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1

49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43...Requirements § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion...under usual operating conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and...

2010-10-01

2

49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43...Requirements § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion...under usual operating conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and...

2012-10-01

3

49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43...Requirements § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion...under usual operating conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and...

2013-10-01

4

49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43...Requirements § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion...under usual operating conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and...

2011-10-01

5

Vehicle's exhaust emissions under car-following model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explore each vehicle's exhaust emissions under the full velocity difference (FVD) model and the car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability during three typical traffic situations. Numerical results show that the vehicle's exhaust emissions of the second model are less than those of the first model under the three typical traffic situations, which shows that the second model can reduce each vehicle's exhaust emissions.

Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Yun-Peng

2014-12-01

6

Absorption refrigeration system for mobile applications utilizing exhaust gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A breadboard prototype of an absorption system for truck refrigeration using heat from the exhaust-gases was designed, built and tested. Measured COP values of the unoptimized single-stage ammonia-water absorption cycle varied between 23 and 30%, but system modeling shows that this can be improved to values considerably over 30%. Computer simulation for the system included cycle analysis as well as component modeling, using a detailed two-fluid model for flow of the ammonia-water mixture in the condenser and absorber. This detailed model was also validated using test data. In addition, the recoverable energy of the exhaust gases was analyzed for representative truck-driving conditions for city traffic, mountain roads and flat roads. The results show that the system is promising for long distance driving on flat roads. Zusammenfassung Es wurde ein Prototyp einer abgasbetriebenen Absorptionskälteanlage für Transportkühlung ausgelegt, gebaut und getestet. Das gemessene Wärmeverhältnis der noch nicht optimierten einstufigen Ammoniak-Wasser Absorptionskältemaschine (AKM) liegt zwischen 23 und 30%. Simulationsrechnungen zeigen, daß das Wärmeverhältnis auf deutlich über 30% gesteigert werden kann. Die Simulationsrechnungen wurden sowohl für den gesamten Kreisprozeß als auch für einzelne Komponenten durchgeführt. Insbesondere wurde für den Verflüssiger und Absorber ein detailiertes Zweifluidmodell für die Strömung des Ammoniak-Wasser-Gemisches entwickelt und mit Hilfe der Meßdaten validiert. Zusätzlich wurde für repräsentative Lkw Fahrten im Stadtverkehr und auf gebirgigen und ebenen Außerortsstrecken die nutzbare Abgasenergie analysiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß eine abgasbetriebene AKM besonders für Langstreckenfahrten auf ebener Strecke geeignet ist.

Koehler, J.; Tegethoff, W. J.; Westphalen, D.; Sonnekalb, M.

7

Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650 1050 °C for 50 h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (<20 ?m) precipitated heterogeneously deep (600 ?m at 950 °C) into SiMo. It is argued that the accommodation of volume change, preferential diffusion paths and increased N solubility as Si was depleted contribute to a self-accelerating process. The Si depletion around the coarse nitrides lowered the microhardness and the corrosion resistance of the alloy. In diesel and in normal petrol gases ?-sized MgSiN2 form in SiMo in cell boundaries where Mg segregates. This also occurs in Ni-Resist in both dry and normal petrol whereas no nitrides were observed in Ni-Resist exposed to diesel gases.

Tholence, F.; Norell, M.

2005-02-01

8

Exhaust gas recirculation system of a motor vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement for an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system of a motor vehicle is described. The system consists of: (1) a diaphragm type EGR valve mounted on an EGR pipe which connects the exhaust manifold and the intake manifold; (2) an opening path for air from the atmosphere diverged from a connecting pipe which connects the diaphragm chamber of the

Hamanishi

1977-01-01

9

EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL VERIFICATION OF SIMILARITY CONCEPT FOR DISPERSION OF CAR EXHAUST GASES IN URBAN  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL VERIFICATION OF SIMILARITY CONCEPT FOR DISPERSION OF CAR EXHAUST GASES conditions, car exhaust gases are often emitted inside poorly ventilated street canyons. One may suppose however that moving cars can themselves produce a certain ventilation effect in addition to natural air

Fedorovich, Evgeni

10

Simulation of hypersonic scramjet exhaust. [pressure distribution on afterbody/nozzle sections of vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan and some preliminary analysis for the accurate simulation of pressure distributions on the afterbody/nozzle portions of a hypersonic scramjet vehicle are described. The objectives fulfilled were to establish the standards of similitude for a hydrogen/air scramjet exhaust interacting with a vehicle afterbody, determine an experimental technique for validation of the procedures that will be used in conventional wind tunnel facilities, suggest a program of experiments for proof of the concept, and explore any unresolved problems in the proposed simulation procedures. It is shown that true enthalpy, Reynolds number, and nearly exact chemistry can be provided in the exhaust flow for the flight regime from Mach 4 to 10 by a detonation tube simulation. A detailed discussion of the required similarity parameters leads to the conclusion that substitute gases can be used as the simulated exhaust gas in a wind tunnel to achieve the correct interaction forces and moments.

Oman, R. A.; Foreman, K. M.; Leng, J.; Hopkins, H. B.

1975-01-01

11

Modeling smog chamber measurements of vehicle exhaust VOC reactivities  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle exhaust VOC reactivities, measured at GM`s smog chamber facility, have been modeled using the SAPRC93 photochemical mechanism. The vehicle exhaust mixtures were generated by a single vehicle run over a portion of the Federal Test Procedure using three Auto/Oil reformulated test gasolines. For each run, up to 156 individual VOC species were identified. Initial HONO concentrations are needed to simulate reactivity measurement runs. (HONO is expected to be generated in a Tedlar bag holding the exhaust sample prior to its transfer to the smog chambers.) Measured and simulated relative incremental reactivities for the three exhaust mixtures are highly consistent. However, measured relative incremental reactivities are more sensitive to fuel effects than simulated ones. The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR)-based relative incremental reactivities, derived from individual species concentrations and MIR factors, are very close to simulated ones. A number of sensitivity simulation runs have been carried out to investigate the impact of HONO and other variables. Results show that relative reactivities of actual vehicle exhaust emissions can be measured by chamber runs in spite of the HONO effect.

Chang, T.Y.; Nance, B.I. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.; Kelly, N.A. [General Motors R and D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

12

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

1935-01-01

13

Measurement of nitrous acid in motor vehicle exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important tropospheric air pollutant. In this study, HONO and NO{sub x} emissions from on-road vehicles were measured at the Caldecott Tunnel during summer 1995. The Caldecott Tunnel is located on a heavily used highway in the San Francisco Bay area. The mean and median model years of vehicles observed during this study were 1989.3 and 1990, respectively. Nitrous acid was collected on sodium carbonate-coated glass annular denuders; NO{sub x} concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent analyzers. Average HONO concentrations in the tunnel exhaust and background air were 6.9{+-}1.4 and 0.7{+-}0.3 ppb, respectively. The average HONO/NO{sub x} ratio in motor vehicle exhaust was (2.9{+-}0.5)x10{sup -3}. The HONO/NO{sub x} ratio in vehicle exhaust measured at the Caldecott Tunnel was higher than that reported previously for well-maintained, catalyst-equipped vehicles, but was lower than that for older vehicles with limited emission controls. Nighttime ambient HONO/NO{sub x} ratios are typically much larger than the HONO/NO{sub x} ratio measured at the Caldecott Tunnel, which suggests that ambient HONO concentrations are governed mainly by secondary formation. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Kirchstetter, T.W.; Harley, R.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Littlejohn, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-09-01

14

Exhaust gas recirculation system for automatic transmission vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is described which consists of an automatic transmission which has gear ratios and shifts between the gear ratios in accordance with selected shift patterns including an economy pattern in which upshift between successive ones of gear ratios occurs at first corresponding predetermined vehicle speeds and a power pattern in which

Y. Abe; T. Okano; T. Omori; M. Kawamoto

1987-01-01

15

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86.209-94...Temperature Test Procedures § 86.209-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The...

2010-07-01

16

Chemiion evolution in motor vehicle exhaust: Further evidence of its role in nanoparticle formation  

E-print Network

Chemiion evolution in motor vehicle exhaust: Further evidence of its role in nanoparticle formation of the nanoparticles in motor vehicle exhaust. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols [2001] found that total number of NPs formed in motor vehicle exhaust is very sensitive to CI

Yu, Fangqun

17

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate...210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate...Otto-cycle vehicles), also apply to diesel vehicles that are not required to...

2012-07-01

18

Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases  

DOEpatents

A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

19

Acute toxicity of gasoline and ethanol automobile engine exhaust gases.  

PubMed

A comparative inhalation exposure study was performed to investigate the potential health effect of gasoline and ethanol engine exhaust fumes. Wistar rats housed in inhalation chambers were exposed to test atmospheres of various concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and gasoline and ethanol exhaust fumes diluted with air. CO level, temperature, relative humidity and flow rate were monitored continually to control the gas concentration and the environment. The dilution method gave a concentration within 1.0% of the target. The LC50s for 3-h exposures were determined for the 3 test atmospheres. The results demonstrated that the acute toxicity, in terms of LC50, of the gasoline-fuelled engine was significantly higher than that of the ethanol-fuelled engine. PMID:2412311

Massad, E; Saldiva, C D; Cardoso, L M; Da Silva, R; Saldiva, P H; Böhm, G M

1985-08-01

20

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

SciTech Connect

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01

21

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle highway carbon-related exhaust emissions...

2011-07-01

22

Process for recovering nitrobenzene, dichlorobenzene and/or trichlorobenzene from exhaust gases, in particular spent air  

SciTech Connect

A process is claimed for recovering nitrobenzene, dichlorobenzene and/or trichlorobenzene from substantially undried exhaust gases or spent air containing these compounds, by passing said gases through a layer of silica-containing adsorbents and, after adsorption, regenerating the adsorbents by removing the sorbed compounds. The relative humidity of the waste vapors is preferably less than 50% in order to achieve an effective separation by adsorption.

Bentz, R.; Fattinger, V.

1982-04-06

23

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-print Network

, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water. Only oxygen content is varied leading to different gas mixturesAnode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine conditions is selected. It is composed of hydrocarbons (HC: propane and propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide

Boyer, Edmond

24

Application of gas-turbine exhaust gases for brackish water desalination: a techno-economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 20 years, the electricity generation system of Crete Island has been actually based on the operation of several gas-turbines, presenting an annual utilization factor higher than 50%. Despite the undeniable advantages of modern gas-turbines, one cannot disregard the huge quantities of hot exhausted gases produced, containing almost two thirds of the chemical energy of fuel consumed. On

G. Th. Vlachos; J. K. Kaldellis

2004-01-01

25

Data from short-term tests on motor vehicle exhausts  

PubMed Central

The mutagenicity of motor vehicle exhausts has been studied by using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Acetone extracts of the particulate phase and the gas phase have been tested in the presence and absence of a metabolizing system (S9). The particulate phases from medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested. The vehicles were driven according to a modified 13 mode test, and the particulate phase was sampled at mode 6 (maximum load and intermediate engine speed) and mode 12 (10% load and rated speed). In mode 6 all vehicles gave approximately the same mutagenicity in strain TA 98 (50,000–90,000 revertants/kW-hr) as well as in TA 100 (200,000–360,000 revertants/kW-hr). A higher mutagenic effect, in some cases up to 10 times, was seen with mode 12. Light-duty vehicles of different year models were tested using different fuel/engine combinations. The vehicles were driven according to FTP 72 or ECE driving cycle. Cold starts at two different temperature levels, approx. 0 °C and 23 °C, respectively, were also compared. Based on the mutagenicity of the particulate extracts (given as revertants per km), the light-duty vehicles could be divided into three main groups. The first group, the high mutagenicity group, giving 100,000–700,000 revertants/km, consists only of diesel cars. In the medium mutagenicity group, giving between 20,000 and 100,000 revertants/km, different gasoline fuels are placed, i.e., leaded and lead-free gasoline as well as alcohol/gasoline fuels. Two other fuels, methanol (M95) and propane (LPG), constitute the low mutagenicity group, giving less than 20,000 revertants/km. Fuels from the medium effect group will produce a particulate phase with low mutagenicity if the vehicle is equipped with a three way catalyst with closed loop, or fuel injection. The cold start temperature did not change this classification, since all samples gave a somewhat higher mutagenic effect at the low temperature. With the ECE driving cycle, much lower mutagenicity was noted with the diesel cars than in the tests with the FTP-72 driving cycle, at least with tester strain TA 98. On strain TA 100 the diesel exhaust samples still showed a much higher mutagenicity than other samples. Acetone extracts of the gas phase from diesel and gasoline exhaust (trapped in ice/water condensers and CO2/ethanol condensers) also gave mutagenic effects. The contribution of the gas phase to the mutagenic effects seems to be more important in the absence of S9 and more important in the case of gasoline exhausts. PMID:6186476

Rannug, Ulf

1983-01-01

26

Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

2003-03-01

27

Nitrogen dioxide in exhaust emissions from motor vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO 2/NO x (v/v) fractions and NO 2 exhaust emission rates were determined for diesel- and gasoline-powered passenger cars and a diesel truck, at several conditions of constant engine load and speed. Vehicles with various kinds of emission control equipment were investigated. Also, integrations of NO 2/NO x percentages during Federal Test Procedure driving cycles were made for six types of passenger car. High (> 30 %) NO 2 fractions were measured for gasoline cars with air injection, and for diesel vehicles. A gasoline car with a 3-way catalyst had low NO x totals with small (< 1 %) NO 2 fractions. A passenger diesel with particle trap yielded surprisingly small (0-2%) NO 2 fractions at moderate speeds. The results have implications for NO 2 concentration in the atmosphere of northern cities during wintertime inversions, in view of the increasing use of air injection systems for passenger cars to meet legal restrictions on vehicle emissions of hydrocarbons and CO.

Lenner, Magnus

28

The effects of the exhaust plume on the lightning triggering conditions for launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 12 and Atlas Centaur 67 are two launch vehicles that have experienced triggered lightning strikes. Serious consequences resulted from the events; in the case of Atlas Centaur 67, the vehicle and the payload were lost. These events indicate that it is necessary to develop launch rules which would prevent such occurrences. In order to develop valid lightning related rules, it is necessary to understand the effects of the plume. Some have assumed that the plume can be treated as a perfect conductor, and have computed electric field enhancement factors on that basis. The authors have looked at the plume, and believe that these models are not correct, because they ignore the fluid motion of the conducting plates. The authors developed a model which includes this flow character. In this model, the external field is excluded from the plume as it would be for any good conductor, but, in addition, the charge must distribute so that the charge density is zero at some location in the exhaust. When this condition is included in the calculation of triggering enhancement factors, they can be two to three times larger than calculated by other methods which include a conductive plume but don't include the correct boundary conditions. Here, the authors review the relevant features of rocket exhausts for the triggered lightning problem, present an approach for including flowing conductive gases, and present preliminary calculations to demonstrate the effect that the plume has on enhancement factors.

Eriksen, Frederick J.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

1991-01-01

29

Synergistic effect of Br?nsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases  

PubMed Central

The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

2013-01-01

30

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. 1037.105...1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a) The...under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given...

2012-07-01

31

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. 1037.105...1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a) The...under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given...

2013-07-01

32

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2012-07-01

33

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2010-07-01

34

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2011-07-01

35

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2013-07-01

36

Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

Baron, R.C.; Backer, R.C.; Sopher, I.M.

1989-03-01

37

Analysis of organobromine compounds and HBr in motor car exhaust gases with a GC\\/microwave plasma system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation an analytical procedure for the determination of different organobromine compounds in motor car exhaust gases is developed in order to obtain a total balance of these compounds in this type of exhaust gas. For this purpose, adsorption sampling on Tenax GC combined with thermal desorption and a fast cold trap injection into the GC column system is

Heinrich Baumann; Klaus G. Heumann

1987-01-01

38

Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

2013-06-11

39

Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution  

SciTech Connect

An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

40

Effects of bioreactive acrolein from automotive exhaust gases on human cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Acrolein is a toxic unsaturated aldehyde and widespread environmental pollutant produced during lipid peroxidation and also by burning of tobacco or liquid fuels. Inhalation or dermal exposure to acrolein could be toxic to organisms. This very reactive aldehyde has a strong affinity for binding to proteins thus forming pathogenic protein-adducts. In the present study we have analyzed formation of bioreactive acrolein-protein adducts in bovine serum albumin solution exposed to exhaust gases of mineral diesel fuel and of mineral diesel fuel supplemented with different amounts of a novel diesel fuel additive denoted Ecodiesel (produced by a genuine procedure of recycling of plant oils used for food preparation). The effects of acrolein-protein adducts were tested on human microvascular endothelial cells and on human osteosarcoma cells that are sensitive to bioactivities of lipid peroxidation products. The results have shown a reduction of the bioreactive acrolein in exhaust gases when mineral diesel was supplemented with 5-20% Ecodiesel. Moreover, acrolein-protein adducts obtained from mineral diesel supplemented with Ecodiesel were less toxic than those obtained from mineral diesel alone. Thus, we assume that supplementing mineral diesel fuel with Ecodiesel would be of benefit for the use of renewable energy, for environment and for human health due to reduced environmental pollution with bioreactive acrolein. PMID:21374787

Jaganjac, Morana; Prah, Iva Ozana; Cipak, Ana; Cindric, Marina; Mrakovcic, Lidija; Tatzber, Franz; Ilincic, Petar; Rukavina, Vinko; Spehar, Branka; Vukovic, Jelena Parlov; Telen, Sanda; Uchida, Koji; Lulic, Zoran; Zarkovic, Neven

2012-11-01

41

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DUAL CATALYST EQUIPPED VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

A test program was initiated to characterize exhaust gas emissions from an automobile equipped with a dual catalyst system. The dual catalyst system was designed by Gould, Inc. to reduce emissions of engine exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. It basically ...

42

Suspension element for the exhaust system of a motor vehicle engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a motor vehicle having a floor with an exhaust system extending therebeneath, elastic air-filled suspension means for suspending the exhaust system from the floor while attenuating vibrations generated by the exhaust system prior to their transmission to the floor. The means comprises a pair of elastic rings that are linked together and adapted to be connected to the floor and exhaust system respectively, and an air-filled elastic sphere arranged between the rings at their linkage so as to provide an air cushion therebetween.

Schad, K.

1987-01-06

43

Particulate organic compounds emitted from motor vehicle exhaust and in the urban atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission rate of particle-phase petroleum biomarkers in vehicular exhaust compared to the concentrations of these biomarkers in ambient air is used to determine the particulate organic compound concentration due to primary particle emissions from motor vehicles in the southern California atmosphere. A material balance on the organic particulate matter emitted from motor vehicle traffic in a Los Angeles highway

Matthew P. Fraser; Glen R. Cass; Bernd R. T. Simoneit

1999-01-01

44

Impact of higher alcohols blended in gasoline on light-duty vehicle exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

Certification gasoline was splash blended with alcohols to produce four blends: ethanol (16 vol%), n-butanol (17 vol%), i-butanol (21 vol%), and an i-butanol (12 vol%)/ethanol (7 vol%) mixture; these fuels were tested in a 2009 Honda Odyssey (a Tier 2 Bin 5 vehicle) over triplicate LA92 cycles. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, non-methane organic gases (NMOG), unburned alcohols, carbonyls, and C1-C8 hydrocarbons (particularly 1,3-butadiene and benzene) were determined. Large, statistically significant fuel effects on regulated emissions were a 29% reduction in CO from E16 and a 60% increase in formaldehyde emissions from i-butanol, compared to certification gasoline. Ethanol produced the highest unburned alcohol emissions of 1.38 mg/mile ethanol, while butanols produced much lower unburned alcohol emissions (0.17 mg/mile n-butanol, and 0.30 mg/mile i-butanol); these reductions were offset by higher emissions of carbonyls. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde were the most significant carbonyls from the n-butanol blend, while formaldehyde, acetone, and 2-methylpropanal were the most significant from the i-butanol blend. The 12% i-butanol/7% ethanol blend was designed to produce no increase in gasoline vapor pressure. This fuel's exhaust emissions contained the lowest total oxygenates among the alcohol blends and the lowest NMOG of all fuels tested. PMID:24180630

Ratcliff, Matthew A; Luecke, Jon; Williams, Aaron; Christensen, Earl; Yanowitz, Janet; Reek, Aaron; McCormick, Robert L

2013-12-01

45

Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-01-01

46

An Evaluation of the Environmental and Health Effects of Vehicle Exhaust Catalysts in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1993, all new gasoline-engine automobiles in the United Kingdom have been supplied with three-way vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs) containing platinum, palladium, and rhodium, to comply with European Commission Stage I limits on emissions of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. We conducted a physical and economic evaluation of the environmental and health benefits from a

Emma J. Hutchinson; Peter J. G. Pearson

2003-01-01

47

Effects of particulate matter from gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions on silicate stones sulfation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of particulate matter (PM) from diesel and leaded gasoline motor vehicles exhaust emissions on sulfation of granites, syenite and gabbro stones have been experimentally studied. Abundant gypsum crystals and corrosion features developed on stones covered with diesel PM (DPM) following 72h exposure to 100ppm SO2 at a relative humidity of 100%. In contrast, very small amounts of gypsum

J. Simão; E. Ruiz-Agudo; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2006-01-01

48

Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

1975-01-01

49

Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an on-road study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle technology development and upcoming particle emission limits have increased the need for detailed analyses of particle emissions of vehicles using gasoline direct injection (GDI) techniques. In this paper the particle emission characteristics of modern GDI passenger cars were studied in a laboratory and on the road, with the focus on exhaust particle number emissions, size distributions, volatility and morphology. Both during acceleration and steady conditions the number size distribution of nonvolatile exhaust particles consisted of two modes, one with mean particle size below 30 nm and the other with mean particle size approximately 70 nm. Results indicate that both of these particles modes consisted of soot but with different morphologies. Both in laboratory and on the road, significant emissions of exhaust particles were observed also during decelerations conducted by engine braking. These particles are most likely originating from lubricant oil ash components. The semivolatile nucleation particles were observed in the laboratory experiments at high engine load conditions. Thus, in general, the study indicates that a modern gasoline vehicle can emit four distinctive types of exhaust particles. The differences in particle characteristics and formation should be taken into account in the development of emission control strategies and technologies and, on the other hand, in the assessment of the impact of particle emissions on environment and human health.

Karjalainen, Panu; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Lähde, Tero; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

2014-11-01

50

Multicomponent remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions by dispersive IR and UV spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions under real-world driving conditions is desirable for a number of reasons, including: identifying high emitters, investigating the chemical composition of the exhaust, and probing fast reactions in the plume. A remote sensor, incorporating IR and UV spectrometers, was developed. The IR spectrometer consists of a grating system mounted on a synchronous motor, optically interfaced to a room temperature PbSe detector. UV-vis measurements are made with a CCD array spectrometer. Eight optical passes through the exhaust plume allow rapid and sensitive monitoring of the exhaust stream emitted by moving vehicles on a car-by-car basis. The combination of these two techniques resulted in unprecedented, direct measurement capability of over 25 pollutants in the exhaust plume. Emissions from a fleet of vehicles powered by a range of fuels (gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and methanol) were tested. The exhaust from hot gasoline- and methanol-powered cars contained high levels of NH3, up to 1500 ppm. These emissions were up to 14 times higher than the corresponding NOx emissions. Unlike most previous work, NOx was measured as the sum of NO and NO2; N2O was also measured. Field testing at a southern California freeway on-ramp was conducted over a one week period, totaling >4,500 measurements. It was found that 66.4% of the emitted NH3 was produced by 10% of the fleet, following the (gamma) - distribution that has been reported for criteria pollutants. Mean NH3 emission rates were calculated at 138 mg km-1, nearly twice as high was previous estimates.

Baum, Marc M.; Kiyomiya, Eileen S.; Kumar, Sasi; Lappas, Anastasios M.; Lord, Harry C., III

2000-12-01

51

Nozzle exit exhaust products from space shuttle boost vehicle (November 1973 design)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal exhaust species emitted at various altitudes for two trajectories of the space shuttle vehicle are presented. The exhaust composition is given for the nozzle exit plane on the basis of equilibrium chemistry. Afterburning of excess H, H2, and CO in the plume is accounted for. Species considered include HCl and Al2O3, which have been recognized as environmentally significant, as well as others such as H2O (produced by both the solid rocket motor and the orbiter main engine) which, although innocuous, may participate in subsequent chemical reactions in the atmosphere.

1975-01-01

52

Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.  

PubMed

A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ? 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models. PMID:22894824

Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

2012-10-01

53

Carbon dioxide production from combustion exhaust gases with nitrogen and argon by-product recovery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for producing carbon dioxide and nitrogen from combustion exhaust gas containing less than about 10% oxygen by weight. It comprises treating the exhaust gas to remove particulate matter; compressing the exhaust gas to a pressure in the range from about 25 psia to about 200 psia; purifying the exhaust gas to remove trace contaminants; separating the exhaust gas to produce a carbon dioxide rich fraction and a nitrogen rich fraction; liquefying the carbon dioxide rich fraction and distilling off components that are more volatile than carbon dioxide; purifying the nitrogen rich fraction to remove carbon dioxide; and cryogenically fractionally distilling the nitrogen rich fraction to remove oxygen and argon therefrom.

