smoke and/or exhaust clouds under static airflow conditions. Emissions were disseminated with the Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke System (VEESS) and exposure periods ranged from 15-180 min in the case of the smoke/exhaust emissions and 60-180 min with the exhausts. At attempted airborne concentrations of 10-12 mg (10,000-12,000 mg/cu m) of the Arctic and Regular Grade diesel fuel smoke/exhaust mixtures and 0.07 mg/1 (70 mg/cu m) of the exhausts; toxic signs (excluding death) were seen after 15- and 60-min exposures to the Arctic-grade diesel fuel smoke/exhaust emissions and death was observed at the 180-min exposures. The exhaust emissions from the same fuel caused toxic signs including death after 60- to 180-min exposures. Regular-grade diesel-fuel smoke/exhaust caused toxic signs and death in animals after 60- to 180-min exposures, while the exhaust clouds from the same fuel caused toxic signs at 60 min and toxic signs including death at 180 min. Significant respiratory changes are evidenced by pulmonary function tests were observed after 15-min exposures to the smoke/exhaust emissions from either type of Referee Grade diesel fuel and similar effects were seen after 60-min exposures to the exhausts.

Callahan, J.F.; Crouse, C.L.; Affleck, G.E.; Farrand, R.L.; Dorsey, R.W.

1983-06-01

143

Methods of characterizing the distribution of exhaust emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles in the U.S. fleet.  

PubMed

Mobile sources significantly contribute to ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM). Source apportionment studies for PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) indicate that mobile sources can be responsible for over half of the ambient PM measured in an urban area. Recent source apportionment studies attempted to differentiate between contributions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicle combustion. Several source apportionment studies conducted in the United States suggested that gasoline combustion from mobile sources contributed more to ambient PM than diesel combustion. However, existing emission inventories for the United States indicated that diesels contribute more than gasoline vehicles to ambient PM concentrations. A comprehensive testing program was initiated in the Kansas City metropolitan area to measure PM emissions in the light-duty, gasoline-powered, on-road mobile source fleet to provide data for PM inventory and emissions modeling. The vehicle recruitment design produced a sample that could represent the regional fleet, and by extension, the national fleet. All vehicles were recruited from a stratified sample on the basis of vehicle class (car, truck) and model-year group. The pool of available vehicles was drawn primarily from a sample of vehicle owners designed to represent the selected demographic and geographic characteristics of the Kansas City population. Emissions testing utilized a portable, light-duty chassis dynamometer with vehicles tested using the LA-92 driving cycle, on-board emissions measurement systems, and remote sensing devices. Particulate mass emissions were the focus of the study, with continuous and integrated samples collected. In addition, sample analyses included criteria gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons), air toxics (speciated volatile organic compounds), and PM constituents (elemental/organic carbon, metals, semi-volatile organic compounds). Results indicated that PM emissions from the in-use fleet varied by up to 3 orders of magnitude, with emissions generally increasing for older model-year vehicles. The study also identified a strong influence of ambient temperature on vehicle PM mass emissions, with rates increasing with decreasing temperatures. PMID:21141431

Fulper, Carl R; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, Jim; Fujit, Eric M; Scarbro, Carl; Crews, William S; Snow, Richard; Gabele, Peter; Santos, Robert; Tierney, Eugene; Cantrell, Bruce

2010-11-01

144

Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

2011-06-01

145

Emission Factors for High-Emitting Vehicles Based on On-Road Measurements of Individual Vehicle Exhaust with a Mobile Measurement Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel-based emission factors for 143 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and 93 heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) were measured in Wilmington, CA using a zero-emission mobile measurement platform (MMP). The frequency distributions of emission factors of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particle mass with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) varied widely, whereas the average of the individual vehicle emission

Seong Suk Park; Kathleen Kozawa; Scott Fruin; Steve Mara; Ying-Kuang Hsu; Chris Jakober; Arthur Winer; Jorn Herner

2011-01-01

146

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

147

Comparison of mutagenicity and calf thymus DNA adducts formed by the particulate and semivolatile fractions of vehicle exhausts.  

PubMed

In this study we compared the ability of extractable organic material from particulate and semivolatile fractions of gasoline emission to induce mutations in bacteria and form adducts with calf thymus (CT) DNA with corresponding data obtained from diesel exhaust. Exhaust particles from gasoline-powered passenger cars were collected on filters and semivolatile compounds were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF). The mutagenicity of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) was determined in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and the DNA binding of aromatic compounds in the extracts was assessed by in vitro incubations with CT DNA and rat liver S9 (oxidative activation) or xanthine oxidase (reductive activation) followed by butanol-enhanced (32)P-postlabeling analysis. Semivolatile fractions of gasoline emission collected on PUF formed more CT DNA adducts than filter extracts under all reaction conditions, but showed a lower mutagenic potential than the corresponding particulate samples. This suggests that the capacity of PUF to collect exhaust particle-derived compounds and/or the efficiency of xanthine oxidase and enzymes in the rat liver S9 to activate these compounds to DNA binding metabolites was higher than expected. Gasoline extracts, benzo[a]pyrene and diesel particulate matter (SRM 1650) formed more S9-mediated DNA adducts as their dose increased, although a linear dose-response was not observed for the gasoline exhausts. Lower concentrations of gasoline and diesel extracts bound to DNA with greater efficiency than did 8-fold higher doses, suggesting complex interactions and/or an inhibition of S9 enzyme activities by the high doses. Diesel extracts formed higher levels of adducts than gasoline extracts, especially with the reductive activation system, suggesting that diesel extracts contain high levels of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs). The higher direct-acting Salmonella mutagenicity in diesel extracts in comparison with gasoline extracts is consistent with diesel extracts containing higher concentrations of nitro-PAHs. The results of this study indicate that diesel extracts are more mutagenic and form more DNA adducts than gasoline extracts and that the effects of extract dose on DNA adduct formation are complex. PMID:12874810

Pohjola, Sanna K; Lappi, Maija; Honkanen, Markku; Savela, Kirsti

2003-01-01

148

Exhaust-System Leak Test: Quantitative Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quantitative, periodic motor vehicle safety-inspection test for determining the leakage rate of engine exhaust from an automotive exhaust system was investigated. Two technical approaches were evaluated, and the better one was selected for development o...

E. C. Klaubert

1974-01-01

149

Development of a Simple Field Test for Vehicle Exhaust to Detect Illicit Use of Dyed Diesel Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The use of tax-free dyed fuel on public highways in the United States provides a convenient way of evading taxes. Current enforcement involves visual inspection for the red azo dye added to the fuel to designate its tax-free status. This approach has shortcomings such as the invasive nature of the tests and/or various deceptive tactics applied by tax evaders. A test designed to detect dyed fuel use by analyzing the exhaust would circumvent these shortcomings. This paper describes the development of a simple color spot test designed to detect the use of tax-free (dyed) diesel fuel by analyzing the engine exhaust. Development first investigated the combustion products of C.I. Solvent Red 164 (the azo dye formulation used in the United States to tag tax-free fuel). A variety of aryl amines were identified as characteristic molecular remnants that appear to survive combustion. A number of microanalytical color tests specific for aryl amines were then investigated. One test based on the use of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde seemed particularly applicable and was used in a proof-of-principle experiment. The 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde color spot test was able to clearly distinguish between engines burning regular and dyed diesel fuel. Further development will refine this color spot test to provide an easy-to-use field test for Internal Revenue Service Field Compliance specialists.

Harvey, Scott D.; Wright, Bob W.

2011-10-30

150

A constant-volume rapid exhaust dilution system for motor vehicle particulate matter number and mass measurements.  

PubMed

An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. PMID:14604329

Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

2003-10-01

151

Rocket motor exhaust products generated by the space shuttle vehicle during its launch phase (1976 design data)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.

Bowyer, J. M.

1977-01-01

152

The carbon monoxide levels in automobile exhaust. A case study in Chidambaram town.  

PubMed

The exhaust gases from automobiles constitute about 75% of air pollution. Among the various pollutants emitted from vehicles, CO is the primary pollutant and very toxic one. The CO monitor method was used to measure the CO level in Chidambaram town. From the study, it is evident that the CO level is closely related to the density of motor vehicles plying on the roads. With increase in number of motor vehicles CO level also increases, which pollutes the roadside environment severely in future. PMID:12395517

Ramamurthy, N; Thirumarran, M

2001-10-01

153

Near-vent measurements of volcanic gases and aerosols with multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic phenomena occurring on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere are almost always distributed over a volume or area that changes progressively over time (e.g., explosive eruption plumes, lava flows, floods, toxic materials releases, wildfires). 'Snapshot' views of such phenomena traditionally capture a small part of the area or volume of the event in successive time slices. Such time series are fundamentally limited in providing accurate boundary conditions for models of such processes, or even to create descriptions or observations at spatial scales relevant to the characteristic dimensions of the process. High spatial resolution (e.g., ~1-3m/pixel) imaging views of such spatially extended phenomena that capture the entire extent of the event are not usually possible with a single low altitude aircraft, for instance. Synoptic satellite and high altitude airborne views are often at spatial resolutions that an order of magnitude coarser. Airborne in situ sampling faces a similar problem in that point measurements are acquired along a flight line in a time-series. Source conditions changing at timescales shorter than an airborne sortie interval (typical for most dynamic phenomena) render such flight line observations incomplete. The ability to capture hi-spatial resolution, synchronous, full volume or area data over dynamically evolving (possibly hazardous) features (e.g., volcanic plumes, air pollution layers, oil slicks, wildfires) requires a distributed 2D or 3D mesh of observation platforms. Small (e.g., <25kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology that can provide distributed formations or networks of observation platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured to encompass areas or volumes of interest for imaging or other kinds of in situ observations (e.g., SO2 or CO2 sampling of volcanic gas emissions). Such data are crucial for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed concentration retrievals (e.g., from multi/hyperspectral imaging platforms) or for transport modeling based on data from such platforms. For instance, for volcanic plumes, in situ cal/val data are rare to non-existent. Nevertheless, such data were in high demand during the airborne volcanic ash crisis that shut down European airspace for weeks at a time after the early 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland. Particularly for low altitude applications, small UAVs, such as the Aerovironment-built Dragon Eye (~2.5kg gross weight) or its equivalent, with small payloads (e.g., 0.5-1kg), can be economically deployed in formations or 'swarms' to provide simultaneous multiple observations over an areally or volumetrically distributed temporally evolving feature, such as a lava flow or a volcanic plume. We discuss our recent experiences and challenges in the use of such small platforms, the challenges in providing low mass sensors for such aircraft, and future applications for self-organizing airborne sensor networks. This work was carried out, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology.

Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Schumann, J. M.

2013-12-01

154

Emission factors for high-emitting vehicles based on on-road measurements of individual vehicle exhaust with a mobile measurement platform.  

PubMed

Fuel-based emission factors for 143 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and 93 heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) were measured in Wilmington, CA using a zero-emission mobile measurement platform (MMP). The frequency distributions of emission factors of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particle mass with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 microm (PM2.5) varied widely, whereas the average of the individual vehicle emission factors were comparable to those reported in previous tunnel and remote sensing studies as well as the predictions by Emission Factors (EMFAC) 2007 mobile source emission model for Los Angeles County. Variation in emissions due to different driving modes (idle, low- and high-speed acceleration, low- and high-speed cruise) was found to be relatively small in comparison to intervehicle variability and did not appear to interfere with the identification of high emitters, defined as the vehicles whose emissions were more than 5 times the fleet-average values. Using this definition, approximately 5% of the LDGVs and HDDTs measured were high emitters. Among the 143 LDGVs, the average emission factors of NO(x), black carbon (BC), PM2.5, and ultrafine particle (UFP) would be reduced by 34%, 39%, 44%, and 31%, respectively, by removing the highest 5% of emitting vehicles, whereas CO emission factor would be reduced by 50%. The emission distributions of the 93 HDDTs measured were even more skewed: approximately half of the NO(x) and CO fleet-average emission factors and more than 60% of PM2.5, UFP, and BC fleet-average emission factors would be reduced by eliminating the highest-emitting 5% HDDTs. Furthermore, high emissions of BC, PM2.5, and NO(x) tended to cluster among the same vehicles. PMID:22070037

Park, Seong Suk; Kozawa, Kathleen; Fruin, Scott; Mara, Steve; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Jakober, Chris; Winer, Arthur; Herner, Jorn

2011-10-01

155

Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

Irby, James F.; And Others

156

Vehicle non-exhaust emissions from the tyre-road interface - effect of stud properties, traction sanding and resuspension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Northern cities respirable street dust emission levels (PM 10) are especially high during spring. The spring time dust has been observed to cause health effects as well as discomfort among citizens. Major sources of the dust are the abrasion products from the pavement and traction sand aggregates that are formed due to the motion of the tyre. We studied the formation of respirable abrasion particles in the tyre-road interface due to tyre studs and traction sanding by a mobile laboratory vehicle Sniffer. The measurements were preformed on a test track, where the influence of varying stud weight and stud number per tyre on PM 10 emissions was studied. Studded tyres resulted in higher emission levels than studless tyres especially with speeds 50 km h -1 and higher; however, by using light weight studs, which approximately halves the weight of studs, or by reducing the number of studs per tyre to half, the emission levels decreased by approximately half. Additionally measurements were done with and without traction sand coverage on the pavement of a public road. After traction sanding the emission levels were not affected by tyre type but by formation and suspension of traction sand related dust from the road surface. The emissions after traction sanding decreased as a function of time as passing vehicles' motion shifted the sand grains away from the areas with most tyre-road contact.

Kupiainen, Kaarle J.; Pirjola, Liisa

2011-08-01

157

Simulation and measurement of carbon dioxide exhaust emissions using an optical-fibre-based mid-infrared point sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel optical-fibre-based sensor for measurement of CO2 gas emission concentrations in exhaust systems of a motor vehicle is reported. The sensing principle is based on open-path direct absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range. The sensor system comprises of low cost and compact mid-infrared components, which make it suitable for insertion into the exhaust system of automotive vehicles. The sensor utilizes a calcium fluoride CaF2 narrow band pass (NBP) filter for detection of CO2 gas without cross-sensitivity to other gases present in the exhaust system. Furthermore, it can be integrated into the mechanical and electronic interface systems of existing vehicles without any problems.

Muda, Razali; Dooly, Gerard; Clifford, John; Mulrooney, Jim; Flavia, Gili; Merlone-Borla, Edoardo; Chambers, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Lewis, Elfed

2009-05-01

158

Diesel exhaust particulate and organic vapor emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for controlling emissions of particulates and heavy organic vapors in the exhaust gases of diesel engines includes, in a preferred embodiment, a heat exchanger for cooling the engine exhaust gases below the condensation temperature of the organic vapors and their resultant adsorption onto the entrained particulates, and a particulate trap connected to receive the cooled gases from the

Mann

1982-01-01

159

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Trading Region Vehicle type Loaded vehicle weight Model year Fleet average NMOG Light-duty vehicles All 2001 and later 0.075 ...estimate the contributions of hybrid electric vehicles (or âHEVsâ) based on the...

2013-07-01

160

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an internal combustion engine having an intake passage provided therein with a throttle valve for controlling intake flow of air or an air-fuel mixture passing therethrough toward engine cylinders and an exhaust passage, an exhaust gas recirculation system comprises first means for conducting a portion of the exhaust gases from the exhaust passage into the intake passage downstream of

Higashi

1984-01-01

161

Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 ?g g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

162

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROCKET EXHAUST SCRUBBERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an engineering study and design of methods for scrubbing the exhaust of static-tested solid rockets. Pollutants of major concern were hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases. The best process for removing these gases was found to be a gas-atomize...

163

78 FR 34375 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...request (ICR), ``Exhaust Emissions of Light-duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...population for the project will include light-duty cars and trucks certified to...

2013-06-07

164

Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

165

Control of Workplace Diesel Exhaust Particulate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diesel engines are the most efficient internal combustion engines. The exhaust from these engines, however, has been linked to occupational cancers in workers who spend significant amounts of time near diesel vehicles or diesel machinery. Methods develope...

A. Farnoud A. J. Armendariz

2008-01-01

166

Sensor Modeling, Low-Complexity Fusion Algorithms, and Mixed-Signal IC Prototyping for Gas Measures in Low-Emission Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the detection of hydrogen leaks for safety warning systems in automotive applications and the measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration in exhaust gases of zero-emission vehicles. The presented approach is based on the development of accurate models (including nonlinearity and error sources of real building components) for all the system elements: sensors and acquisition chain. This methodology enables

Sergio Saponara; Esa Petri; Luca Fanucci; Pierangelo Terreni

2011-01-01

167

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-09-20

168

Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

169

Trafikavgasers effekter paa groedor och andra nyttovaexter i naerheten av vaegar. (Effect of vehicle exhausts on crops and other utility plants close to roads).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the present knowledge concerning the impact of automobile exhausts on plants and the research carried out at IVL in this field during the period 1988-1991. The investigations carried out at motorway E6 south of Gothenburg show: * th...

H. Pleijel A. Ahlfors L. Skaerby G. Pihl Karlsson A. Sjoedin

1993-01-01

170

Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Charcteristics of Diesel Vehicles: Test Results of a Prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 Cid (3.7-Liter) Automobile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a ...

R. A. Walter

1982-01-01

171

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

Walter, R. A.

1982-01-01

172

Exhausting Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fume hood: You know what it is, but have you ever used it? And if a safety issue arose, would you know what to do? Unfortunately, fume hoods are frequently included in a science room just for show. Little thought is often given to how they should be used or maintained. It is important for science teachers to understand and regularly inspect fume hoods in their classrooms and laboratories. In this article, the author discusses a few considerations for design, inspection, use, and maintenance of fume hoods in a science lab and classroom. Read on for an "exhaustive" look at this safety device!

