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1

Analysis of petrol and diesel vapour and vehicle engine exhaust gases using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We have used selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the vapours emitted by petrol and diesel fuels and the exhaust gases from petrol (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engine vehicles fitted with catalytic converters. Only those components of these media that have significant vapour pressures at ambient temperatures were analysed and thus particulates were obviously not detected. These media have been analysed using the full scope of SIFT-MS, i.e., with the three available precursor ions H3O+, NO+ and O2+. The combination of the H3O+ and NO+ analyses is seen to be essential to distinguish between different product ions at the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) especially in identifying aldehydes in the exhaust gases. The O2+ precursor ions are used to detect and quantify the large amount of nitric oxide present in the exhaust gases from both engine types. The petrol and diesel vapours consist almost exclusively of aliphatic alkanes, alkenes and alkynes (and dienes) and aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these compounds appear in the exhaust gases together with several aldehydes, viz. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, pentenal (acrolein), butenal, and also methanol and ethanol. Acetone, nitric oxide and ammonia are also present, acetone and nitric oxide being much more abundant in the diesel exhaust gas than in the petrol exhaust gas. These data were obtained from samples collected into pre-evacuated stainless steel vessels. Trapping of the volatile compounds from the gas samples is not required and analysis was completed a few minutes later. All the above compounds are detected simultaneously, which demonstrates the value of SIFT-MS in this area of research. PMID:11992517

Smith, David; Cheng, Ping; Spanel, Patrik

2002-01-01

2

Treatment of diesel exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a process wherein diesel exhaust gas is passed through a filter to remove particulate therefrom before discharge and particulate deposited on the filter is combusted. The improvement comprises combusting the particulate with a gas containing NO{sub 2}.

Cooper, B.J.; Jung, H.J.; Thoss, J.E.

1990-02-20

3

Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects ca...

D. G. Hehemann

2002-01-01

4

HCL measurements in space vehicle exhaust clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Space Program requires the use of large launch vehicles like the space shuttle, Titan 34D, Titan IV, and the proposed heavy-lift vehicle. These large launch systems utilize solid rocket motors to place heavy payloads into orbit. However, most solid rocket motors utilize ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizer and release an exhaust cloud, which is a dynamic mixture

M. D. Smith; T. McRae; R. Kennedy; D. Garvis; T. Kulp; L. S. Berstein; F. Bien; W. Cheng; R. P. Domingue; S. C. Richtmeier

1988-01-01

5

Power Recovery From In-Situ Combustion Exhaust Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small gas-combustion turbine generator set was tested using in-situ combustion exhaust gases from the crude oil recovery test at Amoco Production Co.'s Sloss Unit. These gases were used to supplement the liquid fuel normally used to operate the turbine. The turbine was loaded by removing compressed air as well as by generating electrical power. Test results indicate that gas-combustion

D. L. Stinson; H. C. Carpenter

1976-01-01

6

GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

2003-08-24

7

Oxygen sensor for monitoring exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

A sensor measuring the partial oxygen pressure in furnace exhaust gas has an active layer of palladium. When the sensor is maintained at a particular temperature, for example about 700/sup 0/C. , the palladium changes to palladium oxide at a specific air number, namely 1.2. The change from palladium to palladium oxide and vice versa causes a change in conductivity by a factor of approximately 20. This change in conductivity is a clearly defined output signal which can be adjusted to occur at any desired air number in the region from 1.05 to 1.4, depending upon the temperature at which the sensor is maintained. Two sensors may be used, each maintained at a different temperature so that a control region is defined as the air number region wherein the sensor maintained at the lower temperature is oxidized while the second sensor is reduced. Preferably, the active layer consists not only of the metal oxide but also of a ceramic component such as cerium oxide which is doped with 0.5 to 10% by volume of Nb2O5 or Ta2O5.

Schmidberger, R.

1982-09-28

8

Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in

Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh

2003-01-01

9

HCL measurements in space vehicle exhaust clouds  

SciTech Connect

The United States Space Program requires the use of large launch vehicles like the space shuttle, Titan 34D, Titan IV, and the proposed heavy-lift vehicle. These large launch systems utilize solid rocket motors to place heavy payloads into orbit. However, most solid rocket motors utilize ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizer and release an exhaust cloud, which is a dynamic mixture of water, hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, and aluminum chloride. Described in this presentation are two infrared monitors which are designed for HCl field measurements. One monitor, developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), measures gaseous HCl and accounts for the presence of water and methane that absorb at the HCl wavelength. A detection limit of 0.2 ppM has been demonstrated. The second monitor, developed by Spectral Sciences, Inc., uses a unique HCl lamp which is free of interferences associated with conventional black body radiation sources. By combining the lamp with simple optics, a detection limit of 0.1 ppM has been obtained. Since much of the HCl in the ground cloud is entrained in small water droplets and the infrared technique measures only gaseous HCl, a method was required to account for aqueous HCl. The Spectral Sciences monitor features a preheater which vaporizes aerosols in the input gas stream so that total HCl can be measured. For both monitors, instrument design and operation are described in detail. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Smith, M.D.; McRae, T.; Kennedy, R.; Garvis, D.; Kulp, T.; Berstein, L.S.; Bien, F.; Cheng, W.; Domingue, R.P.; Richtmeier, S.C.

1988-01-01

10

Hot exhaust gases with passive FTIR emission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive FTIR emission spectroscopy using a commercial medium resolution instrument with a telescope has been applied to analyze the hot exhaust gases of various combustion sources, such as industrial and building smoke stacks, aircraft engines, flares, and forest fires. To interpret the remotely measured spectra a multi-layer, line-by-line spectra retrieval software using the molecular spectral databases HITRAN and HITEMP has been developed, validated and successfully used to determine the exhaust gas temperatures and the concentrations of CO2, H2O, CO, N2O, CH4, NO, NO2, SO2, and HCl for different combustion conditions of the sources. In this paper the feasibility and the setup of passive IR measurements, the basic theory of radiative transfer and special features of the commercially available spectra analysis code are described. In addition, the results of the different measurement applications are summarized.

Heland, Joerg; Schaefer, Klaus; Haus, Rainer

1998-12-01

11

Exhaust Emissions From In-Use Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines exhaust emissions from 11 vehicles tested on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline fuels (22 vehicle\\/ fuel combinations). The paper highlights ozone precursor and toxic emissions. Emission rates from some of the presumably well-maintained, low-mileage test vehicles were higher than expected, but fuel effects were consistent with findings of similar studies. Aggregate

Peter Gabele

1995-01-01

12

Absorption refrigeration system for mobile applications utilizing exhaust gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A breadboard prototype of an absorption system for truck refrigeration using heat from the exhaust-gases was designed, built and tested. Measured COP values of the unoptimized single-stage ammonia-water absorption cycle varied between 23 and 30%, but system modeling shows that this can be improved to values considerably over 30%. Computer simulation for the system included cycle analysis as well as component modeling, using a detailed two-fluid model for flow of the ammonia-water mixture in the condenser and absorber. This detailed model was also validated using test data. In addition, the recoverable energy of the exhaust gases was analyzed for representative truck-driving conditions for city traffic, mountain roads and flat roads. The results show that the system is promising for long distance driving on flat roads. Zusammenfassung Es wurde ein Prototyp einer abgasbetriebenen Absorptionskälteanlage für Transportkühlung ausgelegt, gebaut und getestet. Das gemessene Wärmeverhältnis der noch nicht optimierten einstufigen Ammoniak-Wasser Absorptionskältemaschine (AKM) liegt zwischen 23 und 30%. Simulationsrechnungen zeigen, daß das Wärmeverhältnis auf deutlich über 30% gesteigert werden kann. Die Simulationsrechnungen wurden sowohl für den gesamten Kreisprozeß als auch für einzelne Komponenten durchgeführt. Insbesondere wurde für den Verflüssiger und Absorber ein detailiertes Zweifluidmodell für die Strömung des Ammoniak-Wasser-Gemisches entwickelt und mit Hilfe der Meßdaten validiert. Zusätzlich wurde für repräsentative Lkw Fahrten im Stadtverkehr und auf gebirgigen und ebenen Außerortsstrecken die nutzbare Abgasenergie analysiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß eine abgasbetriebene AKM besonders für Langstreckenfahrten auf ebener Strecke geeignet ist.

Koehler, J.; Tegethoff, W. J.; Westphalen, D.; Sonnekalb, M.

13

Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M. (Center for Environmental Research and Technology College of Engineering, University of California - Riverside, California)

1998-11-19

14

HCl Measurements in Space Vehicle Exhaust Clouds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Space Program requires the use of large launch vehicles like the space shuttle, Titan 34D, Titan IV, and the proposed heavy-lift vehicle. These large launch systems utilize solid rocket motors to place heavy payloads into orbit. However,...

M. D. Smith T. McRae R. Kennedy D. Garvis T. Kulp

1988-01-01

15

Dioxin-receptor ligands in urban air and vehicle exhaust.  

PubMed Central

The ability of extracts of urban air and vehicle exhaust particulates to bind to the dioxin receptor has been determined. It was shown that such extracts do contain significant amounts of dioxin-receptor binding activity. The level of dioxin-receptor binding found in ambient air reflects its pollution level as determined by mutagenic activity. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracts of both urban air and vehicle exhaust particulates could provoke the induction of cytochrome P450IA1 in cultured rat hepatoma cells. Chemical fractionation of the extracts revealed that the majority of the dioxin-receptor binding activity from urban air and gasoline vehicle samples fractionated with the polycyclic aromatic compounds. However, unknown polycyclic aromatic compounds were responsible for the majority of the binding activity measured. In the case of diesel vehicle exhausts, the majority of the dioxin-receptor binding activity was found to be associated with nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds. Studies with a variety of diesel fuels showed that the amount of dioxin-receptor ligands present in exhaust emissions are fuel-dependent and that substantial amounts of dioxin-receptor ligands are present in the semivolatile phase of exhaust emissions.

Mason, G G

1994-01-01

16

Vehicle anti-pollution exhaust device  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust filter for controlling emissions in a discharge gas stream is described comprising: an outer housing; a first exhaust gas passageway comprising a cylindrical pipe received within the outer housing. The pipe is provided with openings formed in an outer surface of the pipe and having a first end and a second end projecting from the housing. The cylindrical pipe receives the discharge gas stream and defines a first fluid pathway through the outer housing for the gas stream; a second exhaust passageway formed within the outer housing, in fluid communication with the first passageway and defining a second fluid pathway for receiving a selected portion of the discharge gas stream passing through the first fluid pathway; a filter means placed within and filtering the selected portion of the discharge gas stream passing through the second fluid pathway; and diverting means comprising at least one baffle spinner rotatably mounted within the cylindrical pipe adjacent one of the openings formed therein, progressively diverting the discharge gas stream from the first fluid pathway to the second fluid pathway and progressively diverting the filtered discharge gas stream from the second fluid pathway to the first fluid pathway.

Smith, J.M. Jr.

1987-11-17

17

Lung Cancer and Vehicle Exhaust in Trucking Industry Workers  

PubMed Central

Background An elevated risk of lung cancer in truck drivers has been attributed to diesel exhaust exposure. Interpretation of these studies specifically implicating diesel exhaust as a carcinogen has been limited because of limited exposure measurements and lack of work records relating job title to exposure-related job duties. Objectives We established a large retrospective cohort of trucking company workers to assess the association of lung cancer mortality and measures of vehicle exhaust exposure. Methods Work records were obtained for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. We assessed lung cancer mortality through 2000 using the National Death Index, and we used an industrial hygiene review and current exposure measurements to identify jobs associated with current and historical use of diesel-, gas-, and propane-powered vehicles. We indirectly adjusted for cigarette smoking based on an industry survey. Results Adjusting for age and a healthy-worker survivor effect, lung cancer hazard ratios were elevated in workers with jobs associated with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust. Mortality risk increased linearly with years of employment and was similar across job categories despite different current and historical patterns of exhaust-related particulate matter from diesel trucks, city and highway traffic, and loading dock operations. Smoking behavior did not explain variations in lung cancer risk. Conclusions Trucking industry workers who have had regular exposure to vehicle exhaust from diesel and other types of vehicles on highways, city streets, and loading docks have an elevated risk of lung cancer with increasing years of work.

Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Rosner, Bernard; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

2008-01-01

18

72 FR 20730 - Extension of Temporary Exhaust Emission Test Procedure Option for All Terrain Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exhaust Emission Test Procedure Option for All Terrain Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental...vehicles/engines commonly referred to as all-terrain vehicles. In that rulemaking...included allowing manufacturers to test all- terrain vehicles over a...

2007-04-26

19

72 FR 20806 - Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for All-Terrain Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2060-A035 Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for All-Terrain Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental...vehicles/engines commonly referred to as all-terrain vehicles. In that rulemaking...included allowing manufacturers to certify all- terrain vehicles over a...

2007-04-26

20

Intake fraction of nonreactive motor vehicle exhaust in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intake fraction ( iF) of nonreactive constituents of exhaust from mobile vehicles in the urban area of Hong Kong is investigated using available monitoring data for carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer of opportunity. Correcting for regional transport of carbon monoxide into Hong Kong, the annual-average iF for nonreactive motor vehicle emissions within the city is estimated to be around 270 per million. This estimated iF is much higher than values previously reported for vehicle emissions in US urban areas, Helsinki and Beijing, and somewhat lower than those reported for a densely populated street canyon in downtown Manhattan, New York City, or for emissions into indoor environments. The reported differences in intake fractions in various cities mainly result from the differences in local population densities. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the influence of upwind transport of pollutants when using ambient data to estimate iF for an urban area. For vehicle exhaust in Hong Kong, it is found that the in/near vehicle microenvironment contributes similarly to the indoor home environment when accounting for the overall iF for children and adults.

Luo, Zhiwen; Li, Yuguo; Nazaroff, William W.

2010-05-01

21

Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas Suicide: Review of Countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In many motorized countries, inhalation of carbon monoxide from motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG) has been one of the leading methods of suicide. In some countries it remains so (e.g., Australia 16.0% of suicides in 2005). Relative to other methods it is a planned method and one often used by middle-aged males. The study provides a review of countermeasures

Virginia Routley

2007-01-01

22

The Economic Effectiveness of Mandatory Engine Maintenance for Reducing Vehicle Exhaust Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made of the feasibility of controlling exhaust emissions through a program of mandatory vehicle inspection and maintenance. Exhaust emission quantities, i.e., levels and reductions, were estimated based on a constant volume sampling (...

1972-01-01

23

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

SciTech Connect

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01

24

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust...

2010-07-01

25

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust...

2009-07-01

26

Data from short-term tests on motor vehicle exhausts.  

PubMed

The mutagenicity of motor vehicle exhausts has been studied by using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Acetone extracts of the particulate phase and the gas phase have been tested in the presence and absence of a metabolizing system (S9). The particulate phases from medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested. The vehicles were driven according to a modified 13 mode test, and the particulate phase was sampled at mode 6 (maximum load and intermediate engine speed) and mode 12 (10% load and rated speed). In mode 6 all vehicles gave approximately the same mutagenicity in strain TA 98 (50,000-90,000 revertants/kW-hr) as well as in TA 100 (200,000-360,000 revertants/kW-hr). A higher mutagenic effect, in some cases up to 10 times, was seen with mode 12.Light-duty vehicles of different year models were tested using different fuel/engine combinations. The vehicles were driven according to FTP 72 or ECE driving cycle. Cold starts at two different temperature levels, approx. 0 degrees C and 23 degrees C, respectively, were also compared. Based on the mutagenicity of the particulate extracts (given as revertants per km), the light-duty vehicles could be divided into three main groups. The first group, the high mutagenicity group, giving 100,000-700,000 revertants/km, consists only of diesel cars. In the medium mutagenicity group, giving between 20,000 and 100,000 revertants/km, different gasoline fuels are placed, i.e., leaded and lead-free gasoline as well as alcohol/gasoline fuels. Two other fuels, methanol (M95) and propane (LPG), constitute the low mutagenicity group, giving less than 20,000 revertants/km. Fuels from the medium effect group will produce a particulate phase with low mutagenicity if the vehicle is equipped with a three way catalyst with closed loop, or fuel injection. The cold start temperature did not change this classification, since all samples gave a somewhat higher mutagenic effect at the low temperature. With the ECE driving cycle, much lower mutagenicity was noted with the diesel cars than in the tests with the FTP-72 driving cycle, at least with tester strain TA 98. On strain TA 100 the diesel exhaust samples still showed a much higher mutagenicity than other samples. Acetone extracts of the gas phase from diesel and gasoline exhaust (trapped in ice/water condensers and CO(2)/ethanol condensers) also gave mutagenic effects. The contribution of the gas phase to the mutagenic effects seems to be more important in the absence of S9 and more important in the case of gasoline exhausts. PMID:6186476

Rannug, U

1983-01-01

27

H-CANYON AIR EXHAUST TUNNEL INSPECTION VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The H-Canyon at Savannah River Site is a large concrete structure designed for chemical separation processes of radioactive material. The facility requires a large ventilation system to maintain negative pressure in process areas for radioactive contamination control and personnel protection. The ventilation exhaust is directed through a concrete tunnel under the facility which is approximately five feet wide and 8 feet tall that leads to a sand filter and stack. Acidic vapors in the exhaust have had a degrading effect on the surface of the concrete tunnels. Some areas have been inspected; however, the condition of other areas is unknown. Experience from historical inspections with remote controlled vehicles will be discussed along with the current challenge of inspecting levels below available access points. The area of interest in the exhaust tunnel must be accessed through a 14 X 14 inch concrete plug in the floor of the hot gang valve corridor. The purpose for the inspection is to determine the condition of the inside of the air tunnel and establish if there are any structural concerns. Various landmarks, pipe hangers and exposed rebar are used as reference points for the structural engineers when evaluating the current integrity of the air tunnel.

Minichan, R.; Fogle, R.; Marzolf, A.

2011-05-24

28

NO2Assisted Soot Regeneration Behavior in a Diesel Particulate Filter with Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major concern in operating a diesel engine is how to reduce the soot emission from the exhaust gases, as soot has a negative effect on both human health and the environment. More stringent emission regulations make the diesel particulate filter (DPF) an indispensable after-treatment component to reduce diesel soot from exhaust gases. The most important issue in developing an

Jong Hun Kim; Man Young Kim; Hyong Gon Kim

2010-01-01

29

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate matter inhaled is large compared to the mass inhaled at ambient conditions. Finally, it was determined that children, infants, or people breathing at heights similar to that of a passing vehicle's tailpipe may be exposed to higher concentrations of particulate matter than those breathing at higher locations, such as adults standing up.

2009-01-01

30

Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

2003-03-01

31

Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

Baron, R.C.; Backer, R.C.; Sopher, I.M.

1989-03-01

32

Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

Baron, R C; Backer, R C; Sopher, I M

1989-01-01

33

Method and composition for treating flue or exhaust gases utilizing modified calcium hydroxide  

SciTech Connect

A process is shown for treating flue or exhaust gases in order to remove sulfur oxides and hydrochloric acids in which calcium hydroxide having a surface area of at least 25 m[sup 2]/g and a moisture content lower than 50% is injected in the gases to be treated either alone, or in a mixture with magnesium hydroxide. The calcium hydroxide used in the process is prepared by reacting quicklime or dolomitic quicklime with water in the presence of a glycol or an amine companion additive.

Dumont, P.A.; Goffin, R.

1994-01-11

34

40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section 600... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES...Procedures § 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for...

2013-07-01

35

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations...EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures...Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

36

Sulfur dioxide adsorption from exhaust gases by adsorbents based on 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine  

SciTech Connect

The equilibrium dynamic capacity of polymer materials based on 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine has been determined. The possibility of their application as absorbents of sulfur dioxide from exhaust gases has been shown.

Postnikova, I.N.; Pavlova, I.V.; Kogtev, S.E. [Nizhnii Novgorod State Engineering Univ., Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-05-10

37

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles. 86.110-90 Section 86.110-90...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

2013-07-01

38

[Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].  

PubMed

The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC. PMID:15515949

Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

2004-07-01

39

Analysis of organobromine compounds and HBr in motor car exhaust gases with a GC\\/microwave plasma system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation an analytical procedure for the determination of different organobromine compounds in motor car exhaust gases is developed in order to obtain a total balance of these compounds in this type of exhaust gas. For this purpose, adsorption sampling on Tenax GC combined with thermal desorption and a fast cold trap injection into the GC column system is

Heinrich Baumann; Klaus G. Heumann

1987-01-01

40

Device for admitting exhaust gases and fuel-air mixtures into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A device is proposed for the supply of operating air-fuel mixtures including exhaust gases to internal combustion engines. Between the opening periods of the inlet valves of an internal combustion engine, precisely dispensed quantities of recirculated exhaust gas are pre-stored in the intake channel directly upstream of the inlet valve whereby a stratification of exhaust gas and fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber of the engine is obtained.

Eckert, K.; Britsch, H.; Linder, E.; Muller, K.; Polach, W.

1984-10-09

41

TEST OF A THEORETICAL COMMUTER EXPOSURE MODEL TO VEHICLE EXHAUST IN TRAFFIC  

EPA Science Inventory

A theoretical model of commuter exposure is presented as a box or cell model with the automobile passenger compartment representing the microenvironment exposed to CO concentrations resulting from vehicle exhaust leaks and emissions from traffic. Equations which describe this sit...

42

Simulation study on internal temperature field of gasohol vehicle exhaust pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using CFD software Fluent to analyze the internal temperature flow field of gasohol vehicle exhaust pipe, selecting Navier-Stokes equations and the standard k-? equation model, the temperature distribution of internal exhaust pipe is carried out through the simulation. Compared with the actual measured six fixed points temperature data, the result demonstrates that the simulated data is basically consistent with the

Ou Li; Li Zhang; Qing-guo Liu; Jie Zang

2010-01-01

43

Effects of fuel type, driving cycle, and emission status on in-use vehicle exhaust reactivity.  

PubMed

The introduction of reformulated gasolines significantly reduced exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) mass emissions, but few data are available concerning how these new fuels affect exhaust reactivity. Similarly, while it is well established that high-emitting vehicles contribute a significant portion of total mobile source HC mass emissions, it is also important to evaluate the exhaust reactivity from these vehicles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative influence on in-use vehicle exhaust reactivity of three critical factors: fuel, driving cycle, and vehicle emission status. Nineteen in-use vehicles were tested with seven randomly assigned fuel types and two driving cycles: the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Unified Cycle (UC). Total exhaust reactivity was not statistically different between the FTP and UC cycles but was significantly affected by fuel type. On average, the exhaust reactivity for California Phase 2 fuel was the lowest (16% below the highest fuel type) among the seven fuels tested for cold start emissions. The average exhaust reactivity for high-emitting vehicles was significantly higher for hot stabilized (11%) and hot start (15%) emissions than for low-emitting vehicles. The exhaust reactivities for the FTP and UC cycles for light-end HCs and carbonyls were significantly different for the hot stabilized mode. There was a significant fuel effect on the mean specific reactivity (SR) for the mid-range HCs, but not for light-end HCs or carbonyls, while vehicle emission status affected the mean SR for all three HC compound classes. PMID:9706039

Ho, J; Winer, A M

1998-07-01

44

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility vehicles? 1051.107 Section 1051.107 Protection...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related...