Krishnamurthy, R.; Andrecovich, M.J.

1992-03-31

54

Lidar for remote measurement of ozone in the exhaust plumes of launch vehicles.  

PubMed

Large quantities of chlorine and alumina particles are injected directly into the stratosphere by the current fleet of launch vehicles. Environmental concerns have been raised over the impact of the rocket exhaust on the ozone layer. Recently differential absorption lidar (DIAL) was selected for remote sensing of ozone density within the plumes of Titan IV launch vehicles. The application of DIAL to this very challenging problem is described, and an implementation of UV-ozone DIAL is discussed that holds promise for this application. PMID:21085408

Gelbwachs, J A

1996-05-20

55

Lidar for remote measurement of ozone in the exhaust plumes of launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large quantities of chlorine and alumina particles are injected directly into the stratosphere by the current fleet of launch vehicles. Environmental concerns have been raised over the impact of the rocket exhaust on the ozone layer. Recently, differential absorption lidar (DIAL) was selected for remote sensing of ozone density within the plumes of Titan IV launch vehicles. The application of DIAL to this very challenging problem is described, and an implementation of UV-ozone DIAL is discussed that holds promise for this application.

Gelbwachs, Jerry A.

1996-05-01

56

Numerical simulation on pollutant dispersion from vehicle exhaust in street configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the street configurations on pollutants dispersion from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically\\u000a investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants\\u000a were modeled using standard ????? turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code\\u000a FLUENT. The concentration fields in the urban

Mohamed F. Yassin; R. Kellnerová; Z. Ja?our

2009-01-01

57

Sampling and analysis of formic acid in methanol vehicle exhaust. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the program has been to develop and evaluate a method to measure formic acid in exhaust from methanol-fueled vehicles. Three candidate sampling methods and one analysis method were selected for evaluation. The sampling methods included two impregnated filter procedures and a coated annular denuder technique. Ion exclusion chromatography with UV detection was selected as the analysis method. The ion exclusion chromatography analytical method was characterized and found to be suitable for this application. Two of the candidate sampling methods were judged by the laboratory evaluation to be suitable for further evaluation under actual vehicle exhaust sampling conditions. These two methods are: (1) a filter pack consisting of a Teflon particle filter and a glass fiber filter impregnated with a potassium hydroxide (KOH); (2) a Teflon particle filter followed by an annular denuder coated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of a filter pack sampling method. (Teflon filter/KOH-impregnated glass fiber) and ion exclusion chromatography with UV detection for measurement of formic acid in exhaust from methanol-fueled vehicles operating at constant speed. The method is simple, reliable and free from significant interferences or artifacts.

Spicer, C.W.; Nishioka, M.G.; Trayser, D.A.; Burkholder, H.M.; Hupp, D.E.

1991-11-01

58

High-Performance Decomposition and Fixation of Dry Etching Exhaust Perfluoro-Compound Gases and Study of Their Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the high-performance decomposition and fixation of perfluoro compounds (PFCs) exhausted from dry etching processes and their reaction mechanism with the fixation material prepared from Ca(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 mixture. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and other analysis methods, it was found that PFCs were successfully decomposed and fixated by the reaction only with calcium compounds, resulting in calcium fluoride (CaF2). Aluminum compounds existing very close to calcium compounds work as a catalyst so that the reaction progresses at much lower temperatures, in the range of 650 to 750 °C, compared with the direct decomposition by combustion. The reaction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the proposed microscopic reaction model. These results are useful for the development of more efficient abatement systems for the greenhouse gases in the exhaust of dry etching processes.

Hattori, Kei; Osato, Masaaki; Maeda, Takeshi; Okumura, Katsuya; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

2011-11-01

59

Volatile organic compounds from the exhaust of light-duty diesel vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exhaust gas constituents of light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs), including total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by a dynamometer study following federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75) and highway fuel economy cycle. The average fuel consumption of these LDDVs was 0.126 L km-1 for FTP-75, with about 10% fuel consumption savings for highway driving. The average emission factors of NMHC, CO and NOx for light-duty vehicles were 0.158/0.132 (90% of THC), 1.395/1.138, and 1.735/1.907 g km-1 for FTP-75/Highway, respectively. Styrene, n-propylbenzene, n-undecane, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and ethylbenzene were the dominant VOCs of LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors were about 10-60 mg kg-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, butyraldehyde, and m-tolualdehyde were the major carbonyl species from LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors ranged from 1 to 10 mg km-1. The ozone formation potentials of m,p-xylene, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, o-xylene, n-propylbenzene, styrene, and isoprene were >50 mg-O3 km-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde revealed high ozone formation potential of carbonyl species, with values ranging from 10 to 95 mg-O3 km-1. Based on the exhaust constituents and ozone formation potential observed, diesel vehicles could be an important air pollution source for urban and industrial areas.

Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Sheng-You; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2012-12-01

60

49 CFR 176.93 - Vehicles having refrigerating or heating equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transport vehicles having refrigerating or heating equipment operated by internal combustion engines which will permit ready diffusion of exhaust gases to the open air. Passenger vehicles may not be stowed in a position adjacent to vehicles operating...

2012-10-01

61

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...light-duty vehicle and light light-duty truck fleet shall be defined as the total...year provisions, and light light-duty trucks certified to the exhaust emission standards...light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks certified as TLEVs. As an option,...

2011-07-01

62

ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL, TUNING AND SENSITIVITY  

E-print Network

ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL periods of intense interest in using ethanol as an alternative fuel to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel derivatives. Currently available flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol

Stefanopoulou, Anna

63

Experiments on the reduction of nitric oxide from exhaust gases by selective non-catalytic reactions  

E-print Network

. The simulated exhaust gas contained varying amounts of N2, 02, H20, CO, and NO and the reactor conditions were varied with regard to temperature, residence time, and mixing. The results of these experiments show that the effect of oxygen concentration and NH3...

Narney, John Kenneth

2012-06-07

64

Factors affecting cleanup of exhaust gases from a pressurized, fluidized-bed coal combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cleanup of effluent gases from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal is examined. Testing conditions include the type and feed rate of the coal and the sulfur sorbent, the coal-sorbent ratio, the coal-combustion air ratio, the depth of the reactor fluidizing bed, and the technique used to physically remove fly ash from the reactor effluent gases. Tests reveal that the particulate loading matter in the effluent gases is a function not only of the reactor-bed surface gas velocity, but also of the type of coal being burnt and the time the bed is operating. At least 95 percent of the fly ash particules in the effluent gas are removed by using a gas-solids separator under controlled operating conditions. Gaseous pollutants in the effluent (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) are held within the proposed Federal limits by controlling the reactor operating conditions and the type and quantity of sorbent material.

Rollbuhler, R. J.; Kobak, J. A.

1980-01-01

65

Simulation of the evolution of particle size distributions in a vehicle exhaust plume with unconfined dilution by ambient air.  

PubMed

Over the past several years, numerous studies have linked ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) to adverse health effects, and more recent studies have identified PM size and surface area as important factors in determining the health effects of PM. This study contributes to a better understanding of the evolution of particle size distributions in exhaust plumes with unconfined dilution by ambient air. It combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with an aerosol dynamics model to examine the effects of different streamlines in an exhaust plume, ambient particle size distributions, and vehicle and wind speed on the particle size distribution in an exhaust plume. CFD was used to calculate the flow field and gas mixing for unconfined dilution of a vehicle exhaust plume, and the calculated dilution ratios were then used as input to the aerosol dynamics simulation. The results of the study show that vehicle speed affected the particle size distribution of an exhaust plume because increasing vehicle speed caused more rapid dilution and inhibited coagulation. Ambient particle size distributions had an effect on the smaller sized particles (approximately 10 nm range under some conditions) and larger sized particles (>2 microm) of the particle size distribution. The ambient air particle size distribution affects the larger sizes of the exhaust plume because vehicle exhaust typically contains few particles larger than 2 microm. Finally, the location of a streamline in the exhaust plume had little effect on the particle size distribution; the particle size distribution along any streamline at a distance x differed by less than 5% from the particle size distributions along any other streamline at distance x. PMID:15887887

Jiang, Pengzhi; Lignell, David O; Kelly, Kerry E; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F; Montgomery, Christopher J

2005-04-01

66

Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels. We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission standards to income levels, Africa introduces those standards 30-40 years later than other regions and thus makes a remarkable contribution to the global emissions in 2050 (almost half). All Asian regions (South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia) have a decreasing fractional contribution to global totals, from 32% in 2030 to around 22% in 2050. Total emissions from normal vehicles can decrease 1.3-2% per year. However, superemitters have a large effect on emission totals. They can potentially contribute more than 50% of global emissions around 2020, which suggests that they should be specifically addressed in modeling and mitigation policies. As new vehicles become cleaner, the majority of on-road emissions will come from the legacy fleet. This work establishes a modeling framework to explore policies targeted at that fleet.

Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

2011-09-01

67

Exhausted Plume Flow Field Prediction Near the Afterbody of Hypersonic Flight Vehicles in High Altitudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional computer code to solve the Burnett equations has been developed which computes the flow interaction between an exhausted plume and hypersonic external flow near the afterbody of a flight vehicle. This Burnett-2D code extends the capability of Navier-Stokes solver (RPLUS2D code) to include high-order Burnett source terms and slip-wall conditions for velocity and temperature. Higher-order Burnett viscous stress and heat flux terms are discretized using central-differencing and treated as source terms. Blocking logic is adopted in order to overcome the difficulty of grid generation. The computation of exhaust plume flow field is divided into two steps. In the first step, the thruster nozzle exit conditions are computed which generates inflow conditions in the base area near the afterbody. Results demonstrated that at high altitudes, the computations of nozzle exit conditions must include the effects of base flow since significant expansion exists in the base region. In the second step, Burnett equations were solved for exhaust plume flow field near the afterbody. The free stream conditions are set at an altitude equal to 80km and the Mach number is equal to 5.0. The preliminary results show that the plume expansion, as altitude increases, will eventually cause upstream flow separation.

Chou, Lynn Chen; Mach, Kervyn D.; Deng, Zheng-Tao; Liaw, Goang-Shin

1995-01-01

68

Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2011-12-01

69

Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources - A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle emissions from road vehicles have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their dominant contribution towards the total airborne particle number concentrations (PNCs) found in the urban atmospheric environment. In view of upcoming tighter vehicle emission standards and adoption of cleaner fuels in many parts of the world, the contribution to urban nanoparticles from non-vehicle exhaust sources (NES) may become more pronounced in future. As of now, only limited information exists on nanoparticle emissions from NES through the discretely published studies. This article presents critically synthesised information in a consolidated manner on 11 NES (i.e. road-tyre interaction, construction and demolition, aircraft, ships, municipal waste incineration, power plants, domestic biomass burning, forest fires, cigarette smoking, cooking, and secondary formation). Source characteristics and formation mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted from each NES are firstly discussed, followed by their emission strengths, airborne concentrations and physicochemical characteristics. Direct comparisons of the strengths of NES are not straightforward but an attempt has been made to discuss their importance relative to the most prominent source (i.e. road vehicles) of urban nanoparticles. Some interesting comparisons emerged such as 1 kg of fast and slow wood burning produces nearly the same number of particles as for each km driven by a heavy duty vehicle (HDV) and a light duty vehicle, respectively. About 1 min of cooking on gas can produce the similar particle numbers generated by ˜10 min of cigarette smoking or 1 m travel by a HDV. Apportioning the contribution of numerous sources from the bulk measured airborne PNCs is essential for determining their relative importance. Receptor modelling methods for estimation of source emission contributions are discussed. A further section evaluates the likely exposure risks, health and regulatory implications associated with each NES. It is concluded that much research is needed to provide adequate quantification of all nanoparticle sources, and to establish the relative toxicity of nanosize particles from each.

Kumar, Prashant; Pirjola, Liisa; Ketzel, Matthias; Harrison, Roy M.

2013-03-01

70

Modelling aerosol number distributions from a vehicle exhaust with an aerosol CFD model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicular traffic contributes significantly to the aerosol number concentrations at the local scale by emitting primary soot particles and forming secondary nucleated nanoparticles. Because of their potential health effects, more attention is paid to the traffic induced aerosol number distributions. The aim of this work is to explain the phenomenology leading to the formation and the evolution of the aerosol number distributions in the vicinity of a vehicle exhaust using numerical modelling. The emissions are representative of those of a light-duty diesel truck without a diesel particle filter. The atmospheric flow is modelled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to describe the dispersion of pollutants at the local scale. The CFD code, coupled to a modal aerosol model (MAM) describing the aerosol dynamics, is used to model the tailpipe plume of a vehicle with emissions corresponding to urban driving conditions. On the basis of available measurements in Schauer et al. (1999), three surrogate species are chosen to treat the semi-volatile organic compounds in the emissions. The model simulates the formation of the aerosol distribution in the exhaust plume of a vehicle as follows. After emission to the atmosphere, particles are formed by nucleation of sulphuric acid and water vapour depending strongly on the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and on the dilution conditions. The semi-volatile organic compounds are critical for the rapid growth of nanoparticles through condensation. The semi-volatile organic compounds are also important for the evolution of primary soot particles and can contribute substantially to their chemical composition. The most influential parameters for particle formation are the sulphur fuel content, the semi-volatile organic emissions and also the mass and initial diameter of the soot particles emitted. The model is able to take into account the complex competition between nucleation, condensation and dilution, as well as the interactions among the different aerosol modes. This type of model is a useful tool to better understand the dynamics leading to the formation of traffic induced aerosol distributions. However, some key issues such as the turbulence in the exhaust plume and in the wake of the car, the magnitude and chemical composition of semi-volatile organic emissions and the possible nucleation of organic species need to be investigated further to improve our understanding of ultrafine particle formation.

Albriet, B.; Sartelet, K. N.; Lacour, S.; Carissimo, B.; Seigneur, C.

2010-03-01

71

Gas turbine cycles with solid oxide fuel cells. Part 1: Improved gas turbine power plant efficiency by use of recycled exhaust gases and fuel cell technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy conversion efficiency of the combustion process can be improved if immediate contact of fuel and oxygen is prevent4ed and an oxygen carrier is used. In a previous paper (Harvey et al., 1992), a gas turbine cycle was investigated in which part of the exhaust gases are recycled and used as oxygen-carrying components. For the optimized process, a theoretical

S. P. Harvey; H. J. Richter

1994-01-01

72

Space shuttle SRM plume expansion sensitivity analysis. [flow characteristics of exhaust gases from solid propellant rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exhaust plumes of the space shuttle solid rocket motors can have a significant effect on the base pressure and base drag of the shuttle vehicle. A parametric analysis was conducted to assess the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle of analytical solid rocket motor flow fields to various analytical input parameters and operating conditions. The results of the analysis are presented and conclusions reached regarding the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to each parameter investigated. Operating conditions parametrically varied were chamber pressure, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle throat radius of curvature ratio and propellant particle loading. Empirical particle parameters investigated were mean size, local drag coefficient and local heat transfer coefficient. Sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to gas thermochemistry model and local drag coefficient model assumptions were determined.

Smith, S. D.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

1975-01-01

73

PM10 exhaust samples collected during IM240 dyanamometer tests of in-service vehicles in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three vehicles that were recruited by remote sensing and roadside inspection and maintenance (I\\/M) checks during the 1994 Clark and Washoe Remote Sensing Study (CAWRSS) were tested on the IM240 cycle using a transportable dynamometer. Six of these vehicles emitted visible smoke. Total gas-phase hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOâ) exhaust concentrations were continuously measured in the

John C. Sagebiel; Barbara Zielinska; Patricia A. Walsh; Judith C. Chow; Steven H. Cadle; Patricia A. Mulawa; Kenneth T. Knapp; Roy B. Zweidinger; Richard Snow

1997-01-01

74

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

75

Coupled turbulence and aerosol dynamics modeling of vehicle exhaust plumes using the CTAG model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development and evaluation of an environmental turbulent reacting flow model, the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model. CTAG is designed to simulate transport and transformation of multiple air pollutants, e.g., from emission sources to ambient background. For the on-road and near-road applications, CTAG explicitly couples the major turbulent mixing processes, i.e., vehicle-induced turbulence (VIT), road-induced turbulence (RIT) and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence with gas-phase chemistry and aerosol dynamics. CTAG's transport model is referred to as CFD-VIT-RIT. This paper presents the evaluation of the CTAG model in simulating the dynamics of individual plumes in the “tailpipe-to-road” stage, i.e., VIT behind a moving van and aerosol dynamics in the wake of a diesel car by comparing the modeling results against the respective field measurements. Combined with sensitivity studies, we analyze the relative roles of VIT, sulfuric acid induced nucleation, condensation of organic compounds and presence of soot-mode particles in capturing the dynamics of exhaust plumes as well as their implications in vehicle emission controls.

Wang, Yan Jason; Zhang, K. Max

2012-11-01

76

Numerical simulation on pollutant dispersion from vehicle exhaust in street configurations.  

PubMed

The impact of the street configurations on pollutants dispersion from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using standard kappa - epsilon turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The concentration fields in the urban canyons were examined in three cases of street configurations: (1) a regular-shaped intersection, (2) a T-shaped intersection and (3) a Skew-shaped crossing intersection. Vehicle emissions were simulated as double line sources along the street. The numerical model was validated against wind tunnel results in order to optimize the turbulence model. Numerical predictions agreed reasonably well with wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicate that the mean horizontal velocity was very small in the center near the lower region of street canyon. The lowest turbulent kinetic energy was found at the separation and reattachment points associated with the corner of the down part of the upwind and downwind buildings in the street canyon. The pollutant concentration at the upwind side in the regular-shaped street intersection was higher than that in the T-shaped and Skew-shaped street intersections. Moreover, the results reveal that the street intersections are important factors to predict the flow patterns and pollutant dispersion in street canyon. PMID:18726702

Yassin, Mohamed F; Kellnerová, R; Janour, Z

2009-09-01

77

Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.  

PubMed

The emissions of exhaust gases (NOx , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6?×?10(3), 374, 1.2?×?10(3), and 5.6?×?10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7?×?10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67%) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

2014-05-01

78

Electric exhaust gas recirculation valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrically actuated EGR valve is described for controlling EGR gases in response to electric signals from a computer, the EGR valve comprising: a valve housing having an exhaust gas inlet port for passage of exhaust gases; an exhaust gas outlet port; an exhaust gas passage extending between; poppet valve means for selectively opening and closing exhaust gas passage, the

Akagi

1987-01-01

79

Light-Duty Drive Cycle Simulations of Diesel Engine-Out Exhaust Properties for an RCCI-Enabled Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuels to achieve low-temperature reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) can reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). Moreover, the dual-fueling RCCI is able to achieve these benefits by tailoring combustion reactivity over a wider range of engine operation than is possible with a single fuel. However, the currently demonstrated range of stable RCCI combustion just covers a portion of the engine speed-load range required in several light-duty drive cycles. This means that engines must switch from RCCI to CDC when speed and load fall outside of the stable RCCI range. In this study we investigated the impact of RCCI as it has recently been demonstrated on practical engine-out exhaust temperature and emissions by simulating a multi-mode RCCI-enabled vehicle operating over two urban and two highway driving cycles. To implement our simulations, we employed experimental engine maps for a multi-mode RCCI/CDC engine combined with a standard mid-size, automatic transmission, passenger vehicle in the Autonomie vehicle simulation platform. Our results include both detailed transient and cycle-averaged engine exhaust temperature and emissions for each case, and we note the potential implications of the modified exhaust properties on catalytic emissions control and utilization of waste heat recovery on future RCCI-enabled vehicles.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

80

An evaluation of the environmental and health effects of vehicle exhaust catalysts in the UK.  

PubMed

Since 1993, all new gasoline-engine automobiles in the United Kingdom have been supplied with three-way vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs) containing platinum, palladium, and rhodium, to comply with European Commission Stage I limits on emissions of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. We conducted a physical and economic evaluation of the environmental and health benefits from a reduction in emissions through this mandated environmental technology against the costs, with reference to urban areas in Great Britain. We made both an ex post assessment--based on available data to 1998--and an ex ante assessment--projected to 2005, the year when full penetration of VECs into the fleet is expected. Substantial health benefits in excess of the costs of VECs were indicated: By 1998 the estimated net societal health benefits were approximately 500 million British pounds, and by 2005 they were estimated to rise to as much as 2 billion British pounds. We also found through environmental surveys that although lead in road dust has fallen by 50% in urban areas, platinum accumulations near roads have risen significantly, up to 90-fold higher than natural background levels. This rapid accumulation of platinum suggests further monitoring is warranted, although as yet there is no evidence of adverse health effects. PMID:14754566

Hutchinson, Emma J; Pearson, Peter J G

2004-02-01

81

Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption  

PubMed Central

An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

Su, Jye-Chau

2014-01-01

82

Effects of particulate matter from gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions on silicate stones sulfation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of particulate matter (PM) from diesel and leaded gasoline motor vehicles exhaust emissions on sulfation of granites, syenite and gabbro stones have been experimentally studied. Abundant gypsum crystals and corrosion features developed on stones covered with diesel PM (DPM) following 72 h exposure to 100 ppm SO 2 at a relative humidity of 100%. In contrast, very small amounts of gypsum were observed on stones covered with gasoline PM (GPM), while no effect was observed on naked control stones. Abundant elemental C and Fe-rich particles in DPM play a critical role in the catalytic oxidation of SO 2 and the formation of H 2SO 4, which is responsible for silicate stone sulfation. Conversely, organic C and Pb-rich particles that are main components of GPM, do not play a significant role in sulfation. The response of each stone type towards sulfation is related to the stability of their constituent silicate minerals towards acid attack. Thus, the stones most susceptible to sulfation are those including nepheline (syenite), olivine, and pyroxene (gabbro), while granites in general, are most resistant to sulfation-related chemical weathering. These results help to explain how black (gypsum) crusts develop on silicate stones, and support limitations for (diesel) vehicular traffic and emission loads in urban centers.

Simão, J.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

83

Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 ?g/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 ?g/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (? B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 ?g/m3and 37.652 ?g/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

2013-02-01

84

Motor vehicle pollution control: A global perspective  

SciTech Connect

This book is a compilation of papers presented at a meeting on motor vehicle pollution control. Topics covered include the following: worldwide developments in motor vehicle pollution control; the Brazillian control program; motor vehicle pollution control in Canada; pollution by exhaust gases in Kuwait; performance of vehicles with or without catalyst; legislation on automotive emissions; European exhaust emission standards; Pollution control and regulations for motor vehicles in Sweden; Progress towards a European market for exhaust emissions catalysts; and infrared emissions measurements at high altitude.

Not Available

1987-01-01

85

Correlations of fuel economy, exhaust hydro-carbon concentrations, and vehicle performance efficiency  

E-print Network

for vehicle number 8 . . . Gasoline mileages for vehicle number 9 . . . Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide values for 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 vehicle number 1 40 Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide values for vehicle number 2 41 12 13 Hydrocarbon... concentration ratios for vehicle numbers 1 through 7 79 20 Carbon monoxide concentration ratios for 21 vehicle numbers 1 through 7 Gasoline mileage ratios for vehicle numbers 1 through 7 80 81 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Thesis ~oh'ectfves. - Exhe st...

Baumann, Philip Douglas

2012-06-07

86

Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

2014-06-01

87

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for use in an internal combustion engine includes an intake manifold having a riser portion serving as a heating source for an intake mixture charge, an exhaust gas recirculation passage running from an exhaust manifold to an intake system for introducing part of exhaust gases from the former to the latter, and a temperature-responsive valve

N. Kawai; H. Yamamoto

1980-01-01

88

PM-10 exhaust samples collected during IM-240 dyanamometer tests of in-service vehicles in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three vehicles that were recruited by remote sensing and roadside inspection and maintenance (I/M) checks during the 1994 Clark and Washoe Remote Sensing Study (CAWRSS) were tested on the IM240 cycle using a transportable dynamometer. Six of these vehicles emitted visible smoke. Total gas-phase hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) exhaust concentrations were continuously measured in the diluted exhaust stream from the constant volume sampler (CVS) during IM240 testing. Two isokinetic PM-10 samples were collected simultaneously using cyclones and filter holders connected to a dilution tube. Teflon filters were collected for total mass and then extracted for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions. Quartz filters were analyzed by the thermal/optical reflectance method for organic and elemental carbon. The quartz filters and backup vapor traps were then extracted and analyzed by GC/MS for 28 separate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass emission rates of PM-10 per vehicle ranged from 5.6 to over 1300 mg/mi, with most of the mass attributable to carbon. Except for one vehicle with high sulfate emissions, the ion emissions were relatively low. Total PAH emissions were in the range of 10-200 mg/mi. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Sagebiel, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Walsh, P.A.; Chow, J.C. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States); Cadle, S.H.; Mulawa, P.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States); Knapp, K.T.; Zweidinger, R.B. [U.S. EPA Mobile Source Emissions Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Snow, R. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-01-01

89

Light-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substantial reductions in motor vehicle emissions that have occurred since the late 1960s have been accompanied by continuous increases in vehicle emission control costs, and cost increases or decreases due to changes in vehicle performance such as driveability, power, fuel economy, and vehicle maintenance. In this paper, a systematic approach has been developed to estimate emission control costs for

Quanlu Wang; Catherine Kling; Daniel Sperling

1993-01-01

90

Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.  