Mandt, Douglas

2009-01-01

173

Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 2: Analysis of results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel investigation, employing a 1/8 scale model in an 11 foot transonic wind tunnel (Mach 0.4-1.4), was conducted to determine the jet effects of several exhaust nozzles on the aeropropulsive performance of a V/STOL fighter design. The force and pressure data show that significant differences in aeropropulsion performance can be expected by varying the exhaust nozzle type, jet area and deflection angle on an underwing nacelle installation. At unvectored conditions, the single expansion ramp nozzles show large performance gains relative to a circular nozzle installation. Additionally, a further drag reduction is realized when the nonaxisymmetric nozzle is vectored through a 10 degree deflection angle. The combined payoff of the vectored nonaxisymmetric nozzle over the baseline circular nozzle installation is equivalent to 25 percent of zero lift drag.

Schnell, W. C.

1982-01-01

174

40 CFR 600.112-78 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-78...ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy...Procedures § 600.112-78 Exhaust sample analysis. The...

2010-07-01

175

40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08...ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy...Procedures § 600.112-08 Exhaust sample analysis. The...

2010-07-01

176

Quasi non-intrusive sampling and analysis of gases associated with the boundary layer on the tethered satellite and similar supersonic and hypersonic research vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect that one candidate inlet, an assembly of capillary openings in a thin glass plate (a multichannel plate), might have on the overall sampling process is considered. The flow characteristics of the plate, under a variety of conditions of external pressure and mass flow, is evaluated. A review of capillary flow theory is presented with some development of the pertinent equations. The predicted mass flow will be compared to that determined perimentally to assess the effect that mass flow through one capillary might have upon a neighboring capillary. Mass spectrometric measurements of mixtures flowing through the multichannel plate (MCP) is also considered. In the first part of the experiments, the flow was in a direction normal to the surface of the plate. The experimental gases were Argon and mixtures of carbon dioxide in air. Ongoing experiments are discussed which are conducted with the flow parallel to the surface of the plate, a simulation of the kind of flow that a flight vehicle would experience.

Fishel, C.; Niederriter, S.; Brown, K. G.

1985-01-01

177

The Effects of Automotive Exhaust Gases on National Highway No. 26, in Osaka, Part 3, Supplementary (3-25) (Osaka Kokudo 26-go Sen Endo ni Okeru Jidosha Haishutsu Gasu Jintai Eikyo Chosa, Somo 3. Tsuieki Seiseki) (3-25).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An environmental survey and a survey of the effects of highway exhaust emissions on human beings was conducted from September through October, 1959. In addition, a supplementary survey was performed in September and October, 1960. This covered a total of ...

K. Mizuhara H. Hashimoto A. Miyagawa H. Muranaka H. Yoshida

1971-01-01

178

Greenhouse Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds present in Earth's atmosphere behave as 'greenhouse gases'. These are gases ... direct sunlight (relative shortwave energy) to reach the Earth's surface unimpeded. As the shortwave energy (that in ...

179

Manure Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... gases of most concern are ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Other gases of concern include methane and carbon ... Since most of these gases in particular hydrogen sulfide are heavier-than-air, they tend to settle ...

180

Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust system for an engine of a motorcycle is disclosed having catalytic and silencing mufflers arranged in adjacent side -by-side series flow relationship, the catalytic muffler extending rearwardly of the motorcycle, and, adjacent its rear end, being interconnected with the silencing muffler, the silencing muffler including plural expansion chambers which are interconnected in flow reversal relationship for gases to be exhausted rearwardly of the motorcycle.

Ikenoya, Y.; Otani, J.

1982-10-19

181

Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated aftertreatment, high-molecular-weight fuel components and unburned lubricant were emitted at higher rates than in vehicles in good repair, with functioning emissions systems. Light-duty gasoline, medium-duty diesel, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles produced more particles with fresh oil than with aged oil. The opposite trend was observed in light- and medium-duty high PM emitters. This effect was not readily apparent with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, perhaps because the lubricant represented a much smaller fraction of the total PM in those trucks.

Not Available

2012-03-01

182

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle highway carbon-related exhaust emissions...

2010-07-01

183

Injection of Nuclear Rocket Engine Exhaust into Deep Unsaturated Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear rocket engine technology is being considered as a means of interplanetary vehicle propulsion for a manned mission to Mars. To achieve this, a test and development facility must be constructed to safely run nuclear engines. The testing of nuclear engines in the 1950's and 1960's was accomplished by exhausting the engine gases into the atmosphere, a practice that is no longer acceptable. Injection into deep unsaturated zones of radioactive exhaust gases and water vapor associated with the testing of nuclear rocket engines is being considered as a way of sequestering radionuclides from the environment. Numerical simulations were conducted to determine the ability of an unsaturated zone with the hydraulic properties of Frenchman Flat alluvium at the Nevada Test Site to contain gas-phase radionuclides. Gas and water vapor were injected for two hours at rates of 14.5 kg s-1 and 15 kg s-1, respectively, in an interval between 100 and 430 m below the land surface into alluvium with an intrinsic permeability of 10-11 m2 and porosity of 0.35. The results show that during a test of an engine, radionuclides with at least greater than 10-year half-lives may reach the land surface within several years after injection. Radionuclide transport is primarily controlled by the upward pressure gradient from the point of injection to the lower (atmospheric) pressure boundary condition at the land surface. Radionuclides with half-lives on the order of days should undergo enough decay prior to reaching the land surface. A cooling water vapor injected into the unsaturated zone simultaneously with the exhaust gas will condense within several meters of the injection point and drain downward toward the water table. However, the nearly horizontal hydraulic groundwater gradient present in several of the basins at NTS should limit lateral migration of radionuclides away from the vicinity of injection.

Cooper, C. A.; Decker, D.

2008-05-01

184

Fast response exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) control for an automotive type internal combustion engine. It comprises: a gas induction passage connected to the engine intake manifold at one end, an EGR passage connected at one end to exhaust gases from the engine combustion chamber, the other end of the induction passage being bifurcated to form ambient air and EGR branch passages, means connecting the ambient air branch passage to ambient air, means connecting the EGR branch passage to the other end of the EGR passage whereby ambient air and EGR gases combine to form a gas charge inducted into the engine.

Wade, W.R.

1990-05-15

185

40 CFR Appendix Xv to Part 86 - Procedure for Determining an Acceptable Exhaust Regeneration Durability-Data Test Schedule for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exhaust Regeneration Durability-Data Test Schedule for Diesel Cycle Vehicles Equipped With Periodically Regenerating Trap Oxidizer...Exhaust Regeneration Durability-Data Test Schedule for Diesel Cycle Vehicles Equipped With Periodically Regenerating Trap...

2013-07-01

186

An experimental study of jet exhaust simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Afterbody drag predictions for jet aircraft are usually made experimentally with the jet exhaust flow simulated. The physical gas properties of the fluid used for the model jet exhaust can affect the accuracy of simulation of the airplane's jet exhaust plume. The effect of the accuracy of this simulation on afterbody drag was investigated by wind-tunnel tests with single engine model. In addition to unheated air as the exhaust gas, the decomposition products of three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were utilized. The air jet simulation consistently resulted in higher boattail drag than hydrogen peroxide simulation. The differences in drag for the various exhaust gases are attributed to different plume shapes and entrainment properties of the gases. The largest differences in drag due to exhaust gas properties were obtained for the combination of high transonic Mach numbers and high boattail angles. For these conditions, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a nonafterburning turbojet exhaust can result in an increase in afterbody amounting to 20 percent of the nonafterburning turbojet value.

Compton, W. B., III

1975-01-01

187

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

188

Assessing and predicting the exposures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies from vehicle engine exhausts to highway toll station workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was set out to assess the exposure levels of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their corresponding carcinogenic potencies for highway toll station workers associated with vehicle emissions. We collected 48, 35, and 33 personal PAH samples from booth attendants of the dayshift (08:00AM?16:00PM), nightshift (16:00PM?00:00AM), and late-nightshift (00:00AM?08:00AM), respectively. We found no significant difference

Perng-Jy Tsai; Tung-Sheng Shih; Hsiao-Lung Chen; Wen-Jhy Lee; Ching-Huang Lai; Saou-Hsing Liou

2004-01-01

189

Fume Hood Exhaust Re-entry Into a Chemistry Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rooftop air intakes are in close proximity to the fume hood exhaust vents on the roof of the attached chemistry buildings (Fulmer Hall and Fulmer Annex) at Washington State University. Complaints resulted from the apparent re-entry of hazardous and odorous exhaust vapors and gases returning into the building fresh air supplies. An atmospheric tracer study of the flow patterns

BRIAN K. LAMB; DAGMAR R. CRONN

1986-01-01

190

DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of a device that is capable of sampling gaseous emissions from automobiles. The device samples exhaust gases at a mass rate that is proportional to the total exhaust gas mass flow rate, which is measured using an ultrasonic vortex flowmeter. T...

191

Improved Exhaust Diffuser for Jet-Engine Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-altitude simulator reduced power requirements. Test cell uses its exhaust-capture duct only to remove gases from engine; cooling air evacuated through separate path by auxiliary suction system. This way, capture duct cross-sectional area kept close to exhaust jet area, leading to greatly improved recovery performance.

Parikh, P. G.; Sarohia, V. S.

1985-01-01

192

Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions--I. Plant-insect interactions.  

PubMed

The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon [BC], fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3-week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO(x). The feedback control system based on NO(x) concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO(x) as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. PMID:15093012

Viskari, E L; Surakka, J; Pasanen, P; Mirme, A; Kössi, S; Ruuskanen, J; Holopainen, J K

2000-01-01

193

Regenerable diesel exhaust filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas filter assembly is described for removing particulates from the exhaust gas of an engine, comprising, in combination: a housing having an inlet pipe and an outlet pipe and defining an exhaust gas flow path between the inlet pipe and the outlet pipe, the inlet pipe being coupled to the engine to receive exhaust gas therefrom and the

Adiletta

1993-01-01

194

A nonintrusive method for the measurement of infrared characteristics from engine exhaust plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonintrusive measurements of infrared characteristics from engine exhaust plume are required for emission control or target tracking, due to the advantage of online measurement without affecting the exhaust plume. Conventional nonintrusive measurement techniques, e.g. the passive Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrometry, lack prior knowledge of backgrounds and consume time to measure the complete infrared characteristics. Hence, an improved but simple nonintrusive method is proposed. Accordingly, a prototype system with a Mid-wave infrared imager has been developed and tested for the measurement of vehicle engine exhaust plume. Subsequently, the time-variant effective transmittance and emissivity is determined. Compared to the passive FTIR absorption spectrometry, this method incorporates a known background into the measurement and is more adequate for recording the rapidly changing exhaust plume radiation. Therefore, the accurate value of the transmittance and emissivity can be obtained. Further analysis reveals that the imager could be replaced with a dispersive spectrometer, which makes it feasible to acquire the absolute transmittance and emissivity with respect to wavelength. Thus, the concentration of specific toxic gases could be calculated following the radiance inversion technique.

Xiao, Xizhong; Wang, Yueming; Miao, Bin; Lang, Junwei; Wang, Shengwei; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jianyu

2013-12-01

195

High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve  

SciTech Connect

In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

2005-01-18

196

Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described.

Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

1980-02-01

197

40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...screen candidate vehicles for their exhaust THC emissions to place them within the emitter...vehicles may be tested for their exhaust THC emissions using the Federal test procedure...vehicles may be screened for their exhaust THC emissions with the IM240 short test...

2013-07-01

198

Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

1978-01-01

199

Environment hazard estimates. [rocket exhaust gas diffusion models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emission into the atmosphere of aerospace vehicle exhaust effluents and by-products is considered by using atmospheric diffusion models to calculate downwind concentrations and dosages from various engine and solid rocket booster (SRB) exhaust by-products. A major effort is being made to gather detailed data on the chemical reactions that take place between the exhaust effluents and the atmosphere. Basic diffusion estimation formulas consider normal exhaust releases, abnormal releases, leaks, and inadvertent spills. Cloud rise formulas for use in source identification are included and meteorological inputs covered.

Kaufman, J. W.; Stephens, J. B.; Hill, C. K.; Susko, M.

1973-01-01

200

Greenhouse Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... were not for naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the Earth would be too cold to support life as ... the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the Earth would be about -2°F rather than the ...

201

Developing a "Research Test Bed" to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's "clean and green" image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water & Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal "vehicle emissions research environment" supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

Cox, Stephen J.

2012-05-01

202

Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.  

PubMed

For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were not detectable. PMID:16265462

Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

2006-03-01

203

Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

2012-06-01

204

OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVELY FUELED VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Smog chamber tests were conducted using automobile exhaust gas generated during emission tests with a group of alternatively fueled vehicles. he tests were designed to evaluate the photochemical characteristics of organic emissions from vehicles operating on compressed natural ga...

205

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

206

40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...group. (1) Each vehicle with an exhaust total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions rate which is less than or equal to twice the applicable...the normal emitter group. (2) Each vehicle with an exhaust THC emissions rate which is greater than two times the...

2013-07-01

207

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES USING METHANOL AND METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDED FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exhaust and evaporative emissions were examined from vehicles fueled with methanol or a gasoline-methanol blend. Regulated automobile pollutants, as well as detailed hydrocarbons, methanol, and aldehydes were measured, and exhaust emission trends were obtained for vehicle operati...

208

Laser Interaction with Jet Engine Exhaust Induced Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-based missile-defence systems are being increasingly employed on aircraft to provide protection when attacked by optically-guided weapons. In some engagements the laser beam must pass through the exhaust gases of the aircraft. To predict the increase in laser beam divergence and jitter of the laser beam direction, an understanding of the exhaust gas structure and its influence is required. A

W. M. Isterling; L. J. Cox; M. Dubovinsky; D. H. Titterton; T. Porter

209

Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust  

DOEpatents

A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

Cheng, Dah Y. (Palo Alto, CA)

1982-01-01

210

Duplex tab exhaust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

2012-01-01

211

Insulated exhaust cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a device for insulating one or more pipes in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a layer of insulating material circumscribingly engaging the outer surface of the exhaust pipe, a flexible metal sleeve defining an elongated passageway having a diameter, a means for retaining the insulating material and the metal sleeve in stationary

1992-01-01

212

Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

Kammel, R.A.

1992-06-16

213

Atmospheric gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which gases make up the atmosphere? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the gaseous components of the atmosphere. Students explore the main gases of the atmosphere using a pop-up pie chart. Descriptions of the gases and their percentages in the atmosphere are provided. Students read about water vapor in the atmosphere, and an animation shows a simplified process of precipitation. A pop-up window explains the effects of dust on the atmosphere, and a photograph shows how large amounts of dust in the atmosphere create the reds and oranges displayed in sunsets. Finally, ozone is introduced to students as a necessary component of human life on Earth. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

214

Automobile exhaust gas cleaner  

SciTech Connect

A cleaner for exhaust gas is described comprising: first and second perforated baffle means supported in respective first and second housings, the first housing having an exhaust gas inlet, the second housing having an exhaust gas outlet, and the first housing being situated below the second housing and connected thereto to permit the flow of exhaust gas upwardly from the first housing to the second housing, means for spraying cleaning liquid onto the first perforated baffle means and for permitting the gas to permeate therethrough and then to flow downwardly around means for deflecting the gas before moving upwardly to the second housing, the sprayed liquid falling downwardly into sump means for receiving the sprayed liquid, means for spraying cleaning liquid onto the second perforated baffle means and for permitting the gas to permeate therethrough, the sprayed liquid falling downwardly into the sump means, and means for filtering pollutants from the exhaust gas.

Pickering, J.J.

1989-04-18

215

Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.  

PubMed

The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82%, respectively. PMID:19728485

Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

2009-08-01

216

Suicidal carbon monoxide inhalation of exhaust fumes. Investigation of cases  

SciTech Connect

The inhalation of automobile exhaust gases is a relatively frequent suicidal method. Two such cases of special interest to forensic pathology and toxicology have been introduced. In case 1, a suicide note disclosed the victim's mental state, the inside conditions of the car, and toxic effects of automobile exhaust. In case 2, a reconstruction experiment has revealed important factors for the investigation of the scene, such as the size of a vinyl hose, the conditions of connecting site of the hose with the exhaust pipe, etc.

Tsunenari, S.; Yonemitsu, K.; Kanda, M.; Yoshida, S.

1985-09-01

217

Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

2013-12-01

218

Compressed air propulsion system for a vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compressed air propulsion system for a vehicle is described which consists of: an engine including cylinders reciprocatingly receiving therein a respective plurality of pistons, and an exhaust means connected to the cylinders, the engine drivingly connected to an axle of the vehicle to propel the vehicle; a transaxle operatively mounted on and rotatably driven by the vehicle; air compressing

Johnson

1986-01-01

219

Exhaust gas recirculation system for diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation control system calculates a target EGR ratio value based upon engine operating parameters and maintains the EGR ratio at the target EGR ratio value. Each time the vehicle travels a predetermined distance, the control system calculates an actual EGR ratio value and corrects the target EGR ratio value to reduce a deviation between the target and actual EGR ratio values to zero.

Masaki, K.; Yasuhara, S.

1984-02-28

220

Total requirements of energy and greenhouse gases for Australian transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to fuels, passenger and freight transport require vehicles and infrastructure. As with fuels, the provision of goods and services that are needed for the operation of transport involves the consumption of energy and the emission of greenhouse gases. The energy consumed and greenhouse gases emitted due to fuel use by vehicles are referred to as direct requirements, while

Manfred Lenzen

1999-01-01

221

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

222

Atmospheric scavenging exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

1977-01-01

223

40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the CO and CO2...