2013-07-01

45

Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution  

SciTech Connect

An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

46

Size-dependent chemical reactivity of porous graphene for purification of exhaust gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the structural characteristics of pores evolving from the vacancy, the structure-dependent nature of localized states, and the role of electronic states in the reaction, we elucidate size effects on the chemical reactivity of porous graphene using density functional theory. The coupling of conjugated ? electrons of graphene with localized defect states allows for the reduction reaction or adsorption of exhaust gases on the edge atoms. The charge redistribution, ascertained from the coupling response, activates the weak C-C bond states at the corners, facilitating the dissociation of exhaust gas (e.g., NO). The size matching effect makes that the dissociation barrier of NO on the vacancy is smaller than 8.30 kcal/mol; whereas, larger pores only capture NO. Following the coupling-response mechanism, we propose the structural requirements for chemical applications of porous graphene: the shape and size of the pores are comparable in scale with those of purified molecules.

Si, Chen; Zhou, Gang

2012-11-01

47

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977...

2013-07-01

48

Perceived annoyance and asthmatic symptoms in relation to vehicle exhaust levels outside home: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exhaust emissions from vehicles is a well known problem with both epidemiological and experimental studies showing increasing adverse health effects with elevating levels. Many of the studies concerning vehicle exhausts and health are focused on health outcomes where the proportion attributed to exhaust is low, while there is less information on early and more frequent subjective indicators of adverse

Lars Modig; Bertil Forsberg

2007-01-01

49

Lung Cancer and Vehicle Exhaust in Trucking Industry Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An elevated risk of lung cancer in truck drivers has been attributed to diesel exhaust exposure. Interpretation of these studies specifically implicating diesel exhaust as a carcinogen has been limited because of limited exposure measurements and lack of work records relating job title to exposure-related job duties. Objectives: We established a large retrospective cohort of trucking company workers to

Eric Garshick; Francine Laden; Jaime E. Hart; Bernard Rosner; Mary E. Davis; Ellen A. Eisen; Thomas J. Smith

2008-01-01

50

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

51

Characterization of Exhaust Particles from Military Vehicles Fueled with Diesel, Gasoline, and JP-8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diluted exhaust from selected military aircraft ground-support equipment (AGE) was analyzed for particulate mass, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), SO4 , and size distributions. The experiments occurred at idle and load conditions and utilized a chassis dynamometer. The selected AGE vehicles operated on gasoline, diesel, and JP-8. These military vehicles exhibited concentrations, size distributions, and emission factors in

Kerry E. Kelly; David A. Wagner; JoAnn S. Lighty; Adel F. Sarofim; C. Fred Rogers; John Sagebiel; Barbara Zielinska; W. Pat Arnott; Glenn Palmer

2003-01-01

52

On-Road Measurement of Ammonia and Other Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere and contributes to fine particle mass, visibility problems, and dry and wet deposition. The objective of this research was to measure ammonia and other exhaust emissions from a large sample of on-road vehicles using California phase 2 reformulated gasoline with low sulfur content (~10 ppm by weight). Vehicle emissions of ammonia,

Andrew J. Kean; Robert A Harley; David Littleton; Gary R. Kendall

2001-01-01

53

Effects of bioreactive acrolein from automotive exhaust gases on human cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Acrolein is a toxic unsaturated aldehyde and widespread environmental pollutant produced during lipid peroxidation and also by burning of tobacco or liquid fuels. Inhalation or dermal exposure to acrolein could be toxic to organisms. This very reactive aldehyde has a strong affinity for binding to proteins thus forming pathogenic protein-adducts. In the present study we have analyzed formation of bioreactive acrolein-protein adducts in bovine serum albumin solution exposed to exhaust gases of mineral diesel fuel and of mineral diesel fuel supplemented with different amounts of a novel diesel fuel additive denoted Ecodiesel (produced by a genuine procedure of recycling of plant oils used for food preparation). The effects of acrolein-protein adducts were tested on human microvascular endothelial cells and on human osteosarcoma cells that are sensitive to bioactivities of lipid peroxidation products. The results have shown a reduction of the bioreactive acrolein in exhaust gases when mineral diesel was supplemented with 5-20% Ecodiesel. Moreover, acrolein-protein adducts obtained from mineral diesel supplemented with Ecodiesel were less toxic than those obtained from mineral diesel alone. Thus, we assume that supplementing mineral diesel fuel with Ecodiesel would be of benefit for the use of renewable energy, for environment and for human health due to reduced environmental pollution with bioreactive acrolein. PMID:21374787

Jaganjac, Morana; Prah, Iva Ozana; Cipak, Ana; Cindric, Marina; Mrakovcic, Lidija; Tatzber, Franz; Ilincic, Petar; Rukavina, Vinko; Spehar, Branka; Vukovic, Jelena Parlov; Telen, Sanda; Uchida, Koji; Lulic, Zoran; Zarkovic, Neven

2011-03-03

54

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and...GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...Emission Test Procedures § 600.114-12 Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy...

2013-07-01

55

Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.  

PubMed

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-12-05

56

Auswirkungen von Dieselmotorabgasen auf die Gesundheit. 5 Jahre Forschungsfoerderung. (Health effects of diesel exhaust gases. 5 years of research promotion).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was the aim of the research work described and discussed here to improve the scientific prerequisites for the evaluation of dangers to human health from emission of diesel exhaust gases. The question actually to be clarified was the relationship betwee...

1992-01-01

57

Role of particulate matter from vehicle exhaust on porous building stones (limestone) sulfation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work, for the first time, experimentally demonstrates the relationship between motor vehicle emissions and the decay of ornamental calcareous stone, by means of sulfation processes (the well-known phenomenon of Black-crust formation). The critical catalytic effects of carbon (soot) and metal-rich particles from vehicle exhaust result in the acceleration of the rate of fixation of atmospheric SOZ to form gypsum

Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro; Eduardo Sebastian

1996-01-01

58

Infant leukemia and paternal exposure to motor vehicle exhaust fumes.  

PubMed

The children of fathers who work in gas stations, automobile or truck repair, and aircraft maintenance appear to be at increased risk for acute leukemia during their first year of life. The odds ratio was found to be about 2.5 overall, but risk appears to be greater for female offspring. A decline in sex ratio was observed for the three decades of the study, with the lowest ratio observed from 1969 through 1978. These preliminary findings suggest that exposure to one or more of the components of exhaust fumes might be of etiologic importance for this malignancy. The limitations of this investigation are discussed. PMID:6207280

Vianna, N J; Kovasznay, B; Polan, A; Ju, C

1984-09-01

59

Measurement of volatile organic compounds in vehicle exhaust using single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

For the real-time measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in vehicle exhaust, we employed a vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). Exhaust measurements from gasoline and diesel engine vehicles were performed using a chassis dynamometer. Hydrocarbons such as alkylbenzenes, alkenes, alkanes, and dienes were the major organic compounds present in both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust. The concentrations of organic compounds in gasoline exhaust were higher under running conditions than during idling. The VOC concentrations in diesel exhaust were higher during idling than during running conditions. The VUV-SPI-TOFMS measured composition and emission profiles of many hydrocarbons, including aliphatics and aromatics, in vehicle exhaust simultaneously with real time response. PMID:22498466

Yamamoto, Yukio; Kambe, Yasuaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Tonokura, Kenichi

2012-01-01

60

Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.  

PubMed

A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ? 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models. PMID:22894824

Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

2012-09-12

61

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

2013-07-01

62

Lidar for remote measurement of ozone in the exhaust plumes of launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large quantities of chlorine and alumina particles are injected directly into the stratosphere by the current fleet of launch vehicles. Environmental concerns have been raised over the impact of the rocket exhaust on the ozone layer. Recently, differential absorption lidar (DIAL) was selected for remote sensing of ozone density within the plumes of Titan IV launch vehicles. The application of DIAL to this very challenging problem is described, and an implementation of UV-ozone DIAL is discussed that holds promise for this application.

Gelbwachs, Jerry A.

1996-05-01

63

Test of a theoretical commuter exposure model to vehicle exhaust in traffic  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model of commuter exposure is presented as a box or cell model with the automobile passenger compartment representing the microenvironment exposed to CO concentrations resulting from vehicle exhaust leaks and emissions from traffic. Equations that describe this situation are developed and discussed. The model is evaluated according to predictive power, explanatory power when compared to a more-parsimonious model, and the influence of initial CO concentrations inside a vehicle's passenger compartment. The model is shown to have relatively high predictive power and excellent explanatory power when compared to the more-conservative model.

Flachsbart, P.; Ah Yo, C.

1986-04-01

64

Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles,\\u000a using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation\\u000a (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly\\u000a connected to the

Sun-Kook Kim; Byeong-Cheol Won; Seok-Ho Rhi; Shi-Ho Kim; Jeong-Ho Yoo; Ju-Chan Jang

2011-01-01

65

Effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions on breathing pattern and cellular responses--pilot single vehicle study.  

PubMed

The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O?, OH and other radicals. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 5 h to either filtered room air (sham) or one of two different atmospheres: (i) diluted car exhaust (P)+Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); (ii) P+MSHA+secondary organic aerosol (SOA, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a nonselective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 h after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363?±?66 ?g/m³ P+MSHA and 212?±?95 µg/m³ P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in total cells, macrophages and neutrophils in the BAL and in vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

Diaz, Edgar A; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

2012-04-01

66

Effects of Fresh and Aged Vehicular Exhaust Emissions on Breathing Pattern and Cellular Responses - Pilot Single Vehicle Study  

PubMed Central

The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O3, OH and other radicals. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for five hours to either filtered room air (Sham) or one of two different atmospheres: 1. Diluted Car Exhaust (P) + Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); 2. P+MSHA+SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a non-selective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 hours after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363±66 ?g/m3 P+MSHA and 212±95 ?g/m3 P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in Total Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils in the BAL and in-vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions.

Diaz, Edgar A.; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S.; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

2013-01-01

67

Selection of catalyst and conditions for the removal of carbon monoxide and organic vapors from exhaust gases of the regenerator of oil cracking plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable quantities of carbon monoxide and organic vapors are known to occur in the exhaust gases during regeneration of an oil cracking catalyst. A catalytic method using expensive catalysts based on precious metals is regarded as the most widespread method of removing carbon monoxide and organic vapors from gaseous exhausts. In order to carry out purification by this method, it

I. O. Krylov; O. I. Bleskin; A. V. Krylova

1995-01-01

68

Evaluation of Pollutant Gases Emitted by Ethanol and Gasoline Powered Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of automotive vehicles around the world is responsible for the emission of great amounts of pollutant gases, which can cause serious problems to environment and to human health. Among the fuels used in light vehicles, two of them deserve special mention: gasoline, hegemonic fuel in the world scenario and ethanol, whose consumption is rapidly increasing, once it

J. R. Tavares; M. S. Sthel; L. S. Campos; M. V. Rocha; G. R. Lima; M. G. da Silva; H. Vargas

2011-01-01

69

Study of Catalytic Filters for Soot Particulate Removal from Exhaust Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ceramic supports (sintered and foam) were employed for the preparation of catalytic filters for soot removal at diesel exhausts. Laboratory tests showed that while the foam filter is appropriate for small size and low engine backpressure, the sintered filter is more suitable for achieving high filtration efficiency. Tests carried out at the exhaust of a diesel engine showed that

P. Ciambelli; P. Corbo; V. Palma; P. Russo; S. Vaccaro; B. Vaglieco

2001-01-01

70

Non-exhaust PM emission measurements of a light duty vehicle with a mobile trailer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trailer-based mobile measurement approach for analyzing non-exhaust emissions of a light duty vehicle is presented. Based on a tracer gas experiment which allowed a mapping of the particle dispersion within the wake of the vehicle, emission factors were estimated. A combination of the results from tracer gas experiment, wind tunnel tests and local airflow measurements was taken into account to characterize the vehicle wake and optimize the position of the measurement devices in the wake of the vehicle. Diffuser type inlet devices were employed to correct for anisokinetic sampling. Measurements on unpaved and dust loaded agricultural paved roads as well as more than 800 km of real world driving were conducted with estimated PM10 emission factors varying over several orders of magnitude (10-42,000 mg vehicle-1 km-1 (mg vkm-1)). Emission factors were found to increase with increasing vehicle velocity. The lowest emission factors were measured on motorways. The coefficient of variation for the measurements varied from 10% to 30%.