PubMed

While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity. PMID:10560539

Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

1999-06-01

91

Procedures for safe handling of off-gases from electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during overcharge  

SciTech Connect

The potential for generation of toxic gases from lead-acid batteries has long been recognized. Prior to the current interest in electric vehicles, there were no studies specificaly oriented to toxic gas release from traction batteries, however. As the Department of Energy Demonstration Project (in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program) progresses, available data from past studies and parallel health effects programs must be digested into guidance to the drivers and maintenance personnel, tailored to their contact with electric vehicles. The basic aspects of lead-acid battery operation, vehicle use, and health effects of stibine and arsine to provide electric vehicle users with the information behind the judgment that vehicle operation and testing may proceed are presented. Specifically, it is concluded that stibine generation or arsine generation at rapid enough rates to induce acute toxic response is not at all likely. Procedures to guard against low-level exposure until more definitive data on ambient concentrations of the gases are collected are presented for both charging the batteries and driving the vehicles. A research plan to collect additional quantitative data from electric traction batteries is presented.

LaBelle, S.J.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Loutfy, R.O.; Varma, R.

1980-01-25

92

Ammonia exhaust emissions from spark ignition vehicles over the New European Driving Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study aiming to measure ammonia emissions from light duty vehicles has been performed in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Ammonia, known for being toxic and dangerous for the environment, also contributes to the formation of particulate matter that has been related with adverse health and environmental effects. Nine modern light duty vehicles tested over the New European Driving Cycle showed that ammonia emissions are considerable for gasoline and ethanol flexi-fuel vehicles and also for one diesel vehicle equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system, ranging from 4 mg/km to 70 mg/km. Real-time ammonia emission profiles were monitored at the tailpipe by a High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer during tests at 22 and/or -7 °C. Ammonia emissions are thoroughly discussed and compared to those of its precursors, CO and NO, and other regulated compounds.

Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2014-11-01

93

Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A thermoelectric generator is described for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gases produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gases pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure. 8 figs.

Bass, J.C.

1997-04-29

94

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is disclosed which includes a control valve inserted in an exhaust gas recirculation passageway for controlling the flow rate of the exhaust gases to be recirculated, a constant pressure chamber defined in the recirculation passageway upstream of the control valve, and a modulator valve with a diaphragm chamber in communication with the constant pressure chamber

S. Nakamura; H. Nohira; H. Tokuda

1980-01-01

95

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the operation of an internal combustion engine, an input signal pressure is developed which differs from the atmospheric pressure by more than a first predetermined amount when exhaust gas recirculation is desirable. A recirculation valve then opens to permit the recirculation of exhaust gases from the exhaust passage to the intake passage of the engine. In response

1975-01-01

96

Emission projection and uncertainty analysis of exhaust emissions from global and Asian on-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the most notable impacts from emissions of air pollutants are climate change and hemispheric or intercontinental transport. Global emission projections are identified as critical elements in understanding these large-scale impacts. Such projections are required to understand the net response of climate to combined emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and other trace species in the next 30 to 50

F. Yan; E. Winijkul; T. Bond; D. G. Streets

2009-01-01

97

Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows  

DOEpatents

The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

2001-01-01

98

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

99

Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices including diesel particulate filters (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep+idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photo-oxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary and secondary fine particulate matter from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after three hours of oxidation at typical urban VOC : NOx ratios (3:1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the non-methane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas-chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species, such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 ± 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep+idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

2013-09-01

100

Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 ± 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep + idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

2014-05-01

101

Real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions of light-duty diesel vehicles and their correlation with road conditions.  

PubMed

The real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emission profiles of CO, HC and NOx for light-duty diesel vehicles were investigated. Using a portable emissions measurement system, 16 diesel taxies were tested on different roads in Macao and the data were normalized with the vehicle specific power bin method. The 11 Toyota Corolla diesel taxies have very good fuel economy of (5.9 +/- 0.6) L/100 km, while other five diesel taxies showed relatively high values at (8.5 +/- 1.7) L/100 km due to the variation in transmission systems and emission control strategies. Compared to similar Corolla gasoline models, the diesel cars confirmed an advantage of ca. 20% higher fuel efficiency. HC and CO emissions of all the 16 taxies are quite low, with the average at (0.05 +/- 0.02) g/km and (0.38 +/- 0.15) g/km, respectively. The average NOx emission factor of the 11 Corolla taxies is (0.56 +/- 0.17) g/km, about three times higher than their gasoline counterparts. Two of the three Hyundai Sonata taxies, configured with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) + diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) emission control strategies, indicated significantly higher NO2 emissions and NO2/NOx ratios than other diesel taxies and consequently trigger a concern of possibly adverse impacts on ozone pollution in urban areas with this technology combination. A clear and similar pattern for fuel consumption and for each of the three gaseous pollutant emissions with various road conditions was identified. To save energy and mitigate CO2 emissions as well as other gaseous pollutant emissions in urban area, traffic planning also needs improvement. PMID:22893964

Hu, Jingnan; Wu, Ye; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Haitao; Bao, Xiaofeng; Hao, Jiming

2012-01-01

102

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-09-01

103

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. Improved understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and PAH emissions is needed to determine whether fuel reformulation is a viable approach for reducing PAH emissions. PAH concentrations were quantified in gasoline and diesel fuel samples collected in summer 1997 in northern California. Naphthalene was the predominant PAH

Linsey C. Marr; Thomas W. Kirchstetter; Robert A. Harley; S. K. Hammond; A. H. Miguel

1999-01-01

104

Investigation of remote sensing devices for chemical characterization of motor vehicle exhaust. Final report, February 1995--September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes results of tests to (1) evaluate the accuracy and precision of two different remote sensing devices (RSDs) for measuring carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs), and nitric oxide (NO), and (2) evaluating the capabilities of three RSDs for characterizing fleet emissions of NO. `Puff` tests (in which simulated motor vehicle exhaust gas was repeatedly injected in bursts or puffs into the RSDs) were conducted. The accuracy and precision of data from these measurements, which showed a generally linear response over a range of concentrations, were in the order CO > HCs > NO. Subsequently, three vehicles were driven at constant speed on a dynamometer and on a test track. The average emissions data measured by the three RSDs at the track, when compared to the dynanmometer emissions data (which were used as the standard), in general showed just the opposite result; i.e., NO > HCs > CO. However, the test track data showed a considerable amount of variation. The three RSDs were tested for several hours on a freeway ramp in Raleigh, NC.

Jones, J.W.; Ripberger, C.T.; Vescio, N.

1998-12-01

105

Exhaust gas recirculating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an exhaust gas recirculating system for an internal combustion engine having an intake passage, a main throttle valve located in the intake passage, and an exhaust passage. The engine is installed in an automotive vehicle provided with a traction control system including means for sensing slippage of a drive wheel of the vehicle during acceleration, a second

H. Takahashi; T. Naganawa

1988-01-01

106

NUMERICAL MODELING OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR LATENT HEAT RECOVERY FROM EXHAUST FLUE GASES  

E-print Network

In this study, the performance of the compact heat exchanger in transient regime was theoretically examined to bring the system the vapour latent heat by condensation of water vapour in flue gas. A mathematical model was developed to examine the effects of inlet temperature, relative humidity, and velocity of flue gases on the overall thermal permeability (UA). In order to develop the mathematical model, the basic laws of heat transfer and thermodynamics and some empirical equations were used. The numerical algorithm of the mathematical model was solved by using the MATLAB R2010. The results show that if amount of water vapour in flue gas, and velocity of flue gas increase, the overall thermal permeability of compact heat exchanger also increase.

Kemal Altinisik; Dilek N. Ozen; Ali H. Abdulkarim; I. Aslan Resitoglu

107

Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001-06: An Ecological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. Methods and Findings We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001–06) with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area—postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs)—and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD.) The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006) during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006) and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006), respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6% decrease (rate ratio [RR]?=?1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.08) in the incidence of MVEG suicide within postcode areas; a percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1999 vehicles was associated with a 3% decrease (RR?=?1.03; 95% CI 1.02–1.04) in the incidence of MVEG suicide. Conclusions Areas of Australia with fewer vehicles predating stringent CO emission laws experience lower rates of MVEG suicide. Although those emission laws were introduced primarily for environmental reasons, countries that lack them may miss the benefits of a serendipitous suicide prevention strategy. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20052278

Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

2010-01-01

108

A case study for removal of sulphur-di-oxide from exhaust flue gases at thermal power plant, Rajasthan (India).  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to reduce the percent SO2 in environment and to produce a byproduct with SO2, to control air pollution. The present work envisages a situation that compares the efficiency of three different reagents, viz. sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and waste product of water treatment plant containing CaO in removal of SO2 that would be generated in this situation. Various parameters were also observed with variation involving percent concentration of reactants, pH of the solution, time for reaction , temperature of solution and flow of flue gas in impingers. Pet coke with lime stone is being used for power generation in power plant during the experiment, the pet coke having 6% sulphur resulting in emission of SO2. Hence experiments have been conducted to trap these gases to produce sulphates. Waste product of water treatment plant, calcium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide in various permutation and combination have been used with control flow by SO2 monitoring kit for preparation of calcium sulphate and sodium sulphate. Thus sodium hydroxide turned out to be better as compared to calcium hydroxide and sludge. It is also concluded that pH of the solution should be alkaline for good absorption of SO2 and maximum absorption of SO2 found in direct passing of SO2 in impinger as compared to indirect passing of SO2 in impingers. Good absorption of SO2 found at temperature range between 20-25 degrees C and it seems to be optimum. Maximum recovery of SO2 was obtained when the reaction took place for long time period. PMID:22324143

Sharma, Rashmi; Acharya, Shveta; Sharma, Arun Kumar

2011-01-01

109

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An auxiliary flow control valve is disposed in an exhaust gas recirculation passageway at a location upstream of a main flow control valve controlling the flow rate of exhaust gases recirculated into an intake system. Two conduits communicating with an intake manifold communicate with a vacuum chamber of a servo motor controlling the main flow control valve. One of the

Y. Fujikawa; Y. Nakajima; Y. Hayashi; K. Sugihara; Y. Hase

1976-01-01

110

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system comprises a valve assembly for controlling the recirculation of exhaust gases in such a manner as to maintain a difference between a first and second pressure at a predetermined value. The first pressure is a pressure in a zone in an air induction passage between a throttle valve therein and a flow restrictor disposed therein

Aoyama

1980-01-01

111

PM 2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 ?m) chemical source profiles applicable to speciated emissions inventories and receptor model source apportionment are reported for geological material, motor vehicle exhaust, residential coal (RCC) and wood combustion (RWC), forest fires, geothermal hot springs; and coal-fired power generation units from northwestern Colorado during 1995. Fuels and combustion conditions are similar to those

John G Watson; Judith C Chow; James E Houck

2001-01-01

112

Multistage exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automotive type exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system has two modes of operation, a first one that regulates EGR flow at a constant percentage rate as a function of throttle valve position independently of exhaust gas backpressure changes, and a second one that provides a variable percentage rate of flow of EGR gases in response to changes in exhaust gas

D. C. Ahrns; S. H. Rachedi

1983-01-01

113

49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fastened to the vehicle. (i) Exhaust systems may use hangers which permit required movement due to expansion and contraction caused by heat of the exhaust and relative motion between engine and chassis of a vehicle. [53 FR 49401,...

2011-10-01

114

49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fastened to the vehicle. (i) Exhaust systems may use hangers which permit required movement due to expansion and contraction caused by heat of the exhaust and relative motion between engine and chassis of a vehicle. [53 FR 49401,...

2010-10-01

115

High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and

Rod Fensom; David J. Kidder

2005-01-01

116

Electric exhaust gas recirculation valve  

SciTech Connect

An electrically actuated EGR valve is described for controlling EGR gases in response to electric signals from a computer, the EGR valve comprising: a valve housing having an exhaust gas inlet port for passage of exhaust gases; an exhaust gas outlet port; an exhaust gas passage extending between; poppet valve means for selectively opening and closing exhaust gas passage, the poppet valve means including a valve rod slidably supported for movement in a linear direction in the housing; an electric step motor responsive to electric pulse signals and including output means for directly contacting and moving the valve rod; and a motor casing secured to the valve housing with an insulating element. The step motor is isolated from heat from the exhaust gases and motor casing includes apertures formed where air may be circulated into the motor casing to further thermally isolate the step motor.

Akagi, M.

1987-06-23

117

Closed loop exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed loop exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is described that has an intake system, an exhaust manifold, a throttle disposed within the intake system for controlling air flow therein, a conduit coupling the exhaust manifold to the intake system for supplying exhaust gases back to the intake system for controlling the generation and emission of

Toelle

1979-01-01

118

Control system for use in exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system is described for use in an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine, in which part of exhaust gases is recirculated from an exhaust system to an intake system in an attempt to reduce the amount of harmful components contained in exhaust gases from the engine as well as to prevent lowering of the running

Onaka

1977-01-01

119

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosed engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system has an EGR passage for recirculating exhaust gases from an exhaust system of an engine back into an intake system thereof downstream of a throttle valve. The EGR passage has a restriction orifice therein and an EGR control valve responsive to a vacuum signal to control the recirculation of exhaust gases through

T. Kohama; H. Obayashi; T. Ozaki; H. Nohira

1979-01-01

120

Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels. The scooters were the main emitters of aromatic compounds, followed by the gasoline vehicle, the diesel vehicles and the HDDV.

Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

2014-06-01

121

Electrochemical cell and membrane for continuous NOx removal from natural gas-combustion exhaust gases. Final report, October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This program investigated the utility of electrochemically promoted NOx decomposition under conditions appropriate to those found in natural gas prime mover exhaust. In addition, the utility of mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes for the spontaneous decomposition of NOx were investigated using catalytic sites identified during the electrochemical study. The program was conducted by initially evaluating perovskite related cathode electrocatalysts using high NOx concentrations. This was followed by investigations at NOx concentrations consistent with those encountered in natural gas prime mover exhausts. Preferred electrocatalysts were then incorporated into mixed conducting membranes for promoting NOx decomposition. Work showed that cobalt based electrocatalysts were active towards promoting NOx decomposition at high concentrations. At lower NOx concentrations initial activation, by passage of a large cathodic current, was required which probably resulted in producing a distinct population of surface oxygen vacancies before the subject decomposition reaction could proceed. This study showed that electrochemically promoted decomposition is feasible under conditions appropriate to those found in prime mover exhausts.

White, J.H.; Burt, J.; Cook, R.L.; Sammells, A.F.

1991-01-01

122

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) Natural gas-fueled ATVs: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled ATVs: THCE emissions. (3) Other ATVs: THC emissions...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2013-07-01

123

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (1) Natural gas-fueled ATVs: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled ATVs: THCE emissions. (3) Other ATVs: THC emissions...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2011-07-01

124

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (1) Natural gas-fueled ATVs: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled ATVs: THCE emissions. (3) Other ATVs: THC emissions...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2012-07-01

125

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (1) Natural gas-fueled ATVs: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled ATVs: THCE emissions. (3) Other ATVs: THC emissions...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2010-07-01

126

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is disclosed for an internal combustion engine. The recirculating system is of the type including an exhaust gas recirculation passage for communicating an exhaust tube with an intake tube downstream of a throttle valve disposed therein for recirculating part of exhaust gases from the exhaust tube into the intake tube, and a control valve for

T. Kohama; H. Nohira; H. Obayashi; T. Ozaki

1980-01-01

127

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGR control system comprises EGR control valve means including a first fluid chamber the vacuum in which increases and decreases in accordance with operating conditions of the engine whereby EGR control valve means control the recirculated amount of exhaust gases back to the engine and a second fluid chamber receiving therein a suction vacuum to thereby cause multiplication of

Aoyama

1979-01-01

128

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passage means are described for communicating an EGR passage between first and second EGR control valves. A vacuum chamber of an actuator of the second EGR control valve is prevented from being clogged by solids of the engine exhaust gases by the provision of an air pump for feeding air to fill the passage means between an orifice therein and

Aoyama

1977-01-01

129

Emission Factors for High-Emitting Vehicles Based on On-Road Measurements of Individual Vehicle Exhaust with a Mobile Measurement Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel-based emission factors for 143 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and 93 heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) were measured in Wilmington, CA using a zero-emission mobile measurement platform (MMP). The frequency distributions of emission factors of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particle mass with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) varied widely, whereas the average of the individual vehicle emission

Seong Suk Park; Kathleen Kozawa; Scott Fruin; Steve Mara; Ying-Kuang Hsu; Chris Jakober; Arthur Winer; Jorn Herner

2011-01-01

130

49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation...Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337 Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation...

2012-10-01

131

49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation...Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337 Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation...

2013-10-01

132

49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation...Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337 Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation...

2011-10-01

133

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

134

Near-vent measurements of volcanic gases and aerosols with multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic phenomena occurring on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere are almost always distributed over a volume or area that changes progressively over time (e.g., explosive eruption plumes, lava flows, floods, toxic materials releases, wildfires). 'Snapshot' views of such phenomena traditionally capture a small part of the area or volume of the event in successive time slices. Such time series are fundamentally limited in providing accurate boundary conditions for models of such processes, or even to create descriptions or observations at spatial scales relevant to the characteristic dimensions of the process. High spatial resolution (e.g., ~1-3m/pixel) imaging views of such spatially extended phenomena that capture the entire extent of the event are not usually possible with a single low altitude aircraft, for instance. Synoptic satellite and high altitude airborne views are often at spatial resolutions that an order of magnitude coarser. Airborne in situ sampling faces a similar problem in that point measurements are acquired along a flight line in a time-series. Source conditions changing at timescales shorter than an airborne sortie interval (typical for most dynamic phenomena) render such flight line observations incomplete. The ability to capture hi-spatial resolution, synchronous, full volume or area data over dynamically evolving (possibly hazardous) features (e.g., volcanic plumes, air pollution layers, oil slicks, wildfires) requires a distributed 2D or 3D mesh of observation platforms. Small (e.g., <25kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology that can provide distributed formations or networks of observation platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured to encompass areas or volumes of interest for imaging or other kinds of in situ observations (e.g., SO2 or CO2 sampling of volcanic gas emissions). Such data are crucial for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed concentration retrievals (e.g., from multi/hyperspectral imaging platforms) or for transport modeling based on data from such platforms. For instance, for volcanic plumes, in situ cal/val data are rare to non-existent. Nevertheless, such data were in high demand during the airborne volcanic ash crisis that shut down European airspace for weeks at a time after the early 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland. Particularly for low altitude applications, small UAVs, such as the Aerovironment-built Dragon Eye (~2.5kg gross weight) or its equivalent, with small payloads (e.g., 0.5-1kg), can be economically deployed in formations or 'swarms' to provide simultaneous multiple observations over an areally or volumetrically distributed temporally evolving feature, such as a lava flow or a volcanic plume. We discuss our recent experiences and challenges in the use of such small platforms, the challenges in providing low mass sensors for such aircraft, and future applications for self-organizing airborne sensor networks. This work was carried out, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology.

Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Schumann, J. M.

2013-12-01

135

Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 3: Experimental technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The jet induced effects of several exhaust nozzle configurations (axisymmetric, and vectoring/modulating varients) on the aeropropulsive performance of a twin engine V/STOL fighter design was determined. A 1/8 scale model was tested in an 11 ft transonic tunnel at static conditions and over a range of Mach Numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. The experimental aspects of the static and wind-on programs are discussed. Jet effects test techniques in general, fow through balance calibrations and tare force corrections, ASME nozzle thrust and mass flow calibrations, test problems and solutions are emphasized.

Schnell, W. C.

1982-01-01

136

Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation and intake air flow control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a diesel engine which includes an air intake system, an exhaust system, and an exhaust gas recirculation passage which recirculates part of the exhaust gases produced by the engine from the exhaust system to the air intake system, a control system for the recirculation of exhaust gases and the flow of intake air, having an intake air flow control

K. Hiyama; T. Ueda

1982-01-01

137

Development of a Simple Field Test for Vehicle Exhaust to Detect Illicit Use of Dyed Diesel Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The use of tax-free dyed fuel on public highways in the United States provides a convenient way of evading taxes. Current enforcement involves visual inspection for the red azo dye added to the fuel to designate its tax-free status. This approach has shortcomings such as the invasive nature of the tests and/or various deceptive tactics applied by tax evaders. A test designed to detect dyed fuel use by analyzing the exhaust would circumvent these shortcomings. This paper describes the development of a simple color spot test designed to detect the use of tax-free (dyed) diesel fuel by analyzing the engine exhaust. Development first investigated the combustion products of C.I. Solvent Red 164 (the azo dye formulation used in the United States to tag tax-free fuel). A variety of aryl amines were identified as characteristic molecular remnants that appear to survive combustion. A number of microanalytical color tests specific for aryl amines were then investigated. One test based on the use of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde seemed particularly applicable and was used in a proof-of-principle experiment. The 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde color spot test was able to clearly distinguish between engines burning regular and dyed diesel fuel. Further development will refine this color spot test to provide an easy-to-use field test for Internal Revenue Service Field Compliance specialists.

Harvey, Scott D.; Wright, Bob W.

2011-10-30

138

Thermal and Kinetic Impact of CO, CO2, and H2O on the Postoxidation of IC-Engine Exhaust Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal and kinetic impact of the residual species CO, CO2, and H2O on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation chemistry was investigated numerically. The case of pure dilution by N2 was tested against a dilutant composed of CO, CO2, and H2O in proportions corresponding to internal combustion (IC)-engine Postoxidation conditions (at the end of the expansion stroke and throughout exhaust). The impact

Jorg M. Anderlohr; Antonio Pires da Cruz; Roda Bounaceur; Frédérique Battin-Leclerc

2010-01-01

139

Rocket motor exhaust products generated by the space shuttle vehicle during its launch phase (1976 design data)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.

Bowyer, J. M.

1977-01-01

140

A constant-volume rapid exhaust dilution system for motor vehicle particulate matter number and mass measurements.  

PubMed

An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. PMID:14604329

Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

2003-10-01

141

Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

Irby, James F.; And Others

142

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine, the flow quantity of exhaust gases recirculated from an exhaust pipe into an induction pipe through a recirculation pipe is controlled in relation to exhaust pressure in the recirculation pipe in accordance with pneumatic pressure defined by a value calculated in a digital computer taking account of negative pressure

T. Ina; H. Kawai; K. Kobashi; T. Kohama; T. Matsui; A. Nishimatsu; H. Nohira

1980-01-01

143

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is comprised of an exhaust gas recirculation passage for recirculating exhaust gases from an exhaust pipe into an intake pipe downstream of a throttle valve, a control valve responsive to a pressure signal for opening or closing said recirculation passage, a pressure chamber defined within the recirculation passage, a negative

T. Kohama; H. Obayashi; T. Ozaki; H. Nohira

1980-01-01

144

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions from automotive internal combustion engines is described in which the rate or amount of exhaust gases recirculated into the intake manifold of the engine is controlled in relation to the operating conditions of the engine. A device for supplying secondary air into the exhaust is also provided. An exhaust gas

Hayashi

1974-01-01

145

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an internal combustion engine having an intake passage provided therein with a throttle valve for controlling intake flow of air or an air-fuel mixture passing therethrough toward engine cylinders and an exhaust passage, an exhaust gas recirculation system comprises first means for conducting a portion of the exhaust gases from the exhaust passage into the intake passage downstream of

Higashi

1984-01-01

146

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine includes an exhaust gas recirculation passage for communicating an exhaust port with an intake passage through a recirculation flow control valve. The recirculation system according to the invention comprises a timing valve in the recirculation passage adapted to open at specified moments for extracting exhaust gases containing highly concentrated hydrocarbons.

H. Aihara; Y. Matsumoto; Y. Nakagawa; S. Suzuki

1981-01-01

147

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed that has an exhaust gas recirculation control valve of the diaphragm type which controls the opening of an exhaust gas recirculation passage and is actuated by intake vacuum of the engine modified by a vacuum control valve which in turn is actuated by the pressure of exhaust gases

Toyama

1980-01-01

148

Quick Access Rocket Exhaust Rig Testing of Coated GRCop-84 Sheets Used to Aid Coating Selection for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the next generation of reusable launch vehicles calls for using GRCop-84 copper alloy liners based on a composition1 invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center: Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb. Many of the properties of this alloy have been shown to be far superior to those of other conventional copper alloys, such as NARloy-Z. Despite this considerable advantage, it is expected that GRCop-84 will suffer from some type of environmental degradation depending on the type of rocket fuel utilized. In a liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid oxygen (LO2) booster engine, copper alloys undergo repeated cycles of oxidation of the copper matrix and subsequent reduction of the copper oxide, a process termed "blanching". Blanching results in increased surface roughness and poor heat-transfer capabilities, local hot spots, decreased engine performance, and premature failure of the liner material. This environmental degradation coupled with the effects of thermomechanical stresses, creep, and high thermal gradients can distort the cooling channel severely, ultimately leading to its failure.