2013-07-01

224

Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners engage in a radiating heat activity and an activity that measures temperature in models with and without greenhouse gases. Learners will draw conclusions about the effect of greenhouse gases on temperature and on human life and kinesthetically model the absorbing and re-radiation of heat. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 3 in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase studentsâ awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

225

Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the Earth and the rest of the inner solar were made by collecting the solids, to the rather efficient exclusion of the gases. In this grand separation the noble gases, because they are noble, were partitioned strongly into the gas phase. The resultant generalization is that the noble gases are very scarce in the materials of the inner solar system, whence their common synonym "rare gases."This scarcity is probably the most important single feature to remember about noble-gas cosmochemistry. As illustration of the absolute quantities, for example, a meteorite that contains xenon at a concentration of order 10 -10 cm3STP g -1 (4×10-15 mol g-1) would be considered relatively rich in xenon. Yet this is only 0.6 ppt (part per trillion, fractional abundance 10-12) by mass. In most circumstances, an element would be considered efficiently excluded from some sample if its abundance, relative to cosmic proportions to some convenient reference element, were depleted by "several" orders of magnitude. But a noble gas would be considered to be present in quite high concentration if it were depleted by only four or five orders of magnitude (in the example above, 10-10 cm3STP g-1 of xenon corresponds to depletion by seven orders of magnitude), and one not uncommonly encounters noble-gas depletion of more than 10 orders of magnitude.The second most important feature to note about noble-gas cosmochemistry is that while a good deal of the attention given to noble gases really is about chemistry, traditionally a good deal of attention is also devoted to nuclear phenomena, much more so than for most other elements. This feature is a corollary of the first feature noted above, namely scarcity. A variety of nuclear transmutation processes - decay of natural radionuclides and energetic particle reactions - lead to the production of new nuclei that are often new elements. Most commonly, the quantity of new nuclei originating in nuclear transmutation is very small compared to the quantity already present in the sample in question,

Podosek, F. A.

2003-12-01

226

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99...the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks §...

2011-07-01

227

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99...the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks §...

2012-07-01

228

PHYSIOLOGICAL, CELLULAR, AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust is a major source of pollution especially in urban areas. The contribution of the diesel exhaust particles and gases to increases in deaths, asthma symptoms, lung infections, and other health effects is unclear. This study will examine the lung, blood, heart, and o...

229

Markers of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust and Cigarette Smoke in Railroad Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of combustion gases, vapors and particles, and personal exposure can be estimated indirectly only. Quantitative estimates of exposure were developed for thirteen job groups in a large epidemiologic study of mortality among railroad workers. Three possible markers of exhaust exposure were developed. The first index was the concentration of respirable particles because this was

S. KATHARINE HAMMOND; THOMAS J. SMITH; SUSAN R. WOSKIE; BRIAN P. LEADERER; NANCY BETTINGER

1988-01-01

230

Reduction of NO in the exhaust gas by reaction with N radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

N atoms can serve as a reducing agent for NO in the exhaust gases from fossil fuel power plants. In order to investigate the reduction of NO, synthetic exhaust gas was plasma treated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) (direct treatment) as well as treated by adding nitrogen atoms generated in a pure nitrogen DBD (remote treatment). A DBD with

F. Leipold; A. Fateev; Y. Kusano; B. Stenum; H. Bindslev

2006-01-01

231

Laboratory and Field Testing of the M1 Exhaust Deflector with Pintle Shield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army is currently producing and testing a prototype exhaust deflector for M1 series tanks to be used during M1 to M1 towing operations. The deflector attaches to the engine exhaust grille and directs gases upward to prevent heat damage to the tow...

R. C. Gaereminck M. A. Cryderman

1991-01-01

232

Application of dielectric barrier discharge in the removal of NOx from diesel exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of Non-thermal plasma for gas cleaning is gaining prominence in recent years, which can effectively remove NOx and other exhaust gases simultaneously. As the present researches are mostly adopting simulation gas for the investigation, this paper employed the NOx from the actual diesel exhaust as the investigated subject. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of voltage, the diameter of

B. X. Du; H. J. Liu; X. H. Wang; K. F. Wang

2009-01-01

233

Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept

Martyn V. Twigg

2005-01-01

234

ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

Keller, C.M.

1997-07-29

235

Lethal methemoglobinemia and automobile exhaust inhalation.  

PubMed

Inhalation of automobile exhaust gas often leads to death by CO intoxication. In some cases the measured carbon monoxide hemoglobin saturation level (COHb) is considerably below what is considered to be lethal. The death in such cases has been attributed to a combination of a high CO2 and a low O2 tension. In a recent case the deceased was found dead in a car equipped with a catalytic converter, with a hose leading exhaust from the engine to the interior of the car. Analysis revealed a moderately elevated COHb and a high methemoglobin saturation level (MetHb) in peripheral blood. No ethanol, narcotics or drugs were detected. Reports mentioning MetHb or methemoglobinemia in post-mortem cases are surprisingly scarce, and very few have related exhaust gas deaths to methemoglobinemia. High-degree methemoglobinemia causes serious tissue hypoxia leading to unconsciousness, arrhythmia and death. The existing literature in this field and the knowledge that exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) that by inhalation and absorption can result in severe methemoglobinemia, led us to postulate that this death could possibly be attributed to a combination of methemoglobinemia and a moderately high COHb concentration. PMID:19261402

Vevelstad, Merete; Morild, Inge

2009-05-30

236

Electron beam treatment of exhaust gas with high NOx concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulated exhaust gases with a high NOx concentration, ranging from 200 to 1700 ppmv, were irradiated by an electron beam from an accelerator. In the first part of this study, only exhaust gases were treated. Low NOx removal efficiencies were obtained for high NOx concentrations, even with high irradiation doses applied. In the second part of study, gaseous ammonia or/and vapor ethanol were added to the exhaust gas before its inlet to the plasma reactor. These additions significantly enhanced the NOx removal efficiency. The synergistic effect of high SO2 concentration on NOx removal was observed. The combination of electron beam treatment with the introduction of the above additions and with the performance of irradiation under optimal parameters ensured high NOx removal efficiency without the application of a solid-state catalyst.

Licki, Janusz; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Pawelec, Andrzej; Zimek, Zbigniew; Witman, Sylwia

2014-05-01

237

Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

1938-01-01

238

Bag filter for cleaning gases after electric arc steel-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a large capacity bag filter for cleaning gases of electric arc steel-melting furnaces from highly dispersed dust particles. A sketch of the filter is provided and its technical characteristics are listed. Tests with the filter showed that in the process of cleaning the steel-melting shop exhaust gases, the dust content of gases at the filter exit is

I. K. Goryachev; V. P. Korsakov; A. D. Novikov

1987-01-01

239

Exhaust gas recirculator  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust pipe, an intake manifold and a carburetor throttle valve. The exhaust gas recirculator comprises an egr passage which makes the exhaust pipe communicate with the intake manifold, an egr controlling valve and an egr valve respectively arranged in the upper and lower portions of the egr passage. The egr valve operates in association with the carburetor throttle valve for metering the flow of egr gas. The egr controlling valve is separated by a diaphragm into an egr gas chamber communicating with the egr passage between the egr controlling valve and the egr valve and a negative pressure chamber communicating with the intake manifold. The negative pressure chamber contains a compression spring, and the diaphragm is connected with a valve member through a rod upon which is disposed a stopper to serve as a different seal in place of the valve member to close off the exhaust gas passage, which valve member and stopper are constructed to be opened and closed by pressure difference between the egr gas chamber and the negative pressure chamber and by elastic force of the compression spring. The egr controlling valve functions to control the pressure difference around the egr valve to be constant.

Suda, K.

1983-01-04

240

Polynuclear Aromatic Content of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first year's effort was concentrated on validation of the sample collection and analytical techniques and a survey of the PNA content of U.S. diesel fuels. A collection system consisting of a precooler, a glass fiber particulate filter, and a Chromoso...

R. S. Spindt

1974-01-01

241

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

An engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system is provided in which a sonic flow EGR valve is moved to open positions to establish a different constant rate of flow at each open position of the EGR valve in response to air pressure acting on a servo means secured to the valve, the air pressure force being controlled by changes in a control vacuum opposing the air pressure force and modified by an air bleed device as a function of changes in engine exhaust gas backpressure levels, to provide an EGR valve movement that varies essentially in proportion to changes in engine air flow.

Rachedi, S.H.

1983-08-30

242

Handbook of infrared radiation from combustion gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The treatment of radiant emission and absorption by combustion gases are discussed. Typical applications include: (1) rocket combustion chambers and exhausts, (2) turbojet engines and exhausts, and (3) industrial furnaces. Some mention is made of radiant heat transfer problems in planetary atmospheres, in stellar atmospheres, and in reentry plasmas. Particular consideration is given to the temperature range from 500K to 3000K and the pressure range from 0.001 atmosphere to 30 atmospheres. Strong emphasis is given to the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen, specifically to carbon dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxide. In addition, species such as HF, HC1, CN, OH, and NO are treated.

Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Reardon, J. E.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Goulard, R. (editor)

1973-01-01

243

Exhaust assembly for a high speed civil transport aircraft engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust assembly for an aircraft gas turbine engine including a core engine having an outlet for discharging exhaust gases. It comprises: a casing having an inlet for receiving the exhaust gases from the core engine outlet; a variable area converging-diverging CD nozzle attached to the casing and including a first throat having a flow area A[sub 8] outlet having a flow area A[sub 9] for channeling the exhaust gases the CD nozzle further including: a plurality of spaced apart primary flaps defining therebetween a converging channel; a plurality of spaced apart secondary flaps defining therebetween a diverging channel; a plurality of space dapart retractable chutes; means for cahnneling air along aft facing surfaces of the chutes into siad CD nozzle; and wherein each of the chutes has a generally U-shaped trailing edge including first and second transversely spaced apart legs, a base extending between the legs at radially inner ends thereof, and a top opening extending between the legs at radially outer ends thereof.thereof.

Giffin, R.G.; Wolf, J.P.; Hilse, M.A.

1992-10-13

244

Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

2013-01-01

245

Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

1999-01-01

246

Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

1999-01-01

247

Simple vacuum pump exhaust filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple vacuum pump exhaust filter based upon an automotive air cleaner has been constructed and tested. The major virtues of the filter system are ease of coupling to an external exhaust and the availability of filter elements.

Richard A. Forman; Harvey D. Kratz

1984-01-01

248

Results of an investigation of jet plume effects on an 0.010-scale model (75-OTS) of the space shuttle integrated vehicle in the 9 x 7-foot leg of the NASA/Ames unitary wind tunnel (IA82B), volume 1. [an exhaust flow simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The base pressure environment was investigated for the first and second stage mated vehicle in a supersonic flow field from Mach 1.55 through 2.20 with simulated rocket engine exhaust plumes. The pressure environment was investigated for the orbiter at various vent port locations at these same freestream conditions. The Mach number environment around the base of the model with rocket plumes simulated was examined. Data were obtained at angles of attack from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero yaw, and at yaw angles from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero angle of attack, with rocket plume sizes varying from smaller than nominal to much greater than nominal. Failed orbiter engine data were also obtained. Elevon hinge moments and wing panel load data were obtained during all runs. Photographs of the tested configurations are shown.

Hawthorne, P. J.

1976-01-01

249

Results of an investigation of jet plume effects on a 0.010-scale model (75-OTS) of the space shuttle integrated vehicle in the 8 x 7-foot leg of the NASA/Ames unitary wind tunnel (IA82C), volume 1. [(an exhaust flow simulation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary test objective was to define the base pressure environment of the first and second stage mated vehicle in a supersonic flow field from Mach 2.60 through 3.50 with simulated rocket engine exhaust plumes. The secondary objective was to obtain the pressure environment of the Orbiter at various vent port locations at these same freestream conditions. Data were obtained at angles of attack from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero yaw, and at yaw angles from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero angle of attack, with rocket plume sizes varying from smaller than nominal to much greater than nominal. Failed Orbiter engine data were also obtained. Elevon hinge moments and wing panel load data were obtained during all runs. Photographs of test equipment and tested configurations are shown.

Hawthorne, P. J.

1976-01-01

250

Selective ammonia exhaust gas sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet future NOx emission standards for commercial vehicles, so called urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems will be introduced. In the SCR converter ammonia serves as a reducing agent for selective NOx reduction. An ammonia exhaust gas sensor is required to optimize the injected amount of urea and to assure that no ammonia emissions occur. This paper

Ralf Moos; Ralf Müller; Carsten Plog; Aleksandar Knezevic; Holger Leye; Eckard Irion; Tillmann Braun; Klaus-Jürgen Marquardt; Klaus Binder

2002-01-01

251

Diesel exhaust aftertreatment 1996  

SciTech Connect

The papers in this volume deal in the main with the two most common forms of aftertreatment technology. The first is the trap oxidizer, which is a system for trapping and filtering the particulate matter from the exhaust gas and periodically removing it by thermal oxidation. This process is commonly known as regeneration. The second is the diesel oxidation catalyst. Similar in many ways to the flow through a converter in passenger cars, it oxidizes the soluble organic fraction of the diesel exhaust as well as gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. This catalyst is being used in production volumes in heavy duty trucks in the US beginning in 1994. Several papers in this volume deal with the development experience of this converter application. There also is included a series of papers by trap and filter manufacturers dealing with improved materials, making their devices more durable. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-09-01

252

Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique at Mach 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current design philosophy for hydrogen-fueled, scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with strong couplings between the engine plume and vehicle aerodynamics. The experimental verification of the scramjet exhaust simulation is described. The scramjet exhaust was reproduced for the Mach 6 flight condition by the detonation tube simulator. The exhaust flow pressure profiles, and to a large extent the heat transfer rate profiles, were then duplicated by cool gas mixtures of Argon and Freon 13B1 or Freon 12. The results of these experiments indicate that a cool gas simulation of the hot scramjet exhaust is a viable simulation technique except for phenomena which are dependent on the wall temperature relative to flow temperature.

Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

1979-01-01

253

500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis  

SciTech Connect

500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

BIELICKI, B.E.

1999-05-20

254

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two tracer gas studies, to quantify the extent to which exhaust gases from indoor radon reduction systems are re-entrained into pitched-roof houses (exposing persons indoors), and the manner in which the exhausts disperse outdoors (exposing persons outside the...

255

Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust  

DOEpatents

A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-15

256

Sulfuric acid emissions from light duty vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems used by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA to measure and analyze automotive sulfuric acid emissions are discussed. This system involved mixing the entire vehicle exhaust with dilution air in a dilution tunnel. Sulfuric acid samples are collected by passing a small portion of the dilute exhaust through Fluoropore filters. The sulfuric acid content of

J. H. Somers; R. Lawrence; C. E. Fett; T. M. Baines; R. J. Garbe

1976-01-01

257

Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees.  

PubMed

Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide. PMID:24091789

Girling, Robbie D; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A; Poppy, Guy M

2013-01-01

258

Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts of this kind than other measurement systems as e.g. in situ techniques. Within the scope of aircraft emission investigations the measurements were performed from a measurement van which is equipped with an FTIR spectrometer of high spectral resolution coupled with a telescope and a two-axis movable mirror for rapid orientation towards the emission sources. At airports the emission indices of CO2, CO and NO of main engines and auxiliary power units of standing aircraft were determined. The measurement time is about one minute. The accuracy is better than 30 % as found from burner experiments with calibration gases (CO and NO). The method is also applied to detect exhausts of flares and smoke stacks. Currently, a new scanning FTIR-system is developed. The system allows imaging of the exhaust gas and rapid automated alignment of the field of view. The goal of the new development is to measure aircraft exhausts during normal operations at the airport. The spectrometer is coupled with a camera giving an image of the scenery so that a rapid selection of the hottest exhaust area is possible. It is planned to equip the system with an infrared camera for automatic tracking of this area with the scanning mirror so that measurements of the exhausts of a moving aircraft are possible.

Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Harig, Roland; Aleyt, Christian; Rusch, Peter

259

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

2007-01-01

260

Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

1997-04-29

261

An Investigation of Reentrainment of Chemical Fume Hood Exhaust Air in a Heat Recovery Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation measures such as air-to-air heat exchangers provide financial savings but also may produce contamination of fresh air by the exhaust. An investigation was conducted to determine the existence and extent of reentrainment of gases and vapors from building exhaust into the fresh-air supply of a rotary air-to-air heat recovery system, the heat wheel (a revolving cylinder made up

G. A. KHOURY; S. N. CHANG; D. A. LESSLEY; A. A. ABDELGHANI; A. C. ANDERSON

1988-01-01

262

Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine exhaust particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distributions of diesel exhaust particulate matter measured from a large number of vehicles and test engines, using a variety of diesel fuels, collapse onto a single characteristic lognormal distribution, when normalized by total particle number and plotted against a scaled diameter. Distinctly different characteristic distributions are observed for direct injection and for port injection gasoline vehicles. These signature

Stephen J. Harris; M. Matti Maricq

2001-01-01

263

A flame stability diagram for piloted non-premixed oxycombustion of low calorific residual gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual gases having a low calorific value are by-products of many industrial combustion systems. Subsequently burning those exhaust mixture, as blast furnace gases (BFG), is a direct way to increase the overall efficiency of processes. Flame stability is a crucial issue when burning such low calorific fuels and the choice of a piloted burner with pure oxygen as oxidizer appears

X. Paubel; A. Cessou; D. Honore; L. Vervisch; R. Tsiava

2007-01-01

264

Treatment of power utilities exhaust  

DOEpatents

Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

Koermer, Gerald (Basking Ridge, NJ)

2012-05-15

265

Potpourri that is exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature of the subject contains much information about the individual reactive components of exhaust gas and ''total'' and ''average'' emissions. However, there is a notable lack of information concerning the myriad compositions and hydrocarbon distributions that accompany changes in engine mode and that define the variable character of an exhaust gas stream. Information pertinent to the latter is given

R. S. Hurn; C. L. Dozois; J. O. Chase; C. F. Ellis; P. E. Ferrin

1962-01-01

266

Optical fibre sensors for the monitoring of harmful emissions from land transport vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet increasingly stringent emission control laws it is necessary to develop a sensor that can accurately monitor the level of pollutants entering the atmosphere from land transport vehicles. These pollutants are generally a mixture of hot gases and particulates. An optical fibre sensor is particularly well suited to this task. Due to it's small size and weight it is minimally invasive making it suitable for insertion into the vehicle's exhaust system. Optical fibres are immune from poisoning by the analyte gases, although they do require shielding from airborne particulates. As they do not transmit electricity they are also highly safe and furthermore they are immune from electromagnetic interference. To detect the presence of the gases it is proposed to use an optical absorption technique. The majority of gases of industrial and environmental importance have their fundamental absorption line in the mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, with weaker overtones in the near infrared. Due to the greater availability of components, optimised for communications, most optical fibre gas sensing has taken place in the near-infrared region of the spectrum. In this paper mid-infrared optical fibre gas sensing techniques are investigated and the results of the investigation are presented. Due to the inhomogeneous state of the gas flow it is necessary to measure temperature especially just upstream of the after-treatment section where this can rise to as high as 650oC with large temporal gradients. Measurements of temperature of hot gases from a full size test engine using an optical fibre probe based on fluorescence decay time measurements are also presented.