Mathissen, Marcel; Scheer, Volker; Kirchner, Ulf; Vogt, Rainer; Benter, Thorsten

2012-11-01

71

High-Performance Decomposition and Fixation of Dry Etching Exhaust Perfluoro-Compound Gases and Study of Their Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the high-performance decomposition and fixation of perfluoro compounds (PFCs) exhausted from dry etching processes and their reaction mechanism with the fixation material prepared from Ca(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 mixture. Using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC--MS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and other analysis methods, it was found that PFCs were successfully decomposed and fixated by the reaction only with calcium compounds, resulting in calcium fluoride (CaF2). Aluminum compounds existing very close to calcium compounds work as a catalyst so that the reaction progresses at much lower temperatures, in the range of 650 to 750 °C, compared with the direct decomposition by combustion. The reaction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the proposed microscopic reaction model. These results are useful for the development of more efficient abatement systems for the greenhouse gases in the exhaust of dry etching processes.

Hattori, Kei; Osato, Masaaki; Maeda, Takeshi; Okumura, Katsuya; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

2011-11-01

72

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. Improved understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and PAH emissions is needed to determine whether fuel reformulation is a viable approach for reducing PAH emissions. PAH concentrations were quantified in gasoline and diesel fuel samples collected in summer 1997 in northern California. Naphthalene was the predominant PAH in both fuels, with concentrations of up to 2,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in gasoline and 1,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in diesel fuel. Particle-phase PAH size distributions and exhaust emission factors were measured in two bores of a roadway tunnel. Emission factors were determined separately for light-duty vehicles and for heavy-duty diesel trucks, based on measurements of PAHs, CO, and CO{sub 2}. Particle-phase emission factors, expressed per unit mass of fuel burned, ranged up to 21 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for benzo[ghi]perylene for light-duty vehicles and up to {approximately} 1,000 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for pyrene for heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Light-duty vehicles were found to be a significant source of heavier (four- and five-ring) PAHs, whereas heavy-duty diesel engines were the dominant source of three-ring PAHs, such as fluoranthene and pyrene. While no correlation between heavy-duty diesel truck PAH emission factors and PAH concentrations in diesel fuel was found, light-duty vehicle PAH emission factors were found to be correlated with PAH concentrations in gasoline, suggesting that gasoline reformulation may be effective in reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles.

Marr, L.C.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Harley, R.A.; Hammond, S.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Miguel, A.H. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Hering, S.V. [Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1999-09-15

73

Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels.We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission standards to income levels, Africa introduces those standards 30-40 years later than other regions and thus makes a remarkable contribution to the global emissions in 2050 (almost half). All Asian regions (South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia) have a decreasing fractional contribution to global totals, from 32% in 2030 to around 22% in 2050. Total emissions from normal vehicles can decrease 1.3-2% per year. However, superemitters have a large effect on emission totals. They can potentially contribute more than 50% of global emissions around 2020, which suggests that they should be specifically addressed in modeling and mitigation policies. As new vehicles become cleaner, the majority of on-road emissions will come from the legacy fleet. This work establishes a modeling framework to explore policies targeted at that fleet.

Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

2011-09-01

74

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust is described that provides for the reduction of recirculation during engine idling without the prior-art complexities of moving parts. The system also achieves preheating and improved mixing and carburetion of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. Exhaust gases are recycled by means of a swirl

Sarto

1974-01-01

75

[Source profile and chemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds from vehicle exhaust].  

PubMed

Light-duty gasoline taxis (LDGT) and passenger cars (LDGV), heavy-duty diesel buses (HDDB) and trucks (HDDT), gasoline motorcycles (MC) and LPG scooters (LPGS), were selected for tailpipe volatile organic compounds (VOCs) samplings by using transient dynamometer and on road test combined with SUMMA canisters technology. The samples were tested by GC-MS to analyze the concentration and species composition of VOCs. The results indicate that light-duty gasoline automobiles have higher fractions of aromatic hydrocarbons, which account for 43.38%-44.45% of the total VOCs, the main aromatic hydrocarbons are toluene and xylenes. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles have higher fractions of alkanes, which constitute 46.86%-48.57% of the total VOCs, the main alkanes are propane, n-dodecane and n-undecane. In addition, oxy-organics account for 13.28%-15.01% of the VOCs, the main oxy-organics is acetone. The major compound from MC and LPGS exhaust is acetylene, it accounts for 39.75% and 76.67% of the total VOCs, respectively. VOCs exhaust from gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles has a significantly higher chemical reactivity than those from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, which contribute 55% and 44% to the atmospheric chemical reactivity in Shanghai. The gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles are the key pollution sources affecting city and region ambient oxidation, and the key active species of toluene, xylenes, propylene, and styrene make the greatest contribution. PMID:22720548

Qiao, Yue-Zhen; Wang, Hong-Li; Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-Hong; Su, Lei-Yan; Zhou, Min; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Gang-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ran; Li, Li; Chen, Ming-Hua; Huang, Hai-Ying

2012-04-01

76

Analysis of exhaust from clean-fuel vehicles using FTIR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhaust from vehicles powered by reformulated gasoline and methanol/gasoline blends has been analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy in parallel with conventional techniques. Linear regression analysis of the data showed the following relationships between the FTIR and conventional measurements: methane (0.89X + 0.31, R2 equals 0.96), carbon monoxide (0.82X + 34, R2 equals 0.96), formaldehyde (0.84X + 0.003, R2 equals 0.97), methanol (0.72X + 4.0, R2 equals 0.86), nitric oxide (0.93X + 0.83, R2 equals 0.89), and total non- methane hydrocarbons (1.02X + 2.8, R2 equals 0.96), where the slope, intercept (ppm) and correlation coefficient are shown in parenthesis. With the exception of methanol, good linear correlations are indicated. The apparent non-linearity for methanol is most likely due to the coaddition of interferograms during large concentration transients. Although the validity of FTIR measurements must be assessed on a compound-by-compound basis, the results of this study indicate that valid measurements of motor vehicle exhaust components can be made with non specialized (non-real-time) FTIR instruments.

Rieger, Paul L.; Maddox, Christine E.

1991-05-01

77

Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2011-12-01

78

Porous ceramic article for use as a filter for removing particulates from diesel exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an element for filtering solid particulates from a diesel exhaust gas. It comprises a shaped porous refractory ceramic body having a predominantly open pore structure and having distinct inlet and outlet surfaces, and where one of the surfaces contains an integral thin porous ceramic membrane layer of open cell porosity. The pores have an average diameter smaller

R. L. Helferich; R. C. Schenck

1990-01-01

79

Exhaust Emissions Measured Under Real Traffic Conditions from Vehicles Fitted with Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tests performed under real traffic conditions provide invaluable information on the relations between the engine parameters, vehicle parameters and traffic conditions (traffic congestion) on one side and the exhaust emissions on the other. The paper presents the result of road tests obtained in an urban and extra-urban cycles for vehicles fitted with different engines, spark ignition engine and compression ignition engine. For the tests a portable emission analyzer SEMTECH DS. by SENSORS was used. This analyzer provides online measurement of the concentrations of exhaust emission components on a vehicle in motion under real traffic conditions. The tests were performed in city traffic. A comparative analysis has been presented of the obtained results for vehicles with individual powertrains.

Merkisz, Jerzy; Lijewski, Piotr; Fu?, Pawe?

2011-06-01

80

The Potential of a Partial-Flow Constant Dilution Ratio Sampling System as a Candidate for Vehicle Exhaust Aerosol Measurements Leonidas Ntziachristos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the measurement of airborne particle properties with use of a dedicated sampling protocol and a measurement setup directly installed in the exhaust line of vehicles and engines. The sampling system dilutes a small part of the exhaust directly at the tailpipe without the need of exhaust gas transfer lines that may lead to sampling artifacts. Dilution takes

Leonidas Ntziachristos; Zissis Samaras

2010-01-01

81

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles...

2013-07-01

82

Porous ceramic article for use as a filter for removing particulates from diesel exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an element for filtering solid particulates from a diesel exhaust gas. It comprises a shaped porous refractory ceramic body having a predominantly open pore structure and having distinct inlet and outlet surfaces, and where one of the surfaces contains an integral thin porous ceramic membrane layer of open cell porosity. The pores have an average diameter smaller than that of the pores at the other surface and the pores throughout the interior of the body. The porous refractory ceramic body is comprised of a fired porous aluminosilicate hydrogel-bonded ceramic composition.

Helferich, R.L.; Schenck, R.C.

1990-12-11

83

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

1992-01-01

84

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1992-11-01

85

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

86

Real-time measurement of nitrogen dioxide in vehicle exhaust gas by mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was demonstrated for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in automotive exhaust gas. The transition of the ? 3 vibrational band assigned to the antisymmetric stretching mode of NO2 was probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed, mid-infrared, distributed feedback, quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 6.13 ?m. The measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas from two diesel vehicles equipped with different aftertreatment devices was demonstrated using a CRDS-based NO2 sensor, which employs a HEPA filter and a membrane gas dryer to remove interference from water as well as particulates in the exhaust gas. Stable and sensitive measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas was achieved for more than 30 minutes with a time resolution of 1 s.

Yamamoto, Y.; Sumizawa, H.; Yamada, H.; Tonokura, K.

2011-12-01

87

Coupled turbulence and aerosol dynamics modeling of vehicle exhaust plumes using the CTAG model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development and evaluation of an environmental turbulent reacting flow model, the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model. CTAG is designed to simulate transport and transformation of multiple air pollutants, e.g., from emission sources to ambient background. For the on-road and near-road applications, CTAG explicitly couples the major turbulent mixing processes, i.e., vehicle-induced turbulence (VIT), road-induced turbulence (RIT) and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence with gas-phase chemistry and aerosol dynamics. CTAG's transport model is referred to as CFD-VIT-RIT. This paper presents the evaluation of the CTAG model in simulating the dynamics of individual plumes in the "tailpipe-to-road" stage, i.e., VIT behind a moving van and aerosol dynamics in the wake of a diesel car by comparing the modeling results against the respective field measurements. Combined with sensitivity studies, we analyze the relative roles of VIT, sulfuric acid induced nucleation, condensation of organic compounds and presence of soot-mode particles in capturing the dynamics of exhaust plumes as well as their implications in vehicle emission controls.

Wang, Yan Jason; Zhang, K. Max

2012-11-01

88

Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering  

PubMed Central

A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

2013-01-01

89

Self-recovering soot detector, particularly to monitor carbon content in diesel engine exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

An insulating support body, for example an aluminum oxide ceramic, supports two electrodes spaced from each other by a small gap, for example 0.1 mm, which will have therebetween a high resistance. Upon collection of soot, the resistance between the electrodes across the gap will drop, which can be indicated by sensing current through the electrodes upon connection to a source of electrical energy. To remove soot upon termination of smoking, or soot contents in the gases, the electrodes are applied over, or embedded in a layer of essentially nonconducting catalyzing material which, in the presence of oxygen, catalyzes the oxidation of soot located in the gap between the electrodes to thereby remove the soot by oxidation and restore the resistance of the path between the electrodes and hence the sensitivity of the sensor for subsequent detection of accumulation of soot in the gap. Preferably, the non-conductive catalyzing material is a mixture of platinum, or a platinum metal , or a platinum metal alloy and a metal oxide which is compatible with, or identical to the ceramic base, for example aluminum oxide. The essentially electrically non-conductive layer can be applied by thick-film technology, and the electrodes also by thick-film technology thereover, or the electrodes may be in the form of fine platinum wires extending through the catalyzing electrically non-conductive layer. The sensing element can be held in a housing or socket, similar to a spark plug socket.