Raj, Sai V.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Ghosn, Louis J.

2005-01-01

149

Self-calibrating exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A motor vehicle combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation system in which the flow of recirculated exhaust gas is controlled through an orifice having exhaust back pressure on one side and a control pressure on the other as determined by an EGR valve. A pressure transducer compares the control pressure with a reference pressure provided in part by an

R. J. Haka; D. D. Stoltman

1983-01-01

150

Designing stainless exhaust systems  

SciTech Connect

With the ever-increasing price of automobiles, durability and reduced operating costs have become major concerns in North America, Europe, and Japan. In the US, the exhaust system was once thought of as disposable every 3--4 years, but it is now considered a nonreplaceable item for at least 5--7 years, the average time an initial owner keeps a vehicle. Through the mid-1980s, the only stainless steel on most US car exhausts was the downpipe and catalytic converter, and these were due to government warranty mandates. Today, most US passenger car exhaust systems are almost entirely stainless steel, and with the 1996 model year switch of GM light trucks, the average use of stainless alloys in US vehicles will exceed 23 kg per vehicle. The US experience with stainless has shown that certain design considerations can further increase system life and reduce manufacturing problems. Such considerations may also benefit the European situation, which has seen an increase in the use of stainless alloys in exhaust components since tighter pollution laws began taking effect in 1990.

Douthett, J.A.

1995-11-01

151

40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.  

...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: ...vehicles) shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The...

2014-07-01

152

40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: ...vehicles) shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The...

2011-07-01

153

40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: ...vehicles) shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The...

2012-07-01

154

40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: ...vehicles) shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The...

2013-07-01

155

Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 ?g g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

156

40 CFR 86.1811-17 - Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...  

...light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles...light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles...light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. MDPVs are subject to all the same provisions of this...

2014-07-01

157

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2011-07-01

158

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2013-07-01

159

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2012-07-01

160

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

...2013-07-01 true Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2014-07-01

161

First online measurements of sulfuric acid gas in modern heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust: implications for nanoparticle formation.  

PubMed

To mitigate the diesel particle pollution problem, diesel vehicles are fitted with modern exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS), which efficiently remove engine-generated primary particles (soot and ash) and gaseous hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, ATS can promote formation of low-vapor-pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to formation of nucleation particles (NUP). The chemical nature and formation mechanism of these particles are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, online measurements of low-vapor-pressure gases were performed for exhaust of a modern heavy-duty diesel engine operated with modern ATS and combusting low and ultralow sulfur fuels and also biofuel. It was observed that the gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) concentration varied strongly, although engine operation was stable. However, the exhaust GSA was observed to be affected by fuel sulfur level, exhaust after-treatment, and driving conditions. Significant GSA concentrations were measured also when biofuel was used, indicating that GSA can be originated also from lubricant oil sulfur. Furthermore, accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations were performed. We found that the exhaust GSA promotes NUP formation, but also organic (acidic) precursor gases can have a role. The model results indicate that that the measured GSA concentration alone is not high enough to grow the particles to the detected sizes. PMID:23035617

Arnold, F; Pirjola, L; Rönkkö, T; Reichl, U; Schlager, H; Lähde, T; Heikkilä, J; Keskinen, J

2012-10-16

162

Multi-stage exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

An automotive type exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system has two modes of operation, a first one that regulates EGR flow at a constant percentage rate as a function of throttle valve position independently of exhaust gas backpressure changes, and a second one that provides a variable percentage rate of flow of EGR gases in response to changes in exhaust gas backpressures, both modes utilizing carburetor ported vacuum modified by an air bleed device as the EGR valve opening force.

Ahrns, D.C.; Rachedi, S.H.

1983-08-16

163

Explosion protection for vehicles intended for the transport of flammable gases and liquids--an investigation into technical and operational basics.  

PubMed

In Europe, the transport of flammable gases and liquids in tanks has been impacted by new developments: for example, the introduction of the vapour-balancing technique on a broad scale and the steady increase in the application of electronic components with their own power sources; furthermore, new regulatory policies like the ATEX Directives are being enforced in the European Union. With this background in mind, the present investigation aims to provide a basis for future developments of the relevant explosion protection regulations in the safety codes for the transport of dangerous goods (RID/ADR). Specifically, the concentration of gas in the air was measured under various practical conditions while tank vehicles were being loaded with flammable gases or liquids. These spot-test data were supplemented by systematic investigations at a road tanker placed in our test field. With respect to non-electrical ignition sources, a closer investigation of the effect of hot surfaces was carried out. With regard to improving the current regulations, the results of our investigation show that it would be reasonable to implement a stronger differentiation of the characteristics of the dangerous goods (gaseous/liquid, flashpoint) on the one hand and of the techniques applied (loading with and without vapour-balancing system) on the other hand. Conclusions for the further development of the current international regulations are proposed. PMID:18922633

Förster, Hans; Günther, Werner

2009-05-30

164

40 CFR 1037.510 - Duty-cycle exhaust testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Test and Modeling Procedures § 1037.510 Duty-cycle exhaust testing. This section applies where exhaust emission testing is...

2012-07-01

165

40 CFR 1037.510 - Duty-cycle exhaust testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Test and Modeling Procedures § 1037.510 Duty-cycle exhaust testing. This section applies where exhaust emission testing is...

2013-07-01

166

Analysis of motor vehicle emissions over eastern Los Angeles, California from in-situ airborne measurements of trace gases and particulates during CalNex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ measurements of trace gases and particulates were acquired on the instrumented NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field study in May and June 2010. Multiple daytime research flights under similar meteorological conditions provide a sufficient data set for characterizing automobile emissions over the eastern Los Angeles (eLA) area of the South Coast air basin. Ratios of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) to carbon monoxide (CO) are used to isolate emissions of light duty vehicles from those of medium/heavy duty diesel trucks. Observations in the mixed boundary layer for the eLA area are separated according to latitude, longitude, and altitude. Industrial influences are eliminated by filtering the data according to SO2 mixing ratio and wind direction. The resulting correlations show weekday-to-weekend differences in enhancement ratios of NOx to CO and BC to CO, indicating a general tendency for higher emissions from heavy duty vehicles during the week. The CalNex data over eLA in 2010 will be compared to eLA data from a research flight in May 2002 by the WP-3D aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) field study.

Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Perring, A.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.

2010-12-01

167

Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of a Diesel Vehicle: Results of the Prototype Volkswagen 1.5-Liter Turbocharged Rabbit Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were performed on a prototype Volkswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the Urban Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), Conges...

R. A. Walter, S. S. Quayle, J. C. Sturm

1981-01-01

168

Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

169

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is described for an internal combustion engine of the back pressure control type wherein a back pressure chamber formed in a recirculation passage for recirculating exhaust gases is controlled to be substantially at atmospheric pressure by co-operation of a vacuum-operated diaphragm type exhaust gas recirculation control valve and a vacuum control valve which modifies the

N. Nakamura; N. Toyama; T. Baika

1979-01-01

170

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine for automotive use is disclosed, wherein a diaphragm-operated recirculation rate control valve adapted to control the exhaust gas recirculation rate depending upon the relationship between the pressure of the exhaust gases passed through an orifice and a vacuum developed in the mixture supply system of the engine is used in

T. Yano; H. Yuzawa

1981-01-01

171

78 FR 34375 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...request (ICR), ``Exhaust Emissions of Light-duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...population for the project will include light-duty cars and trucks certified to...

2013-06-07

172

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01

173

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation system is described for an engine having a throttle valve in an intake passage, comprising: the intake passage having an EGR port provided adjacent to the upstream side of the throttle valve at the closed position. A control port provides a position at downstream of the throttle valve at the closed position. A leak port provides at upstream of the throttle valve; an EGR valve recirculates exhaust gases to the intake passage. The EGR valve has a diaphragm defining a first chamber applied with the pressure at the EGR port and a second chamber is applied with the pressure at the leak port. A valve body connects to the diaphragm for controlling the amount of recirculated gases; a control valve has a diaphragm defining a first control chamber and a second control chamber, and valve means on the diaphragm. The first control chamber is pressured at the EGR port. The second control chamber is applied with the pressure at the control port through a first conduit having an end port and with the pressure at the leak port through a second conduit. The valve means is arranged to open the end port of the first conduit when the difference between pressures in the first and second control chambers exceeds a predetermined value. Pressure regulating means renders the pressure in the second control chamber lower than the pressure in the second chamber of the EGR valve.

Sugiura, K.

1987-08-04

174

Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system with greater atmospheric pressure compensation at low engine load  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is described for a diesel engine for a vehicle utilizing an air intake system and an exhaust system including: (a) an exhaust gas recirculation passage a downstream and of which is connected to the exhaust system and an upstream end of which is connected to the air intake system, so as to recirculate exhaust gas

M. Kawagoe; O. Hishinuma

1986-01-01

175

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

Walter, R. A.

1982-01-01

176

40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...412 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...drawing. An example of a sampling and analytical system which...sample or corrosive calibration gases shall be either chemically...

2010-07-01

177

Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated aftertreatment, high-molecular-weight fuel components and unburned lubricant were emitted at higher rates than in vehicles in good repair, with functioning emissions systems. Light-duty gasoline, medium-duty diesel, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles produced more particles with fresh oil than with aged oil. The opposite trend was observed in light- and medium-duty high PM emitters. This effect was not readily apparent with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, perhaps because the lubricant represented a much smaller fraction of the total PM in those trucks.

Not Available

2012-03-01

178

Exhaust gas purification using immobilised monocultures (biocatalysts)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The paper is concerned with the purification of exhaust gases using biocatalysts in a trickle bed reactor. Substance specific\\u000a strains (monocultures) which were, for example, immobilised on activated carbon served as biocatalyst. Technically important\\u000a solvents and substances such as aldehydes, methyl ethyl ketone and ethyl acetate were used as pollutants. Their concentration\\u000a was about 5–40 ppm in the exhaust gas

Kurt Kirchner; Gerhard Hauk; Hans Jürgen Rehm

1987-01-01

179

Noble gas impurity balance and exhaust model for DIII-D and JET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to study the exhaust of noble gases (helium, neon) with cryopumping in DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) configuration and in JET (Mk1 configuration) found significant differences in the global exhaust rate of helium, while efficient neon exhaust was observed in both machines. An attempt to better understand the basic processes governing the exhaust of noble gases in ELMy H-mode

D. L. Hillis; J. Hogan; M. R. Wade; M. von Hellermann; J. Ehrenberg; L. Horton; R. Koenig; P. Morgan; G. Saibene

1998-01-01

180

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle highway carbon-related exhaust emissions...

2010-07-01

181

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

1981-01-01

182

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

Quayle, S. S.

1982-01-01

183

40 CFR 1037.104 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2, CH4, and N2O for heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on the FEL(s) you specify for your vehicles during certification. You must adjust the calculated emissions by the global warming potential (GWP): GWP equals 25 for CH4 and 298 for N2 O. This means you must use 25 Mg of positive CO2...

2012-07-01

184

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

185

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

186

14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

...operation. In addition— (1) Each exchanger must be suitable for continued operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases; (2) There must be means for inspection of critical parts of each exchanger; and (3) Each...

2014-01-01

187

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine, a flow control valve is disposed within a recirculation pipe and operatively connected to a pneumatically operated servomotor to control the flow quantity of exhaust gases through the recirculation pipe, and an orifice is disposed within the recirculation pipe upstream of the valve to form a space between the

T. Inoue; K. Kobashi; T. Kohama; T. Matsui; A. Nishimatsu; K. Oishi

1981-01-01

188

40 CFR 600.007-80 - Vehicle acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the...

2011-07-01

189

40 CFR 600.007-08 - Vehicle acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the...

2011-07-01

190

Self-calibrating exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

A motor vehicle combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation system in which the flow of recirculated exhaust gas is controlled through an orifice having exhaust back pressure on one side and a control pressure on the other as determined by an EGR valve. A pressure transducer compares the control pressure with a reference pressure provided in part by an electromagnetic force to provide an operating pressure for positioning the EGR valve to obtain a control pressure equal to the reference pressure. At engine idle, the EGR valve is closed and the control pressure is equal to the exhaust back pressure. When this condition exists, the electromagnetic force is varied until the reference pressure is substantially equal to the control pressure, the magnitude of the electromagnetic force being a measure of the control pressure at idle and which comprises a calibration value that is stored for use as a reference for controlling exhaust back pressure during other engine operating conditions.

Haka, R.J.; Stoltman, D.D.

1983-08-09

191

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines having a detachable gasket member between an exhaust gas recirculation valve and an exhaust pipe of the engine, the exhaust gas recirculation rate is controlled by a flow control orifice formed in the detachable gasket member. The recirculation valve can be applied to various types of engines requiring various recirculation

K. Numata; Y. Muramatu

1977-01-01

192

Exhaust gas recirculator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust pipe, an intake manifold and a carburetor throttle valve. The exhaust gas recirculator comprises an egr passage which makes the exhaust pipe communicate with the intake manifold, an egr controlling valve and an egr valve respectively arranged in the upper and lower portions of the egr passage. The

Suda

1983-01-01

193

High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve  

DOEpatents

In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

2005-01-18

194

Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by

W. G. Colella; M. Z. Jacobson; D. M. Golden

2005-01-01

195

Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described.

Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

1980-02-01

196

Secondary air flow rate control device for use in exhaust gas purifying device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secondary air flow rate control device is described in which the secondary air delivered from an air pump is fed through an air passage to an exhaust gas purifying device provided in an exhaust system for purifying the unburnt components contained in exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine. An aperture for bleeding air to atmosphere is provided in

S. Shimo; T. Atago

1976-01-01

197

Third quarterly technical summary report on the homogeneous production and removal of NO/sub x/ from combustion exhaust flows. [27 reactions of sulfur or sulfur compounds with other gases or vapors  

SciTech Connect

The addition of ammonia to the exhaust stream of stationary combustors is a promising approach toward reducing NO/sub x/ emissions. The use of high sulfur-content fuels will produce moderate quantities of SO/sub 2/ and other sulfur-bearing compounds which may affect the effectiveness of this thermal deNO/sub x/ process. Modeling efforts indicate that the presence of SO/sub 2/ is slightly beneficial in removing NO above 1250K. In addition, experiments show that the ammonia species (NH/sub i/, i = 1,2,3) have no appreciable reaction rate with SO/sub 2/. An explanation of the effect of SO/sub 2/ on the thermal deNO/sub x/ process is presented, as well as preliminary calculations leading to the measurement of the key reaction of H + SO/sub 3/.

Silver, J.A.

1981-05-01

198

Exhaust gas recirculation system for diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system calculates a target EGR ratio value based upon engine operating parameters and maintains the EGR ratio at the target EGR ratio value. Each time the vehicle travels a predetermined distance, the control system calculates an actual EGR ratio value and corrects the target EGR ratio value to reduce a deviation between the target and

K. Masaki; S. Yasuhara

1984-01-01

199

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a diesel engine having a turbocharger for feeding supercharged air to the engine, an exhaust gas recirculation passage communicates between the exhaust passage from the engine and the intake passage to a compressor of the turbocharger. A first control valve closes the exhaust gas recirculation passage when the output pressure of the air leading from the compressor is lower

Yoshiba

1982-01-01

200

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine including at least one combustion chamber; an intake mechanism for delivering a combustible fluid mixture to the combustion chamber; an ignition system for igniting the combustible mixture; and an exhaust system for carrying exhaust fluid produced by the combustion of the combustible fluid mixture away from

Freesh

1982-01-01

201

Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

1978-01-01

202

Jet exhaust noise suppressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise suppression for a jet engine exhaust is provided by an annular divergent body attached to an exhaust nozzle. The smallest diameter of the divergent body is larger than the diameter of the exhaust nozzle exit to form an annular step which produces a shock wave in the exhaust as it passes the step. An annular shroud is disposed around the divergent body and causes outside air to pass through voids in the divergent body to mix with the jet exhaust gas. The divergent body includes a plurality of channels with separators between the channels.

Huff, R. G. (inventor)

1974-01-01

203

Lightweight polymeric exhaust components  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a muffler assembly including: a) polymeric housing having an interior surface and at least one opening for at least one inlet and one outlet exhaust pipe; b) at least one metal inlet exhaust pipe and at least one metal outlet exhaust pipe positioned within the openings to provide housing-exhaust pipe interfaces; c) a thermal insulating material coating the interior surface of the polymeric housing and extending through the housing-exhaust pipe interfaces; wherein the thermal insulating material seals the muffler assembly at the housing-exhaust pipe interfaces; and wherein the muffler assembly has a leak rate of 105 Liters/minute or less at 4.5 psig pressure. An optional muffler assembly has body mounting adapters attached to the inlet and outlet exhaust pipes and positioned within the openings to provide housing-body mounting adapter interfaces. Also disclosed are processes for manufacturing the muffler assemblies.

2013-08-13

204

LIGHT-DUTYVEHICLES Vehicle Technology  

E-print Network

LIGHT-DUTYVEHICLES Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints #12;#12;TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways strategies for abating greenhouse gases and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation

205

A study of automobile exhaust noise preferences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between preferences in automobile exhaust noise and the demographic factors of a listening jury. Noise samples of four different vehicles were recorded at idle as well as at 3000 RPM, and 1/3 octave sound spectra were acquired simultaneously. The recordings were presented to the jury using headphones and a preference survey was administered. Zwicker loudness was computed for all samples. Demographic factors such as gender, age, current and future vehicle ownership, were correlated to listening preferences, and unforeseen results were found, especially in regards to sport utility vehicles (SUV).

Haire, Jay B.; Carney, Melinda J.; Cheenne, Dominique J.

2005-04-01

206

Exhaust system combustor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustor for use in an exhaust gas system which combustor is tolerant to thermal gradients so as not to degrade the atomization of fuel therein. It comprises an exhaust duct for conveying exhaust gas therethrough having a side wall, an inlet end through which exhaust gas enters the exhaust duct, and an outlet end through which the exhaust gas exits the exhaust duct; a combustion chamber having an atomizer end and a combustion end fixedly mounted in the exhaust duct facing the outlet end of the exhaust duct; an atomizer mounted in the atomizer end of the combustion chamber for spraying atomized fuel into the combustion chamber; an air duct for conveying combustion air to the combustion chamber and extending through the side wall of the exhaust duct to the atomizer end of the combustion chamber; and a fuel conduit fixedly joined to the atomizer for conveying fuel to the atomizer, the fuel conduit having at least a portion thereof extending in the air duct, the portion also including a longitudinal compliance portion for allowing thermal expansion and contraction of the air duct and the combustion chamber relative to the fuel conduit while maintaining a constant position and alignment of the atomizer with respect to the combustion chamber.

Simmons, H.C.; Jones, R.V.

1992-04-21

207

Atmospheric gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which gases make up the atmosphere? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the gaseous components of the atmosphere. Students explore the main gases of the atmosphere using a pop-up pie chart. Descriptions of the gases and their percentages in the atmosphere are provided. Students read about water vapor in the atmosphere, and an animation shows a simplified process of precipitation. A pop-up window explains the effects of dust on the atmosphere, and a photograph shows how large amounts of dust in the atmosphere create the reds and oranges displayed in sunsets. Finally, ozone is introduced to students as a necessary component of human life on Earth. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

208

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

209

40 CFR 600.006-89 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-89 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

210

40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-86 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

211

40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-87 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

212

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES USING METHANOL AND METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDED FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exhaust and evaporative emissions were examined from vehicles fueled with methanol or a gasoline-methanol blend. Regulated automobile pollutants, as well as detailed hydrocarbons, methanol, and aldehydes were measured, and exhaust emission trends were obtained for vehicle operati...

213

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen FLUE GASES and FUEL GASES 19.6.2001 2-1 Chapter 2 Flue gases and  

E-print Network

concentrations of the combustion products water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). More concern, however, goes should be included in the list of species not be emitted into the atmosphere carelessly. CO2 atmosphere at ground-level. The formation of ground-level ozone from traffic exhaust gases during sunny

Zevenhoven, Ron

214

Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust  

DOEpatents

A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

Cheng, Dah Y. (Palo Alto, CA)

1982-01-01

215

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine employs a first control valve in an exhaust gas recirculation passageway, a second control valve in an air conduit connecting the intake passage to atmosphere through selective restriction means, and a regulating valve responsive to differential vacuum intensities for actuating the control valves. The restriction means comprise a plurality

Y. Itoh; A. Totsune; H. Yamabe

1982-01-01

216

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed in which an exhaust gas control valve and a pressure regulating valve is constructed as one body to facilitate the mounting of the system on the engine and to improve the response characteristic of the system. Also, the chamber of the pressure regulating valve opposite to the chamber

S. Hayashi; N. Shibata; Y. Takahara; S. Yamada

1981-01-01

217

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

E-print Network

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) COOLER TESTING Southwest Research Institute® #12;overnment) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers is considered research, offers complete facilities for testing diesel engines and their emissions control systems

Chapman, Clark R.

218

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for cleaning exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is provided in which a variable constriction is provided between an intake pipe and a pressure control valve in operative connection to a throttle valve in the carburetor and the pressure differential across said variable constriction is maintained constant to keep off any influence of the

M. Minoura; K. Yorioka

1980-01-01

219

Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

Kammel, R.A.

1992-06-16

220

Exhaust gas recirculating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculating system is described. The exhaust gas recirculating system comprises an EGR valve normally closing an EGR duct to prevent recirculation and movable by a signal vacuum applied thereto to an open position and control means operable to provide a signal vacuum. The control means includes a vacuum line connecting a

Harada

1978-01-01

221

Duplex tab exhaust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

2012-01-01

222

Suicidal carbon monoxide inhalation of exhaust fumes. Investigation of cases  

SciTech Connect

The inhalation of automobile exhaust gases is a relatively frequent suicidal method. Two such cases of special interest to forensic pathology and toxicology have been introduced. In case 1, a suicide note disclosed the victim's mental state, the inside conditions of the car, and toxic effects of automobile exhaust. In case 2, a reconstruction experiment has revealed important factors for the investigation of the scene, such as the size of a vinyl hose, the conditions of connecting site of the hose with the exhaust pipe, etc.

Tsunenari, S.; Yonemitsu, K.; Kanda, M.; Yoshida, S.

1985-09-01

223

Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners engage in a radiating heat activity and an activity that measures temperature in models with and without greenhouse gases. Learners will draw conclusions about the effect of greenhouse gases on temperature and on human life and kinesthetically model the absorbing and re-radiation of heat. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 3 in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase studentsâ awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

224

Technology and market assessment of gas-fueled vehicles in New York State. Volume II. Technology and economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Volume II deals primarily with the technology and economics of vehicle conversion, refueling equipment design, etc., for using gaseous fuels in transportation vehicles. Other issues explored include safety considerations, vehicle exhaust emissions when using gaseous fuels, sensitivity analyses of the economic parameters of fleet vehicle conversions, identification of the best fleets for conversion, new developments in gaseous fuel storage and compressor design plus research and development needs. The basics of vehicle conversion and refueling station design are explained in detail for compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and liquefied petroleum gases or propane (LPG). CNG is typically stored at 2,400 pounds per square inch (psi) in the vehicle while LNG is stored in cryogenic storage tanks at low pressure (60 psi or less). LPG pressure during storage can range as high as 200 psi. The advantages of operation using gaseous fuels include good cold starting characteristics, few engine deposits, improved vehicle energy consumption, and favorable exhaust emissions. Disadvantages include reduced vehicle performance, limited range on gaseous fuel (CNG only), and possibly reduced vehicle payload and cargo-carrying volume. The economic incentive for vehicle conversion to gaseous fuels is a direct consequence of these fuels' lower cost relative to current liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The safety of GFVs was explored using documented in-service records and analyses of state and national accident files. The exhaust emissions of GFVs are generally low in carbon monoxide; total unburned hydrocarbons generally are higher. Based on the technology and economic data considered, the fleets best suited to gaseous fuel conversion were determined. School bus fleets emerged as the best-suited fleets for conversion based on annual fuel use and vehicle operational characteristics. 60 figs., 36 tabs.

Not Available

1983-08-01

225

PCDD/F emissions from heavy duty vehicle diesel engines.  