Mulrooney, Jim; Clifford, John; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Lewis, Elfed; Zhao, W. Z.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Degner, M.; Ewald, H.; Lochmann, S.; Al-Shamma'a, A.; Lucas, J.; Merlone Borla, E.; Faraldi, P.; Pidria, M.

2005-06-01

267

Electrical breakdown of gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of individual works on electrical discharges is presented. Topics covered include: fundamental processes in the electrical breakdown of gases; vacuum breakdown; spark breakdown in uniform fields; corona discharge; spark breakdown in non-uniform fields; breakdown voltage characteristics; irradiation and time lags; high-frequency breakdown of gases; laser-induced electrical breakdown of gases; spark channels; and electrode phenomena. (GHT)

J. M. Meek; J. D. Craggs

1978-01-01

268

40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with the applicable standards. We recommend performing a chemical balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. (f) Grounding. Electrically ground the entire exhaust system....

2013-07-01

269

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, S.

1986-08-19

270

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01

271

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26

272

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL) [Hoffman Estates, IL; Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL) [Hoffman Estates, IL

1986-01-01

273

Overview of Thermoelectric Generation for Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever increasing concern on oil prices and energy conservation, there is a fast growing interest in hybrid vehicles globally. Currently, all hybrid vehicles, including micro, mild and full hybrids, adopt internal combustion engines which are inefficient in general. The corresponding waste heat of exhaust gas constitutes up to 40% of the fuel consumption. So, it is a pressing need

Xiaodong Zhang; K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan

2008-01-01

274

Secondary organic aerosol formation from road vehicle emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosol particles (OA) are a major fraction of the submicron particulate matter. OA consists of directly emitted primary (POA) and secondary OA (SOA). SOA is formed in-situ in the atmosphere via the reaction of volatile organic precursors. The partitioning of SOA species depends not only on the exposure to oxidants, but for instance also on temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the absorptive mass chemical composition (presence of inorganics) and concentration. Vehicle exhaust is a known source of POA and likely contributes to SOA formation in urban areas [1;2]. This has recently been estimated by (i) analyzing ambient data from urban areas combined with fuel consumption data [3], (ii) by examining the chemical composition of raw fuels [4], or (iii) smog chamber studies [5, 6]. Contradictory and thus somewhat controversial results in the relative quantity of SOA from diesel vs. gasoline vehicle exhaust were observed. In order to elucidate the impact of variable ambient conditions on the potential SOA formation of vehicle exhaust, and its relation to the emitted gas phase species, we studied SOA formed from the exhaust of passenger cars and trucks as a function of fuel and engine type (gasoline, diesel) at different temperatures (T 22 vs. -7oC) and RH (40 vs. 90%), as well as with different levels of inorganic salt concentrations. The exhaust was sampled at the tailpipe during regulatory driving cycles on chassis dynamometers, diluted (200 - 400x) and introduced into the PSI mobile smog chamber [6], where the emissions were subjected to simulated atmospheric ageing. Particle phase instruments (HR-ToF-AMS, aethalometers, CPC, SMPS) and gas phase instruments (PTR-TOF-MS, CO, CO2, CH4, THC, NH3 and other gases) were used online during the experiments. We found that gasoline emissions, because of cold starts, were generally larger than diesel, especially during cold temperatures driving cycles. Gasoline vehicles also showed the highest SOA formation. Furthermore, we observed that vehicle emissions and SOA are significantly affected by temperature and RH: doubling the RH in the chamber resulted in significantly increased SOA formation. Primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation from diesel and gasoline vehicles will be compared at different temperature and RH. Also the interaction and influence of inorganics on organics will be discussed. References: [1] Robinson, A.L., et al. (2007) Science 315, 1259. [2] Weitkamp, E.A., et al. (2007) Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 6969. [3] Bahreini, R., et al. (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L06805. [4] Gentner, D.R. et al. (2012) PNAS 109, 18318. [5] Gordon, T.D. et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 13, 23173. [6] Platt, S.M., et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 12, 28343.

Pieber, Simone M.; Platt, Stephen M.; El Haddad, Imad; Zardini, Alessandro A.; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Slowik, Jay G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Drinovec, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadogna; Prévôt, André S. H.

2014-05-01

275

Review of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Programs  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) and its predecessor organizations have maintained aggressive projects in diesel exhaust aftertreatment since 1993. The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 2027, specifically authorized DOE to help accelerate the ability of U. S. diesel engine manufacturers to meet emissions regulations while maintaining the compression ignition engines inherently high efficiency. A variety of concepts and devices have been evaluated for NOx and Particulate matter (PM) control. Additionally, supporting technology in diagnostics for catalysis, PM measurement, and catalyst/reductant systems are being developed. This paper provides a summary of technologies that have been investigated and provides recent results from ongoing DOE-sponsored R and D. NOx control has been explored via active NOx catalysis, several plasma-assisted systems, electrochemical cells, and fuel additives. Both catalytic and non-catalytic filter technologies have been investigated for PM control.

Ronald L. Graves

1999-04-26

276

Implementation of microwave transmissions for rocket exhaust plume diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocket-launched vehicles produce a trail of exhaust that contains ions, free electrons, and soot. The exhaust plume increases the effective conductor length of the rocket. A conductor in the presence of an electric field (e.g. near the electric charge stored within a cloud) can channel an electric discharge. The electrical conductivity of the exhaust plume is related to its concentration of free electrons. The risk of a lightning strike in-flight is a function of both the conductivity of the body and its effective length. This paper presents an approach that relates the electron number density of the exhaust plume to its propagation constant. Estimated values of the collision frequency and electron number density generated from a numerical simulation of a rocket plume are used to guide the design of the experimental apparatus. Test par meters are identified for the apparatus designed to transmit a signal sweep form 4 GHz to 7 GHz through the exhaust plume of a J-class solid rocket motor. Measurements of the scattering parameters imply that the transmission does not penetrate the plume, but instead diffracts around it. The electron density 20 cm downstream from the nozzle exit is estimated to be between 2.7x1014 m--3 and 5.6x10 15 m--3.

Coutu, Nicholas George

277

Estimates of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Motor Vehicles and the effects of Catalyst Composition and Aging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FTIR spectroscopy was used to determine nitrous oxide concentrations in dilute exhaust samples collected from vehicles tested as part of the last two California vehicle surveillance programs. We conducted more than 400 dynamometer experiments for 134 ligh...

A. M. Winer D. Env E. Behrentz

2005-01-01

278

Automotive Exhaust System Leak Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns a method of quantitatively determining leaks in any constant mass input fluid flow system such as an automobile engine exhaust system, by measuring the pressure drops across a pair of different sized orifices interchangeabl...

E. C. Klaubert A. L. Lavery A. J. Borderick

1973-01-01

279

Fact Program - distributed exhaust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Futuristic Airframe Concepts & Technology (FACT): Distributed exhaust nozzle mounted in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel. Angle is zero degrees with respect to microphones. Photographed in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel, Jet Noise Lab, building 1221-A.

2000-01-01

280

BASSTEGG (Bay Area Simplified Simulation of Travel, Energy and Greenhouse Gases) Sketch Planning Charrette\\/GIS Models for Predicting Household Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) and Greenhouse Gas (CO 2) Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased interest in the interactions of land use and transportation and their related impacts on global warming, there is now a warranted need for improved and quicker techniques for simulating mobile source based, regional and sub-regional greenhouse gas emissions. The Bay Area Simplified Simulation of Travel, Energy and Greenhouse Gases (BASTEGG) is a GIS-based tool for calculating automobile

H. M. Brazil; C. L. Purvis

281

[The influence of vehicles on environment in Bashkortostan].  

PubMed

The article deals with the problem of air pollution by vehicles in towns of Bashkortostan Republic. Significant share of extremely toxic chemicals (benzpyrene, alkylbenzenes, naphthalenes) was proved to be released into atmosphere with waste gas. Environment is polluted with vehicles waste: exhaust tires, batteries, oil, waters. The authors suggest measures aimed to lower considerably the influence of vehicles on environment. PMID:9483900

Minigazimov, N S; Vinkel'man, A P

1997-01-01

282

Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system  

DOEpatents

Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

1995-08-22

283

Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system  

DOEpatents

Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI); Koskinen, Jari (Karhula, FI)

1995-01-01

284

Laser-spectroscopic investigation of OH-radical concentrations in the exhaust plane of jet engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyl radical (OH) emissions are relevant for oxidation reactions in the post flame chemistry of exhaust gases emitted from jet engines. No direct measurements of OH concentrations are available to date due to the low abundance and the short lifetime of this radical species. The first application of a combined technique based on Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry

S. Böckle; S. Einecke; F. Hildenbrand; C. Orlemann; C. Schulz; J. Wolfrum; V. Sick

1999-01-01

285

Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention  

EPA Science Inventory

Background?Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective?1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

286

A study of exhaust valve and seat insert wear depending on cycle numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the wear of the seating faces of the exhaust valve and seat insert that have influence on an engine's performance depending on mileage (cycle numbers).Exhaust valves and seat inserts that are commonly used for commercial vehicles were used as test specimens. The cycle numbers for tests were 2×106, 4×106, 6×106 and 8×106, and the test speeds were

Keyoung Jin Chun; Jae Hak Kim; Jae Soo Hong

2007-01-01

287

Commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems  

SciTech Connect

This article addresses design requirements for commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems. The topics of the article include design considerations, toilet exhaust, dishwasher exhaust, grease hood exhaust, codes and standards, design concerns, common problems, and fire suppression. A side bar on ducts, plenums and housings is also included.

McGuire, A.B. (McGuire Engineers, Chicago, IL (United States))

1993-05-01

288

Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between

Stachowicz

1984-01-01

289

Trends in source gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

1989-01-01

290

Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere is documented. A kinetic condensation model was implemented to predict heterogeneous condensation in the plume regime behind an HSCT flying in the lower stratosphere. Simulations were performed to illustrate the parametric dependence of contrail droplet growth on the exhaust condensation nuclei number density and size distribution. Model results indicate that the condensation of water vapor is strongly dependent on the number density of activated CN. Incorporation of estimates for dilution factors into a Lagrangian box model of the far-wake regime with scale-dependent diffusion indicates negligible decrease in ozone and enhancement of water concentrations of 6-13 times background, which decrease rapidly over 1-3 days. Radiative calculations indicate a net differential cooling rate of the plume about 3K/day at the beginning of the wake regime, with a total subsidence ranging between 0.4 and 1 km. Results from the Lagrangian plume model were used to estimate the effect of repeated superposition of aircraft plumes on the concentrations of water and NO(y) along a flight corridor. Results of laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry are also described. Kinetics of HCl, N2O5 and ClONO2 uptake on liquid sulfuric acid were measured as a function of composition and temperature. Refined measurements of the thermodynamics of nitric acid hydrates indicate that metastable dihydrate may play a role in the nucleation of more stable trihydrates PSC's.

Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

1993-01-01

291

Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum reactivity, but with the use of pure biodiesel and diesel, the most hydrocarbons are from unburned fuel and they have a less reactivity. The best composition in the fuel, for the control of the hydrocarbon emissions reactivity, needs to be a fuel with high-saturated fatty acid content.

Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

292

HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA

2002-01-01

293

Sampling and chemical characterization of workplace atmospheres contaminated with airborne diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of workplace atmospheres contaminated with diesel exhaust appear to be exceedingly complex. Building to building differences occur even though the fuel source for vehicles operating in such a facility are identical. There appear to be substantial differences between the particle size distributions of workplace atmospheres and that of those sources which contaminate them. Long duration sampling tends to alter the apparent composition of the collected particle phase, and composite samples of shorter duration may enhance compositional accuracy. Diluted idling large vehicle engine exhaust is probably not a compositionally accurate surrogate for workplace atmospheres for inhalation toxicology studies.

Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Tomkins, B.A.; Ilgner, R.H.; Higgins, C.E.; Gayle, T.M.

1988-01-01

294

Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom for a Delta Wing and a Swept Wing-Body Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supersonic travel is not allowed over populated areas due to the disturbance caused by the sonic boom. Research has been performed on sonic boom reduction and has included the contribution of the exhaust nozzle plume. Plume effect on sonic boom has progressed from the study of isolated nozzles to a study with four exhaust plumes integrated with a wing-body vehicle. This report provides a baseline analysis of the generic wing-body vehicle to demonstrate the effect of the nozzle exhaust on the near-field pressure profile. Reductions occurred in the peak-to-peak magnitude of the pressure profile for a swept wing-body vehicle. The exhaust plumes also had a favorable effect as the nozzles were moved outward along the wing-span.

Castner, Raymond; Lake, Troy

2012-01-01

295

ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOL GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1992, EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory initiated a nationwide QA program on the suppliers of EPA Protocol Gases. he program has three goals: to increase the acceptance and use of Protocol Gases by the air monitoring community, to provide a QA check...

296

Electrostatic Potential Generated by Rockets on Vehicles in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigators have reported the existence of electric current in the exhaust plumes of rocket engines and have speculated that this current could generate a sufficiently high electrostatic potential on vehicles in space to interfere with or damage electro...

L. Aronowitz

1968-01-01

297

Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and hydrocarbon denuded diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

In vitro studies with the organic extracts of diesel particles have suggested that hydrocarbons such as PAH may play a role in an inflammatory response, but these have been limited by the possible artifacts introduced in the particle collection and processing. In this study, we avoid these artifacts and use an activated carbon denuder to remove hydrocarbons from the exhaust stream to investigate their role in the inflammatory response. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o) were exposed at the air-cell interface to diluted and aged exhaust from a diesel generator operated at partial and no load conditions. When particles were removed with a filter before cell exposure, exhaust gases accounted for almost half of the response compared to the whole exhaust. Removal of gas phase and a portion of the particle phase hydrocarbons with the denuder decreased the interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion to unexposed levels. PMID:17767946

Holder, Amara L; Lucas, Donald; Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Koshland, Catherine P

2007-11-01

298

Some aspects of the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pah) between particles and gas phase from diluted gasoline exhausts generated with the use of a dilution tunnel, and its validity for measurement in ambient air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) originating from diluted gasoline exhausts is compared with that of ambient air samples. The dilution technique used for sampling of vehicle exhausts generates particles with a PAH profile similar to that of ambient air particles. It is demonstrated that 2-4-ring PAH originating from gasoline-fueled vehicle exhausts are mainly in the gas phase in the urban street environment. In the case of diesel vehicles, a substantial part of the low molecular weight PAH are adsorbed on the exhaust particles.

Westerholm, Roger; Stenberg, Ulf; Alsberg, Tomas

299

Catalytic reduction of NO x in gasoline engine exhaust over copper- and nickel-exchanged X–zeolite catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic removal of NOx in engine exhaust gases can be accomplished by non-selective reduction, selective reduction and decomposition. Noble metals are extensively used for non-selective reduction of NOx and up to 90% of engine NOx emissions can be reduced in a stoichiometric exhaust. This requirement of having the stoichiometric fuel–air ratio acts against efficiency improvement of engines. Selective NOx reduction

Souvik Bhattacharyya; Randip K Das

2001-01-01

300

Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

301

Extendable Rocket Motor Exhaust Nozzle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an extendable exhaust nozzle for rocket motors that can be deployed from a stored compact position to an extended position. The interior surface of the nozzle is provided with a thin layer of a nickel-titanium alloy that ...

J. N. Mason

1975-01-01

302

Jet Engine Exhaust Aerosol Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet engine exhaust aerosol was characterized with respect to mass concentration and composition of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction and the particulate sulfate as a function of engine power setting for fuel with low-sulfur content (6 ppm) and high-sulfur content (3000 ppm). The ratio of black carbon (BC) to total carbon (TC) varied from 11% with the engine in idle run

A. Petzold; F. P. Schröder

1998-01-01

303

Air admixture to exhaust jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of thrust increase by air admixture to exhaust jets of rockets, turbojet, ram- and pulse-jet engines is investigated theoretically. The optimum ratio of mixing chamber pressure to ambient pressure and speed range for thrust increase due to air admixture is determined for each type of jet engine.

Sanger, Eugen

1953-01-01

304

Exhaust oxygen sensor dynamic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used transfer function approach to investigate the dynamics of oxygen sensors in engine exhaust environment, operated in both Lambda and wide range sensing modes. We measured the sensor transfer functions of the sensor responses and compared with the model. All the dynamic mechanisms involved were identified. The dynamic contributions are from the louver-shield, the protection coating-layer, the sensing electrode

Da Yu Wang; Eric Detwiler

2006-01-01

305

40 CFR Appendix Xvii to Part 86 - Procedure for Determining Vehicle Emission Control Technology Category/Fuel Reactivity Adjustment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and establish the âmethane reactivity adjustment factorâ for exhaust methane emissions from natural gas vehicles, for the purpose of...2) For candidate vehicle/fuel systems operating on natural gas, a âmethane reactivity...

2009-07-01

306

40 CFR Appendix Xvii to Part 86 - Procedure for Determining Vehicle Emission Control Technology Category/Fuel Reactivity Adjustment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and establish the âmethane reactivity adjustment factorâ for exhaust methane emissions from natural gas vehicles, for the purpose of...2) For candidate vehicle/fuel systems operating on natural gas, a âmethane reactivity...

2010-07-01

307

Exhaust Emissions from Seven LP Gas Powered Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation was undertaken of seven LP gas powered, standard sized American cars. The cars were equipped with V-8 engines, automatic transmissions and Algas Industries dual fuel carburetion systems. Each car was tested according to the proposed 1972 Fed...