Sarholz, W.

1981-12-22

90

Pollutant constituents of exhaust emitted from light-duty diesel vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-duty diesel exhaust particulate matter and its constituents, including elemental carbon, organic carbon, water-soluble ionic species, elements, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured by a dynamometer study and following the driving pattern of federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75). Fuel consumption of these light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDV) was in the range of 0.106-0.132 l km-1, and the average emission factors of NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbon), CO and NOx for light-duty vehicles were 0.158 (92% of total hydrocarbon), 1.395, and 1.735 g km-1, respectively. The particulate emission factor of LDDVs was 0.172 g km-1, and PM2.5 contributed to 88% of particulate mass. Al, S, Ca, and Fe emission factors were about 0.83-1.24 mg km-1 for PM2.5, and the particulate mass fractions of these elements ranged from 66 to 90% in PM2.5. Nitrate, sulfate, ammonium and nitrite were the major ionic species in diesel PM, and their emission factor ranged from 0.22 to 0.82 mg km-1 for PM2.5. The emission factor of total PAHs was 3.62 mg km-1 in this study, with about 40% in the gas phase and 60% in the particulate phase. Acenaphylene, naphthalene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and anthracene were the dominant PAHs, and their emission factors were more than 0.19 mg km-1. The content of nitro-PAHs was low, with most less than 0.040 mg km-1.

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chang, Sheng-You

2012-02-01

91

Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local authorities.

Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

92

Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 ?m. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high-sulfur fuel, the chemical submicron aerosol fraction is mainly composed of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) species. These include PAHs that are adsorbed onto the high number of ultrafine particles. Nevertheless, the chemical composition, typical particle sizes as well as emitted gaseous components vary substantially dependent on the engine or ship type, engine operation condition and fuel mixture. This results in cargo vessels compared to tankers, passenger ships and river boats being the largest polluters influencing the Elbe shipping lane areas by high amounts of NOx, SO2, CO2, PAH, BC and ultrafine particulate matter. The tropospheric ozone chemistry in this area is also substantially affected particularly due to the increasing number of Elbe-passing ships. As onshore regions can be influenced by aged shipping plumes, trajectory pathways and transportation times were examined. As a consequence of the plumes' aging, variations of the organic fraction of the mass spectral fingerprints were found. Eyring, V. et al. (2010), Atmospheric Environment, 44, 4735-4771.

Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

2011-12-01

93

TOF-SIMS measurements of the exhaust particles emitted from gasoline and diesel engine vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained the detailed compositional information of diesel and gasoline exhaust particles, and discussed the possibility of the classification into each emission source. The intensities of Ca + and hydrocarbons were relatively high in the TOF-SIMS spectrum of the gasoline exhaust particles. The secondary ions such as NH 4+ and Si(CH 3) 3+ were strongly detected from the diesel exhaust particles. From TOF-SIMS images of each type of exhaust particles, Ca + of the gasoline exhaust particles and Si(CH 3) 3+ of diesel exhaust particles were strongly detected from the large particles with diameter of 0.3 ?m. From these results, the exhaust particles collected in the atmosphere near the traffic route can be classified by their origin by using TOF-SIMS information.

Tomiyasu, B.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

2006-07-01

94

Automotive catalytic converter exhaust system  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a vehicle exhaust system containing a three-way catalytic converter. An insulated flexible duct connects the outlet of the engine exhaust manifold with the inlet of the three-way catalytic converter to retain the exhaust engine gases at a temperature greater than the ignition temperature of the threeway catalyst in the catalytic converter. The insulated flexible duct is preferably made of an inner flexible metal conduit surrounded by fibrous insulation which in turn is surrounded on the outside by a second flexible metal conduit. The system is economical, contains no active elements which would require maintenance or could get out of order, is adaptable to motor vehicles of all types (especially automobiles, light trucks and vans) including those powered by either gasoline and diesel engines and entirely eliminates the need for expensive and complicated light-off catalysts in the system.

Pallo, J.M.; Previte, S.J.; Schafer, W.

1982-08-24

95

Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

2013-10-01

96

TOF-SIMS measurements of the exhaust particles emitted from gasoline and diesel engine vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained the detailed compositional information of diesel and gasoline exhaust particles, and discussed the possibility of the classification into each emission source. The intensities of Ca+ and hydrocarbons were relatively high in the TOF-SIMS spectrum of the gasoline exhaust particles. The secondary ions such as NH4+ and Si(CH3)3+ were strongly detected from the diesel exhaust particles. From TOF-SIMS images

B. Tomiyasu; M. Owari; Y. Nihei

2006-01-01

97

PM-10 exhaust samples collected during IM-240 dyanamometer tests of in-service vehicles in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three vehicles that were recruited by remote sensing and roadside inspection and maintenance (I/M) checks during the 1994 Clark and Washoe Remote Sensing Study (CAWRSS) were tested on the IM240 cycle using a transportable dynamometer. Six of these vehicles emitted visible smoke. Total gas-phase hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) exhaust concentrations were continuously measured in the diluted exhaust stream from the constant volume sampler (CVS) during IM240 testing. Two isokinetic PM-10 samples were collected simultaneously using cyclones and filter holders connected to a dilution tube. Teflon filters were collected for total mass and then extracted for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions. Quartz filters were analyzed by the thermal/optical reflectance method for organic and elemental carbon. The quartz filters and backup vapor traps were then extracted and analyzed by GC/MS for 28 separate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass emission rates of PM-10 per vehicle ranged from 5.6 to over 1300 mg/mi, with most of the mass attributable to carbon. Except for one vehicle with high sulfate emissions, the ion emissions were relatively low. Total PAH emissions were in the range of 10-200 mg/mi. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Sagebiel, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Walsh, P.A.; Chow, J.C. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States); Cadle, S.H.; Mulawa, P.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States); Knapp, K.T.; Zweidinger, R.B. [U.S. EPA Mobile Source Emissions Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Snow, R. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-01-01

98

A fuel-based inventory of motor vehicle exhaust emissions in the Los Angeles area during summer 1997  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fuel-based approach was used to estimate stabilized exhaust carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Fleet-average emission factors of 80±7 g l -1 CO and 9.3±1.5 g l -1 VOC were calculated from more than 60,000 infrared remote sensor measurements collected at 35 sites throughout the greater Los Angeles area during summer 1997. Fuel use by SoCAB cars and light/medium-duty trucks was estimated to be 5.9±0.3×10 7 l day -1 based on statewide gasoline sales during summer 1997. Fuel-based estimates of 4700±500 metric tons day -1 CO and 550±90 metric tons day -1 VOC are higher than stabilized exhaust emissions estimates of California's MVEI 7G model by factors of 2.4±0.2 for CO and 3.5±0.6 for VOC. According to fuel-based inventory estimates, stabilized CO emissions in 1997 were lower by 20% than emissions during summer 1991. Fuel use increased by 8% during this period while the CO emission factor decreased by 26%. The relationship between income level and vehicle emissions was examined using census data resolved to the zip code level. On average, CO and VOC emission factors of vehicles registered in the lowest income areas were double those of vehicles registered in the highest income areas. Differences in vehicle emissions between neighborhoods were due in part to differences in the prevalence of older vehicles, but also resulted because vehicles of the same age had higher emissions in lower-income areas.

Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

99

Evaluation of GM 1976 Prototype Vehicle, A Catalytic Exhaust Manifold System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test sequence was conducted on a General Motors prototype using a catalytic exhaust manifold system concept. Due to the consistent success displayed by this system in meeting the required 1976 emission level in the General Motors laboratory, an evaluati...

H. L. Gompf

1972-01-01

100

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. 1037.105 Section 1037.105...EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements...emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a) The standards of this...

2013-07-01

101

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year...Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature...

2013-07-01

102

Sorptive behavior of nitro-PAHs in street runoff and their potential as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles.  

PubMed

This is the first report to reveal the particle-water distribution of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and to discuss their potential risks and utility as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles (DEP). Time-series samples of runoff were collected from a highway, and NPAHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study their dynamic behavior. The concentrations of total NPAHs ranged from 11 to 73 ng/L in particulate phase (>0.7 mcirom) and from 2.3 to 4.9 ng/L in dissolved phase (<0.7 microm). Like their PAH analogs, most (81-97%) NPAHs were associated with particulate matter. The organic carbon-normalized in situ partition coefficients (Koc') of NPAHs observed in runoff events (10(5.8-6.3) for 2-nitrofluoranthene and 10(5.8-6.2) for 1-nitropyrene [1-NP]) were more than 1 order of magnitude higher than those expected from their Kow, indicating great affinity for particulate matter such as soot. Concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs adjusted by potency equivalency factors and induction equivalency factors showed that the potential risks of NPAHs were smaller than those of PAHs by a factor of more than a hundred for the particulate phase and morethan fourforthe dissolved phase. Comparison of concentrations and compositions of NPAHs and PAHs among runoff, DEP, gasoline vehicle exhaust particles, boiler exhaust particles, and aerosols suggested that the ratio of 1-NP to total PAHs (1-NP/PAH) is a useful indicator of DEP for source apportionment of PAHs among traffic-related sources. Source-apportionment of PAHs in the runoff by 1-NP/PAH and methylphenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios suggested that most PAHs in the runoff except the second flush peak were derived from DEP but that other pyrogenic sources contributed to the particles at the second flush and thus to the overall runoff particles. PMID:18351085

Murakami, Michio; Yamada, Junya; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Takada, Hideshige

2008-02-15

103

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

104

Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Monitoring: Review and Critical Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic-related emissions represent a major component of airborne pollution. Historically, dynamometer testing has been most widely used to estimate vehicle emission rates, and these emission rates, in turn, have been used as inputs when modeling traffic-related air quality impacts. However, such conventional drive cycle testing is not considered strictly representative of vehicles under real driving conditions. Therefore, in recent years,

Karl Ropkins; Joe Beebe; Hu Li; Basil Daham; James Tate; Margaret Bell; Gordon Andrews

2009-01-01

105

Flow Analysis and Design Optimization Methods for Nozzle Afterbody of a Hypersonic Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the methods developed for the aerodynamic analysis and the shape optimization of the nozzle-afterbody section of a hypersonic vehicle. Initially, exhaust gases were assumed to be air. Internal-external flows around a single scramjet...

O. Baysal

1991-01-01

106

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO\\/sub x\\/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in

R. A. Egnell; B. L. Hansson

1981-01-01

107

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for

John Morse Storey; Teresa L Barone; John F Thomas; Shean P Huff

2012-01-01

108

Remote sensing data and a potential model of vehicle exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1991, General Motors Research and Development Center (GMR&D) participated in a remote sensing study conducted by the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. During this study, the GMR&D remote sensor was used to measure the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from approximately 15,000 vehicles. The vehicle type (passenger car, light-duty truck, or

Stephens

1994-01-01

109

Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows  

DOEpatents

The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

2001-01-01

110

A quantitative description of vehicle exhaust particle size distributions in a highway tunnel.  