PubMed

The currently available information on PCDD/F emissions from diesel vehicles is briefly surveyed. Considerable uncertainty is identified concerning the emissions from heavy duty diesel trucks which have been measured only twice so far. These measurements led to emission factors differing by a factor of 200; similar discrepancy was also revealed by measurements of ambient air in traffic tunnels. New PCDD/F emission measurement results are presented which have been carried out at the exhaust systems of a stationary engine and of a modern heavy duty vehicle engine at transient operation conditions simulated on a test bench. PCDD/F concentrations in the exhaust gases were found to be in the range of control blank samples. Based on the highest concentration observed in the truck engine exhaust (9.7 pg I-TEQ/dry standard m3) a worst case estimate of the annual PCDD/F emission freight from diesel fuel combustion in the European countries of about 30 g I-TEQ/year is calculated. This emission appears to be irrelevant compared to the overall emission rate of more than 6,000 g I-TEQ/year being inventoried recently. Finally the possibilities to link congener/homologue profiles of diesel emission to profiles found in food or human samples are discussed. PMID:10214716

Geueke, K J; Gessner, A; Quass, U; Bröker, G; Hiester, E

1999-05-01

226

Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the Earth and the rest of the inner solar were made by collecting the solids, to the rather efficient exclusion of the gases. In this grand separation the noble gases, because they are noble, were partitioned strongly into the gas phase. The resultant generalization is that the noble gases are very scarce in the materials of the inner solar system, whence their common synonym "rare gases."This scarcity is probably the most important single feature to remember about noble-gas cosmochemistry. As illustration of the absolute quantities, for example, a meteorite that contains xenon at a concentration of order 10 -10 cm3STP g -1 (4×10-15 mol g-1) would be considered relatively rich in xenon. Yet this is only 0.6 ppt (part per trillion, fractional abundance 10-12) by mass. In most circumstances, an element would be considered efficiently excluded from some sample if its abundance, relative to cosmic proportions to some convenient reference element, were depleted by "several" orders of magnitude. But a noble gas would be considered to be present in quite high concentration if it were depleted by only four or five orders of magnitude (in the example above, 10-10 cm3STP g-1 of xenon corresponds to depletion by seven orders of magnitude), and one not uncommonly encounters noble-gas depletion of more than 10 orders of magnitude.The second most important feature to note about noble-gas cosmochemistry is that while a good deal of the attention given to noble gases really is about chemistry, traditionally a good deal of attention is also devoted to nuclear phenomena, much more so than for most other elements. This feature is a corollary of the first feature noted above, namely scarcity. A variety of nuclear transmutation processes - decay of natural radionuclides and energetic particle reactions - lead to the production of new nuclei that are often new elements. Most commonly, the quantity of new nuclei originating in nuclear transmutation is very small compared to the quantity already present in the sample in question,

Podosek, F. A.

2003-12-01

227

Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicle emission (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6?h/d?×?50?d, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein, 3-nitrotyrosine and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

2014-05-01

228

Exhaust-gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system for an internal-combustion engine comprises an EGR valve for controlling the amount of exhaust-gas recirculation installed midway in an EGR passage that establishes communication between the intake and exhaust pipes of the engine, and an exhaust-gas transducer valve for opening and closing by the exhaust pressure of the exhaust gas an atmospheric-releasing orifice formed midway

K. Yamada; C. Niida; T. Takayama

1979-01-01

229

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

230

Exhaust gas recirculation system in compression-ignition internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system of a compression ignition internal combustion engine, there are provided two passages, that is, an EGR passage for recirculation of exhaust gases and a bypass passage by-passing the throttle valve in the induction passage to allow a supplemental air flow to the engine when EGR is cut off in definite engine operating conditions. These

Shinzawa

1982-01-01

231

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature...

2012-07-01

232

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature...

2013-07-01

233

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature...

2011-07-01

234

PHYSIOLOGICAL, CELLULAR, AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust is a major source of pollution especially in urban areas. The contribution of the diesel exhaust particles and gases to increases in deaths, asthma symptoms, lung infections, and other health effects is unclear. This study will examine the lung, blood, heart, and o...

235

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST (Final 2002)  

EPA Science Inventory

This assessment examined information regarding the possible health hazards associated with exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DE), which is a mixture of gases and particles. The assessment concludes that long-term (i.e., chronic) inhalation exposure is likely to pose a l...

236

Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts

Klaus P. Schaefer; Carsten Jahn; Roland Harig; Christian Aleyt; Peter Rusch

2004-01-01

237

Changes in mechanical work during severe exhausting running  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible contribution of muscular work to the increase in oxygen uptake (O2) over time during running was investigated on 11 adult males who were asked to run until exhaustion at 90 (3)% [mean (SD)] of their maximal aerobic velocity on a treadmill ergometer. Ground reaction forces, expired gases and EMG from leg muscles were collected for 30 s at min 3

Patrick Avogadro; Ales Dolenec; Alain Belli

2003-01-01

238

Phase change thermal energy storage methods for combat vehicles, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three alternative cooling methods, based on latent heat absorption during phase changes, were studied for potential use in combat vehicle microclimate temperature control. Metal hydrides absorb heat as they release hydrogen gas. Plastic crystals change from one solid phase to another, absorbing heat in the process. Liquid air boils at cryogenic temperature and absorbs additional sensible heat as the cold gas mixes with the microclimate air flow. System designs were prepared for each of the three microclimate cooling concepts. These designs provide details about the three phase change materials, their containers and the auxiliary equipment needed to implement each option onboard a combat vehicle. The three concepts were compared on the basis of system mass, system volume and the energy required to regenerate them after use. Metal hydrides were found to be the lightest and smallest option by a large margin. The energy needed to regenerate a hydride thermal storage system can be extracted from the vehicle's exhaust gases.

Lynch, F. E.

1986-06-01

239

Phase change thermal energy storage methods for combat vehicles. Final report on Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Three alternative cooling methods, based on latent heat absorption during phase changes, were studied for potential use in combat vehicle microclimate temperature control. Metal hydrides absorb heat as they release hydrogen gas. Plastic crystals change from one solid phase to another, absorbing heat in the process. Liquid air boils at cryogenic temperature and absorbs additional sensible heat as the cold gas mixes with the microclimate air flow. System designs were prepared for each of the three microclimate cooling concepts. These designs provide details about the three phase change materials, their containers and the auxiliary equipment needed to implement each option onboard a combat vehicle. The three concepts were compared on the basis of system mass, system volume, and the energy required to regenerate them after use. Metal hydrides were found to be the lightest and smallest option by a large margin. The energy needed to regenerate a hydride thermal-storage system can be extracted from the vehicle's exhaust gases.

Lynch, F.E.

1986-06-01

240

Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.

van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.

2014-10-01

241

Engine exhaust gas recirculation control system  

SciTech Connect

A restriction is formed in a branch passage of the exhaust gas passageway of an engine having a plurality of combustion chambers , which passage communicates at its upstream end with only a part of the combustion chambers of the engine, to divide the branch passage into upstream and downstream sections, and the egr passageway connects the upstream section and the induction passageway of the engine, and the egr rate is controlled by controlling a vacuum for operating the egr control valve in accordance with the pressure differential between the upstream and downstream sections and/or a venturi vacuum to control the degree of opening of the egr control valve and therefore the pressure differential between the sections and therefore the flow rate of exhaust gases passing through the restriction.

Aoyama, S.

1980-02-05

242

Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

1938-01-01

243

Fluid bed combustion with dry scrubbing of exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustion with dry scrubbing is shown to be an attractive means of generating power from high-sulfur fuels while emitting acceptably low levels of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. The theory of the process, equipment, and test results are described. An economic analysis compares the dual system to a FBC unit without secondary SOâ controls. Additional testing

J. B. Doyle; M. May; W. J. Sanders

1981-01-01

244

Ionospheric effects of rocket exhaust products (HEAO-C, Skylab and SPS-HLLV)  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the current state of our understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit-circularization maneuver at apogee. The second-stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 56 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit-circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. Also described are experimental airglow and incoherent-scatter radar measurements performed in conjunction with the 1979 launch of satellite HEAO-C, together with prelaunch and post-launch computations of the ionospheric effects. Several improvements in the model have been driven by the experimental observations. The computer model is described in some detail.

Zinn, J; Sutherland, D; Stone, S N; Duncan, L M; Behnke, R

1980-10-01

245

Exhaust gas recirculator  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust pipe, an intake manifold and a carburetor throttle valve. The exhaust gas recirculator comprises an egr passage which makes the exhaust pipe communicate with the intake manifold, an egr controlling valve and an egr valve respectively arranged in the upper and lower portions of the egr passage. The egr valve operates in association with the carburetor throttle valve for metering the flow of egr gas. The egr controlling valve is separated by a diaphragm into an egr gas chamber communicating with the egr passage between the egr controlling valve and the egr valve and a negative pressure chamber communicating with the intake manifold. The negative pressure chamber contains a compression spring, and the diaphragm is connected with a valve member through a rod upon which is disposed a stopper to serve as a different seal in place of the valve member to close off the exhaust gas passage, which valve member and stopper are constructed to be opened and closed by pressure difference between the egr gas chamber and the negative pressure chamber and by elastic force of the compression spring. The egr controlling valve functions to control the pressure difference around the egr valve to be constant.

Suda, K.

1983-01-04

246

40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.  

...Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures...sec). (iii) CFV sample flow rate is fixed by the venturi design. (5) Attach the exhaust tube to the vehicle...

2014-07-01

247

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

An engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system is provided in which a sonic flow EGR valve is moved to open positions to establish a different constant rate of flow at each open position of the EGR valve in response to air pressure acting on a servo means secured to the valve, the air pressure force being controlled by changes in a control vacuum opposing the air pressure force and modified by an air bleed device as a function of changes in engine exhaust gas backpressure levels, to provide an EGR valve movement that varies essentially in proportion to changes in engine air flow.

Rachedi, S.H.

1983-08-30

248

Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2)  = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. PMID:24134551

Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

2014-12-01

249

Exhaust gas reflux apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas reflux apparatus is described comprising: EGR regulating valve means for controlling a reflux amount of an exhaust gas which is refluxed into an intake system of an internal combustion engine; having at least two operating states; sensing means for sensing the operating state of the engine; first control means responsive to the sensing means for detecting the start of a predetermined one of the operating states of the engine, in which the temperature of the exhaust gas becomes high; timer means responsive to detection by the first control means of the start of the predetermined operating state for measuring a time delay, and time delay beginning immediately after and only in response to the detection of the start of the predetermined operating state and expiring a predetermined time interval thereafter; and second control means responsive to the timer means for controlling the EGR regulating valve means to stop the reflux of the exhaust gas immediately after expiration of the predetermined time interval.

Osada, A.

1988-01-19

250

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system is provided in which a sonic flow EGR valve is moved to open positions to establish a different constant rate of flow at each open position of the EGR valve in response to air pressure acting on a servo means secured to the valve, the air pressure force being controlled by changes in

Rachedi

1983-01-01

251

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is described for an engine having a throttle valve in an intake passage, comprising: the intake passage having an EGR port provided adjacent to the upstream side of the throttle valve at the closed position. A control port provides a position at downstream of the throttle valve at the closed position. A leak port provides

Sugiura

1987-01-01

252

Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL

Libin Shen

2011-01-01

253

Exhaust assembly for a high speed civil transport aircraft engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust assembly for an aircraft gas turbine engine including a core engine having an outlet for discharging exhaust gases. It comprises: a casing having an inlet for receiving the exhaust gases from the core engine outlet; a variable area converging-diverging CD nozzle attached to the casing and including a first throat having a flow area A[sub 8] outlet having a flow area A[sub 9] for channeling the exhaust gases the CD nozzle further including: a plurality of spaced apart primary flaps defining therebetween a converging channel; a plurality of spaced apart secondary flaps defining therebetween a diverging channel; a plurality of space dapart retractable chutes; means for cahnneling air along aft facing surfaces of the chutes into siad CD nozzle; and wherein each of the chutes has a generally U-shaped trailing edge including first and second transversely spaced apart legs, a base extending between the legs at radially inner ends thereof, and a top opening extending between the legs at radially outer ends thereof.thereof.

Giffin, R.G.; Wolf, J.P.; Hilse, M.A.

1992-10-13

254

Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

2013-01-01

255

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

256

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

257

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

258

Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP ( n=806) were much higher than those of the controls ( n=413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who have indisposed sensation of nose or laryngopharynx, cough, phlegm and pharyngitis in the workers who were occupationally exposed to gasoline exhausts ( n=157) were also higher than those of controls ( n=121), the OR values were 2.43, 3.76, 2.58, and 3.70, respectively, and in the 40 gasoline exhausts exposed workers, the frequencies of 6-TG (thioguanine), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei in peripheral blood were markedly higher ( P<0.05) than those of controls. The SI (T lymphocytes transformation) activity, total E rosette, E active rosette, content of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and fibrin (FN) of the exposed group were significantly ( P<0.05) decreased compared with those of the control. All the results showed that vehicle emissions could not only induce adverse effects on respiratory and immune system of occupationally exposed people, but also have potential carcinogenicity to human beings.

Ye, Shun-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Song, Jian; Peng, Bao-Cheng; Yuan, Dong; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Qi, Ping-Ping

259

Results of an investigation of jet plume effects on a 0.010-scale model (75-OTS) of the space shuttle integrated vehicle in the 8 x 7-foot leg of the NASA/Ames unitary wind tunnel (IA82C), volume 1. [(an exhaust flow simulation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary test objective was to define the base pressure environment of the first and second stage mated vehicle in a supersonic flow field from Mach 2.60 through 3.50 with simulated rocket engine exhaust plumes. The secondary objective was to obtain the pressure environment of the Orbiter at various vent port locations at these same freestream conditions. Data were obtained at angles of attack from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero yaw, and at yaw angles from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero angle of attack, with rocket plume sizes varying from smaller than nominal to much greater than nominal. Failed Orbiter engine data were also obtained. Elevon hinge moments and wing panel load data were obtained during all runs. Photographs of test equipment and tested configurations are shown.

Hawthorne, P. J.

1976-01-01

260

Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

While emissions control regulation has led to a substantial reduction in exhaust emissions from road traffic, currently non-exhaust emissions from road vehicles are unabated. These include particles from brake wear, tyre wear, road surface abrasion and resuspension in the wake of passing traffic. Quantification of the magnitude of such emissions is problematic both in the laboratory and the field and

Alistair Thorpe; Roy M. Harrison

2008-01-01

261

Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness  

E-print Network

produced was oxygen. For years, the means of production was the cryogenic cycle and supply was served either by a pipeline or cylinder delivery. In the 1950's, technical change brought the concept of liquid delivery of gaseous products... required to produce a cubic foot of gas was about 3.0 kilowatt-hours per hundred cubic feet of gas produced (kwh/ccf). During the late 1970's development work was also going on to produce gas by non-cryogenic means. Carbon molecular sieve and zeolite...

Dale, J. R.

262

ROUND ROBIN ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOL AND CARBONYL SYNTHETIC EXHAUST SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent changes in regulatory practices have brought about a need for speciated analysis of the volatile organic components of vehicle exhaust. he purpose of this study was to allow interested laboratories to participate in a Round Robin so that each could assess their speciation ...

263

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EGR control valve is closably disposed in an EGR passageway connecting an intake passageway and an exhaust gas passageway which leads to an internal combustion engine. The EGR control valve is operated to control recirculated exhaust gas flow by varying the exhaust gas pressure in a chamber between a restriction disposed in the EGR passageway and the EGR valve,

Aoyama

1979-01-01

264

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EGR control valve is closely disposed in an EGR passageway connecting an intake passageway and an exhaust gas passageway which leads to an internal combustion engine. The EGR control valve is operated to control recirculated exhaust gas flow by varying the exhaust gas pressure in a chamber between a restriction disposed in the EGR passageway and the EGR valve,

Aoyama

1978-01-01

265

Engine system for motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An engine system of the invention comprises an internal combustion engine; a carburetor; an exhaust gas recirculation system; an exhaust gas treatment device; and a source of secondary air, in which there is provided a fluid network which interconnects the source of secondary air, the engine exhaust system at a position upstream of the exhaust gas treatment device and the exhaust gas recirculation system at a position upstream of an exhaust gas recirculation valve and there is also provided an air injection control valve fluidly disposed in the fluid network intermediate the source of secondary air and the exhaust gas recirculation system. The air injection control valve is adapted to selectively permit and prevent the admission of air to the exhaust gas recirculation system. A controller for the air injection control valve is also disclosed which comprises a detector that generates as an output signal a first signal responsive to urban driving conditions which are empirically determined to occur when the motor vehicle is driven in urban areas and a second signal responsive to rural driving conditions which are empirically determined to occur when the motor vehicle is driven in rural areas. The controller causes the air injection valve to permit the admission of air to the egr system when the detector detects the rural driving conditions.

Nakajima, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Sugihara, K.; Takami, M.

1980-12-23

266

Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique at Mach 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current design philosophy for hydrogen-fueled, scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with strong couplings between the engine plume and vehicle aerodynamics. The experimental verification of the scramjet exhaust simulation is described. The scramjet exhaust was reproduced for the Mach 6 flight condition by the detonation tube simulator. The exhaust flow pressure profiles, and to a large extent the heat transfer rate profiles, were then duplicated by cool gas mixtures of Argon and Freon 13B1 or Freon 12. The results of these experiments indicate that a cool gas simulation of the hot scramjet exhaust is a viable simulation technique except for phenomena which are dependent on the wall temperature relative to flow temperature.

Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

1979-01-01

267

Health effects of diesel exhaust. A contemporary air pollution issue.  

PubMed

Extracts of diesel exhaust particles are mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cell assays; they contain hundreds of identifiable organic compounds, some of which are known mutagens and carcinogens. The particles are readily respired and about 20% to 30% of them are deposited in the pulmonary region, where they are retained for long periods. At low diesel exhaust concentrations, typical of those likely for human exposure, particle deposition and clearance rates are essentially normal and particle concentrations in the pulmonary region are expected to remain quite low. At very high concentrations of diesel exhaust, clearance processes may be overwhelmed and lung burdens of particles may continue to increase over long periods. Evidence from laboratory animals suggests that pulmonary injury and reduced respiratory function would occur in humans at these high concentrations. Epidemiologic data and laboratory studies appear to indicate that the human lung cancer risk from exposure to diesel exhaust would be quite low, even if use of diesel vehicles increased substantially. PMID:2414766

McClellan, R O; Mauderly, J L; Jones, R K; Cuddihy, R G

1985-11-01

268

14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.  

...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust...

2014-01-01

269

14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

2011-01-01

270

14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

2010-01-01

271

14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

2011-01-01

272

14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

2010-01-01

273

500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis  

SciTech Connect

500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

BIELICKI, B.E.

1999-05-20

274

Design of an exhaust manifold to improve transient performance of a high-speed turbocharged diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a study to analyse the influence of exhaust gases thermal energy saving and reduction of pressure pulses interference on engine dynamic performance during the load transient of high speed direct injection turbocharged diesel engines is described. The analysis has been performed thanks to the use of a dual walled air gap exhaust manifold and a 4-2-1 pulse

J. Galindo; J. M. Luján; J. R. Serrano; V. Dolz; S. Guilain

2004-01-01

275

APOLLO 12 LIFTOFF [SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket exhaust clouds the Apollo 12 Saturn V space vehicle as it lifts off from Launch Complex 39A, sending astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon and Alan L. Bean on the Nation's second manned lunar landing mission.

1969-01-01

276

40 CFR 600.010-08 - Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...manufacturer shall generate FTP fuel economy data by testing according to the...

2011-07-01

277

40 CFR 600.010-86 - Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...manufacturer shall generate city fuel economy data by testing according to the...

2011-07-01

278

Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees.  

PubMed

Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide. PMID:24091789

Girling, Robbie D; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A; Poppy, Guy M

2013-01-01

279

Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees  

PubMed Central

Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide. PMID:24091789

Girling, Robbie D.; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A.; Poppy, Guy M.

2013-01-01

280

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

281

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

282

Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts of this kind than other measurement systems as e.g. in situ techniques. Within the scope of aircraft emission investigations the measurements were performed from a measurement van which is equipped with an FTIR spectrometer of high spectral resolution coupled with a telescope and a two-axis movable mirror for rapid orientation towards the emission sources. At airports the emission indices of CO2, CO and NO of main engines and auxiliary power units of standing aircraft were determined. The measurement time is about one minute. The accuracy is better than 30 % as found from burner experiments with calibration gases (CO and NO). The method is also applied to detect exhausts of flares and smoke stacks. Currently, a new scanning FTIR-system is developed. The system allows imaging of the exhaust gas and rapid automated alignment of the field of view. The goal of the new development is to measure aircraft exhausts during normal operations at the airport. The spectrometer is coupled with a camera giving an image of the scenery so that a rapid selection of the hottest exhaust area is possible. It is planned to equip the system with an infrared camera for automatic tracking of this area with the scanning mirror so that measurements of the exhausts of a moving aircraft are possible.

Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Harig, Roland; Aleyt, Christian; Rusch, Peter

283

Effects of filter loading and filter type on the mutagenicity and composition of diesel exhaust particulate extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel vehicle exhaust particles were simultaneously collected from a dilution tube on three commonly used types of filters. Sampling was performed over single cycles and over 7 or 10cycles of the 1974 Hot-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP/H). Particulate loadings on the filters ranged from 48 to 660 ?g cm -2. The filters were extracted with dichloromethane and the extracts were characterized by the Ames Salmonella-histidine reversion assay (strains TA98 and TA 100, without microsomal activation) and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. It was found that the extracts from lightly loaded filters of the three types were indistinguishable. A similar conclusion obtains for the heavily loaded filters, confirming our results from an earlier study (Clark C. R., Truex T. J., Lee K. S. C. and Salmeen I. T. et al., 1981 Atmospheric Environment15, 397-402). The percentage of extractable material in the paniculate matter, the fluorescent intensities of two of the four HPLC fractions and the Ames assay activities (revertants per ?g of extract) each increase linearly with paniculate loading on the filters. We attribute these increases to reactions between the particle-bound organic material and reactive gases in the exhaust stream.

Gorse, R. A.; Salmeen, I. T.; Clark, C. R.

284

Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2002-06-01

285

Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Measurements of Nitric Oxide in Combustion Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption of tunable, infrared, diode laser radiation has been used to measure nitric oxide (NO) in combustion gases. Measurements were made in the post flame gases of an atmospheric pressure flat flame burner doped with calibrated amounts of NO (100-2500 ppm) in order to simulate a range of combustion and exhaust gas conditions. Laser absorption measurements of NO were compared

P. K. Falcone; R. K. Hanson; C. H. Kfuger

1983-01-01

286

Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

1997-04-29

287

Evaluation of diesel engine performance with intake and exhaust system throttling. Volume I. Text and appendixes A through H. Final report, November 1972May 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diesel engine itself is an important source of diesel powered vehicle noise, and becomes dominant after proper treatment of intake\\/exhaust and cooling system noise at vehicle speeds below fifty miles per hour. An investigation was conducted to quantify the effects of intake and exhaust restrictions and load-speed scheduling on the radiated noise from four diesel truck engines produced by

R. Hern; B. Eccleston; W. Marshall

1975-01-01

288

Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine exhaust particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distributions of diesel exhaust particulate matter measured from a large number of vehicles and test engines, using a variety of diesel fuels, collapse onto a single characteristic lognormal distribution, when normalized by total particle number and plotted against a scaled diameter. Distinctly different characteristic distributions are observed for direct injection and for port injection gasoline vehicles. These signature

Stephen J. Harris; M. Matti Maricq

2001-01-01

289

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01

290

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26

291

Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.  

PubMed

General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust. PMID:6193022

Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

1982-01-01

292

Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The direct release of exhaust gas components from combustion processes into the environment, i.e. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a emission, is the primary and most important process in the chain of emission, \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a transmission, \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a pollutant input and \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a impact. Naturally, a basic distinction is made between emissions from vegetation, oceans, volcanic activity or biomass decomposition\\u000a for instance and anthropogenic emissions, i.e. emissions caused or influenced by humans,

Helmut Tschoeke; Andreas Graf; Jürgen Stein; Michael Krüger; Johannes Schaller; Norbert Breuer; Kurt Engeljehringer; Wolfgang Schindler

293

Vehicle propulsion system with external propellant supply  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle propulsion system is described, comprising: a vehicle designed for travel along an arranged travel path in a single extended surrounding medium; propellant depositing means for distributing propellant into a propellant trail having no structural constraint in the extended medium and extending along at least part of the travel path in advance of the vehicle; and the vehicle having combustion means for immediate combustion and expansion of at least some of the propellant distributed along the path to produce thrust on the vehicle, and exhaust means for expelling burnt propellant from the vehicle.

Criswell, D.R.

1993-07-06

294

Engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a recirculation control valve in a passageway connecting the engine exhaust passage to the engine intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. An air conduit having an air control valve therein furnishes atmospheric air to the intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. Vacuum responsive actuators are provided for

H. Nishimura; T. Shioya; T. Umemoto

1981-01-01

295

Engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a recirculation control valve in a passageway connecting the engine exhaust passage to the engine intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. An air conduit having an air control valve therein draws atmospheric air into the intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. Vacuum responsive actuators are provided for

K. Ishii; H. Nishimura; K. Osawa

1981-01-01

296

Power Exhaust in Fusion Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Magnetized plasma physics; 3. Magnetized plasma equilibrium; 4. Magnetized plasma stability; 5. Collisional transport in magnetized plasmas; 6. Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas; 7. Tokamak plasma boundary and power exhaust; 8. Outlook: power exhaust in fusion reactors; Appendix A. Maxwellian distribution; Appendix B. Curvilinear co-ordinates; References; Index.