H. A. Ashby

1970-01-01

308

Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems  

DOEpatents

A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1995-12-26

309

Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems  

DOEpatents

A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01

310

User's manual for the REEDM (Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model) computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The REEDM computer program predicts concentrations, dosages, and depositions downwind from normal and abnormal launches of rocket vehicles at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The atmospheric dispersion models, cloud-rise models, and other formulas used in the REEDM model are described mathematically Vehicle and source parameters, other pertinent physical properties of the rocket exhaust cloud, and meteorological layering techniques are presented as well as user's instructions for REEDM. Worked example problems are included.

Bjorklund, J. R.; Dumbauld, R. K.; Cheney, C. S.; Geary, H. V.

1982-01-01

311

Stirling engines for hybrid electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory and vehicle chassis dynamometer test data based on natural gas fuel are presented for kinematic Stirling engine emissions levels over a range of air/fuel ratios and exhaust gas recirculation levels. It is concluded that the natural-gas-fired Stirling engine is capable of producing exhaust pipe emissions levels significantly below those of other engines. The projected emissions levels are found to be compliant with the 1995 California Air Resources Board Mobile Source Emission Standards for ultra-low-emissions vehicles.

Ernst, William D.

312

Transformations in Solidified Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transformations in solidified gases have been studied in very few laboratories yet they are governed by factors of wide scientific interest, some of which are very different from those involved in the commonly studied transformations of metallic substance...

C. S. Barrett

1968-01-01

313

Anomalous low–high transition of ceria doped SnO 2 sensors exposed to synthetic automobile exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low–high transition behavior of SnO2-based sensors and the effect of ceria as a major additive are studied. The response of the sensors is studied in the presence of synthetic automobile exhaust gases comprising air and CO and\\/or C2H6 reducing gases (fuel), with different weight ratios of the air and fuel, defined as air-to-fuel ratio. A sharp S-shape transition is

M. Valinasab; A. A. Khodadadi; S. Mohajerzadeh; M. Khaghani

2005-01-01

314

Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

1993-01-01

315

Atmospheric Scavenging of Solid Rocket Exhaust Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smal...

D. L. Fenton R. Purcell

1978-01-01

316

76 FR 27308 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exhaust gases with the atmosphere; (3) combustion noise proper; and (4) sonic booms. Sonic booms are not a concern for pinnipeds on Ugak Island, as sonic booms created by ascending rockets launched from the KLC reach the Earth's surface...

2011-05-11

317

Diesel exhaust and asthma: hypotheses and molecular mechanisms of action.  

PubMed Central

Several components of air pollution have been linked to asthma. In addition to the well-studied critera air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, diesel exhaust and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) also appear to play a role in respiratory and allergic diseases. Diesel exhaust is composed of vapors, gases, and fine particles emitted by diesel-fueled compression-ignition engines. DEPs can act as nonspecific airway irritants at relatively high levels. At lower levels, DEPs promote release of specific cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, and oxidants in the upper and lower airway. Release of these mediators of the allergic and inflammatory response initiates a cascade that can culminate in airway inflammation, mucus secretion, serum leakage into the airways, and bronchial smooth muscle contraction. DEPs also may promote expression of the T(subscript)H(/subscript)2 immunologic response phenotype that has been associated with asthma and allergic disease. DEPs appear to have greater immunologic effects in the presence of environmental allergens than they do alone. This immunologic evidence may help explain the epidemiologic studies indicating that children living along major trucking thoroughfares are at increased risk for asthmatic and allergic symptoms and are more likely to have objective evidence of respiratory dysfunction.

Pandya, Robert J; Solomon, Gina; Kinner, Amy; Balmes, John R

2002-01-01

318

Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines  

SciTech Connect

With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

Zweig, H.R.; Fischler, S.; Wagner, W.R. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

1993-01-15

319

Fume hood exhaust re-entry into a chemistry building.  

PubMed

The rooftop air intakes are in close proximity to the fume hood exhaust vents on the roof of the attached chemistry buildings (Fulmer Hall and Fulmer Annex) at Washington State University. Complaints resulted from the apparent re-entry of hazardous and odorous exhaust vapors and gases returning into the building fresh air supplies. An atmospheric tracer study of the flow patterns and exhaust gas dilution rates determined the suitability of other potential air intake locations. Isopleth maps showed concentration patterns for tests conducted during the different wind regimes (southwest prevailing winds and substantial wintertime southeast periods). As expected, the observed dilution rates were greater than the conservative minimum dilution rates calculated from models. Tracer gas concentrations indicated large areas over which odor thresholds would exceeded for vapors resulting from typical evaporation rates of solvents. Tracer gas concentrations at the building air intakes were about the same as inside building concentrations because little dilution occurred between the intakes and building interiors. Significant infiltration was observed due to negative building pressure relative to outside. The recommendation to move the intakes down the south building walls is being followed since roof-level concentrations are typically a factor of ten or more higher than below-roof levels. PMID:3953421

Lamb, B K; Cronn, D R

1986-02-01

320

Fume hood exhaust re-entry into a chemistry building  

SciTech Connect

The rooftop air intakes are in close proximity to the fume hood exhaust vents on the roof of the attached chemistry buildings (Fulmer Hall and Fulmer Annex) at Washington State University. Complaints resulted from the apparent re-entry of hazardous and odorous exhaust vapors and gases returning into the building fresh air supplies. An atmospheric tracer study of the flow patterns and exhaust gas dilution rates determined the suitability of other potential air intake locations. Isopleth maps showed concentration patterns for test conducted during the different wind regimes (southwest prevailing winds and substantial wintertime southeast periods). As expected, the observed dilution rates were greater than the conservative minimum dilution rates calculated from models. Tracer gas concentrations indicated large areas over which odor thresholds would be exceeded for vapors resulting from typical evaporation rates of solvents. Tracer gas concentrations at the building air intakes were about the same as inside building concentrations because little dilution occurred between the intakes and building interiors. Significant infiltration was observed due to negative building pressure relative to outside. The recommendation to move the intakes down the south building walls is being followed since roof-level concentrations are typically a factor of ten or more higher than below-roof levels.

Lamb, B.K.; Cronn, D.R.

1986-02-01

321

Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

Zweig, Herbert R.; Fischler, Stanley; Wagner, William R.

1993-01-01

322

Probe samples components of rocket engine exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-cooled, cantilevered probe samples the exhaust plume of rocket engines to recover particles for examination. The probe withstands the stresses of a rocket exhaust plume environment for a sufficient period to obtain a useful sample of the exhaust components.

Schumacher, P. E.

1965-01-01

323

Volatile Nanoparticle Formation and Growth within a Diluting Diesel Car Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major source of particle number emissions is road traffic. However, scientific knowledge concerning secondary particle formation and growth of ultrafine particles within vehicle exhaust plumes is still very limited. Volatile nanoparticle formation and subsequent growth conditions were analyzed here to gain a better understanding of “real-world” dilution conditions. Coupled computational fluid dynamics and aerosol microphysics models together with measured

Ulrich Uhrner; Michael Zallinger; Sibylle von Löwis; Hanna Vehkamäki; Birgit Wehner; Frank Stratmann; Alfred Wiedensohler

2011-01-01

324

Comparison of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Airborne and Automobile Exhaust Particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) in airborne particulates collected simultaneously at downtown and suburban sites and in exhaust particulates from diesel and gasoline engine vehicles were determined. The mean concentrations of all compounds in the atmosphere were lower at the suburban site. The differences between the two sites were smaller in airborne particulates than in the

Kazuichi Hayakawa; Tsuyoshi Murahashi; Kazuhiko Akutsu; Tetsuo Kanda; Ning Tang; Hitoshi Kakimoto; Akira Toriba; Ryoichi Kizu

2000-01-01

325

Jet engine exhaust chemiion measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made mass spectrometric measurements of negative chemiions (CI) in the exhaust of a jet engine on the ground. The measurements took place at plume ages between 6.6 and 19ms at low- and high-fuel sulfur content (FSC). Total negative CI-number densities reached up to 1.4·107cm-3 corresponding to an emission index for negative CI of 3×1015 CI per kg fuel.

F. ARNOLD; Th. Stilp; R. Busen; U. Schumann

1998-01-01

326

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

M. J. Riezenman

1992-01-01

327

Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

1983-01-01

328

Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-06-14

329

Performance audit of inspection and maintenance calibration gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the audit was to determine the accuracy of inspection and maintenance calibration gases for motor-vehicle emission analyzers. Cylinders containing approximately 1.6 percent carbon monoxide and 640 parts per million propane in nitrogen were purchased from 13 specialty gas producers in 1984. Only three producers were able to provide cylinders that had been named according to the EPA

R. S. Wright; C. E. Decker; W. F. Barnard

1986-01-01

330

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes AS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of

DeLuchi

1993-01-01

331

Enhancements of Remote Sensing for Vehicle Emissions in Tunnels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Denver’s remote sensing system for vehicle exhaust has been successfully adapted to the measurement of vehicle emissions in a tunnel environment. Two studies conducted at the Fort McHenry Tunnel in Baltimore, MD and the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel located west of Harrisburg, PA on the Pennsylvania Turnpike are described. The difficulties associated with remote sensing in a tunnel

Gary A. Bishop; Yi Zhang; Scott E. McLaren; Paul L. Guenther; Stuart P. Beaton; James E. Peterson; Donald H. Stedman; William R. Pierson; Kenneth T. Knapp; Roy B. Zweidinger; John W. Duncan; Alexander Q. McArver; Peter J. Groblicki; J. Frank Day

1994-01-01

332

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

333

Gases: Characteristics and Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to ideal gas, called Ideal and Real Gas Laws, is maintained by Liina Ladon of Townsen University (1). Visitors can read about the properties of ideal gases, what the ideal gas law is, how to use it, and much more. The next site, titled Gas Laws, (2) is offered by the Ohio State University Department of Chemistry. This interactive site contains Shockwave movies of animations and audio files that describe what a gas is, the Ideal Gas Law equation, mixtures of gases, and problems using the ideal gas law. The University of Oregon site, Virtual Laboratory, teaches about the ideal gas law on the Welcome to the Pressure Chamber page (3). Those who enjoy online interaction will enjoy being able to control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber to see how the gases inside react. The fourth site includes another fun multimedia activity related to ideal gases provided by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Washington University. The Air Filled Balloon in Liquid Nitrogen (4) movie shows an actual experiment of the effects on a balloon that's covered with liquid nitrogen. The page contains some additional information on the science behind the observations. The next site, called Ideal Gas Equations (5) is an online calculator that's part of Kean University's Department of Geology and Meteorology Web site. Users can calculate the pressure, volume, or temperature of a gas by inputting known variables into the various forms. Several methods and variations of calculating the values are provided as well as brief instructions. The next page from North Carolina State University's Basic Concepts in Environmental Science Web site is called Characteristics of Gases (6). Part of a larger learning module, the lesson plans objective is to use the ideal gas law to determine gas volumes at different absolute temperatures and absolute pressures. Everything needed to conduct the activity is provided including links to a volume calculator and practice problems. The seventh site is another animation that illustrates how gases react, called Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (7). By changing the number of molecules in the chamber, their velocity, and the pressure and width of the container, users get to see how the molecules react to the conditions. The last site, Gases and Their Properties, is maintained by the Electronic Teaching Assistance Program(8). Students learn about the history of gas science, how gas laws describe ideal gases, what Dalton's Law and Graham's Law are, and much more.

Brieske, Joel A.

334

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will research solids, liquids, and gases. By the end of this project you will be able to answer the question: Can you tell what is alike and different between solids, liquids, and gases? Read the song about matter. song with music about matter Record your observations on the organizer provided by the teacher. On the diagram write the word solid in one of the circles. Write liquid in one of the circles and write gas in the last circle. As you collect your information write your information under ...

Sibley, Ms.

2009-10-22

335

SiO2/TiO2 Composite for Removing Hg from Combustion Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pellets made of a high-surface-area composite of silica and titania have shown promise as means of removing elemental mercury from flue gases. With further technical development and commercialization, this material could become economically attractive as a more effective, less-expensive alternative to activated carbons for removing mercury from exhaust streams of coal-burning power plants, which are the sources of more than 90 percent of all anthropogenic airborne mercury.

Mazyck, David; Londeree, Danielle; Wu, Chang-Yu; Powers, Kevin; Pitoniak, Erik

2008-01-01

336

Cause and cure for high volatile coal and corrossive gases at TXI, Midlothian Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant has raw materials, which are high in pyritic sulfur. The coal mill uses the preheater exhaust gases, which have elevated amounts of SO2. The coal being used is highly volatile. Therefore the coal mill bag filter had few occurrences of smoldered bags causing potentially unsafe conditions. This problem was solved by implementing some operational changes like reducing the

A. Shahid; B. Bottelberghe; J. Crowther

2007-01-01

337

Deforestation and Greenhouse Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human activities produce large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), and thus contribute to global warming. The use of fossil fuels is the primary source of CO2 emissions, but the removal of trees from forested land has also ...

2012-01-01

338

Reduction in greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It needs extensive use of new and improved technology, by improvement in energy efficiency, change of fuels, introduction of new energy sources and abatement \\/ sequestration of greenhouse gases in order to achieve reductions in emissions without affecting standards of living. Some of these technologies are widely available now; others are in their research stages. This panel paper looks into

D. Vujatovic; L. L. Lai

2003-01-01

339

Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This TOP provides standardized tests recommended for evaluating hybrid vehicles. Because of the development of hybrid propulsion techniques for military wheeled and tracked vehicles new testing procedures to assess the automotive and safety design of thes...

2008-01-01

340

Exhaust Nozzle for a Multitube Detonative Combustion Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved type of exhaust nozzle has been invented to help optimize the performances of multitube detonative combustion engines. The invention is applicable to both air-breathing and rocket engines used to propel some aircraft and spacecraft, respectively. In a detonative combustion engine, thrust is generated through the expulsion of combustion products from a detonation process in which combustion takes place in a reaction zone coupled to a shock wave. The combustion releases energy to sustain the shock wave, while the shock wave enhances the combustion in the reaction zone. The coupled shockwave/reaction zone, commonly referred to as a detonation, propagates through the reactants at very high speed . typically of the order of several thousands of feet per second (of the order of 1 km/s). The very high speed of the detonation forces combustion to occur very rapidly, thereby contributing to high thermodynamic efficiency. A detonative combustion engine of the type to which the present invention applies includes multiple parallel cylindrical combustion tubes, each closed at the front end and open at the rear end. Each tube is filled with a fuel/oxidizer mixture, and then a detonation wave is initiated at the closed end. The wave propagates rapidly through the fuel/oxidizer mixture, producing very high pressure due to the rapid combustion. The high pressure acting on the closed end of the tube contributes to forward thrust. When the detonation wave reaches the open end of the tube, it produces a blast wave, behind which the high-pressure combustion products are expelled from the tube. The process of filling each combustion tube with a detonable fuel/oxidizer mixture and then producing a detonation repeated rapidly to obtain repeated pulses of thrust. Moreover, the multiple combustion tubes are filled and fired in a repeating sequence. Hence, the pressure at the outlet of each combustion tube varies cyclically. A nozzle of the present invention channels the expansion of the pulsed combustion gases from the multiple combustion tubes into a common exhaust stream, in such a manner as to enhance performance in two ways: (1) It reduces the cyclic variations of pressure at the outlets of the combustion tubes so as to keep the pressure approximately constant near the optimum level needed for filling the tubes, regardless of atmospheric pressure at the altitude of operation; and (2) It maximizes the transfer of momentum from the exhaust gas to the engine, thereby maximizing thrust. The figure depicts a typical engine equipped with a nozzle according to the invention. The nozzle includes an interface section comprising multiple intake ports that couple the outlets of the combustion tubes to a common plenum. Proceeding from its upstream to its downstream end, the interface section tapers to a larger cross-sectional area for flow. This taper fosters expansion of the exhaust gases flowing from the outlets of the combustion tubes and contributes to the desired equalization of exhaust combustion pressure. The cross-sectional area for flow in the common plenum is greater than, or at least equal to, the combined cross-sectional flow areas of the combustor tubes. In the common plenum, the exhaust streams from the individual combustion tubes mix to form a single compound subsonic exhaust stream. Downstream of the common plenum is the throat that tapers to a smaller flow cross section. In this throat, the exhaust gases become compressed to form a compound sonic gas stream. Downstream of the throat is an expansion section, which typically has a bell or a conical shape. (The expansion section can be truncated or even eliminated in the case of an air-breathing engine.) After entering the expansion section, the exhaust gases expand rapidly from compound sonic to compound supersonic speeds and are then vented to the environment. The basic invention admits of numerous variations. For example, the combustion tubes can be arranged around the central axin a symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern other than the one shown in the figure. For another examp

Bratkovich, Thomas E.; Williams, Kevin E.; Bussing, Thomas R. A.; Lidstone, Gary L.; Hinkey, John B.

2004-01-01

341

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... hydrothermal systems. At high pressures deep beneath the earth's surface, volcanic gases are dissolved in molten rock. ... volcanic gases can rise tens of kilometers into Earth's atmosphere during large explosive eruptions. Once airborne, the ...

342

Visible light emission excited by interaction of Space Shuttle exhaust with the atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground-based video photography of firings of Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) engines show optical emissions extending nearly 4 km form the vehicle after steady state is reached. The total intensity and spatial distribution of these emissions depend on the angle between the spacecraft velocity vector and the engine exhaust axis. Candidate sources for this radiation are reviewed and the conclusion is reached that it is most likely due to vibrationally excited OH, formed by the reaction of fast ambient O atoms and H2O molecules in the exhaust.

Murad, E.; Knecht, D. J.; Viereck, R. A.; Pike, C. P.; Kofsky, I. L.; Trowbridge, C. A.; Rall, D. L. A.; Ashley, G.; Twist, L.; Blaha, J. E.

1990-01-01

343

Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator  

DOEpatents

A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter (Peter) Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

2012-09-04

344

Sampling of vehicle emissions for chemical analysis and biological testing.  