PubMed

During the period May 18-May 22, 1999, a comprehensive study was conducted in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel on the Pennsylvania Turnpike to measure real-world motor-vehicle emissions. As part of this study, size distributions of particle emissions were determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Each measured size distribution consisted of two modes: a nucleation mode with midpoint diameter less than 20 nm and an accumulation mode with midpoint diameter less than 100 nm. The nucleation and accumulation components in some distributions also exhibited second maxima, which implies that such particle size distributions are superpositions of two particle size distributions. This hypothesis was utilized in fitting the particle size distributions that exhibited second maxima with four lognormal distributions, two for the nucleation mode and two for the accumulation mode. The fitting assumed that the observed particle size distribution was a combination of two bimodal log-normal distributions, one attributed to the heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles and another attributed either to a different class of HDD vehicles or to the light-duty spark ignition vehicles. Based on this method, estimated particle production rates were 1.8 x 10(13) and 2.8 x 10(14) particles/vehicle-km for light-duty spark ignition and HDD vehicles, respectively, which agreed with independently obtained estimates. PMID:15061617

Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Rogers, C Fred; Gertler, Alan W

2004-03-01

111

Emission projection and uncertainty analysis of exhaust emissions from global and Asian on-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the most notable impacts from emissions of air pollutants are climate change and hemispheric or intercontinental transport. Global emission projections are identified as critical elements in understanding these large-scale impacts. Such projections are required to understand the net response of climate to combined emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and other trace species in the next 30 to 50

F. Yan; E. Winijkul; T. Bond; D. G. Streets

2009-01-01

112

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL

2012-01-01

113

Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices including diesel particulate filters (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep+idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photo-oxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary and secondary fine particulate matter from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after three hours of oxidation at typical urban VOC : NOx ratios (3:1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the non-methane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas-chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species, such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 ± 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep+idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

2013-09-01

114

Single Particle Source Profiles of Gasoline and Diesel Powered Vehicles, Biomass Burning and Coal Combustion Exhaust Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicular exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion are three significant aerosol sources that have local to global impacts on the earth's atmosphere. They may also contribute to health effects as they can emit carcinogenic species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and trace metals including beryllium and vanadium. In these source characterization studies, combustion products were diluted to near ambient temperature and pressure using a two stage dilution source sampler. Diluted exhaust emissions were analyzed with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) obtaining real-time measurements of single particle size and chemical composition. In addition, samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), which was operated in a manner compatible with advanced chemical analysis techniques, for size segregated mass concentrations. Due to the importance of these particle sources to the atmosphere, differentiating these emissions from each other and other particle sources is essential. Since ATOFMS is a relatively new single particle analysis technique, source characterization experiments are needed to determine qualitative signatures of specific particulate sources for their ambient identification. ATOFMS single particle mass spectra will be discussed introducing chemically distinct single particle types emitted from these combustion sources. Numerous particle types are emitted from each source, as indicated by distinct chemical associations on the single particle level. Examples include, the chemical associations of vanadium with organic carbon (OC) in gasoline powered vehicle emissions, calcium with black carbon (BC) in diesel powered vehicle emissions, beryllium and boron with BC in coal combustion emissions, and potassium with OC from biomass burning emissions. Most importantly, the overall particle type distributions from each source differ significantly. Finally, complementary MOUDI mass distribution data will be used to determine the relative fractions of these particle types to the overall particulate mass emissions from these tests. These results will be presented in terms of single particle source profiles for these environmentally important combustion aerosol sources.

Suess, D. T.; Prather, K. A.; Schauer, J.; Cass, G. R.

2001-12-01

115

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

2009-07-01

116

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

2010-07-01

117

5.16 3-D STREAM AND VORTEXES IN AN URBAN CANOPY LAYER AND TRANSPORT OF MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST GAS - WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the intersecting streets is important to predict the dispersion in the vicinity of the street. The OMG model (Kono and Ito, 1990), a micro scale dispersion model which predict the dispersion of motor vehicle exhaust gas within 200 m from a street, includes the effect of intersecting streets in the height of an imaginary boundary, below which

Hitoshi Kono; Kimiyo Kusunoki

118

Mathematical modeling of catalytic converter lightoff; Part III: Prediction of vehicle exhaust emissions and parametric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The converter warmup model developed previously (Oh and Cavendish, 1985) has been used to simulate the performance of a packed-bed converter during the cold-start portion of vehicle emission tests. Despite the highly transient converter inlet conditions, the model successfully predicts tailpipe mass emissions as a function of time.

S. H. Oh; J. C. Cavendish

1985-01-01

119

Cartridge for purifying exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A cartridge is disclosed for purifying exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine of an automotive vehicle or some other source comprising a catalyst support matrix wound of metal foil and a metal jacket housing said support matrix wherein a press fit exists between the exterior of the support matrix and the interior surface of the jacket and the support matrix and the jacket are welded or brazed together within the area of the press fit. Processes and apparatus for producing the cartridge of the invention are also disclosed.

Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Hesse, W.; Nonnenmann, M.

1981-08-04

120

[Role of human olfaction in detection of space vehicle air contamination by gases emitted during thermal destruction of polymers].  

PubMed

The paper deals with the ability of human olfaction to identify odours associated with thermal destruction of polymers. The investigations confirmed the ability of early detection of equipment overheating and subjective odour evaluation using the 5-point intensity scale and calculating the relation of odour intensity to the maximum admissible concentration of volatile chemical contaminants aboard piloted space vehicles. Emission of gases by polymers in electrical equipment starts with heating temperature rise to 100 degrees C. A new odour smelled by only some of humans due to individual perception signifies typically that emitted gases are below MAC for space vehicle. Odour sensed by everyone though not irritating signifies, as a rule, of chemical contamination above MAC but not contingency. Symptoms of irritation by products of thermal destruction of polymers signify contingency and require the use of personal protection equipment. PMID:17405279

Solomin, G I; Mukhamedieva, L N; Nikitin, E I; Barantseva, M Iu

121

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC

W. A. Rimkus; R. P. Larsen; M. G. Zammit; J. G. Davies; G. S. Salmon; R. I. Bruetsch

1992-01-01

122

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987-2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions - temperatures of 25-100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1-600 ?g m-3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

123

Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001-06: An Ecological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. Methods and Findings We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001–06) with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area—postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs)—and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD.) The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006) during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006) and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006), respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6% decrease (rate ratio [RR]?=?1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.08) in the incidence of MVEG suicide within postcode areas; a percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1999 vehicles was associated with a 3% decrease (RR?=?1.03; 95% CI 1.02–1.04) in the incidence of MVEG suicide. Conclusions Areas of Australia with fewer vehicles predating stringent CO emission laws experience lower rates of MVEG suicide. Although those emission laws were introduced primarily for environmental reasons, countries that lack them may miss the benefits of a serendipitous suicide prevention strategy. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

2010-01-01

124

Development of a simple field test for vehicle exhaust to detect illicit use of dyed diesel fuel.  

PubMed

Tax-free diesel fuel is intended for off-road uses such as agricultural operations, but illicit use of this fuel does occur and is a convenient way of evading payment of excise taxes. Current enforcement to prevent this practice involves visual inspection for the red azo dye added to the fuel to indicate its tax-free status. This approach, while very effective, has shortcomings such as the invasive nature of the tests and/or various deceptive tactics applied by tax evaders. A test designed to detect illicit dyed-fuel use by analyzing the vehicle exhaust would circumvent these shortcomings. This paper describes the development of a simple color spot test designed to detect the use of tax-free (i.e., dyed) fuel by analyzing the engine exhaust. Development efforts first investigated the combustion products of C.I. Solvent Red 164 (the azo dye formulation used in the United States to tag tax-free fuel). A variety of aryl amines were identified as characteristic molecular remnants that appear to survive combustion. A number of micro-analytical color tests specific for aryl amines were then investigated. One test that detected aryl amines by reacting with 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde seemed to be particularly applicable and was used in a proof-of-principle experiment. The 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde color spot test was able to clearly distinguish between engines that were burning regular fuel and those that were burning dyed diesel fuel. Further development will refine this color spot test to provide an easy-to-use field test. PMID:22063524

Harvey, Scott D; Wright, Bob W

2011-09-01

125

Toxicological Assessment of Particulate Emissions from the Exhaust of Old and New Model Heavy- and Light-Duty Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this project is to develop an improved understanding of the factors affecting the toxicology of particulate exhaust emissions. Diesel particulate matter is a known carcinogen, and particulate exhaust emissions from both light-duty...

A. Polidori C. Sioutas K. Moore

2011-01-01

126

In situ synthesis of platinum nanocatalysts on a microstructured paperlike matrix for the catalytic purification of exhaust gases.  

PubMed

The successful in situ synthesis of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) on a microstructured paperlike matrix, comprising ceramic fibers as main framework and zinc oxide whiskers as selective support for the PtNPs, is reported. The as-prepared hybrid material (PtNPs@ZnO "paper") resembles ordinary paper products because it is flexible, lightweight, and easy to handle. In the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) with propene for exhaust gas purification, the PtNPs@ZnO paper demonstrates a high catalytic performance at a low reaction temperature, with one-third the dosage of precious platinum compared to conventional platinum-loaded honeycomb catalysts. These results imply that the combination of easily synthesized PtNPs and a unique fiber-network microstructure can provide excellent performances, promoting the effective transport of heat and reactants to the active sites of the platinum nanocatalysts. Thus, PtNPs@ZnO materials with paperlike practical aspects are promising catalytic materials for efficient NO(x) gas purification. PMID:20209514

Koga, Hirotaka; Umemura, Yuuka; Tomoda, Akihiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Kitaoka, Takuya

2010-05-25

127

Real-time Characterization of Particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Aerosols and From Motor-Vehicles Exhausts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the spring of 2007 a diffusion charger (DC), a photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS), and a condensation particle counter (CPC) were operated a) in Wilmington (CA), an urban area near the Los Angeles port heavily influenced by a mix of industrial and gasoline- / diesel-fuelled vehicle emissions, and b) at the California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Test Laboratory (HDETL), a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA). During the dynamometer tests, we characterized the exhausts of several individual types of vehicles, equipped with different emission control technologies, and operated under different driving conditions. Information about the chemical composition, active surface area, and particle number concentration from the PAS, DC, and CPC were combined to identify the main chemical and physical characteristics of the studied aerosols. In particular, the ratio between the PAS and the DC signals (PAS/DC) provided a reliable measurement of the amount of particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pPAH) per unit area of the active surface of the particles. This quantity may be directly related to the amount of pPAHs transported into the human respiratory tract. Plots of the PAS/DC ratio versus the average surface particle diameter (Dp; estimated by combining DC and CPC measurements) were then used to distinguish between the presence/absence of nuclei mode particles and the presence/absence of an adsorbed layer on accumulation mode particles, for both ambient and dynamometer-tests data. All results were then complemented with measurements of the particle size distribution (SMPS) and of the black carbon (BC) aerosol content to obtain further insights on the pPAHs emitted by motor-vehicles and other sources. Integrated 24-h filter samples were also collected in Wilmington, solvent extracted and analyzed by GC/MS to determine the relative concentrations of the 11 most abundant pPAHs found at the urban site. Finally, these results were used to establish correlations between the concentrations of each individual PAH species and the measured PAS signal (from fA to ? g/m3).

Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Sioutas, C.

2007-12-01

128

PM 2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 ?m) chemical source profiles applicable to speciated emissions inventories and receptor model source apportionment are reported for geological material, motor vehicle exhaust, residential coal (RCC) and wood combustion (RWC), forest fires, geothermal hot springs; and coal-fired power generation units from northwestern Colorado during 1995. Fuels and combustion conditions are similar to those

John G Watson; Judith C Chow; James E Houck

2001-01-01

129

Vapor absorption refrigeration in road transport vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study includes an experimental investigation into the use of vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) systems in road transport vehicles using the waste heat in the exhaust gases of the main propulsion unit as the energy source. This would provide an alternative to the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system and its associated internal combustion engine. The performance of a VAR system fired by natural gas is compared with that of the same system driven by engine exhaust gases. This showed that the exhaust-gas-driven system produced the same performance characteristics as the gas-fired system. It also suggested that, with careful design, inserting the VAR system generator into the main engine exhaust system need not impair the performance of the vehicle propulsion unit. A comparison of the capital and running costs of the conventional and proposed alternative system is made. Suggestions are also made regarding operation of the VAR system during off-road/slow running conditions.