Fundamenski, Wojciech

2014-07-01

297

Exhaust gas recirculaton control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) control system for an internal combustion engine is presented in which an EGR control valve including a vacuum-operated actuator governs the flow of recirculated exhaust gas according to the admission of air into the engine. To accomplish the control with high precision, the control system includes a flow sensor which provides an electrical signal representing

K. Maruyama; Y. Hata; A. Ohnishi

1979-01-01

298

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple spark plug ignition internal combustion engine is equipped with an EGR control system which consists of an EGR control valve disposed in an EGR passageway connecting an exhaust gas passageway and an intake passageway. The EGR control system is arranged to control EGR rate in accordance with venturi vacuum and in accordance with the exhaust gas pressure in

Aoyama

1979-01-01

299

FTIR airborne measurement of aircraft jet engine exhaust gas emissions under cruise conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flight qualified Fourier transform infrared spectrometer has been built by applying the MIROR principle (Michelson interferometer with rotating retroreflector) where an eccentrically rotating retroreflector generates optical path differences. The unique optical design is especially suiting the rough environment of airborne missions. The purely optical and passive method in no way influences the gases as sample collecting procedures are likely to do. It is able to deliver true space/time resolved spectra of several species in the exhaust plume simultaneously. First measurements aboard a civil jet aircraft have been performed, successfully collecting spectra of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gases just behind the engine's nozzle. The spectra were radiometrically calibrated and column densities of trace gases in the plume and in the for- and background as well as gas temperatures were calculated applying inversion algorithms. From these then emission indices (mass pollutant per mass kerosene) of the engine for specific trace gases were determined.

Tank, Volker; Haschberger, Peter; Lindermeir, Erwin; Matthern, K. H.

1995-09-01

300

Corrosion of Exhaust and Filtration Equipment in a Radioactive Waste Incinerator  

SciTech Connect

Condensation in the exhaust gas system of an incinerator burning low activity radioactive wastes led to numerous corrosion developments and rapid failure of the discharge filters. The problem was traced to insufficient reheat of the exhaust gases following scrubbing. Rust particulate and moisture loaded the filters, leading to water accumulation, chloride cracking of the filter housings, and plugging and tearing of the filter media itself. To mitigate the problem, the exhaust gas temperature was increased, thermal insulation was installed on the ductwork, and the interiors of the ducts and new filter housings were lined with a protective coating.

Jenkins, C.F.

2003-10-31

301

Secondary organic aerosol formation from road vehicle emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosol particles (OA) are a major fraction of the submicron particulate matter. OA consists of directly emitted primary (POA) and secondary OA (SOA). SOA is formed in-situ in the atmosphere via the reaction of volatile organic precursors. The partitioning of SOA species depends not only on the exposure to oxidants, but for instance also on temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the absorptive mass chemical composition (presence of inorganics) and concentration. Vehicle exhaust is a known source of POA and likely contributes to SOA formation in urban areas [1;2]. This has recently been estimated by (i) analyzing ambient data from urban areas combined with fuel consumption data [3], (ii) by examining the chemical composition of raw fuels [4], or (iii) smog chamber studies [5, 6]. Contradictory and thus somewhat controversial results in the relative quantity of SOA from diesel vs. gasoline vehicle exhaust were observed. In order to elucidate the impact of variable ambient conditions on the potential SOA formation of vehicle exhaust, and its relation to the emitted gas phase species, we studied SOA formed from the exhaust of passenger cars and trucks as a function of fuel and engine type (gasoline, diesel) at different temperatures (T 22 vs. -7oC) and RH (40 vs. 90%), as well as with different levels of inorganic salt concentrations. The exhaust was sampled at the tailpipe during regulatory driving cycles on chassis dynamometers, diluted (200 - 400x) and introduced into the PSI mobile smog chamber [6], where the emissions were subjected to simulated atmospheric ageing. Particle phase instruments (HR-ToF-AMS, aethalometers, CPC, SMPS) and gas phase instruments (PTR-TOF-MS, CO, CO2, CH4, THC, NH3 and other gases) were used online during the experiments. We found that gasoline emissions, because of cold starts, were generally larger than diesel, especially during cold temperatures driving cycles. Gasoline vehicles also showed the highest SOA formation. Furthermore, we observed that vehicle emissions and SOA are significantly affected by temperature and RH: doubling the RH in the chamber resulted in significantly increased SOA formation. Primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation from diesel and gasoline vehicles will be compared at different temperature and RH. Also the interaction and influence of inorganics on organics will be discussed. References: [1] Robinson, A.L., et al. (2007) Science 315, 1259. [2] Weitkamp, E.A., et al. (2007) Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 6969. [3] Bahreini, R., et al. (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L06805. [4] Gentner, D.R. et al. (2012) PNAS 109, 18318. [5] Gordon, T.D. et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 13, 23173. [6] Platt, S.M., et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 12, 28343.

Pieber, Simone M.; Platt, Stephen M.; El Haddad, Imad; Zardini, Alessandro A.; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Slowik, Jay G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Drinovec, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadogna; Prévôt, André S. H.

2014-05-01

302

Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle  

E-print Network

exhaust gas conditions, we show that the expander can produce power throughout the cycle, avoiding start consumption in ICE-powered vehicles. Among the pos- sible heat recovery solutions, turbo-compound is nowa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.  

...AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Each...

2014-01-01

304

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter  

SciTech Connect

Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2001-03-05

305

Flow analysis and design optimization methods for nozzle afterbody of a hypersonic vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the methods developed for the aerodynamic analysis and the shape optimization of the nozzle-afterbody section of a hypersonic vehicle. Initially, exhaust gases were assumed to be air. Internal-external flows around a single scramjet module were analyzed by solving the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Then, exhaust gases were simulated by a cold mixture of Freon and Argon. Two different models were used to compute these multispecies flows as they mixed with the hypersonic airflow. Surface and off-surface properties were successfully compared with the experimental data. In the second phase of this project, the Aerodynamic Design Optimization with Sensitivity analysis (ADOS) was developed. Pre and post optimization sensitivity coefficients were derived and used in this quasi-analytical method. These coefficients were also used to predict inexpensively the flow field around a changed shape when the flow field of an unchanged shape was given. Starting with totally arbitrary initial afterbody shapes, independent computations were converged to the same optimum shape, which rendered the maximum axial thrust.

Baysal, Oktay

1991-01-01

306

40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-87 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

307

40 CFR 600.006-89 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-89 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

308

40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-86 Section...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

309

Implementation of microwave transmissions for rocket exhaust plume diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocket-launched vehicles produce a trail of exhaust that contains ions, free electrons, and soot. The exhaust plume increases the effective conductor length of the rocket. A conductor in the presence of an electric field (e.g. near the electric charge stored within a cloud) can channel an electric discharge. The electrical conductivity of the exhaust plume is related to its concentration of free electrons. The risk of a lightning strike in-flight is a function of both the conductivity of the body and its effective length. This paper presents an approach that relates the electron number density of the exhaust plume to its propagation constant. Estimated values of the collision frequency and electron number density generated from a numerical simulation of a rocket plume are used to guide the design of the experimental apparatus. Test par meters are identified for the apparatus designed to transmit a signal sweep form 4 GHz to 7 GHz through the exhaust plume of a J-class solid rocket motor. Measurements of the scattering parameters imply that the transmission does not penetrate the plume, but instead diffracts around it. The electron density 20 cm downstream from the nozzle exit is estimated to be between 2.7x1014 m--3 and 5.6x10 15 m--3.

Coutu, Nicholas George

310

Analysis of generic scramjet external nozzle flowfields employing simulant gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and computational results are presented for a generic scramjet nozzle/afterbody model. Mixtures of argon and Freon were employed as simulant scramjet exhaust gases because they correctly model the inviscid simulation parameters of actual scramjet combustion products, allowing test and analysis at significantly reduced temperatures. Air was also employed as an exhaust gas to provide experimental and computational comparisons with simulant gas effects. Several computational aerodynamic analysis codes, employing different levels of theoretical modeling, were applied to compute solutions about the scramjet geometry. The solutions are compared with measured surface static and flowfield pitot pressure data taken in a Mach 6 freestream.

Tatum, Kenneth E.; Monta, William J.; Witte, David W.; Walters, Robert W.

1990-01-01

311

Divergent Electrocardiographic Responses to Whole and Particle-Free Diesel Exhaust Inhalation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to traffic-related fine PM2.5. While inroads have been made in understanding the mechanisms of PM related health effects, DE?s complex mixture of PM, gases and volatile organics makes it difficult to determine how the constituents contri...

312

Analysis of Carbon Monoxide and Propane Concentrations in Moped Exhaust Emission using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to determine the concentration of carbon monoxide and propane in exhaust emission from a Piaggio Ciao moped. Emissions from vary- ing ways of driving have been collected and examined using a Perkin- Elmer 1725X Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The obtained spectra have then been compared to spectra from calibration gases.

Lisa Carlsson; Martin Engstrom; Ulrika Kumlien; Ami Ljungstrom; Sara Nordenhall

313

Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention  

EPA Science Inventory

Background?Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective?1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

314

Laser-spectroscopic investigation of OH-radical concentrations in the exhaust plane of jet engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyl radical (OH) emissions are relevant for oxidation reactions in the post flame chemistry of exhaust gases emitted from jet engines. No direct measurements of OH concentrations are available to date due to the low abundance and the short lifetime of this radical species. The first application of a combined technique based on Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry

S. Böckle; S. Einecke; F. Hildenbrand; C. Orlemann; C. Schulz; J. Wolfrum; V. Sick

1999-01-01

315

ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOL GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1992, EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory initiated a nationwide QA program on the suppliers of EPA Protocol Gases. he program has three goals: to increase the acceptance and use of Protocol Gases by the air monitoring community, to provide a QA check...

316

Biomass - Investigating Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity students generate their own biomass gases by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best by their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

Benson, Eric E.; Highfill, Melissa; Development, Us D.

317

Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

318

Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere. Estimates are given for the emissions, summarizing relevant earlier work (CIAP) and reviewing current propulsion research efforts. The chemical evolution and the mixing and vortical motion of the exhaust are analyzed to track the exhaust and its speciation as the emissions are mixed to atmospheric scales. The species tracked include those that could be heterogeneously reactive on the surfaces of the condensed solid water (ice) particles and on exhaust soot particle surfaces. Dispersion and reaction of chemical constituents in the far wake are studied with a Lagrangian air parcel model, in conjunction with a radiation code to calculate the net heating/cooling. Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous chemistry of aqueous sulfuric acid and nitric acid hydrates are also described. Results include the solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid which is a key parameter for modeling stratospheric processing. We also report initial results for condensation of nitric acid trihydrate from gas phase H2O and HNO3.

Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R.-L.

1992-10-01

319

Benzene, toluene and xylenes levels in new and used vehicles of the same model.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the level of benzene, toluene, o-xylene and m, p-xylene (BTX) in air samples collected from the cabins of new and used vehicles of the same model. Ten new vehicles were examined in order to check interior emission from materials used to equip the passenger compartment. In order to compare and define the impact of exhaust gases, air samples were also collected from two used cars, at different mileages (up to 20,000 km). All vehicles tested were of the same type. Samples were collected onto Carbograph 1TD sorbent, thermally desorbed and examined with the use of gas chromatography with flame ionisation and mass spectrometry detectors. All results obtained were referred to Polish and German requirements for indoor air quality (both in public buildings and in workspace environments). Average benzene, toluene, o-xylene and m, p-xylene concentrations in new cars were determined at the level of 11.8 microg/m3, 82.7 micro/m3, 21.2 microg/m3 and 89.5 micro/m3, respectively. In the used cars, BTX concentration increased with increasing vehicle mileage. The most significant increase of BTX concentration was observed above 11,000 km mileage. PMID:24552062

Faber, Joanna; Brodzik, Krzysztof; Golda-Kopek, Anna; Lomankiewicz, Damian

2013-11-01

320

Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between

Stachowicz

1984-01-01

321

Impact of California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline on atmospheric reactivity of exhaust and evaporative emissions  

SciTech Connect

Phase 2 of California`s reformulated gasoline (RFG) program took effect statewide in the first half of 1996. Changes to gasoline composition required by Phase 2 specifications included: lower vapor pressure; lower olefin, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur content; lower T50 and T90; and a minimum oxygen content. In this paper, impacts of Phase 2 RFG on the atmospheric reactivity of motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions are described. Volatile organic compounds in motor vehicle exhaust were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in summer 1995 and 1996. Aggregate emissions of greater than 8000 vehicles were measured each day. Regular and premium grade gasoline samples were collected from service stations in Berkeley concurrently with tunnel measurements both summers. Liquid gasoline samples and their headspace vapors were analyzed to determine detailed chemical composition. Normalized reactivity was calculated for exhaust and evaporative emissions by applying maximum incremental reactivity values to the detailed speciation profiles. Results indicate that the composition of gasoline in 1996 differed markedly from that of 1995. Changes in liquid gasoline composition led to corresponding changes in the speciation of vehicle exhaust and of gasoline headspace vapors. Benzene concentration in liquid gasoline decreased from 2.0 to 0.6 wt%, which contributed to a 70 and 37% reduction in benzene weight fraction in headspace vapors and vehicle exhaust, respectively. Addition of MTBE and reduction of olefins and aromatics in gasoline led to significant reductions in the atmospheric reactivity of unburned gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors. The normalized reactivity of liquid gasoline and headspace vapors decreased by 23 and 19%, respectively, between 1995 and 1996. The normalized reactivity of non-methane organic compounds in vehicle exhaust decreased by about 8%, but the uncertainty in this change was large.

Kirchstetter, T.W.; Singer, B.C.; Harley, R.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Kendall, G.R.; Traverse, M. [Bay Area Air Quality Management District, San Francisco, CA (United States). Technical Services Div.

1997-12-31

322

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects  

MedlinePLUS

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects Magma contains dissolved gases that are released into the atmosphere during eruptions. Gases are also released from magma that either remains below ground (for example, as ...

323

Detection of massive negative chemiions in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous negative ions were mass spectrometrically measured in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight. Using a quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in a high-pass mode, it was found that by far most of the ions had mass numbers > 450 amu (atomic mass units) and number densities which markedly exceeded the number densities of ambient atmospheric ions. The latter were observed outside the exhaust plume and had mostly mass numbers < 200 amu. Both their large numbers and large concentrations strongly suggest that the massive ions observed inside the plume are chemiions which were produced by the jet engines. The low fuel sulfur content (22 µg/g) suggests that the massive ions consist at least partly of species other than sulfuric acid. By interaction with exhaust gases these chemiions experienced rapid chemical transformation and growth in the early exhaust plume already at plume ages < 0.4 s.

Arnold, F.; Curtius, J.; Sierau, B.; Bürger, V.; Busen, R.; Schumann, U.

324

40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

325

Regulating Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video highlights the work of climate scientists in the Amazon who research the relationship between deforestation, construction of new dams, and increased amounts of greenhouse gases being exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

Kqed; Domain, Teachers'

326

Effects of secondary combustion on efficiencies and emission reduction in the diesel engine exhaust heat recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on the effects of secondary combustion on efficiencies and emission reduction in the diesel engine exhaust heat recovery system has been undertaken. The co-generation concept is utilized in that the electric power is produced by the generator connected to the diesel engine, and heat is recovered from both combustion exhaust gases and the engine by the fin-and-tube

Dae Hee Lee; Jun Sik Lee; Jae Suk Park

2010-01-01

327

Fusion propulsion with the addition of indigenous gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility and performance projection study is conducted for a heavy-lift aerospace plane employing nuclear fusion propulsion in conjunction with the earth and Mars atmospheres' indigenous gases, which allows a great simplification of propulsion system design and a similar reduction in vehicle mass. The estimated earth takeoff weight of the vehicle for this 250-day earth-Mars (round trip) interplanetary mission was

Franklin B. Mead Jr.; F. B. Jr

1993-01-01

328

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from in-Use Motor Vehicle Emissions Using a Potential Aerosol Mass Reactor.  

PubMed

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from in-use vehicle emissions was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) flow reactor deployed in a highway tunnel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Experiments consisted of passing exhaust-dominated tunnel air through a PAM reactor over integrated hydroxyl radical (OH) exposures ranging from ?0.3 to 9.3 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Experiments were performed during heavy traffic periods when the fleet was at least 80% light-duty gasoline vehicles on a fuel-consumption basis. The peak SOA production occurred after 2-3 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Additional OH exposure decreased the SOA production presumably due to a shift from functionalization to fragmentation dominated reaction mechanisms. Photo-oxidation also produced substantial ammonium nitrate, often exceeding the mass of SOA. Analysis with an SOA model highlight that unspeciated organics (i.e., unresolved complex mixture) are a very important class of precursors and that multigenerational processing of both gases and particles is important at longer time scales. The chemical evolution of the organic aerosol inside the PAM reactor appears to be similar to that observed in the atmosphere. The mass spectrum of the unoxidized primary organic aerosol closely resembles ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA). After aging the exhaust equivalent to a few hours of atmospheric oxidation, the organic aerosol most closely resembles semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA) and then low-volatility organic aerosol (LV-OOA) at higher OH exposures. Scaling the data suggests that mobile sources contribute ?2.9 ± 1.6 Tg SOA yr(-1) in the United States, which is a factor of 6 greater than all mobile source particulate matter emissions reported by the National Emissions Inventory. This highlights the important contribution of SOA formation from vehicle exhaust to ambient particulate matter concentrations in urban areas. PMID:25188317

Tkacik, Daniel S; Lambe, Andrew T; Jathar, Shantanu; Li, Xiang; Presto, Albert A; Zhao, Yunliang; Blake, Donald; Meinardi, Simone; Jayne, John T; Croteau, Philip L; Robinson, Allen L

2014-10-01

329

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model...

2011-07-01

330

Personnel emergency carrier vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

Owens, Lester J. (inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (inventor)

1987-01-01

331

Moisture pre-separator for a steam turbine exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moisture pre-separator is described for an exhaust portion of a steam turbine, the exhaust portion including an exhaust hood, the exhaust hood enclosing an exhaust hood chamber, the exhaust hood including wall means having exhaust nozzle means passing therethrough, piping means affixed to the nozzle means, the moisture pre-separator comprising: (a) a first inner hollow member having an inlet

Silvestri; G. J. Jr

1987-01-01

332

Exhaustion syndrome in palliative care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaustion syndrome is a potential risk for palliative-care workers and families because of their special contact with suffering. In this article we review its manifestations, the ways it affects every member of the team and other carers. It is possible to prevent it through an early recognition of job stress and the developing of strategies of self-control. It can be

Wilson Astudillo; Carmen Mendinueta

1996-01-01

333

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation valves and more particularly to systems incorporating an electrical vacuum regulator. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an EGR system that is less susceptible to output flow changes caused by carbon build up. A further object of the invention is to provide a vacuum regulator that

Cook

1984-01-01

334

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for controlling exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in an internal combustion engine: (a) base means defining an exhaust gas inlet port, an exhaust gas outlet port and an EGR passage communicating the inlet port with the outlet port, the base means adapted for attachment to an exhaust passage and a combustion chamber inlet passage of an engine; (b) flow valve means disposed in the passage and including a valve seat and poppet member operable upon movement with respect to the seat for controlling EGR flow between the inlet and the outlet; (c) actuator means operable upon receipt of an electrical control signal to move the poppet, the actuator means including: (i) a stepper motor, (ii) an axial lead means operatively rotated by the stepper motor, (iii) follower means guided for axial movement, and operably connected to move the poppet in response to rotation of the lead means; (d) plate means disposed in the EGR passage between the seat and the outlet port and defining a flow measuring orifice; (e) pressure tap means operative to sense the pressure in the passage on the upstream and downstream sides of the orifice; (f) transducer means operative in response to the pressure in the pressure tap means to provide the electrical control signal for the stepper motor.

Egle, L.E.

1987-09-01

335

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) control valve is described. The valve is provided with an extension which is inserted into a restriction, formed in the EGR passageway upstream of the EGR control valve, to reduce the effective cross sectional area of the restriction and therefore the EGR ratio when the pressure in the EGR passageway between the restriction and the

Aoyama

1978-01-01

336

BIOMARKERS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to examine the detectability of some chemical components of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in human urine following controlled human diesel exposures (IRB-approved). Ultimately, and upon validation, we propose to apply these components as biomarke...

337

ydrocarbon detector for the remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions  

E-print Network

1994) A new remote sensor for measuring on-road carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbon from failure to attain air quality standards due to carbon monoxide (CO) pollution, many others fail remove ozone and thus generate nitrogen dioxide (NO,). Through a compli- cated series of reactions

Denver, University of

338

Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems  

DOEpatents

A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1995-12-26

339

Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems  

DOEpatents

A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01

340

Mack LNG vehicle development  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

Southwest Research Institute

2000-01-05

341

Chemical kinetic simulation of hydrocarbon oxidation through the exhaust port of a spark ignition engine  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons, remaining in the cylinder of a spark-ignited engine after the main combustion event, takes place both in-cylinder and in the exhaust port. Hydrocarbons emerging from engine tailpipes consist of unburned fuel as well as products of incomplete combustion. This paper addresses the extent of oxidation and the production of nonfuel species in the exhaust port of a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Simulations of the unsteady thermal and composition state of the gases emerging from the cylinder were coupled to detailed chemistry models of the oxidation of hydrocarbons (propane, isooctane, methane, and ethane) to determine the change in the average composition of the gas as it passes through the exhaust port. The results are compared to previously measured speciated compositions of the exhaust gases at the exhaust port inlet and outlet. A stratification parameter to represent the growth of the thermal boundary layer due to heat transfer is added to the simplified unsteady plug flow simulation. Comparisons between model and experiment show that the concentration of products of incomplete combustion can only be adequately reproduced if stratification effects are taken into account.

Wu, K.C.; Hochgreb, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1996-12-01

342

Design and construction of a solar-electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent concerns relating to global warming caused by greenhouse gases, coupled with a growing awareness of the limited available resources of fossil fuels, have spurred an interest in alternative energy powered vehicles. This paper describes the analysis, development, and testing of an aerodynamic vehicle powered by photovoltaic cells. The primary components of the vehicle are the composite material body, the

S. H. Bhavnani

1994-01-01

343

40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exhaust streams before emission sampling, you may configure the exhaust system with turbulence generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing. We recommend a minimum Reynolds number, Re# , of 4000 for the combined...

2010-07-01

344

46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Engine exhaust installations and associated cooling sytems must be built in accordance with the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary Machinery” and the...

2011-10-01

345

46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Engine exhaust installations and associated cooling sytems must be built in accordance with the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary Machinery” and the...

2010-10-01

346

46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Engine exhaust installations and associated cooling sytems must be built in accordance with the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary Machinery” and the...

2012-10-01

347

49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...adversely affects sound reduction, such as exhaust gas leaks or alteration or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections shall not constitute a violation of this subpart); (b) Is not equipped with...

2010-10-01

348

Influence of Electric Vehicles Connected to the Grid Guangbin Li (gl2423) Influence of Electric Vehicles Connected to the Grid  

E-print Network

vehicles and its meaning of research An electric vehicle refers to the vehicle powered from batteries in the world which is available for practical usage, but with primary battery. After the storage battery greenhouse gases, which are notoriously recognized as the top pollution to our atmosphere. Therefore

Lavaei, Javad

349

PERFORMANCE AUDIT OF INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE CALIBRATION GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the audit was to determine the accuracy of inspection and maintenance calibration gases for motor vehicle emission analyzers. Cylinders containing approximately 1.6 percent carbon monoxide and 640 parts per million propane in nitrogen were purchased from 13 special...

350

Exhaust gas recirculation system in compression-ignition internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

In an exhaust gas recirculation system of a compression ignition internal combustion engine, there are provided two passages, that is, an EGR passage for recirculation of exhaust gases and a bypass passage by-passing the throttle valve in the induction passage to allow a supplemental air flow to the engine when EGR is cut off in definite engine operating conditions. These two passages are arranged to join together at a junction, in which there is provided a valve to open and close these two passages alternatively so that an adequate egr control is performed in accordance with engine operating conditions with a simplified mechanism.

Shinzawa, M.

1982-02-02

351

Gases: Characteristics and Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to ideal gas, called Ideal and Real Gas Laws, is maintained by Liina Ladon of Townsen University (1). Visitors can read about the properties of ideal gases, what the ideal gas law is, how to use it, and much more. The next site, titled Gas Laws, (2) is offered by the Ohio State University Department of Chemistry. This interactive site contains Shockwave movies of animations and audio files that describe what a gas is, the Ideal Gas Law equation, mixtures of gases, and problems using the ideal gas law. The University of Oregon site, Virtual Laboratory, teaches about the ideal gas law on the Welcome to the Pressure Chamber page (3). Those who enjoy online interaction will enjoy being able to control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber to see how the gases inside react. The fourth site includes another fun multimedia activity related to ideal gases provided by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Washington University. The Air Filled Balloon in Liquid Nitrogen (4) movie shows an actual experiment of the effects on a balloon that's covered with liquid nitrogen. The page contains some additional information on the science behind the observations. The next site, called Ideal Gas Equations (5) is an online calculator that's part of Kean University's Department of Geology and Meteorology Web site. Users can calculate the pressure, volume, or temperature of a gas by inputting known variables into the various forms. Several methods and variations of calculating the values are provided as well as brief instructions. The next page from North Carolina State University's Basic Concepts in Environmental Science Web site is called Characteristics of Gases (6). Part of a larger learning module, the lesson plans objective is to use the ideal gas law to determine gas volumes at different absolute temperatures and absolute pressures. Everything needed to conduct the activity is provided including links to a volume calculator and practice problems. The seventh site is another animation that illustrates how gases react, called Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (7). By changing the number of molecules in the chamber, their velocity, and the pressure and width of the container, users get to see how the molecules react to the conditions. The last site, Gases and Their Properties, is maintained by the Electronic Teaching Assistance Program(8). Students learn about the history of gas science, how gas laws describe ideal gases, what Dalton's Law and Graham's Law are, and much more.