PubMed Central

Representative dilution tube sampling techniques for particulate and gas phase vehicle emissions are described using Teflon filter media and XAD-2 resin. More than 90% of the total gas (C8-C18) and particulate direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity (TA 98) was found in the particulate phase. The gas and particulate phase material was fractionated by HPLC into nonpolar, moderately polar and highly polar chemical fractions. The moderately polar chemical fraction of the particulates contained more than 50% of the direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity for the total extract. The concentration of oxygenated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAH) and nitrated PAH (nitro-PAH) identified in the moderately polar particulate fractions are given. Nitro-PAH account for most of the direct-acting (TA 98) Ames assay mutagenicity in these moderately polar fractions. Reactions and kinetic expressions for chemical conversion of PAH are presented. Chemical conversion of PAH to nitro-PAH during dilution tube sampling of particulates on Teflon filters and gases on XAD-2 resin is a minor problem (representing 10-20%, on the average, of the 1-nitropyrene found in extracts) at short (46 min) sampling times, at low sampling temperatures (42 degrees C), and in diluted exhaust containing 3 ppm NO2. Particulate emissions collected from dilution tubes on filter media appear to be representative of what is emitted in the environment as based upon a comparison of highway and laboratory studies.

Schuetzle, D

1983-01-01

345

Evaluation of Diesel Engine Performance with Intake and Exhaust System Throttling. Volume I. Text and Appendixes a Through H. Final Report, November 1972--May 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diesel engine itself is an important source of diesel powered vehicle noise, and becomes dominant after proper treatment of intake/exhaust and cooling system noise at vehicle speeds below fifty miles per hour. An investigation was conducted to quantif...

R. Hern B. Eccleston W. Marshall

1975-01-01

346

Refractivity of combustion gases  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive survey of the refractive indices and dispersions of gases that are found in practical or laboratory combustion experiments is reported. A critical evaluation was used to obtain recommended values where experimental data are available. Where they are not, sums of atomic and bond refractivities were used. The results are tabulated as molar refractivities at common laser wavelengths and as the constants of Cauchy dispersion formulas.

Gardiner, W.C. Jr.

1981-02-01

347

Sudden releases of gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

Chaloupecká, Hana; Ja?our, Zbyn?k; Jur?áková, Klára; Kuka?ka, Libor; Nosek, Št?pán

2014-03-01

348

Greenhouse Gases Exposed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the relationship between greenhouse gases and global warming through a simple teacher demo or hands-on lab activity. Everyday materials are used: beakers, baking soda, vinegar, candle, thermometers, heat source such as a goose-necked lamp, etc. Students shine a light onto three thermometers: a control, an upside down beaker w/ a thermometer and air, and a beaker in which CO2 had been poured.

Babcock, Victoria; Collie, Janet; Ecohealth

349

Influence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) addition into gasoline on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines was studied. A four-cylinder OPEL 1.6 l engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. Fuels containing 0.0-11.0% MTBE were used in a wide range of engine operations, and the exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (total unburned hydrocarbons, methane, ethylene) and MTBE, before and after their catalytic treatment by a three-way catalytic converter. The addition of MTBE into gasoline resulted in a decrease in CO and HC emissions only at high engine loading. During cold-start up of the engine, MTBE, HC, CO emissions were significant and increased with MTBE addition into fuel. At the catalytic converter outlet MTBE was detected when its concentration in fuels was greater than 8% and only as long as the catalytic converter operates at low temperatures. Methane and ethylene emissions were comparable for all fuels tested at engine outlet, but methane emissions remained almost at the same level while ethylene emissions were significantly decreased by the catalytic converter.

Poulopoulos, S.; Philippopoulos, C.

350

Diesel Exhaust Standard Development: Phase 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the third phase of an effort to develop a standard diesel exhaust which may be used in the future development of diesel exhaust aftertreatment. Phase I consisted of a literature review and creation of a database of engine-out diesel e...

E. R. Fanick

2008-01-01

351

Health Assessment Document For Diesel Engine Exhaust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the EPA's National Center for Environmental Assessment, a recent publication release is available online entitled Health Assessment Document for Diesel Engine Exhaust. The over six hundred-page document contains information on the physical and chemical composition of diesel exhaust, its atmospheric transformation, and an extensive look at its health effects.

2002-01-01

352

Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

353

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

354

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

1986-04-15

355

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

356

Carbonyl emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the use of biodiesel in clear growth, it is important to quantify any potential emission benefits or liabilities of this fuel. Several researches are available concerning the regulated emissions of biodiesel/diesel blends, but there is a lack of information about non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper [Corrêa, S.M., Arbilla, G., 2006. Emissões de formaldeído e acetaldeído de misturas biodiesel/diesel. Periódico Tchê Química, 3, 54-68], the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported. In this work, seven carbonyl emissions (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde) were evaluated by a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm. The exhaust gases were diluted nearly 20 times and the carbonyls were sampled with SiO 2-C18 cartridges, impregnated with acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The chemical analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detection. Using average values for the three modes of operation (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) benzaldehyde showed a reduction on the emission (-3.4% for B2, -5.3% for B5, -5.7% for B10, and -6.9% for B20) and all other carbonyls showed a significative increase: 2.6, 7.3, 17.6, and 35.5% for formaldehyde; 1.4, 2.5, 5.4, and 15.8% for acetaldehyde; 2.1, 5.4, 11.1, and 22.0% for acrolein+acetone; 0.8, 2.7, 4.6, and 10.0% for propionaldehyde; 3.3, 7.8, 16.0, and 26.0% for butyraldehyde.

Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Arbilla, Graciela

357

Road vehicle emissions of molecular hydrogen (H 2) from a tunnel study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicle combustion emissions of molecular hydrogen (H 2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) were measured during a 6-week period from November 2004 to January 2005 in Gubrist Tunnel, Switzerland, to determine vehicle emission factors for these trace gases and the ratios of the concentration growths ?H2/?CO and ?H2/?CO2 in the tunnel under real-world highway driving conditions. For H 2, molar mixing ratios at the tunnel exit were found to be 7-10 ppm (parts-per-million, 10-6) during rush hours. Mean emission factors of E=49.7(±16.5)mgkm-1, ECO=1.46(±0.54)gkm-1, and E=266(±69)gkm-1 were calculated. E was largest during weekday rush-hour traffic, a consequence of the more frequent accelerations in congested traffic when fuel combustion is not optimal. E was smaller for heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) compared to light-duty vehicles (LDV), a finding which was attributed to the diesel vs. gasoline engine technology. The mean ?H2/?CO molecular ratio was 0.48±0.12. This ratio increased to ˜0.6 during rush hours, suggesting that H 2 yield is favored relative to CO under fuel-rich conditions, presumably a consequence of an increasing contribution of the water-gas-shift reaction. The mean ?H2/?CO2 molecular ratio was 4.4×10-3 but reduced to 2.5×10-3 when the relative HDV abundance was at maximum. Using three different approaches, road traffic H 2 emissions were estimated for 2004 for Switzerland at 5.0-6.6 Gg and globally at 4.2-8.1 Tg. Despite projections of increasing traffic, Swiss H 2 emissions are not expected to change significantly in the near future, and global emissions are likely to decrease due to improved exhaust gas clean-up technologies.

Vollmer, Martin K.; Juergens, Niklas; Steinbacher, Martin; Reimann, Stefan; Weilenmann, Martin; Buchmann, Brigitte

358

Exhaust Gas Modeling Effects on Hypersonic Powered Simulation at Mach 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical study was performed to investigate the accuracy and validity of cold-gas simulation of actual hot scramjet exhaust within a Mach 10 free stream over a representative single-stage-to-orbit airbreathing configuration. In particular, exhausts of various noncombusting chemistry models were studied to characterize their effects on the vehicle aftbody performance and the plume flow field definition. Two approximations of the hot scramjet combustion products were utilized to determine the requirement for expensive, multi-species numerical modeling, and to establish a baseline for the validation of cold-gas simulation. Cold-gas simulation at Mach 10 is shown to be a viable technique using an appropriate thermally perfect gas mixture for reproducing hot scramjet exhaust effects.

Tatum, Kenneth E.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

1995-01-01

359

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

360

Hepatoprotective effects of Ixora parviflora extract against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice.  

PubMed

Ixora parviflora, a species of the Rubiaceae, is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, and has been traditionally used as a folk medicine. An I. parviflora extract (IPE) has great antioxidant activity in vitro, including a scavenging effect on superoxide radicals, reducing power, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. However, whether IPE is efficacious against oxidative damage in vivo is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of IPE treatment on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses after exhaustive exercise in mice. Fifty male C57BL/6 mice (6 week old) were randomly divided into five groups and designated a sedentary control with vehicle (C), and exhaustive exercise with vehicle (IPE0), low dosage (IPE10), medium dosage (IPE50) and high dosage (IPE100) of IPE at 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. After a single bout of exhaustive swimming exercise challenge, levels of blood ammonia and creatine kinase (CK), and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein expression, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), and gp91(phox), p22(phox), and p47(phox) subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expressions in the IPE0 group were significantly affected compared to those of the C group, but they were all significantly inhibited by the IPE treatments. Results of the present in vivo study in mice indicate that I. parviflora extract possesses antioxidative and hepatoprotective potential following exhaustive exercise. PMID:24005966

Kan, Nai-Wen; Huang, Wen-Ching; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Wen, Kuo-Ching; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

2013-01-01

361

Spectrographic observation at wavelengths near 630 nm of the interaction between the atmosphere and the Space Shuttle exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction between the Space Shuttle exhaust and the ambient atmosphere was studied using spectra in the wavelength region near 630 nm, obtained from the Air Force Maui Optical Station were the temporal, spatial, and spectral distribution of the emission in this region was recorded. The results show that, when the Space Shuttle exhaust gases interact with the atmosphere in the ram direction, an intense long-lasting emission is generated at 630 nm due to O(1D - 3P). A substantial amount of O(1D) is swept back onto the orbiter. Two processes responsible for the formation of O(1D) are proposed.

Broadfoot, A. L.; Anderson, E.; Sherard, P.; Knecht, D. J.; Viereck, R. A.; Pike, C. P.; Murad, Edmond; Elgin, J. E.; Bernstein, L. S.; Kofsky, I. L.

1992-01-01

362

Antiandrogenic activity of extracts of diesel exhaust particles emitted from diesel-engine truck under different engine loads and speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the alteration of androgenic and antiandrogenic activities by diesel engine conditions, we collected diesel exhaust particles (DEP) samples emitted from a diesel-engine truck under different conditions of engine loads and vehicle speeds, and DEP extract (DEPE) samples were prepared from each. The androgenic and antiandrogenic activities of the DEPE samples were examined using a prostate specific antigen (PSA)

Kazumasa Okamura; Ryoichi Kizu; Akira Toriba; Tsuyoshi Murahashi; Atsushi Mizokami; Kerry L. Burnstein; Carolyn M. Klinge; Kazuichi Hayakawa

2004-01-01

363

Airborne Concentrations of PM2.5 and Diesel Exhaust Particles on Harlem Sidewalks: A Community-Based Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residents of the dense urban core neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) have expressed increas- ing concern about the potential human health impacts of diesel vehicle emissions. We measured concentrations of particulate matter ? 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on sidewalks in Harlem, NYC, and tested whether spatial variations in concentra- tions were related

Patrick L. Kinney; Maneesha Aggarwal; Mary E. Northridge; Nicole A. H. Janssen; Peggy Shepard

2000-01-01

364

Three dimensional nozzle-exhaust flow field analysis by a reference plane technique.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical method based on reference plane characteristics has been developed for the calculation of highly complex supersonic nozzle-exhaust flow fields. The difference equations have been developed for three coordinate systems. Local reference plane orientations are employed using the three coordinate systems concurrently thus catering to a wide class of flow geometries. Discontinuities such as the underexpansion shock and contact surfaces are computed explicitly for nonuniform vehicle external flows. The nozzles considered may have irregular cross-sections with swept throats and may be stacked in modules using the vehicle undersurface for additional expansion. Results are presented for several nozzle configurations.

Dash, S. M.; Del Guidice, P. D.

1972-01-01

365

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis  

PubMed Central

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal?exposure=urban?background+work?site?background+personal?activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples.

SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

2008-01-01

366

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis.  

PubMed

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Smith, Thomas J; Blicharz, Andrew P; Deminter, Jeffrey T

2009-02-01

367

Langmuir probe surveys of an arcjet exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrostatic (Langmuir) probes of both spherical and cylindrical geometry have been used to obtain electron number density and temperature in the exhaust of a laboratory arcjet. The arcjet thruster operated on nitrogen and hydrogen mixtures to simulate fully decomposed hydrazine in a vacuum environment with background pressures less than 0.05 Pa. The exhaust appears to be only slightly ionized (less than 1 percent) with local plasma potentials near facility ground. The current-voltage characteristics of the probes indicate a Maxwellian temperature distribution. Plume data are presented as a function of arcjet operating conditions and also position in the exhaust.

Zana, Lynnette M.

1987-01-01

368

Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al2O3 to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al2O3 appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

Dingle, A. N.

1982-01-01

369

Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

2013-12-01

370

Proinflammatory Effects of Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles on Scleroderma Skin Cells  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP) of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc), in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5) and older (Euro 4) diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?) and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF). DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems.

Mastrofrancesco, A.; Alfe, M.; Rosato, E.; Gargiulo, V.; Beatrice, C.; Di Blasio, G.; Zhang, B.; Su, D. S.; Picardo, M.; Fiorito, S.

2014-01-01

371

[Research on PAHs fingerprints of vehicle discharges].  

PubMed

Air samples of 14 PAHs were collected from vehicle discharges of different types, oils, and mileages and analyzed by HPLC. It showed that the total PAHs discharged from the vehicle in 30 minutes were 41.53-121.1 micrograms/m3, among which, BaA was the most predominant, about 33.3%, followed by Naphthalene, Benzo (ghi) pyrene and In (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, about 16.8%, 12.9% and 12.1%, respectively. Diesel vehicle discharged more total PAHs compared to gasoline vehicle. The two vehicles all exhausted much BaA and Naph, however diesel vehicle mainly emitted Ac, Fluor, Bghip, In, while gasoline discharged mainly Bghip, In, BkF. PAHs with five or more rings in gasoline discharges were relatively higher than those in diesel discharges, however to 3-ring PAHs, diesel vehicle produced more than gasoline vehicle. As for vehicle of different mileage, there was a clear increase for almost all PAHs, especially Flur, Py, BaP, Bghip. PMID:12916197

Zhu, Lizhong; Wang, Jing; Du, Ye; Xu, Qingqing

2003-05-01

372

Control of road noise by vehicle design†  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of reducing the noise emitted by commercial vehicles is complicated; not only are the mechano-acoustic aspects complex but there are serious commercial limitations arising from the cost of noise reduction in a very competitive industry. Noise radiated by the engine is the principal source on present-day commercial vehicles. The principles of design of enclosures to attenuate the noise are presented. The work of vehicle noise reduction is illustrated by an example in which the effects of exhaust silencing and various designs of engine enclosure are illustrated. It is concluded that it is possible, but not necessarily practicable, to get down to an I.S.O. test level of about 80 dBA with the appropriate amount of engine enclosure at a weight penalty of 9 Ib/dBA. However, space limitations on vehicles fitted with larger engines than those used in this work may make the fitting of an enclosure extremely difficult, and may necessitate considerable redesign of the vehicle. 80 dBA is probably the lower limit of commercial vehicle nosie and is set by type rolling noise. The vehicle manufacturer can make use of the techniques described above to make vehicles considerably quieter, but any acoustical treatment involves penalties in weight, cost, space, etc. For this reason it is cheaper and more effective to plan noise control treatments at the design stage than it is to modify existing vehicles.

Aspinall, D. T.

1970-12-01

373

Sulfur driven nucleation mode formation in diesel exhaust under transient driving conditions.  

PubMed

Sulfur driven diesel exhaust nucleation particle formation processes were studied in an aerosol laboratory, on engine dynamometers, and on the road. All test engines were equipped with a combination of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a partial diesel particulate filter (pDPF). At steady operating conditions, the formation of semivolatile nucleation particles directly depended on SO2 conversion in the catalyst. The nucleation particle emission was most significant after a rapid increase in engine load and exhaust gas temperature. Results indicate that the nucleation particle formation at transient driving conditions does not require compounds such as hydrocarbons or sulfated hydrocarbons, however, it cannot be explained only by the nucleation of sulfuric acid. A real-world exhaust study with a heavy duty diesel truck showed that the nucleation particle formation occurs even with ultralow sulfur diesel fuel, even at downhill driving conditions, and that nucleation particles can contribute 60% of total particle number emissions. In general, due to sulfur storage and release within the exhaust aftertreatment systems and transients in driving, emissions of nucleation particles can even be the dominant part of modern diesel vehicle exhaust particulate number emissions. PMID:24471707

Karjalainen, Panu; Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Keskinen, Jorma

2014-02-18

374

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the project is to assess the impact of heavy-duty hybrid vehicles on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants associated with internal combustion engines. The study also quantifies the fuel economy benefits of various...

1998-01-01

375

Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

2009-01-01

376

Non-C02 greenhouse gases; all gases count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Kyoto Protocol, a group of countries commit themselves to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to some 5% below the 1990 level. Countries can decide to spread their reduction commitment over several gases to lower compliance costs. Employing a multi-gas strategy can offer considerable efficiency gains because of the widely diverging marginal abatement cost for the different emission

Willemien Kets; Gerard Verweij

2005-01-01

377

Development of a Simple Auto Exhaust Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory evaluation was completed regarding the feasibility of applying a heated filament, combustible gas detector to the separate measurement of total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in auto exhaust. Of the several candidate filament materials test...