Horuz, I. [Univ. of Uludag, Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1999-08-01

130

A case study for removal of sulphur-di-oxide from exhaust flue gases at thermal power plant, Rajasthan (India).  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to reduce the percent SO2 in environment and to produce a byproduct with SO2, to control air pollution. The present work envisages a situation that compares the efficiency of three different reagents, viz. sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and waste product of water treatment plant containing CaO in removal of SO2 that would be generated in this situation. Various parameters were also observed with variation involving percent concentration of reactants, pH of the solution, time for reaction , temperature of solution and flow of flue gas in impingers. Pet coke with lime stone is being used for power generation in power plant during the experiment, the pet coke having 6% sulphur resulting in emission of SO2. Hence experiments have been conducted to trap these gases to produce sulphates. Waste product of water treatment plant, calcium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide in various permutation and combination have been used with control flow by SO2 monitoring kit for preparation of calcium sulphate and sodium sulphate. Thus sodium hydroxide turned out to be better as compared to calcium hydroxide and sludge. It is also concluded that pH of the solution should be alkaline for good absorption of SO2 and maximum absorption of SO2 found in direct passing of SO2 in impinger as compared to indirect passing of SO2 in impingers. Good absorption of SO2 found at temperature range between 20-25 degrees C and it seems to be optimum. Maximum recovery of SO2 was obtained when the reaction took place for long time period. PMID:22324143

Sharma, Rashmi; Acharya, Shveta; Sharma, Arun Kumar

2011-01-01

131

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86.1708-99...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles...

2013-07-01

132

Cryopump with exhaust filter  

SciTech Connect

A cryopump is described comprising cryopanels within a vacuum vessel cooled to cryogenic temperatures to condense gases from the volume within the vacuum vessel, the vacuum vessel having an exhaust port closed by a valve during operation of the cryopump. The cryopump further comprises a filter conduit extending from the exhaust port into the volume within the vacuum vessel away from the wall of the vacuum vessel. The filter conduit is formed of porous filter material for retaining solid debris within the vacuum vessel while passing liquid and gas therethrough, the filter conduit being open away from the exhaust port to permit substantially unrestricted flow of gas to the exhaust port.

Eacobacci, M.J.; Planchard, D.C.

1987-04-07

133

Determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in vehicles escape fumes by GF-AAS and ICP-OES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive exhaust gases from vehicles using catalytic converters were filtered through cellulose filter papers to collect suspended particles expulsed along with the engine's escape fumes. A specially designed sample collector was used for supporting the filter papers during collection. The collector was manufactured from a new car's exhaust pipe. A cellulose circular paper filter, 11cm diameter, was attached to one

Antonio Goncalves; José R. Domínguez; José Alvarado

2008-01-01

134

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of this chapter, except that heated flame ionization detector (HFID), probe...diesel-cycle vehicles require a heated flame ionization detector (HFID) (375...gas-fueled diesel vehicles either a heated flame ionization detector (HFID)...

2011-07-01

135

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year...Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature...

2013-07-01

136

Direct Measurements of Nitrous Acid, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Formaldehyde in Auto Exhaust by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) has been identified and measured for the first time in samples of diluted and cooled exhaust gases taken from light duty motor vehicles (LDMV) with gasoline engines run in several modes on the ARB chassis dynamometer-constant v...

J. N. Pitts

1982-01-01

137

14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and installed...gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have any stagnant...fluids. (b) If an exhaust heat exchanger is used for heating...

2013-01-01

138

Analysis of low molecular weight hydrocarbons including 1,3-butadiene in engine exhaust gases using an aluminum oxide porous-layer open-tubular fused-silica column.  

PubMed

A method for the quantitative analysis of individual hydrocarbons in the C1-C8 range emitted in engine exhaust gases is described. The procedure provides base-line or near base-line resolution of C4 components including 1,3-butadiene. With a run time of less than 50 min, the light aromatics (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, p- and m-xylene, and o-xylene) are resolved during the same analysis as aliphatic hydrocarbons in the C1-C8 range. It is shown that typical 1,3-butadiene levels in engine exhaust are about 5 ppm at each of two engine conditions. Aromatic hydrocarbon levels show a dependence on engine operating conditions, benzene being about 20 ppm at high speed and about 40 ppm at idle. PMID:1704381

Pelz, N; Dempster, N M; Shore, P R

1990-05-01

139

Methods of characterizing the distribution of exhaust emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles in the U.S. fleet.  

PubMed

Mobile sources significantly contribute to ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM). Source apportionment studies for PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) indicate that mobile sources can be responsible for over half of the ambient PM measured in an urban area. Recent source apportionment studies attempted to differentiate between contributions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicle combustion. Several source apportionment studies conducted in the United States suggested that gasoline combustion from mobile sources contributed more to ambient PM than diesel combustion. However, existing emission inventories for the United States indicated that diesels contribute more than gasoline vehicles to ambient PM concentrations. A comprehensive testing program was initiated in the Kansas City metropolitan area to measure PM emissions in the light-duty, gasoline-powered, on-road mobile source fleet to provide data for PM inventory and emissions modeling. The vehicle recruitment design produced a sample that could represent the regional fleet, and by extension, the national fleet. All vehicles were recruited from a stratified sample on the basis of vehicle class (car, truck) and model-year group. The pool of available vehicles was drawn primarily from a sample of vehicle owners designed to represent the selected demographic and geographic characteristics of the Kansas City population. Emissions testing utilized a portable, light-duty chassis dynamometer with vehicles tested using the LA-92 driving cycle, on-board emissions measurement systems, and remote sensing devices. Particulate mass emissions were the focus of the study, with continuous and integrated samples collected. In addition, sample analyses included criteria gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons), air toxics (speciated volatile organic compounds), and PM constituents (elemental/organic carbon, metals, semi-volatile organic compounds). Results indicated that PM emissions from the in-use fleet varied by up to 3 orders of magnitude, with emissions generally increasing for older model-year vehicles. The study also identified a strong influence of ambient temperature on vehicle PM mass emissions, with rates increasing with decreasing temperatures. PMID:21141431

Fulper, Carl R; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, Jim; Fujit, Eric M; Scarbro, Carl; Crews, William S; Snow, Richard; Gabele, Peter; Santos, Robert; Tierney, Eugene; Cantrell, Bruce

2010-11-01

140

Electrochemical Cell and Membrane for Continuous NOx Removal from Natural Gas Combustion Exhaust Gases. Final Report, October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program investigated the utility of electrochemically promoted NOx decomposition under conditions appropriate to those found in natural gas prime mover exhaust. In addition, the utility of mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes for the spont...

J. H. White J. Burt R. L. Cook A. F. Sammells

1991-01-01

141

Analysis of trace organic compounds in vehicle emission using REMPI/TOF-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission of fuel combustion in vehicle engines is one of the most important sources of urban environmental pollution. In this paper we present a new method for detecting trace pollution gases of vehicle emissions - laser mass spectrometry. The principles of the laser mass spectrometry is combination of resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization with flight-of-time mass spectroscopy. The experimental setup and results on the exhaust gas of a motorcycle are detailed. By excitation of 248nm KrF excimer laser, benzene and other aromatic compounds are detected in the motorcycle exhaust gases. The preliminary results of the concentration change of these compounds with speed are also presented.

Li, Ziyao; Wei, Jie; Xia, Zhuhong; Gu, Xuejun; Zhang, Liandi; Kong, Xianghe; Zheng, Haiyang; Zhang, Bing

2000-10-01

142

Exhaust powered drive shaft torque enhancer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power producing combination including an internal combustion engine and a mounting frame therefor, and power transmission means including rotating drive shaft means connected to the engine. The improvement described here is a drive shaft torque enhancing device, the device comprising: a multiplicity of blades secured to the drive shaft, equally spaced therearound, each generally lying in a plane containing the axis of the drive shaft; torque enhancer feed duct means for selectively directing a stream of exhaust gases from the engine to impact against the blades to impart torque to the drive shaft; and wherein the power producing combination is used in a vehicle, the vehicle having braking means including a brake pedal; and the power producing combination further comprising torque enhancer disengagement means responsive to motion of the brake pedal.

Koch, A.B.

1986-09-30

143

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2010-12-02

144

Electrochemical cell and membrane for continuous NOx removal from natural gas-combustion exhaust gases. Final report, October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This program investigated the utility of electrochemically promoted NOx decomposition under conditions appropriate to those found in natural gas prime mover exhaust. In addition, the utility of mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes for the spontaneous decomposition of NOx were investigated using catalytic sites identified during the electrochemical study. The program was conducted by initially evaluating perovskite related cathode electrocatalysts using high NOx concentrations. This was followed by investigations at NOx concentrations consistent with those encountered in natural gas prime mover exhausts. Preferred electrocatalysts were then incorporated into mixed conducting membranes for promoting NOx decomposition. Work showed that cobalt based electrocatalysts were active towards promoting NOx decomposition at high concentrations. At lower NOx concentrations initial activation, by passage of a large cathodic current, was required which probably resulted in producing a distinct population of surface oxygen vacancies before the subject decomposition reaction could proceed. This study showed that electrochemically promoted decomposition is feasible under conditions appropriate to those found in prime mover exhausts.

White, J.H.; Burt, J.; Cook, R.L.; Sammells, A.F.

1991-01-01

145

Exhaust-System Leak Test: Quantitative Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quantitative, periodic motor vehicle safety-inspection test for determining the leakage rate of engine exhaust from an automotive exhaust system was investigated. Two technical approaches were evaluated, and the better one was selected for development o...

E. C. Klaubert

1974-01-01

146

Rocket motor exhaust scrubber  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A wet scrubber having a series of chambers for capturing and cooling exhaust gases generated during static test firing of rocket motors. Exhaust gas enters an inlet to a first chamber and is cooled and slowed by a spray solution. HCL gas is condensed and absorbed by the spray solution and precipitates to a liquid slurry at the bottom of the device. The remaining exhaust products enter a demister chamber where nozzles continue to spray the gasses as they pass upward and through a mesh-style demister at the top of the vessel. The demister filters liquid and solid waste particles from the gas stream, and the clean, dry gases are accelerated through a centrifugal fan into the atmosphere. A deflector is positioned within the inlet to the first chamber for containing parts in the event of a motor mal-function.

Carns; Richard H. (Byantown, MD); Armstrong; Gerald (Hughesville, MD); Rast; Robert H. (Nanjemoy, MD); Mitchell; Dennis R. (Brooking, OR)

2005-11-15

147

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500

W. A. Rimkus; R. P. Larsen

1992-01-01

148

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500

W. A. Rimkus; R. P. Larsen

1992-01-01

149

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...petroleum gas-fueled Otto-cycle and petroleum-fueled, natural...petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles, the transfer...shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the...methanol due to condensation of water in the duct connecting...

2009-07-01

150

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...petroleum gas-fueled Otto-cycle and petroleum-fueled, natural...petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles, the transfer...shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the...methanol due to condensation of water in the duct connecting...

2010-07-01

151

Automobile Exhaust Gas Scenarios in the Federal Republic of Germany - A Study Considering the Resolutions Passed by the EEC Environmental Ministers Conference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study analyzes and discusses the effects of the resolution passed by the EEC Environmental Council in June 1985 on 'measures to be taken against air pollution caused by automobile exhaust gases' on the development of commercial vehicle and passenger c...