Brieske, Joel A.

352

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will research solids, liquids, and gases. By the end of this project you will be able to answer the question: Can you tell what is alike and different between solids, liquids, and gases? Read the song about matter. song with music about matter Record your observations on the organizer provided by the teacher. On the diagram write the word solid in one of the circles. Write liquid in one of the circles and write gas in the last circle. As you collect your information write your information under ...

Sibley, Ms.

2009-10-22

353

A Survey of Challenges in Aerodynamic Exhaust Nozzle Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current paper discusses aerodynamic exhaust nozzle technology challenges for aircraft and space propulsion systems. Technology advances in computational and experimental methods have led to more accurate design and analysis tools, but many major challenges continue to exist in nozzle performance, jet noise and weight reduction. New generations of aircraft and space vehicle concepts dictate that exhaust nozzles have optimum performance, low weight and acceptable noise signatures. Numerous innovative nozzle concepts have been proposed for advanced subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic vehicle configurations such as ejector, mixer-ejector, plug, single expansion ramp, altitude compensating, lobed and chevron nozzles. This paper will discuss the technology barriers that exist for exhaust nozzles as well as current research efforts in place to address the barriers.

Shyne, Rickey J.

2002-01-01

354

Measurement of Exhaust Emissions in Piston And Diesel Engines by Dispersive Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile but simple, reliable, rugged, and compact vehicle exhaust monitoring system has been developed, allowing detection of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (COo), high and low hydrocarbons (HHC and LHC), and nitric oxide (NO). The analysis is performed by dispersive absorption spectroscopy with instrumentation designed and fabricated for this demanding industrial environment. The operation of the instrumentation is described

H. C. Lord; D. W. Egan; F. L. Johnson; L. D. Mc Intosh

1974-01-01

355

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

...Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...rear engine compartments (or if special designs make the above impractical), the...sample flow rate is fixed by the venturi design. (v) Attach the exhaust tube to...

2014-07-01

356

40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

...Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...rear engine compartments (or if special designs make the above impractical), the...sample flow rate is fixed by the venturi design. (v) Attach the exhaust tube to...

2014-07-01

357

Program listing for the REEDM (Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model) computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program listing for the REEDM Computer Program is provided. A mathematical description of the atmospheric dispersion models, cloud-rise models, and other formulas used in the REEDM model; vehicle and source parameters, other pertinent physical properties of the rocket exhaust cloud and meteorological layering techniques; user's instructions for the REEDM computer program; and worked example problems are contained in NASA CR-3646.

Bjorklund, J. R.; Dumbauld, R. K.; Cheney, C. S.; Geary, H. V.

1982-01-01

358

Orifice of exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine, orifices disposed in a passage for recirculating the exhaust gas is made of a sheet of a bimetal or other material capable of changing from a normal shape to a deformed shape when the heat of the exhaust gas is applied, in order to prevent carbon contained in the

Fukae

1984-01-01

359

Control system for exhaust gas recirculating valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed in which a pressure operated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve governs the flow of engine exhaust gas into the engine intake. The EGR valve is supplied with operating pressure from the engine intake manifold via a pressure amplifier. The amplifier has a pressure input which tends to

Caldwell

1976-01-01

360

Exhaust gas recirculation flow control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-loop exhaust gas recirculation flow control system for minimizing nitrogen oxide emissions from internal combustion engines is described that, unlike prior-art devices, compensates for changes in sensed engine variables by incorporating feedback from the exhaust gas recirculation system. A valve that is responsive to engine air flow and to recirculated exhaust gas flow provides a scheduled flow control signal

Wertheimer

1974-01-01

361

Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Questions & Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of exposure to diesel exhaust.

362

77 FR 50969 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Low Emission Vehicle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requires auto manufacturers to include a ``smog index'' label on each vehicle sold...2025. The program combines the control of smog, soot and global warming gases and...vehicle recall provisions, to amend its smog label requirements, and to revise...

2012-08-23

363

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation valves and more particularly to systems incorporating an electrical vacuum regulator. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an EGR system that is less susceptible to output flow changes caused by carbon build up. A further object of the invention is to provide a vacuum regulator that can be used with simple, low cost EGR valves. Simple valves can be used by virtue of the closed loop vacuum regulation feature of the present invention since the flow rate/vacuum signal relationship is not important. A further object of the present invention is to provide an EGR flow regulation system which automatically compensates for pressure variations which result in changes in the pressure differential across the EGR valve due to changes in exhaust system pressure and intake manifold pressure. Many other objects and purposes of the invention will be clear from the following detailed description of the drawing.

Cook, J.E.

1984-09-04

364

Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

2014-08-01

365

Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

1983-01-01

366

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for...

2011-07-01

367

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values...ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values...determine vehicle-specific 5-cycle city and highway fuel...

2010-07-01

368

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

369

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

370

Correlates of work exhaustion for medical technologists.  

PubMed

In a sample of 196 medical technologists followed over a 4-year period, this study investigated if work-related demand and resource variables were related to subsequent work exhaustion. As hypothesized, increased levels of perceived work interference with family and task load and lower organizational support were related to higher subsequent work exhaustion. Distributive justice, as an intervening variable, had direct and partially mediating effects on work exhaustion. Distributive justice partially mediated the effects of work interfering with family and organizational support on work exhaustion. Distributive justice also mediated the impact of procedural justice on work exhaustion. Study limitations and future research issues are discussed. PMID:14526896

Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory

2003-01-01

371

Reduction in (pro-)inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust treated with a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly stringent regulation of particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles has led to the widespread use of diesel particle filters (DPFs), the effect of which on exhaust toxicity is so far poorly understood. We exposed a cellular model of the human respiratory epithelium at the air-liquid interface to non-catalyzed wall-flow DPF-filtered diesel exhaust and compared the resulting biological responses to the ones observed upon exposure to unfiltered exhaust. Filtered diesel exhaust acted highly oxidative, even though to a lesser extent than unfiltered exhaust (quantification of total reduced glutathione), and both exhaust types triggered comparable responses to oxidative stress (measurement of heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD1) gene expression). Further, diesel exhaust filtration significantly reduced pro-inflammatory responses (measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and quantification of the secretion of their gene products TNF-? and IL-8). Because inflammatory processes are central to the onset of adverse respiratory health effects caused by diesel exhaust inhalation, our results imply that DPFs may make a valuable contribution to the detoxification of diesel vehicle emissions. The induction of significant oxidative stress by filtered diesel exhaust however, also implies that the non-particulate exhaust components also need to be considered for lung cell risk assessment.

Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Müller, Loretta L.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

2013-12-01

372

Combination acoustical muffler and exhaust converter  

SciTech Connect

A combination acoustical muffler and exhaust converter for use with internal combustion engines, comprising an elongated hollow cylinder adapted to be connected to a source of exhaust gas, screen means positioned at a plurality of longitudinally spaced locations within said cylinder for partitioning the cylinder into a plurality of chambers arranged in series flow relation with each other and with respect to the flow of exhaust gas through said cylinder, the screens having a silencing action on said exhaust gas, magnet means in one of said chambers for exerting a magnetic pressure on the gas passing therethrough to serve to separate ferrous particles from the exhaust gas stream, a packing material of mineral material, such as mineral wool, in another of said chambers for condensing moisture in said exhaust gas and for removing hydrocarbon therefrom, and a material such as a ceramic material of an extremely fine porous nature, in still another of said chambers for removing carbon monoxide from said exhaust gas.

Nitz, A.E.

1982-11-30

373

Exposure to diesel exhaust particulates induces cardiac dysfunction and remodeling.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in urban residents, predisposing them to the development of several cardiovascular stresses, including myocardial infarctions, arrhythmias, thrombosis, and heart failure. DEP contain a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We hypothesize that exposure to DEP elicits ventricular remodeling through the activation of the AHR pathway, leading to ventricular dilation and dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by nose-only nebulization to DEP (SRM 2975, 0.2 mg/ml) or vehicle for 20 min/day × 5 wk. DEP exposure resulted in eccentric left ventricular dilation (8% increased left ventricular internal diameter at diastole and 23% decreased left ventricular posterior wall thickness at diastole vs. vehicle), as shown by echocardiograph assessment. Histological analysis using Picrosirius red staining revealed that DEP reduced cardiac interstitial collagen (23% decrease vs. vehicle). Further assessment of cardiac function using a pressure-volume catheter indicated impaired diastolic function (85% increased end-diastolic pressure and 19% decreased Tau vs. vehicle) and contractility (57 and 48% decreased end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and maximum change in pressure over time vs. end-diastolic volume compared with vehicle, respectively) in the DEP-exposed animals. Exposure to DEP significantly increased cardiac expression of AHR (19% increase vs. vehicle). In addition, DEP significantly decreased the cardiac expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1?, the competitive pathway to the AHR, and vascular endothelial growth factor, a downstream mediator of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (26 and 47% decrease vs. vehicle, respectively). These findings indicate that exposure to DEP induced left ventricular dilation by loss of collagen through an AHR-dependent mechanism. PMID:23887904

Bradley, Jessica M; Cryar, Kipp A; El Hajj, Milad C; El Hajj, Elia C; Gardner, Jason D

2013-10-01

374

Modular Analysis of Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Power Generation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an automobile exhaust thermoelectric power generation system is packaged into a model with its own operating principles. The inputs are the engine speed and power, and the output is the power generated by the system. The model is divided into two submodels. One is the inlet temperature submodel, and the other is the power generation submodel. An experimental data modeling method is adopted to construct the inlet temperature submodel, and a theoretical modeling method is adopted to construct the power generation submodel. After modeling, simulation is conducted under various engine operating conditions to determine the variation of the power generated by the system. Finally, the model is embedded into a Honda Insight vehicle model to explore the energy-saving effect of the system on the vehicle under Economic Commission for Europe and cyc-constant_60 driving cycles.

Deng, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.; Su, C. Q.

2014-10-01

375

Effects of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions and driveability  

SciTech Connect

A study of the effects of changes in gasoline composition is one area to explore in our effort to reduce tailpipe emissions from vehicles. However, affects on vehicle performances should also be considered from the perspective of practical useage. In this paper, the influence of gasoline composition (aromatics), volatility, and MTBE blending on engine outlet and tailpipe emissions are discussed in particular, focusing on distillation properties which have a close relationship to driveability. Under stable driving conditions and without a catalitic converter, the effects of gasoline volatility is small, while aromatics in gasoline affect exhaust HC and NO{sub x} emissions. MTBE has a leaning effect on the engine intake air/fuel mixture. During a transient driving cycle, a high gasoline 50% distillation temperature causes poor driveability, as a result, HC emissions increase.

Hoshi, H.; Nakada, M.; Kato, M.; Okada, M.; Kayanuma, N.

1990-01-01

376

Measured tailpipe emissions performance of New Zealand vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work carried out in order to quantify exhaust emissions from typical New Zealand vehicles. On-road measurements were made of vehicle driving characteristics and repre- sentative drive cycles were developed. Measurements were also made of the emissions factors (g\\/ km) of a number of New Zealand cars selected from the in-use fleet when driven through these cycles. Emissions

R R Raine; G M Jones; S T Elder

377

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials: Recent Progress and Future Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program provides enabling materials technology for the U.S. DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program is based on an industry assessment and the technology roadmap for the OHVT. A five-year program plan was published in 2000. Major efforts in the program are materials for diesel engine fuel systems, exhaust

D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

2001-01-01

378

Cause and cure for high volatile coal and corrossive gases at TXI, Midlothian Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant has raw materials, which are high in pyritic sulfur. The coal mill uses the preheater exhaust gases, which have elevated amounts of SO2. The coal being used is highly volatile. Therefore the coal mill bag filter had few occurrences of smoldered bags causing potentially unsafe conditions. This problem was solved by implementing some operational changes like reducing the

A. Shahid; B. Bottelberghe; J. Crowther

2007-01-01

379

Combined particle emission reduction and heat recovery from combustion exhaust—A novel approach for small wood-fired appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels by renewable sources of energy is one approach to address the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Wood combustion can help to replace fuel oil or gas. It is advisable, however, to use modern technology for combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment in order to achieve best efficiency and avoid air quality problems

A. Messerer; V. Schmatloch; U. Pöschl; R. Niessner

2007-01-01

380

Exhaust gas recirculation system with engine load dependent performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is disclosed, which is of the well-known type wherein an exhaust gas recirculation control valve in the exhaust gas recirculation passage controls the amount of exhaust gas recirculation. An orifice element, upstream of the exhaust gas recirculation valve in the passage, defines a pressure chamber between itself and the exhaust gas recirculation control valve. The

Onaka

1981-01-01

381

Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

2011-05-01

382

SiO2/TiO2 Composite for Removing Hg from Combustion Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pellets made of a high-surface-area composite of silica and titania have shown promise as means of removing elemental mercury from flue gases. With further technical development and commercialization, this material could become economically attractive as a more effective, less-expensive alternative to activated carbons for removing mercury from exhaust streams of coal-burning power plants, which are the sources of more than 90 percent of all anthropogenic airborne mercury.

Mazyck, David; Londeree, Danielle; Wu, Chang-Yu; Powers, Kevin; Pitoniak, Erik

2008-01-01

383

Well-to-Wheel Energy, Emissions, and Cost Analysis of Electricity and Fuel Used in Conventional and Electrified Vehicles, and Their Connection to a Sustainable Energy Infrastructure  

E-print Network

the stage. Chapter 2 explores conventional vehicle emissions profiles predicting future requirements of engine and catalytic exhaust aftertreatment technologies. Findings illustrate that low temperature climates and aging both adversely affect a vehicle...

Strecker, Bryan Anthony

2012-12-31

384

Prediction of engine exhaust concentrations downwind from the Delta-Thor Telsat-A launch of 9 November 1972  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of the downwind concentrations of engine exhaust by-products from the Delta-Thor Telsat-A vehicle launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida on November 9, 1972 (2014 EST). The meteorological conditions which existed are identified as well as the exhaust cloud rise and the results from the MSFC Multilayer Diffusion Model calculations. These predictions are compared to exhaust cloud sampled data acquired by the Langley Research Center personnel. Values of the surface level concentrations show that very little hydrochloric acid, carbon monoxide, or aluminum oxide reached the ground.

Kaufman, J. W.; Susko, M.; Hill, C. K.

1973-01-01

385

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

Walker, R.J.

1988-06-16

386

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

1989-01-01

387

Effects on symptoms and lung function in humans experimentally exposed to diesel exhaust.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Diesel exhaust is a common air pollutant made up of several gases, hydrocarbons, and particles. An experimental study was carried out which was designed to evaluate if a particle trap on the tail pipe of an idling diesel engine would reduce effects on symptoms and lung function caused by the diesel exhaust, compared with exposure to unfiltered exhaust. METHODS: Twelve healthy non-smoking volunteers (aged 20-37) were investigated in an exposure chamber for one hour during light work on a bicycle ergometer at 75 W. Each subject underwent three separate double blind exposures in a randomised sequence: to air and to diesel exhaust with the particle trap at the tail pipe and to unfiltered diesel exhaust. Symptoms were recorded according to the Borg scale before, every 10 minutes during, and 30 minutes after the exposure. Lung function was measured with a computerised whole body plethysmograph. RESULTS: The ceramic wall flow particle trap reduced the number of particles by 46%, whereas other compounds were relatively constant. It was shown that the most prominent symptoms during exposure to diesel exhaust were irritation of the eyes and nose and an unpleasant smell increasing during exposure. Both airway resistance (R(aw)) and specific airway resistance (SR(aw)) increased significantly during the exposures to diesel exhaust. Despite the 46% reduction in particle numbers by the trap effects on symptoms and lung function were not significantly attenuated. CONCLUSION: Exposure to diesel exhaust caused symptoms and bronchoconstriction which were not significantly reduced by a particle trap. PMID:8943829

Rudell, B; Ledin, M C; Hammarstrom, U; Stjernberg, N; Lundback, B; Sandstrom, T

1996-01-01

388

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of  

E-print Network

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed 19, 2012 (received for review July 22, 2012) Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles and diesel vehicles, and find diesel exhaust is seven times more efficient at forming aerosol than gasoline

Silver, Whendee

389

Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Converting all U.S. onroad vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCVs) may improve air quality, health, and climate significantly, whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust. Wind and natural gas HFCVs offer the greatest potential health benefits and could save 3700 to 6400

M. Z. Jacobson; W. G. Colella; D. M. Golden

2005-01-01

390

Use of gas turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to evaluate the merits of using natural gas-fired gas turbine exhaust to directly dry food products. A survey of drying practices utilized in the food industry and a detailed review of worldwide regulatory drying practices were completed. An investigation of the economic advantages associated with direct drying was also considered. Four drying scenarios were used as part of the analysis: Dilution - hot turbine exhaust gases were diluted with ambient air to achieve temperatures suitable for food product drying; Indirect Heat Exchanger - gas turbine exhaust was directed through an intermediate heat exchanger to avoid flue-gas contamination of the ambient air; Tri-Generation - exhaust gases from the gas turbine were first directed to a heat recovery boiler and then through the drying system to dry the food product; and Conventional Cogeneration - the most conventional simple cycle gas turbine cogeneration (this scenario served as the baseline for all evaluations). Although the economics associated with direct drying appear attractive, the principal concern of any potential use would be the extraordinarily high NO/sub x/ levels and the potential nitrate and nitrosamine (potential carcinogens and carcinogenic precursors) contamination in food products. 21 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

Not Available

1988-06-01

391

Sampling of vehicle emissions for chemical analysis and biological testing.  

PubMed Central

Representative dilution tube sampling techniques for particulate and gas phase vehicle emissions are described using Teflon filter media and XAD-2 resin. More than 90% of the total gas (C8-C18) and particulate direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity (TA 98) was found in the particulate phase. The gas and particulate phase material was fractionated by HPLC into nonpolar, moderately polar and highly polar chemical fractions. The moderately polar chemical fraction of the particulates contained more than 50% of the direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity for the total extract. The concentration of oxygenated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAH) and nitrated PAH (nitro-PAH) identified in the moderately polar particulate fractions are given. Nitro-PAH account for most of the direct-acting (TA 98) Ames assay mutagenicity in these moderately polar fractions. Reactions and kinetic expressions for chemical conversion of PAH are presented. Chemical conversion of PAH to nitro-PAH during dilution tube sampling of particulates on Teflon filters and gases on XAD-2 resin is a minor problem (representing 10-20%, on the average, of the 1-nitropyrene found in extracts) at short (46 min) sampling times, at low sampling temperatures (42 degrees C), and in diluted exhaust containing 3 ppm NO2. Particulate emissions collected from dilution tubes on filter media appear to be representative of what is emitted in the environment as based upon a comparison of highway and laboratory studies. PMID:6186484

Schuetzle, D

1983-01-01

392

Control of air pollution from new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines. Federal certification test results for 1993 model year  

SciTech Connect

The regulations that apply to the control of emissions from vehicles and engines, appearing in 40 CFR Part 86, set maximum allowable limits on exhaust and evaporative emission levels. The exhaust limits are applicable to gasoline-fueled and diesel light-duty vehicles (passenger cars), light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty engines, and to gasoline-fueled motorcycles. The evaporative limits are applicable to gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles. The report contains all of the individual tests that were required by the certification procedures.

Not Available

1993-01-01

393

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 ?g/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 ?g/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 ?g/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

2010-01-01

394

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

2009-07-01

395

Engine exhaust gas recirculation system with periodic recalibration of exhaust back pressure reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an exhaust gas recirculation system in which the flow of recirculated exhaust gas is controlled through an orifice having exhaust back pressure on one side and a control pressure on the other, determined by an EGR valve. Apparatus is provided for sensing the control pressure and controlling the EGR valve in response to the sensed control pressure,

Lahiff

1979-01-01

396

Method and apparatus for detection of catalyst failure on-board a motor vehicle using a dual oxygen sensor and an algorithm  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is described for detecting motor vehicle exhaust gas catalytic converter deterioration comprising a first exhaust gas oxygen sensor adapted for communication with an exhaust stream before passage of the exhaust stream through a catalytic converter and a second exhaust gas oxygen sensor adapted for communication with the exhaust stream after passage of the exhaust stream through the catalytic converter, an on-board vehicle computational means, said computational means adapted to accept oxygen content signals from the before and after catalytic converter oxygen sensors and adapted to generate signal threshold values, said computational means adapted to compare over repeated time intervals the oxygen content signals to the signal threshold values and to store the output of the compared oxygen content signals, and in response after a specified number of time intervals for a specified mode of motor vehicle operation to determine and indicate a level of catalyst deterioration.

Clemmens, W.B.; Koupal, J.W.; Sabourin, M.A.

1993-07-20

397

Combination of Methods for Characterization Diesel Engine Exhaust Particulate Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a study of the exhaust aerosols produced by a diesel engine. A combination of techniques for collecting and measure particulate matter in a diluted exhaust gases are presented. Three techniques have been used: a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI), a Low Pressure Impactor (LPI) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). A direct injection naturally aspirated diesel engine was used in the study at three different equivalance ratios: 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 at an engine speed of 1400 rpm which is rated torque speed. Mass concentration measurements made with the MOUDI were in qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with those calculated from the aerosol volume concentrations measured by the SMPS. The particulate matter obtained from the LPI was analyzed using transmission electron microscope and was found to be comprised of individual spherical particles ranging from 10 nm to 50 nm with a mean size of approximately 25 nm. Some conclusions about the size distribution measurement possibilities can be drawn.

Abu-Qudais, Moh'D.; Matson, Andreas; Kittelson, David

398

The Purification and Thermal Recovery of Exhaust Gas with the Wet-type Electrostatic Precipitator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exhaust gas ejected from engine heat pump contain the injurious materials, SOx, NOx and dust. And it also has a good deal of thermal energy, so thermal recovery from the exhaust gas increases the total C.O.P. of the heat pump system. The experimental study for the purpose of the purification of the exhaust gas and the thermal recovery from exhaust gas has been conducted with the wet-type electrostatic precipitator, which has the advantage of high collection efficiency and the gas-liquid direct heat-exchanism. The experimental results showed that: 1. For the dust, the collection efficiency of 96 % was achieved, when applied voltage was 19,000V. 2. The effect of the alkali absorption of Nox and SOx gases was made sure by the experiment. 3. The fundamental equation which is useful for design method was resolved by kinetic model of charged particle. 4. In the phenomenon of coagulation the velocity constant was decided with "Chemical Kinetics" and so that the density of coagulant, Ca(OH)2 was decided. 5. It is shown that mixing coagulant, Ca(OH)2, was a very effective way to remove the dust particles from the waste water. 6. Thermal energy of 5.3 kW was recovered from exhaust gas, so that total C.O.P. of heat pump system increases from 1.83 to 1.97.

Umemiya, Hiromichi; Koike, Hiroshi

399

Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas  

E-print Network

economy standards on motor vehicles by states such as California. But the states have also targeted stationary sources of greenhouse gases. In particular, they have sought to minimize carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. States have used...

Glicksman, Robert L.

2008-04-01

400

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

401

Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

402

Variable percentage exhaust gas recirculation valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve for an internal combustion engine is disclosed in which the rate of flow of exhaust gas from the outlet manifold to the inlet manifold of the engine is controlled as a function of engine load and speed.

1978-01-01

403

Health Assessment Document For Diesel Engine Exhaust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the EPA's National Center for Environmental Assessment, a recent publication release is available online entitled Health Assessment Document for Diesel Engine Exhaust. The over six hundred-page document contains information on the physical and chemical composition of diesel exhaust, its atmospheric transformation, and an extensive look at its health effects.

2002-01-01

404

Two dimensional gas turbine engine exhaust nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional variable area gas turbine engine exhaust nozzle is described having thrust reversing capability, the nozzle including spaced apart side wall means and upper and lower flap assemblies connected to the side wall means defining an exhaust gas flow path wihtin the nozzle, the nozzle having a centerline.