L. Hiam S. Chaikin

1966-01-01

378

An exploratory drilling exhaustion sequence plot program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The exhaustion sequence plot program computes the conditional area of influence for wells in a specified rectangular region with respect to a fixed-size deposit. The deposit is represented by an ellipse whose size is chosen by the user. The area of influence may be displayed on computer printer plots consisting of a maximum of 10,000 grid points. At each point, a symbol is presented that indicates the probability of that point being exhausted by nearby wells with respect to a fixed-size ellipse. This output gives a pictorial view of the manner in which oil fields are exhausted. In addition, the exhaustion data may be used to estimate the number of deposits remaining in a basin. ?? 1977.

Schuenemeyer, J. H.; Drew, L. J.

1977-01-01

379

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

380

Experiments and Analyses of Distributed Exhaust Nozzles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental and analytical aeroacoustic properties of several distributed exhaust nozzle (DEN) designs are presented. Significant differences between the designs are observed and correlated back to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flowfield predictions...

K. W. Kinzie D. B. Schein W. D. Solomon

2002-01-01

381

14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inertia loads to which it would be subjected in operations. (c) Exhaust piping connected to components between which relative motion could exist must have provisions for flexibility. [Amdt. 27-11, 41 FR 55470, Dec. 20, 1976]...

2009-01-01

382

Heat Pipes to Reduce Engine Exhaust Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fuel combustor employing heat transfer devices for improving combustion efficiency and reducing engine exhaust emissions is described. The fuel combustor consists of an elongated casing with an air inlet conduit portion at one end. An elongated heat pip...

D. F. Schultz

1980-01-01

383

Airborne Laser Laboratory Exhaust Channel Acoustic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wind tunnel investigation was performed to determine the acoustic characteristics of two alternative exhaust channel configurations for the Airborne Laser Labratory (ALL) gasdynamic laser. Models of the rectangular opening cavities were exposed to exter...

W. R. Conner

1976-01-01

384

MEFF (Muzzle Exhaust Flow Field) User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Yousefian flash prediction model, which includes the Muzzle Exhaust Flow Field (MEFF) program, is the only operational flash prediction model for guns that takes detailed chemsitry into account. This report provides a well-described path for intellige...

G. E. Keller

1984-01-01

385

Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction, we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including Monte-Carlo calculations has revealed some surprises and the Lee-Huang-Yang corrections for low-density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are directly measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars.[4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010)[0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010)[0pt] [3] N. Navon, S. Piatecki, K. Günter, B. Rem, T. C Nguyen, F. Chevy, W. Krauth, and C. Salomon, arXiv:1103.4449

Salomon, Christophe

2011-06-01

386

Airborne laser laboratory exhaust channel acoustic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind tunnel investigation was performed to determine the acoustic characteristics of two alternative exhaust channel configurations for the Airborne Laser Laboratory (ALL) gasdynamic laser. Models of the rectangular opening cavities were exposed to external flow in the Mach number range of 0.40 to 0.85 under the no-exhaust flow condition. Several shallow cavity resonance phenomena were identified in addition to

W. R. Conner

1976-01-01

387

77 FR 3386 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Clean Vehicles Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and made changes to the Clean Vehicle Program to reflect post-1998...earning period within which vehicle manufacturers could comply...program's fleet average non-methane organic gases (NMOG) requirements...information on the Pennsylvania Clean Vehicle program, refer to...

2012-01-24

388

Differences in the carbon composition of source profiles for diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter samples of diesel-fueled heavy-duty and gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle exhaust were acquired under controlled conditions associated with the State of Arizona's motor vehicle inspection and maintenance program. Samples of a mixture of emissions from these vehicles were also acquired at roadside sites. These samples were analysed for mass, elements, ions, and carbon. The carbon which evolved at temperatures of 120, 250, 450, and 550 C in a pure helium atmosphere, and at temperatures of 550, 700, and 800 C in a 2° 0 oxygen 98° 0 helium (by volume) atmosphere was measured with a flame ionization detector. The fraction of carbon which evolved at 700 C in the 2° 0 oxygen atmosphere was found to be nearly 10-times as abundant (as a fraction of PM 2.5 mass emissions) in the heavy-duty diesel-fueled vehicle emissions relative to the light-duty gasoline-fueled vehicle emissions. The organic carbon which evolved at 120 C was twice as abundant in diesel exhaust. The fraction of carbon which evolved at 550 C in an oxidizing atmosphere was twice as abundant in gasoline-fueled vehicle exhaust as it was in diesel exhaust. These differences in relative composition may be sufficient to allow diesel- and gasoline-fueled vehicle exhaust contributions to be distinguished from each other in ambient samples through the use of receptor models.

Watson, John G.; Chow, Judith C.; Lowenthal, Douglas H.; Pritchett, Lyle C.; Frazier, Clifton A.; Neuroth, Gary R.; Robbins, Richard

389

On the Performance and Operability of GE’s Dry Low NO x Combustors utilizing Exhaust Gas Recirculation for PostCombustion Carbon Capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture and sequestration of CO2 will be necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel (coal, oil, natural gas or biomass) power generation facilities in a carbon constrained world. Post combustion carbon capture is a viable technology alternative to reduce CO2 emissions from power plants in the short term. The CO2 concentration in the exhaust gases of natural fired

Andrei T. Evulet; Ahmed M. ELKady; Anthony R. Branda; Daniel Chinn

2009-01-01

390

Variability in onset of ECG changes indicative of ischemia after exposure to whole vs filtered diesel exhaust in hypertensive rats. Insight on mechanism?  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gases including C02, O2, N02, CO, aldehydes, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as highly respirable particulate matter. DE is a significant component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, which its...

391

Greenhouse gases: Sources and emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current interest in the ''greenhouse'' issue stems from the observation that the concentrations of such gases as CO(sub 2), CH(sub 4), N(sub 2)O, CFCl(sub 3) and CF(sub 2)Cl(sub 2) have been increasing. Changes in the concentrations of these gases hol...

J. Edmonds D. J. Wuebbles

1991-01-01

392

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Applets dealing with the meaning of the Maxwell distribution of gases and pressure of gases are discussed. The Maxwell distribution experiment allow the user to explore the most probable speed of gas molecules. The pressure experiment allows the user to explore the effects of size and mass on collision rate, direction, and relative speed of gas molecules within a fixed volume.

Blauch, David N.

393

Greenhouse Gases: A Closer Look  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers different aspects of the major greenhouse gases - water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides and CFCs - including some of the ways in which human activities are affecting the atmospheric concentrations of these key greenhouse gases. This is lesson six in a nine-lesson module about climate change.

Science, King'S C.

394

NOX REDUCTION FOR LEAN EXHAUST USING PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Currently CARB estimates on road diesel vehicles contribute 50% of the NOX and 78% of the particulates being discharged from mobile sources. Diesel emissions obviously must be reduced if future air quality targets are to be met. A critical technological barrier exists because there are no commercial technologies available, which can reduce NOX from diesel (lean), exhaust containing 5-15% O2 concentration. One promising approach to reducing NOX and particulates from diesel exhaust is to use a combination of plasma with catalyst. Plasma can be generated thermally or non-thermally. Thermal plasma is formed by heating the system to an exceedingly high temperature (>2000 C). High temperature requirements for plasma makes thermal plasma inefficient and requires skillful thermal management and hence is considered impractical for mobile applications. Non-thermal plasma directs electrical energy into the creation of free electrons, which in turn react with gaseous species thus creating plasma. A combination of non-thermal plasma with catalysts can be referred to Plasma Assisted Catalysts or PAC. PAC technology has been demonstrated in stationary sources where non-thermal plasma catalysis is carried out in presence of NH3 as a reductant. In stationary applications NO is oxidized to HNO3 and then into ammonium nitrate where it is condensed and removed. This approach is impractical for mobile application because of the ammonia requirement and the ultimate mechanism by which NOX is removed. However, if a suitable catalyst can be found which can use onboard fuel as reductant then the technology holds a considerable promise. NOX REDUCTION FOR LEAN EXHAUST USING PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS Ralph Slone, B. Bhatt and Victor Puchkarev NOXTECH INC. In addition to the development of an effective catalyst, a non-thermal plasma reactor needs be scaled and demonstrated along with a reliable and cost effective plasma power source and onboard HC source needs to be proven. Under the work sponsored by DOE and SCAQMD Noxtech is developing a cost effective and reliable PAC system for mobile applications. The goal of the program is to develop a suitable catalyst with the ability to remove high levels of NOx at reasonable space velocities. This new catalyst will then be used to scale the technology to treat exhaust from 80Hp engine and eventually to demonstrate the technology on 200 and 400 Hp engine applications. Using the 2004 EPA proposed regulation as a standard, it is clear in order for PAC system to be commercially viable it needs to remove NOX by 70% or better. It is further assumed from past experience that 30,000 HR-1 space velocities are necessary to ensure a good compact design.

Bhatt, B.

2000-08-20

395

The heterogeneous generation of N2O from exhaust gases of combustion: A laboratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneous reaction of NO, SO2 and O2 in the presence of condensed or adsorbed H2O results in high yields of N2O under conditions mimicking flue gas from fossil fuel combustion. We observed a strong influence of the nature of the substrate surface on the rate of N2O formation. The maximum rate of N2O formation of 350 ppm h-1 occurred on soot and fly ash at relative humidities approaching 100% at 368K final yields of 80-100% N2O. The mechanism corresponds to a complex multiphase system in which NO2 seems to be a key species. The observed abundance of NO2 does not correspond to the one predicted by the simple mechanism by Lyon and Cole (1988).

Pires, M.; Rossi, M. J.

396

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

397

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

398

46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must...normal conditions. (d) Pipes used for wet exhaust lines...the action of oil, acid, and heat, and has a wall thickness...practicable. (f) Where an exhaust pipe passes through a...

2013-10-01

399

46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must...normal conditions. (d) Pipes used for wet exhaust lines...the action of oil, acid, and heat, has a wall thickness sufficient...practicable. (f) Where an exhaust pipe passes through a...

2013-10-01

400

Exhaust particle removing system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust particle removing system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a filter disposed in an engine exhaust passage for trapping particles suspended in exhaust gas; (b) a burner for burning off the particles deposited on the filter; (c) means for sensing the pressure in the exhaust passage at a point upstream of the filter; (d) means

Shinzawa

1986-01-01

401

A novel four-way combining catalysts for simultaneous removal of exhaust pollutants from diesel engine.  

PubMed

A novel four-way combining catalysts containing double layers was applied to simultaneously remove four kinds of exhaust pollutants (NOx, CO, HC and PM) emitted from diesel engine. The four-way catalysts were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). Their catalytic performances were evaluated by temperature-programmed reaction technology. The double layer catalysts could effectively remove the four main pollutants. The highest catalytic activity was given by the two-layered catalysts of La0.6K0.4CoO3/Al2O3 and W/HZSM-5. Under the simulated exhaust gases conditions, the peak temperature of the soot combustion was 421 degrees C, the maximal conversion of NO to N2 was 74%, the temperature of the HC total conversion was 357 degrees C, and the maximum conversion ratio of CO was 99%. PMID:21175003

Liu, Jian; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Zhen; Duan, Aijun; Jiang, Guiyuan; Jing, Yanni

2010-01-01

402

A Combined Passive Water Vapor Exchanger and Exhaust Gas Diffusion Barrier for Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells operating on hydrocarbon fuels require water vapor injection into the fuel stream for fuel reforming and the prevention of carbon fouling. Compared to active water recovery systems, a passive approach would eliminate the need for a separate water source, pumps, and actuators, and thus reduce parasitic thermal losses. The passive approach developed in this paper employs a capillary pump that recovers the water vapor from the exhaust, while providing a diffusion barrier that prevents exhaust gases from entering the fuel stream. Benchtop proof tests have proven the feasibility of the passive fuel humidifier concept, and have provided a calibration factor for a computational design tool that can be used for industrial applications

Williford, Rick E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Hatchell, Brian K.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Singh, Prabhakar (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

2002-11-14

403

Demonstrating Ultra-Low Diesel Vehicle Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluate performance of near-term exhaust emissions control technologies on a modern diesel vehicle over transient drive cycles; Phase 1: Independent (separate) evaluations of engine-out, OEM catalysts, CDPF, and NOx adsorber (Completed March 2000); Phase 2: Combine NOx adsorber and CDPF to evaluate\\/demonstrate simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM (Underway--interim results available); Establish potential for these technologies to help CIDI engines

McGill

2000-01-01

404

A parametric experimental investigation of a scramjet nozzle at Mach 6 with Freon and argon or air used for exhaust simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric experimental investigation of a scramjet nozzle was conducted with a gas mixture used to simulate the scramjet engine exhaust flow at a free-stream Reynolds number of approximately 6.5 x 10(exp 6) per foot. External nozzle surface angles of 16, 20, and 24 deg were tested with a fixed-length ramp and for cowl internal surface angles of 6 and 12 deg. Pressure data on the external nozzle surface were obtained for mixtures of Freon and argon gases with a ratio of specific heats of about 1.23, which matches that of a scramjet exhaust. Forces and moments were determined by integration of the pressure data. Two nozzle configurations were also tested with air used to simulate the exhaust flow. On the external nozzle surface, lift and thrust forces for air exhaust simulation were approximately half of those for Freon-argon exhaust simulation and the pitching moment was approximately a third. These differences were primarily due to the difference in the ratios of specific heats between the two exhaust simulation gases. A 20 deg external surface angle produced the greatest thrust for a 6 deg cowl internal surface angle. A flow fence significantly increased lift and thrust forces over those for the nozzle without a flow fence.

Cubbage, James M.; Monta, William J.

1991-01-01

405

Generic hypersonic vehicle performance model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated computational model of a generic hypersonic vehicle was developed for the purpose of determining the vehicle's performance characteristics, which include the lift, drag, thrust, and moment acting on the vehicle at specified altitude, flight condition, and vehicular configuration. The lift, drag, thrust, and moment are developed for the body fixed coordinate system. These forces and moments arise from both aerodynamic and propulsive sources. SCRAMjet engine performance characteristics, such as fuel flow rate, can also be determined. The vehicle is assumed to be a lifting body with a single aerodynamic control surface. The body shape and control surface location are arbitrary and must be defined. The aerodynamics are calculated using either 2-dimensional Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory and approximate high-Mach-number Prandtl-Meyer expansion theory. Skin-friction drag was also accounted for. The skin-friction drag coefficient is a function of the freestream Mach number. The data for the skin-friction drag coefficient values were taken from NASA Technical Memorandum 102610. The modeling of the vehicle's SCRAMjet engine is based on quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamics for the engine diffuser, nozzle, and the combustor with heat addition. The engine has three variable inputs for control: the engine inlet diffuser area ratio, the total temperature rise through the combustor due to combustion of the fuel, and the engine internal expansion nozzle area ratio. The pressure distribution over the vehicle's lower aft body surface, which acts as an external nozzle, is calculated using a combination of quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamic theory and Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory. The exhaust plume shape is determined by matching the pressure inside the plume, calculated from the gas dynamic equations, with the freestream pressure, calculated from Newtonian or Modified Newtonian theory. In this manner, the pressure distribution along the vehicle after body expansion surface is then determined. The aerodynamic modeling, the engine modeling, and the exhaust plume analysis are described in more detail. A description of the computer code used to perform the above calculations is given and an input/output example is then given. The computer code is available on a Macintosh floppy disk.

Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

1993-01-01

406

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). Safety analyses indicate that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for release of flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTs to reduce the ''time at risk'' while salt well pumping. For this reason, portable exhausters will be installed as a precautionary measure and used when flammable gas concentrations exceed 25 percent of the LFL during salt well pumping.

HOMAN, N.A.

1999-07-14

407

Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Tailpipe Exhaust for Several Automobiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automotive catalytic converter reduces or eliminates the emission of various chemical species (e.g. CO, hydrocarbons, etc.) that are the products of combustion from automobile exhaust. However, these units are only effective once they have reached operating temperature. The design and placement of catalytic converters has changed in order to reduce both the quantity of emissions and the time that is required for the converter to be effective. In order to compare the effectiveness of catalytic converters, time-resolved measurements were performed on several vehicles, including a 2010 Toyota Prius, a 2010 Honda Fit, a 1994 Honda Civic, and a 1967 Oldsmobile 442 (which is not equipped with a catalytic converter but is used as a baseline). The newer vehicles demonstrate bot a reduced overall level of CO and hydrocarbon emissions but are also effective more quickly than older units. The time-resolved emissions will be discussed along with the impact of catalytic converter design and location on the measured emissions.

White, Allen R.; Allen, James; Devasher, Rebecca B.

2011-06-01

408

Discharges In Electronegative Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will come in three parts. First, the early work in electronegative plasmas, principally by Emeleus and co-workers in Iodine, and by Massey and co-workers in Oxygen. They were at opposite ends of the ``spectrum'' of electronegativity - the ratio of negative ion density to electron density. Secondly, we cover in more detail work in Oxygen, where in retrospect we know that too many parameters were included to reveal the underlying structure of electronegative plasmas. That is associated with Edgley and von Engel, and later with Ferriera and co-workers. From there until the present day we describe work coming from different directions, showing that by questioning prior assumptions, we have arrived at our present understanding. The basic elements are, that in general there is a negative ion core, surrounded by a conventional plasma, and that at low pressures the situation is significantly different from higher pressures. The talk will seek to avoid mathematical complexity and concentrate on the physics, explaining the reason for previous differences, and show the way forward for a more Complete understanding of the very complex problem of strongly electronegative plasmas and their structure when diluted by rare gases. All of this involves a multiplicity of ion species of both signs, and a variety of reaction rates.

Franklin, R. N.

2008-10-01

409

A stochastic control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supervisory control strategy of a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of vehicle sub-systems to achieve performance targets such as maximizing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions. This high-level control problem is commonly referred as the power management problem. In the past, many supervisory control strategies were developed on the basis of a few pre-defined driving cycles, using intuition and

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Pengl; J. W. Grizzle

2004-01-01

410

Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production  

DOEpatents

A method of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The method includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream my be converted into ammonia.