E. B. Thayer; G. H. McLafferty

1988-01-01

405

Limits to exhaustive exercise in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise to exhaustion leads to severe metabolic, acid–base and ionic changes in fish. It has been shown that several abiotic and biotic factors can limit burst exercise performance and the recovery process in fish. This article reviews the importance of body size, temperature, fasting\\/starvation and training on the ability of fish to perform and recover from exhaustive exercise. It is

2000-01-01

406

Correlates of Work Exhaustion for Medical Technologists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical technologists (n=196) were followed over 4 years. Higher levels of work exhaustion were related to perceived work interference with family, task load, and lower organizational support. Distributive justice partly mediated the effects of work interference and support on exhaustion. Distributive justice mediated the impact of procedural…

Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory

2003-01-01

407

Exhaust gas recirculation system for crankcase scavenged two cycle engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a two cycle crankcase scavenged engine comprising: a cylinder having a piston reciprocable disposed, the piston and cylinder forming a combustion chamber; a crankcase; an exhaust port opening into the combustion chamber; exhaust system means connected to the exhaust port for conducting exhaust gas away from the engine and cooling the exhaust gas; means for forming an

V. R. Kaufman; M. S. Geringer

1987-01-01

408

Effect of gasoline composition on exhaust hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of individual hydrocarbons in gasoline and to clarify the effect of the gasoline composition on engine-out exhaust hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed on a single cylinder research engine operating under steady state condition. The test fuels were blended gasolines of alkylate, catalytic reformate and fluid catalytic cracking gasoline. Chemically defined binary fuel mixtures of isooctane, benzene, toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene were used as variables to study their impact on exhaust hydrocarbons. The individual exhaust hydrocarbon species were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector. The results of tests with blended gasoline indicated that the exhaust hydrocarbons were classified into the unburned fuel and the cracked products such as methane, ethane and various olefins. The production coefficients of benzene were 5% for toluene, 4% for xylene and 6% for ethylbenzene. These values suggested that alkylbenzene in the fuel produced benzene in the exhaust. 8 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Kameoka, Atsushi; Akiyama, Ken-ichi; Hosoi, Kenzo

1994-10-01

409

40 CFR 600.010-86 - Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model...manufacturer shall generate city fuel economy data by testing according to the...

2010-07-01

410

40 CFR 600.010-08 - Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model...manufacturer shall generate FTP fuel economy data by testing according to the...

2010-07-01

411

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 2.3 Combustion and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste

Zevenhoven, Ron

412

Chemical pollution from transportation vehicles.  

PubMed

Recent publicity on electrically powered vehicles notwithstanding, the gasoline engine will probably be the principal power plant for passenger cars for at least the next decade. Chemical pollutants discharged by the gasoline engine are now under partial control. Motor cars of 1968 and 1969 model discharge only about 30 percent as much carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons as do older models. In theory, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen ultimately can be completely removed from gasoline engine exhaust. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to modify cars to operate satisfactorily on a lean mixture and perhaps to use a catalyst in the exhaust system. Present designs of gas turbines for aircraft and for future projected application to ground vehicles yield pollutants (except for smoke) at levels below those of gasoline engines for a decade to come. It has also been shown possible to eliminate smoke as well as odor from the gas turbine. Thus with proper effort it is feasible to reduce pollution of the atmosphere due to transportation to an acceptable level, even if electrically or alternatively powered vehicles cannot be developed for a decade. PMID:4183827

Starkman, E S

1969-04-01

413

Chemical Pollution from Transportation Vehicles  

PubMed Central

Recent publicity on electrically powered vehicles notwithstanding, the gasoline engine will probably be the principal power plant for passenger cars for at least the next decade. Chemical pollutants discharged by the gasoline engine are now under partial control. Motor cars of 1968 and 1969 model discharge only about 30 percent as much carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons as do older models. In theory, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen ultimately can be completely removed from gasoline engine exhaust. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to modify cars to operate satisfactorily on a lean mixture and perhaps to use a catalyst in the exhaust system. Present designs of gas turbines for aircraft and for future projected application to ground vehicles yield pollutants (except for smoke) at levels below those of gasoline engines for a decade to come. It has also been shown possible to eliminate smoke as well as odor from the gas turbine. Thus with proper effort it is feasible to reduce pollution of the atmosphere due to transportation to an acceptable level, even if electrically or alternatively powered vehicles cannot be developed for a decade. PMID:4183827

Starkman, Ernest S.

1969-01-01

414

14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29.1125 Aeronautics and...Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft...

2013-01-01

415

14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29.1125 Aeronautics and...Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft...

2014-01-01

416

14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25.1125 Aeronautics and...Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes,...

2013-01-01

417

14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25.1125 Aeronautics and...Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes,...

2014-01-01

418

14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23.1125 Aeronautics and...Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes...

2013-01-01

419

26 CFR 301.7430-1 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...believes a conference would not aid in the resolution of the tax...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the...

2012-04-01

420

26 CFR 301.7430-1 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...believes a conference would not aid in the resolution of the tax...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the...

2013-04-01

421

26 CFR 301.7430-1 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.  

...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...believes a conference would not aid in the resolution of the tax...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the...

2014-04-01

422

26 CFR 301.7430-1 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...believes a conference would not aid in the resolution of the tax...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the...

2011-04-01

423

26 CFR 301.7430-1 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the Internal...believes a conference would not aid in the resolution of the tax...exhausted the administrative remedies available within the...

2010-04-01

424

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2010-07-01

425

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2013-07-01

426

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2012-07-01

427

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2011-07-01

428

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

...true Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2014-07-01

429

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

430

30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 ...COAL MINES DIESEL EXHAUST GAS MONITORING § 70.1900 Exhaust Gas Monitoring. (a) During...experienced in the appropriate sampling procedures, shall...

2010-07-01

431

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust...

2011-07-01

432

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust...

2013-07-01

433

46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhaust cooling system. (c) Engine exhaust cooling systems built in accordance with the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council (ABCY) P-1, “Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary Engines,” will be considered...

2011-10-01

434

46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhaust cooling system. (c) Engine exhaust cooling systems built in accordance with the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council (ABCY) P-1, “Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary Engines,” will be considered...

2012-10-01

435

46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust cooling system. (c) Engine exhaust cooling systems built in accordance with the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council (ABCY) P-1, “Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary Engines,” will be considered...

2013-10-01

436

46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exhaust cooling system. (c) Engine exhaust cooling systems built in accordance with the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council (ABCY) P-1, “Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary Engines,” will be considered...

2010-10-01

437

Hepatoprotective effects of Ixora parviflora extract against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice.  

PubMed

Ixora parviflora, a species of the Rubiaceae, is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, and has been traditionally used as a folk medicine. An I. parviflora extract (IPE) has great antioxidant activity in vitro, including a scavenging effect on superoxide radicals, reducing power, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. However, whether IPE is efficacious against oxidative damage in vivo is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of IPE treatment on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses after exhaustive exercise in mice. Fifty male C57BL/6 mice (6 week old) were randomly divided into five groups and designated a sedentary control with vehicle (C), and exhaustive exercise with vehicle (IPE0), low dosage (IPE10), medium dosage (IPE50) and high dosage (IPE100) of IPE at 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. After a single bout of exhaustive swimming exercise challenge, levels of blood ammonia and creatine kinase (CK), and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein expression, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), and gp91(phox), p22(phox), and p47(phox) subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expressions in the IPE0 group were significantly affected compared to those of the C group, but they were all significantly inhibited by the IPE treatments. Results of the present in vivo study in mice indicate that I. parviflora extract possesses antioxidative and hepatoprotective potential following exhaustive exercise. PMID:24005966

Kan, Nai-Wen; Huang, Wen-Ching; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Wen, Kuo-Ching; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

2013-01-01

438

Airborne Concentrations of PM2.5 and Diesel Exhaust Particles on Harlem Sidewalks: A Community-Based Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residents of the dense urban core neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) have expressed increas- ing concern about the potential human health impacts of diesel vehicle emissions. We measured concentrations of particulate matter ? 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on sidewalks in Harlem, NYC, and tested whether spatial variations in concentra- tions were related

Patrick L. Kinney; Maneesha Aggarwal; Mary E. Northridge; Nicole A. H. Janssen; Peggy Shepard

2000-01-01

439

Shock Waves in Granular Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is the first attempt to systematize the results on shock waves in granular gases. We present experimental and computational evidences of shock and expansion waves propagating within granular gases. The analysis of model flows with shock and expansion waves shows that even smallest kinetic energy dissipations crucially affects such flows. We discuss the role of these waves for

Alexander Goldshtein; Alexander Alexeev; Michael Shapiro

2003-01-01

440

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

EIA Publications

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

2011-01-01

441

Gases in Seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual gross and net primary productivity of the surface oceans is similar in size to that on land (IPCC, 2001). Marine productivity drives the cycling of gases such as oxygen (O2), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methyl iodide (CH3I) which are of fundamental importance in studies of marine productivity, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health, respectively. For example, ˜30% of the world's population (1,570 million) is thought to be at risk of iodine-deficiency disorders that impair mental development (WHO, 1996). The main source of iodine to land is the supply of volatile iodine compounds produced in the ocean and then transferred to the atmosphere via the air-surface interface. The flux of these marine iodine species to the atmosphere is also thought to be important in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere by the production of the iodine oxide radical ( Alicke et al., 1999). A further example is that the net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean, ˜1.7±0.5 Gt C yr-1, represents ˜30% of the annual release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). This net flux is superimposed on a huge annual flux (90 Gt C yr-1) of CO2 that is cycled "naturally" between the ocean and the atmosphere. The long-term sink for anthropogenic CO2 is recognized as transfer to the ocean from the atmosphere. A final example is the emission of volatile sulfur, in the form of DMS, from the oceans. Not only is an oceanic flux from the oceans needed to balance the loss of sulfur (a bioessential element) from the land via weathering, it has also been proposed as having a major control on climate due to the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (Charlson et al., 1987). Indeed, the existence of DMS and CH3I has been used as evidence in support of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979).There are at least four main processes that affect the concentration of gases in the water column: biological production and consumption, photochemistry, air-sea exchange, and vertical mixing. We will not discuss the effect of vertical mixing on gases in seawater and instead refer the reader to Chapter 6.08. Nor will we consider the deeper oceans as this region is discussed in chapters on benthic fluxes and early diagenesis (Chapter 6.11), the biological pump (Chapter 6.04), and the oceanic calcium carbonate cycle (Chapter 6.19) all in this volume. We will discuss the cycling of gases in surface oceans, including the thermocline, and in particular concentrate on the exchange of various volatile compounds across the air-sea interface.As we will show, while much is known about the cycling of gases such as CO2 and DMS in the water column, frustratingly little is known about many of the chemical species for which the ocean is believed to be a significant source to the atmosphere. We suspect the passage of time will reveal that the cycling of volatile compounds containing selenium and iodine may well prove as complex as that of DMS. Early studies of DMS assumed that it was produced from a precursor compound, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), known to be present in some species of phytoplankton, and that the main sink in the water column was exchange across the air-sea interface. We now know that DMSP and DMS are both rapidly cycled in water column by a complex interaction between phytoplankton, microzooplankton, bacteria, and viruses (see Figure 1). Some detailed process experiments have revealed that only ˜10% of the total DMS produced (and less than 1.3% of the DMSP produced) is transferred to the atmosphere, with the bulk of the DMS and DMSP, either being recycled in the water column or photo-oxidized (Archer et al., 2002b).

Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

2003-12-01

442

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis  

PubMed Central

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal?exposure=urban?background+work?site?background+personal?activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

2008-01-01

443

A computational environment for exhaust nozzle design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nozzle Design Associate (NDA) is a computational environment for the design of jet engine exhaust nozzles for supersonic aircraft. NDA may be used either to design new aircraft or to design new nozzles that adapt existing aircraft so they may be reutilized for new missions. NDA was developed in a collaboration between computer scientists at Rutgers University and exhaust nozzle designers at General Electric (GE) Aircraft Engines and General Electric Corporate Research and Development. The NDA project has two principal goals: to provide a useful engineering tool for exhaust nozzle design, and to explore fundamental research issues that arise in the application of automated design optimization methods to realistic engineering problems.

Gelsey, Andrew; Smith, Don

1995-01-01

444

Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al2O3 to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al2O3 appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

Dingle, A. N.

1982-01-01

445

Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

2013-12-01

446

Proinflammatory effects of diesel exhaust nanoparticles on scleroderma skin cells.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP) of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc), in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5) and older (Euro 4) diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 ? , IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?) and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF). DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems. PMID:24982919

Mastrofrancesco, A; Alfè, M; Rosato, E; Gargiulo, V; Beatrice, C; Di Blasio, G; Zhang, B; Su, D S; Picardo, M; Fiorito, S

2014-01-01

447

Proinflammatory Effects of Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles on Scleroderma Skin Cells  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP) of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc), in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5) and older (Euro 4) diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?) and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF). DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems. PMID:24982919

Mastrofrancesco, A.; Alfè, M.; Rosato, E.; Gargiulo, V.; Beatrice, C.; Di Blasio, G.; Zhang, B.; Su, D. S.; Picardo, M.; Fiorito, S.

2014-01-01

448

Sulfur driven nucleation mode formation in diesel exhaust under transient driving conditions.  

PubMed

Sulfur driven diesel exhaust nucleation particle formation processes were studied in an aerosol laboratory, on engine dynamometers, and on the road. All test engines were equipped with a combination of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a partial diesel particulate filter (pDPF). At steady operating conditions, the formation of semivolatile nucleation particles directly depended on SO2 conversion in the catalyst. The nucleation particle emission was most significant after a rapid increase in engine load and exhaust gas temperature. Results indicate that the nucleation particle formation at transient driving conditions does not require compounds such as hydrocarbons or sulfated hydrocarbons, however, it cannot be explained only by the nucleation of sulfuric acid. A real-world exhaust study with a heavy duty diesel truck showed that the nucleation particle formation occurs even with ultralow sulfur diesel fuel, even at downhill driving conditions, and that nucleation particles can contribute 60% of total particle number emissions. In general, due to sulfur storage and release within the exhaust aftertreatment systems and transients in driving, emissions of nucleation particles can even be the dominant part of modern diesel vehicle exhaust particulate number emissions. PMID:24471707

Karjalainen, Panu; Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Keskinen, Jorma

2014-02-18

449

Taxation of exhaustible resources. [Monograph  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the effect of taxation on the intertemporal allocation of an exhaustible resource. A general framework within which a large variety of taxes can be analyzed is developed and then applied to a number of specific taxes. It is shown that there exists a pattern of taxation which can generate essentially any desired pattern of resource usage. Many tax policies, however, have effects markedly different both from the effects that these policies would have in the case of produced commodities and from those which they are designed (or widely thought) to have. For instance, if extraction costs are zero, a depletion allowance at a constant rate (widely thought to encourage the extraction of resources) has absolutely no effect; its gradual removal (usually thought to be preferable to a sudden removal) leads to faster rates of depletion (and lower prices) now, but higher prices in the future; which its sudden and unanticipated removal has absolutely no distortionary effect on the pattern of extraction. More generally, it is shown that the effects of tax structure on the patterns of extraction are critically dependent on expectations concerning future taxation. The changes in tax structure that have occurred in the past fifty years are of the kind that, if they were anticipated, (or if similar further changes are expected to occur in the future) lead to excessively fast exploitation of natural resources. However, if it is believed that current tax policies (including rates) will persist indefinitely, the current tax structure would lead to excessive conservationism. Thus, whether in fact current tax policies have lead to excessive conservationism is a moot question.

Dasgupta, P.; Heal, G.; Stiglitz, J.

1980-01-01

450

14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Each exhaust system must be supported to withstand the vibration and inertia loads to which it may be subjected in operation. (c) Parts of the system connected to components between which...

2010-01-01

451

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

452

Forward trading in exhaustible-resource oligopoly  

E-print Network

We analyze oligopolistic exhaustible-resource depletion when firms can trade forward contracts on deliveries, a market structure prevalent in many resource commodity markets. We find that this organization of trade has ...

Liski, Matti

2008-01-01

453

Dispersion of turbojet engine exhaust in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dispersion of the exhaust of turbojet engines into the atmosphere is estimated by using a model developed for the mixing of a round jet with a parallel flow. The analysis is appropriate for determining the spread and dilution of the jet exhaust from the engine exit until it is entrained in the aircraft trailing vortices. Chemical reactions are not expected to be important and are not included in the flow model. Calculations of the dispersion of the exhaust plumes of three aircraft turbojet engines with and without afterburning at typical flight conditions are presented. Calculated average concentrations for the exhaust plume from a single engine jet fighter are shown to be in good agreement with measurements made in the aircraft wake during flight.

Holdeman, J. D.

1973-01-01

454

Exhaust gas recirculation valve malfunction indicator apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine is provided with an exhaust gas recirculating (EGR) system containing a vacuum\\/electric switch assembly activated in response to a non-movement type malfunction of the EGR valve to energize a warning light.

1977-01-01

455

14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Piping must be supported to...

2011-01-01

456

14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Piping must be supported to...

2010-01-01

457

Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

2011-11-29

458

An exploratory drilling exhaustion sequence plot program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The exhaustion sequence plot program computes the conditional area of influence for wells in a specified rectangular region with respect to a fixed-size deposit. The deposit is represented by an ellipse whose size is chosen by the user. The area of influence may be displayed on computer printer plots consisting of a maximum of 10,000 grid points. At each point, a symbol is presented that indicates the probability of that point being exhausted by nearby wells with respect to a fixed-size ellipse. This output gives a pictorial view of the manner in which oil fields are exhausted. In addition, the exhaustion data may be used to estimate the number of deposits remaining in a basin. ?? 1977.

Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Drew, L.J.

1977-01-01

459

The heterogeneous generation of N2O from exhaust gases of combustion: A laboratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneous reaction of NO, SO2 and O2 in the presence of condensed or adsorbed H2O results in high yields of N2O under conditions mimicking flue gas from fossil fuel combustion. We observed a strong influence of the nature of the substrate surface on the rate of N2O formation. The maximum rate of N2O formation of 350 ppm h-1 occurred on soot and fly ash at relative humidities approaching 100% at 368K final yields of 80-100% N2O. The mechanism corresponds to a complex multiphase system in which NO2 seems to be a key species. The observed abundance of NO2 does not correspond to the one predicted by the simple mechanism by Lyon and Cole (1988).

Pires, M.; Rossi, M. J.

460

The simulation of condensation removal of a heavy metal from exhaust gases onto sorbent particles.  

PubMed

A numerical model BAEROSOL for solving the general dynamic equation (GDE) of aerosols is presented. The goal was to model the capture of volatilized metals by sorbents under incinerator-like conditions. The model is based on algorithms presented by Jacobson and Turco [Aerosol Science and Technology 22 (1995) 73]. A hybrid size bin was used to model growth and formation of particles from the continuum phase and the coagulation of existing particles. Condensation and evaporation growth were calculated in a moving size bin approach, where coagulation and nucleation was modeled in the fixed size bin model of the hybrid grid. To account for the thermodynamic equilibrium in the gas phase, a thermodynamic equilibrium code CET89 was implemented. The particle size distribution (PSD) calculated with the model was then compared to analytical solutions provided for growth, coagulation and both combined. Finally, experimental findings by Rodriguez and Hall [Waste Management 21 (2001) 589-607] were compared to the PSD predicted by the developed model and the applicability of the model under incineration conditions is discussed. PMID:12909090

Rodriguez, Alexander; Hall, Matthew J

2003-01-01

461

A novel thick film sensor for simultaneous O 2 and NO monitoring in exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A miniaturized two-electrode sensor for the simultaneous detection of oxygen and nitrogen monoxide in oxygen, nitrogen, NO gas mixtures has been developed by using thick film technology. The solid state electrochemical sensor, based on yttria-stabilized zirconia, operates in the amperometric mode. Oxygen concentrations ranging up to 5vol.% and NO concentrations ranging up to 2500ppm can be detected separately and simultaneously.

P Schmidt-Zhang; K.-P Sandow; F Adolf; W Göpel; U Guth

2000-01-01

462

Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide removal from exhaust gases by Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction  

E-print Network

and Siebers experimental setup. [14]. . . 24 Fig. 6. Structure of the CHEMKIN package . 31 Fig. 7. NO reduction using NH3 as a function of reactor temperature for 02 = 1. 9%, H20 = 0%, CO = 0 ppm and NO = 330 ppm 34 Fig 8. NO reduction using NH3 as a... function of reactor temperature for 02=19%, H20=45%, CO=0ppm andNO=330ppm. . . . . . . . 35 Fig. 9. NO reduction using NH3 as a function of reactor temperature for 02 = 1. 9%, H20 = 4. 5%, CO = 1260 ppm and NO = 330 ppm . . . 36 Fig. 10. NO reduction...

Chenanda, Cariappa Mudappa

2012-06-07

463

Space vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

Vonpragenau, G. L. (inventor)

1975-01-01

464

Variability in onset of ECG changes indicative of ischemia after exposure to whole vs filtered diesel exhaust in hypertensive rats. Insight on mechanism?  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gases including C02, O2, N02, CO, aldehydes, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as highly respirable particulate matter. DE is a significant component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, which its...

465

Environmental implications of anesthetic gases.  

PubMed

For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment. PMID:23241038

Yasny, Jeffrey S; White, Jennifer

2012-01-01

466

Investigating and Using Biomass Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Learners generate these gases everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time theyâll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Learners will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best either according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

Benson, Eric; Highfill, Melissa

2012-07-03

467

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

468

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01

469

NOX REDUCTION FOR LEAN EXHAUST USING PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Currently CARB estimates on road diesel vehicles contribute 50% of the NOX and 78% of the particulates being discharged from mobile sources. Diesel emissions obviously must be reduced if future air quality targets are to be met. A critical technological barrier exists because there are no commercial technologies available, which can reduce NOX from diesel (lean), exhaust containing 5-15% O2 concentration. One promising approach to reducing NOX and particulates from diesel exhaust is to use a combination of plasma with catalyst. Plasma can be generated thermally or non-thermally. Thermal plasma is formed by heating the system to an exceedingly high temperature (>2000 C). High temperature requirements for plasma makes thermal plasma inefficient and requires skillful thermal management and hence is considered impractical for mobile applications. Non-thermal plasma directs electrical energy into the creation of free electrons, which in turn react with gaseous species thus creating plasma. A combination of non-thermal plasma with catalysts can be referred to Plasma Assisted Catalysts or PAC. PAC technology has been demonstrated in stationary sources where non-thermal plasma catalysis is carried out in presence of NH3 as a reductant. In stationary applications NO is oxidized to HNO3 and then into ammonium nitrate where it is condensed and removed. This approach is impractical for mobile application because of the ammonia requirement and the ultimate mechanism by which NOX is removed. However, if a suitable catalyst can be found which can use onboard fuel as reductant then the technology holds a considerable promise. NOX REDUCTION FOR LEAN EXHAUST USING PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS Ralph Slone, B. Bhatt and Victor Puchkarev NOXTECH INC. In addition to the development of an effective catalyst, a non-thermal plasma reactor needs be scaled and demonstrated along with a reliable and cost effective plasma power source and onboard HC source needs to be proven. Under the work sponsored by DOE and SCAQMD Noxtech is developing a cost effective and reliable PAC system for mobile applications. The goal of the program is to develop a suitable catalyst with the ability to remove high levels of NOx at reasonable space velocities. This new catalyst will then be used to scale the technology to treat exhaust from 80Hp engine and eventually to demonstrate the technology on 200 and 400 Hp engine applications. Using the 2004 EPA proposed regulation as a standard, it is clear in order for PAC system to be commercially viable it needs to remove NOX by 70% or better. It is further assumed from past experience that 30,000 HR-1 space velocities are necessary to ensure a good compact design.

Bhatt, B.

2000-08-20

470

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

471

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

472

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1998-08-11

473

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1997-02-11

474

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines comprises an exhaust gas recirculating passage for tapping engine exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe and feeding back to an engine intake pipe downstream of a throttle valve disposed therein, a control valve for opening and closing the recirculating passage in response to a pressure signal, and a throttle port formed

T. Kohama; H. Nohira; H. Obayashi; T. Ozaki

1980-01-01

475

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed in the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve adapted to be actuated by the vacuum regulated by the pressure

Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

1981-01-01

476

Internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is an internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system. The engine is provided with an exhaust gas recirculation control valve device, a modulator valve device and a vacuum control valve device. The exhaust gas recirculation control valve device communicates an exhaust passage of the engine with an intake passage of the engine and is provided with a

J. Saiki; T. Kumai

1979-01-01

477

Exhaust gas recirculation system with an auxiliary valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is described that has an exhaust gas recirculation flow control valve provided at a middle position of the exhaust gas recirculation passage, the control valve being operated depending upon comparison between target and actual values of a control parameter with regard to the amount of exhaust gas recirculation. An auxiliary

Tanaka

1980-01-01

478

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed that has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed at an intermediate portion of the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve actuated by vacuum regulated

Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

1981-01-01

479

Internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is an internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system. The engine is provided with a carburetor which includes a primary system and a secondary system. The recirculated exhaust gas is supplied to the intake passage via an exhaust gas supply pipe which is disposed at a position downstream of the carburetor. The top end of the exhaust

Saiki

1980-01-01

480

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An impeller is disposed in an exhaust gas recirculation passage communicating between the exhaust passage and the intake passage of the engine. The impeller supplies part of the exhaust gas positively from the exhaust passage to the intake passage of the engine. The blowing device includes a blower which is driven electrically or mechanically.

Ushimura

1983-01-01