Robel, Wade J. (Peoria, IL); Driscoll, James Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Helpston, GB)

2010-10-12

411

Laboratory evaluation of a prototype photochemical chamber designed to investigate the health effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Laboratory experiments simulating atmospheric aging of motor vehicle exhaust emissions were conducted using a single vehicle and a photochemical chamber. A compact automobile was used as a source of emissions. The vehicle exhaust was diluted with ambient air to achieve carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations similar to those observed in an urban highway tunnel. With the car engine idling, it is expected that the CO concentration is a reasonable surrogate for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Varying the amount of dilution of the exhaust gas to produce different CO concentrations, allowed adjustment of the concentrations of VOCs in the chamber to optimize production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) needed for animal toxicological exposures. Photochemical reactions in the chamber resulted in nitric oxide (NO) depletion, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) formation, ozone (O3) accumulation, and SOA formation. A stable SOA concentration of approximately 40 µg m?3 at a chamber mean residence time of 30 min was achieved. This relatively short mean residence time provided adequate chamber flow output for both particle characterization and animal exposures. The chamber was operated as a continuous flow reactor for animal toxicological tests. SOA mass generated from the car exhaust diluted with ambient air was almost entirely in the ultrafine mode. Chamber performance was improved by using different types of seed aerosol to provide a surface for condensation of semivolatile reaction products, thus increasing the yield of SOA. Toxicological studies using Sprague-Dawley rats found significant increases of in vivo chemiluminescence in lungs following exposure to SOA.

Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy E.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Long, Mark S.; Godleski, John J.; Koutrakis, Petros

2013-01-01

412

40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concentration of the diluted gases may be determined to within ±2 percent. (d) Oxygen interference check gases shall contain propane with...ppmC hydrocarbon. The three oxygen interference gases shall contain 21% ± 1%...

2010-07-01

413

Waste Anesthetic Gases: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste anesthetic gases are small amounts of volatile anesthetic gases that leak from the patient's anesthetic breathing circuit into the air of operating rooms during delivery of anesthesia. These gases may also be exhaled by patients recovering from anes...

2007-01-01

414

Effect of exhaustive exercise on myocardial performance  

SciTech Connect

Possible changes in cardiac functional capacity in the intact heart following prolonged exhaustive exercise are investigated. Cardiac output, coronary blood flow, aortic blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development and maximum rate of left ventricular pressure relaxation were measured in eight chronically instrumented adult mongrel dogs run at a constant work load to exhaustion signalled by the animals' refusal or inability to continue. All cardiovascular parameters, with the exception of stroke volume, are found to increase significantly during the transition from rest to steady-state exercise at about 75% of maximum heart rate. In the transition from steady state to exhaustion, only the maximum rates of left ventricular pressure development and relaxation are observed to increase significantly, while all other values exhibited no significant change. Similarly, no significant changes are observed in measurements of maximum cardiac parameters before and after exhaustion. Results indicate that cardiac function and hemodynamic parameters are not depressed at exhaustion in dogs despite observed ultrastructural changes.

Grimditch, G.K.; Barnard, R.J.; Duncan, H.W.

1981-11-01

415

Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices  

SciTech Connect

The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

2011-11-01

416

Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

1999-01-01

417

Kinetics of the desulfurization of an exhausted ionizing additive in a MHD electric power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of sulfur oxides from exhaust gases is an acute problem in the operation of open-cycle MHD power plants. This paper proposes a method for calculating the rate of reaction between potassium sulfate and hydrogen at temperatures of 1033-1073 K. The method is based on the assumption that the process occurs in two stages: activated adsorption and a reaction in the adsorbed phase. An experimental desulfurization unit operating on these principles is described, and results of calculations are compared with experimental data.

Vizel, Ia. M.; Ibragimov, R. A.; Mostinskii, I. L.

1980-07-01

418

Kinetics of the desulfurization of an exhausted ionizing additive in a MHD electric power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of sulfur oxides from exhaust gases is an acute problem in the operation of open-cycle MHD power plants. This paper proposes a method for calculating the rate of reaction between potassium sulfate and hydrogen at temperatures of 1033-1073 K. The method is based on the assumption that the process occurs in two stages: activated adsorption and a reaction in the adsorbed phase. An experimental desulfurization unit operating on these principles is described, and results of calculations are compared with experimental data.

Vizel, Ia. M.; Ibragimov, R. A.; Mostinskii, I. L.

1981-01-01

419

Investigating and Using Biomass Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Learners generate these gases everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time theyâll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Learners will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best either according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

Benson, Eric; Highfill, Melissa

2012-07-03

420

Noble gases in the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The abundance and isotopic composition of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon which were released by stepwise heating of lunar fines (15601.64) and (15271.65) were measured spectrometrically. The results of a composition of noble gases released from the lunar fines with noble gases in meteorites and in the earth are presented along with the isotopic composition of noble gases in lunar fines, in meteorites, and in the atmosphere. A study of two isotopically distinct components of trapped xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is also included.

Manuel, O. K.; Srinivasan, B.; Hennecke, E. W.; Sinclair, D. E.

1972-01-01

421

Environmental Implications of Anesthetic Gases  

PubMed Central

For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment.

Yasny, Jeffrey S.; White, Jennifer

2012-01-01

422

Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the impact of California phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the composition and reactivity of motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions. Significant changes to gasoline properties that occurred in the first half of 1996 included an increase in oxygen content; decreases in alkene, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur contents; and modified distillation properties. Vehicle emissions were measured in

Thomas W. Kirchstetter; Brett C. Singer; Robert A. Harley; Gary R. Kendall; James M. Hesson

1999-01-01

423

Hybrid Propulsion Systems for Motor Vehicles with Predominantly Intermittent Modes of Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small delivery vehicle was equipped with a flywheel-hybrid drive and compared in test stand and driving tests with a conventional drive vehicle. It turned out that with the hybrid drive, energy can be saved and exhaust emissions can be reduced.

H. Bartsch J. Helling H. Schreck

1977-01-01

424

On-Road measurement of particulate matter emissions from vehicles: particle concentration, size distribution and morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer 2010, we conducted a field experiment in Southern Michigan to measure on-road vehicle emissions. During the campaign, particulate matter (PM) concentrations were monitored with a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) and transmissometer system. The Lidar and transmissometer system measures PM mass concentration of vehicle exhaust using backscatter and extinction of an ultraviolet laser beam directed across the road.

N. Salvadori; S. China; J. Cook; H. D. Kuhns; H. Moosmuller; C. Mazzoleni

2010-01-01

425

Optimal Total Vehicle Pollutants Emission Quantity Based on Link Traffic Capacity Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing of vehicles ownership, the vehicular exhaust emissions have become major sources of air pollution in cities. In this paper, the pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbon (HC) are considered as evaluation factors. On the basis of the relation between the emission factors and vehicle's velocity and the relation amongst three parameters (Volume, Speed, and

Zhigao ZHU; Tiezhu LI; Wenquan LI

2008-01-01

426

Catching up in new energy vehicle industry: Review of its development and policies in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the emission of automobile exhaust and overcome energy crisis, like other countries, China has launched incentive policies to develop new energy vehicles including electric vehicles since 2001. Additionally, as one of priorities in the Chinese national 5-year plans, it is a strategy to catch up in auto industries. This paper reviews the latest policy issued in

Hongtao Chen; Jun Jin; Jin Chen

2008-01-01

427

Obese mice are resistant to eosinophilic airway inflammation induced by diesel exhaust particles.  

PubMed

Particulate matter can exacerbate respiratory diseases such as asthma. Diesel exhaust particles are the substantial portion of ambient particulate matter with a <2.5?µm diameter in urban areas. Epidemiological data indicate increased respiratory health effects of particulate matter in obese individuals; however, the association between obesity and diesel exhaust particle-induced airway inflammation remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the differences in susceptibility to airway inflammation induced by exposure to diesel exhaust particles between obese mice (db/db) and lean mice (db/+m). Female db/db and db/+m mice were intratracheally administered diesel exhaust particles or vehicle every 2?weeks for a total of seven times. The cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histological changes in the lungs were assessed and the lungs and serum were analyzed for the generation of cytokines, chemokines and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Diesel exhaust particle exposure-induced eosinophilic infiltration in db/+m mice accompanied by T-helper 2 cytokine, chemokine and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in the lungs. In contrast, it induced mild neutrophilic airway inflammation accompanied by elevated cytokines and chemokines in db/db mice. The lungs of db/db mice exhibited decreased expression of eosinophil activators/chemoattractants such as interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and eotaxin compared with those of db/+m mice. In addition, serum eotaxin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were significantly higher in db/db mice than in db/+m mice. In conclusion, obesity can affect susceptibility to diesel exhaust particle-induced airway inflammation, which is possibly due to differences in local and systemic inflammatory responses between lean and obese individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24105835

Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa

2014-06-01

428

Diffusion algorithms and data reduction routine for onsite launch predictions for the transport of Titan 3 C exhaust effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/MSFC multilayer diffusion algorithms have been specialized for the prediction of the surface impact for the dispersive transport of the exhaust effluents from the launch of a Titan 3 vehicle. This specialization permits these transport predictions to be made at the launch range in real time so that the effluent monitoring teams can optimize their monitoring grids. Basically, the data reduction routine requires just the meteorology profiles for the thermodynamics and kinematics of the atmosphere as an input. These profiles are graphed along with the resulting exhaust cloud rise history, the center line concentrations and dosages, and the hydrogen chloride isopleths.

Stephens, J. B.; Hamilton, P. A.

1974-01-01

429

Increase of urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine in diesel exhaust emission inspector exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objectives of this study were to explore the factors influencing urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in\\u000a diesel engine exhaust emission inspectors (inspectors), the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure\\u000a and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), and the PAHs exposure levels in diesel vehicle emission inspection stations (inspection\\u000a stations).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-eight inspectors and a control group

Mei-Wen Lee; Mei-Lien Chen; Shih-Chun Candice Lung; Chung-Jung Tsai; Chao-Feng Steven Lai; Shang-Chun Yang; I-Fang Mao

430

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

431

Gas turbine exhaust nozzle. [for noise reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An elongated hollow string is disposed in an exhaust nozzle combustion chamber and communicates with an air source through hollow struts at one end. The other end of the string is bell-mouth shaped and extends over the front portion of a nozzle plug. The bell-mouth may be formed by pivotally mounted flaps or leaves which are used to vary the exhaust throat area and the area between the plug and the leaves. Air from the engine inlet flows into the string and also between the combustion chamber and a housing disposed around the chamber. The air cools the plug and serves as a low velocity inner core of secondary gas to provide noise reduction for the primary exhaust gas while the other air, when it exits from the nozzle, forms an outer low velocity layer to further reduce noise. The structure produces increased thrust in a turbojet or turbofan engine.

Straight, D. M. (inventor)

1973-01-01

432

Degenerate Quantum Gases of Strontium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a nonmagnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr2 molecules.

Stellmer, Simon; Schreck, Florian; Killian, Thomas C.

2014-03-01

433

Different Fuels and Greenhouse gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Peter Hall (a senior scientist in the field of bioenergy research at Crown Research Institute Scion) describes how different products (e.g. coal, wood) produce differing amounts of greenhouse gases.

Waikato, The U.; Hub, Science L.

434

Practical means of implementing vehicle noise control. II†  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine noise is usually the main source of noise on a commercial vehicle. Palliative treatment by engine/gearbox enclosure and by attention to the exhaust system can give some 7-8 dBA reduction of noise. A weight penalty of 10 lb/dBA and a cost penalty of £3-4/dBA results from these treatments. Reduction of engine noise at source is a long term solution. It is usually not difficult, if expensive, to reduce exhaust noise to an acceptable level by careful design of the exhaust system. Engine enclosure can be conveniently effected by absorbent-lined steel panels although practical difficulties can occur with existing vehicles. The choice of absorbent material is restricted by lubricating and fuel oil contamination and the resultant fire hazard.

Berry, W. C.

1970-12-01

435

Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.  

PubMed Central

Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer.

Arnold, D R

1975-01-01

436

Prototype Variable-Area Exhaust Nozzle Designed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center s Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for adaptive aeropropulsion components has resulted in the design of a prototype variable-area exhaust nozzle (see the preceding photograph). The novel design exploits the potential of smart materials to improve the performance of existing fixed-area exhaust nozzles by introducing new capabilities for adaptive shape control, vibration damping, and flow manipulation. The design utilizes two different smart materials: shape memory alloy wires as actuators and magnetorheological fluids as damper locks.

Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gangbring

2005-01-01

437

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM A METHANOL FUELED VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exhaust, evaporative, and refueling emissions were examined from a methanol fueled Ford Escort operated with M-85 (85% methanol - 15% gasoline) and M-l00 (100% methanol) fuels. xhaust and evaporative emissions were examined for vehicle operation at summer and winter ambient tempe...

438

40 CFR 86.098-24 - Test vehicles and engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled...among the vehicles represented by the exhaust emission-data selections for the engine family, unless evaporative and/or...

2013-07-01

439

Electrostatic Potential Generated by Rockets on Vehicles in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators have reported the existence of electric current in the exhaust plumes of rocket engines and have speculated that this current could generate a sufficiently high electrostatic potential on vehicles in space to interfere with or damage electronic subsystems or instrumentation. This paper identifies the source of the observed current, calculates its magnitude as a function of the engine parameters,

Leonard Aronowitz

1968-01-01

440

MRI using hyperpolarized noble gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to review the physical basis of MRI using hyperpolarized noble gases as well as the present status\\u000a of preclinical and clinical applications. Non-radioactive noble gases with a nuclear spin 1\\/2 (He-3, Xe-129) can be hyperpolarized\\u000a by optical pumping. Polarization is transferred from circularly polarized laser light to the noble-gas atoms via alkali-metal\\u000a vapors

H.-U. Kauczor; R. Surkau; T. Roberts

1998-01-01

441

Quantum Gases:. Setting the Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a brief historical overview of the physical realisations of quantum degeneracy and Bose-Einstein condensation observed to date, with the aim of showing why quantum gases is a key rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field of physics. We motivate the need for developing more advanced theories to understand all the features observed in ultracold gases, and present some of the unresolved issues where the theories discussed in this book can play an important role.

Proukakis, Nick P.; Burnett, Keith

2013-02-01

442

Unreleased Energy in Flame Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE recently reported1 the results of temperature measurements made by means of very fine quartz-coated platinum wires in the flame gases resulting from the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures in a specially constructed burner. From these measurements estimates were made of the proportion of the heat of combustion which was unreleased in the flame gases for the purpose of increasing their

W. T. David; J. Mann

1944-01-01

443

Assessment of the 3430 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack Sampling Probe Location  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed a demonstration to determine the acceptable location in which to place an air sampling probe for emissions monitoring for radionuclides in the exhaust air discharge from the new 3430 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack. The method was to adopt the results of a previously performed test series for a system of similar configuration, followed by a partial test on the actual system to verify the applicability of previously performed tests. The qualification criteria included 1) a uniform air velocity, 2) an average flow angle that does not deviate from the axis of the duct by more than 20°, 3) a uniform concentration of tracer gases, and 4) a uniform concentration of tracer particles. Section 1 provides background information for the demonstration, and Section 2 describes the test strategy, including the criteria for the applicability of model results and the test matrix. Section 3 describes the flow -angle test and the velocity uniformity test, Section 4 provides the test results, and Section 5 provides the conclusions. Appendix A includes the test data sheets, and Appendix B gives applicable qualification results from the previously tested model stack. The data from the previously tested and similarly designed stack was demonstrated to be applicable to the current design for the 3430 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack. The 3430 stack was tested in both January and May of 2010 to document the results of several changes that were made to the exhaust system after the January tests. The 3430 stack meets the qualification criteria given in the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1 standard. Changes to the system configuration or operations outside of the bounds of this report (e.g., exhaust velocity increases, relocation of sample probe) will require retesting/reevaluation to determine compliancewith the requirements.

Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

2010-07-16

444

Assessment of a flow-through balance for hypersonic wind tunnel models with scramjet exhaust flow simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this investigation were twofold: first, to determine whether accurate force and moment data could be obtained during hypersonic wind tunnel tests of a model with a scramjet exhaust flow simulation that uses a representative nonwatercooled, flow-through balance; second, to analyze temperature time histories on various parts of the balance to address thermal effects on force and moment data. The tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Wind Tunnel at free-stream Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5 to 7.4 x 10(exp 6)/ft and nominal angles of attack of -3.5 deg, 0 deg, and 5 deg. The simulant exhaust gases were cold air, hot air, and a mixture of 50 percent Argon and 50 percent Freon by volume, which reached stagnation temperatures within the balance of 111, 214, and 283 F, respectively. All force and moment values were unaffected by the balance thermal response from exhaust gas simulation and external aerodynamic heating except for axial-force measurements, which were significantly affected by balance heating. This investigation showed that for this model at the conditions tested, a nonwatercooled, flow-through balance is not suitable for axial-force measurements during scramjet exhaust flow simulation tests at hypersonic speeds. In general, heated exhaust gas may produce unacceptable force and moment uncertainties when used with thermally sensitive balances.

Huebner, Lawrence D.; Kniskern, Marc W.; Monta, William J.

1993-01-01

445

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.  

Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

446

Emissions of Particulate Trace Elements, Metals and Organic Species from Gasoline, Diesel, and Biodiesel Passenger Vehicles and Their Relation to Oxidative Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three light-duty passenger vehicles were tested in five configurations in a chassis dynamometer study to determine the chemical and oxidative potential of the particulate exhaust emissions. The first vehicle was a diesel Honda with a three-stage oxidation system. Its main catalyst was replaced with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and tested as a second configuration. The second vehicle was a

K. L. Cheung; L. Ntziachristos; T. Tzamkiozis; J. J. Schauer; Z. Samaras; K. F. Moore; C. Sioutas

2010-01-01

447

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

448

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

449

Vehicle barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable\\/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate

Hirsh

1991-01-01

450

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

451

OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS USING AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...

452

STUDIES OF PARTICULATE REMOVAL FROM DIESEL EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of the collection of particulate emissions from diesel exhaust by several different methods, using 5.7 liter GM diesel engines (as sources) and such controls as fiber and gravel bed filters, trap/cyclones, and ESPs. Overall and fract...

453