J. Brosthaus D. Hassel P. Jost K. S. Sonnborn H. Waldeyer

1985-01-01

152

Vehicle recycling process  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vehicle recycling plant comprising a furnace, means for introducing a fuel into said furnace, a cupola disposed in close proximity to said furnace, and communicating therewith so that the hot gases discharged from the furnace are introduced into the cupola, means for conveying scrap vehicles above said furnace and into said cupola, substantially horizontal flue means communicating with both the cupola and the furnace for removing exhaust gases therefrom, a plurality of smelters disposed in said horizontal flue for melting down various components previously disassembled from the vehicles, a plurality of heat exchange means disposed in said horizontal flue for removing heat therefrom and converting it into various forms of energy, an enlarged horizontal flue portion disposed downstream of said heat exchange means, said enlarged flue portion containing a plurality of air vents for mixing ambient air with the flue gas and a scrubbing section for removing particulate material from the flue gas, vacuum pump means for drawing the flue gas through the horizontal stack and exhaust means for discharging the flue gas to the atmosphere.

Rhinehart; Paul E. (Winchester, VA)

1977-03-29

153

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO/sub x/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in the first and second walls for admitting the inlet air to the burner region and for entraining and mixing with the inlet air portion of the exhaust gas stream. In a preferred embodiment the ejectors are arranged around the periphery of a cylindrical burner region and oriented to admit the air/exhaust gas mixture tangentially to promote mixing. In another preferred embodiment a single annular ejector surrounds and feeds the air/exhaust gas mixture to a cylindrical burner region. The annular ejector includes an annular plate with radially-directed flow passages to provide an even distribution of the air/exhaust gas mixture to the burner region.

Egnell, R.A.; Hansson, B.L.

1981-07-14

154

Characteristics of auto-ignition in a stratified iso-octane mixture with exhaust gases under homogeneous charge compression ignition conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ignition and propagation of a reaction front in a counterflow system of an iso-octane\\/air stream mixing with an exhaust gas stream is computationally investigated to understand the fundamental characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) auto-ignition. Various mixing rates are imposed on the system and the effects of dissipation rates on auto-ignition are studied. Ignition delay and front propagation speed

R. Sankaran; H. G. Im

2005-01-01

155

Abatement of Gaseous Pollutants in Coal-Combustion Exhaust Gases Employing a Solid-Oxide Electrolyte: Progress Report No. 1, October 1 - December 31, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are studying the basic chemical and diffusional-rate processes that will determine whether or not it is feasible to remove electrochemically the pollutants NOx and SOx from coal-gas combustion flue gases employing a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(YSZ) disk flow ...

D. M. Mason

1987-01-01

156

Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

Irby, James F.; And Others

157

Catalytic automotive exhaust aftertreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic exhaust aftertreatment of vehicle engines is increasingly employed to the benefit of the atmosphere quality, especially in the large urban area of the world. Both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines benefit from the application of catalytic converters for the elimination of their main pollutants. Catalysts are further employed in various forms as regeneration aids in particulate filters of diesel engines.

Grigorios C. Koltsakis; Anastasios M. Stamatelos

1997-01-01

158

Crossfire calibrated exhaust system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dual-exhaust system for an internal combustion engine having a pair of spaced-apart pipes channeling exhaust gases from the engine towards a muffler. It comprises first and second additional pipes connected between the pair of spaced-apart pipes at substantially 45[degrees] angles with respect to each of the pair of pipes and at substantially a 90[degrees] angle with respect to each other; and wherein the first and second additional pipes are also interconnected with each other substantially at the midpoints thereof, measured along their respective lengths, and substantially midway between the pair of spaced-apart pipes.

Barth, R.S.

1992-09-08

159

Method for producing a cartridge for purifying exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A cartridge is disclosed for purifying exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine of a automotive vehicle or some other source comprising a catalyst support matrix wound of metal foil and a metal jacket housing said support matrix wherein a press fit exists between the exterior of the support matrix and the interior surface of the jacket and the support matrix and the jacket are welded or brazed together within the area of the press fit. Processes and apparatus for producing the cartridge of the invention are also disclosed.

Nonnenmann, M.; Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Hesse, W.

1983-08-30

160

Process for manufacturing a cartridge for purifying exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A cartridge for purifying exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine of an automotive vehicle or some other source comprising a catalyst support matrix wound of metal foil and a metal jacket housing said support matrix wherein a press fit exists between the exterior of the support matrix and the interior surface of the jacket and the support matrix and the jacket are welded or brazed together within the area of the press fit. Processes and apparatus for producing the cartridge of the invention are also disclosed.

Nonnenmann, M.; Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Hesse, W.

1985-05-28

161

Internal combustion engine exhaust gas monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

To detect substantial deviation of operation of the engine with fuel-air mixtures from stoichiometric relationships, particularly extended operation under very lean or enriched supply mixtures, the exhaust gases are conducted past a first sensor which provides a clearly defined voltage jump upon change of the exhaust gases between reducing and oxidizing state; and, additionally, to a second exhaust gas sensor and preferably to a third sensor, the second and third sensors being, respectively, responsive to the oxygen level in the exhaust gases and to the CO (or hydrocarbon) level in the exhaust gases, respectively, and additionally modifying the relative proportion of fuel and air of the mixture being fed to the engine.

Baresel, D.

1980-03-25

162

Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery Demonstration: Phase 1 Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery of some of the unavailable energy in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines is an attractive concept for conservation of petroleum based fuels. The installation of an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) system in highway transportation veh...

C. C. Love

1981-01-01

163

Process for Producing Catalysts for Cleaning Industrial-Waste Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention concerns catalysts which are effective for removing nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/), carbon monoxide (CO) and hyrocarbons (HC) from automobile exhaust gases, waste gases from fixed combustion systems and waste gases from chemical plants. The pr...

I. Shimizu K. Abe

1983-01-01

164

Method for recovery and recycling of heat from hot gases in metallurigical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for the recovery and recycling of heat from hot exhaust gases, specifically from exhaust gases in metallurgical processes and from warm gases having an exiting temperature of below about 800° C. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, warm or hot exhaust fuel gases transfer their retained heat

Ratschat

1984-01-01

165

Hazardous exhaust gas monitoring using a deep UV based differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fibre-optic sensor for the monitoring of hazardous exhaust gases is described. The sensor based on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy was developed to operate within exhaust environments, monitor several exhaust gases and demonstrate low susceptibility to interferences from other gases. Experimental results describing the calibration of the sensor against a commercial analyser and tests documenting the sensor's operating capabilities within

G. Dooly; C. Fitzpatrick; E. Lewis

2007-01-01

166

Hydrocarbon gases emitted from vehicles on the road. 1. A qualitative gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas-phase hydrocarbons greater than or equal to Câ generated by motor vehicles in highway operation were surveyed in the Allegheny Mountain Tunnel of the Pennsylvania Turnpike in 1979. The samples were collected on Tenax GC polymer adsorbent and analyzed by glass-capillary gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Approximately 400 vehicle-generated compounds were detected. Of these, over 300 were either completely or partially

Christine V. Hampton; William R. Pierson; T. Michael Harvey; William S. Updegrove; Richard S. Marano

1982-01-01

167

Exhaust Emission Catalyst Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies, incorporating the platinum group metals, are available to meet the exhaust emission regulations for cars, light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles and motorcycles being adopted by the European Union for implementation during the new century. These technologies include low light-off catalysts, more themlly-durable catalysts, impmved substrate technology, hydrocarbon adsorbers, electrically heated catalysts, DeNOx catalysts and adsorbers, selective catalytic reduction and

Dirk Bosteels; Robert A. Searles

168

Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of a Diesel Vehicle: Results of the Prototype Volkswagen 1.5-Liter Turbocharged Rabbit Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were performed on a prototype Volkswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the Urban Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), Conges...

R. A. Walter S. S. Quayle J. C. Sturm

1981-01-01

169

Explosion protection for vehicles intended for the transport of flammable gases and liquids--an investigation into technical and operational basics.  

PubMed

In Europe, the transport of flammable gases and liquids in tanks has been impacted by new developments: for example, the introduction of the vapour-balancing technique on a broad scale and the steady increase in the application of electronic components with their own power sources; furthermore, new regulatory policies like the ATEX Directives are being enforced in the European Union. With this background in mind, the present investigation aims to provide a basis for future developments of the relevant explosion protection regulations in the safety codes for the transport of dangerous goods (RID/ADR). Specifically, the concentration of gas in the air was measured under various practical conditions while tank vehicles were being loaded with flammable gases or liquids. These spot-test data were supplemented by systematic investigations at a road tanker placed in our test field. With respect to non-electrical ignition sources, a closer investigation of the effect of hot surfaces was carried out. With regard to improving the current regulations, the results of our investigation show that it would be reasonable to implement a stronger differentiation of the characteristics of the dangerous goods (gaseous/liquid, flashpoint) on the one hand and of the techniques applied (loading with and without vapour-balancing system) on the other hand. Conclusions for the further development of the current international regulations are proposed. PMID:18922633

Förster, Hans; Günther, Werner

2008-09-06

170

Design Criteria for Rocket Exhaust Scrubbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an engineering study and design of methods for scrubbing the exhaust of static-tested solid rockets. Pollutants of major concern were hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases. The best process for removing these gases was ...

H. F. Barbarika S. Calvert

1978-01-01

171

Analysis of motor vehicle emissions over eastern Los Angeles, California from in-situ airborne measurements of trace gases and particulates during CalNex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ measurements of trace gases and particulates were acquired on the instrumented NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field study in May and June 2010. Multiple daytime research flights under similar meteorological conditions provide a sufficient data set for characterizing automobile emissions over the eastern Los Angeles (eLA) area of the South Coast air basin. Ratios of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) to carbon monoxide (CO) are used to isolate emissions of light duty vehicles from those of medium/heavy duty diesel trucks. Observations in the mixed boundary layer for the eLA area are separated according to latitude, longitude, and altitude. Industrial influences are eliminated by filtering the data according to SO2 mixing ratio and wind direction. The resulting correlations show weekday-to-weekend differences in enhancement ratios of NOx to CO and BC to CO, indicating a general tendency for higher emissions from heavy duty vehicles during the week. The CalNex data over eLA in 2010 will be compared to eLA data from a research flight in May 2002 by the WP-3D aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) field study.

Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Perring, A.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.

2010-12-01

172

PLT 27 Gas Turbine Engine Exhaust Emission and Noise Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PLT 27 gas turbine engine exhaust gas and noise were measured and analyzed. The results of the exhaust gas emission analysis show that the exhaust gases have a low content of unburned combustion products, i.e., hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, down to id...

P. M. Rubins E. Auerbach J. A. Deman

1974-01-01

173

Exhaust gas reactor  

SciTech Connect

A reactor for the oxidation of unburned and partially burned components in the exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine comprising a chamber which is substantially circular in cross sections perpendicular to its axis, one or more inlet pipes which pass a mixture of exhaust gas and air substantially tangentially into the chamber near to one end thereof, and an outlet pipe near to the other end of the chamber and which is so arranged that exhaust gas leaves the chamber substantially tangentially. The tangential inlet and tangential outlet of gases minimizes energy losses in the gas passing through the reactor. The ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the inlet pipe(s) to reactor chamber is preferably from 1:9 to 25:36, and similar ranges of crosssectional area ratios are preferred for the outlet pipe and chamber. The ratio of the length of the reaction chamber to diameter is preferably from 1:1 to 4:1. The chamber may be cylindrical or divergent from inlet end to outlet end and may be thermally insulated.

Camarsa, M.; Cocchiara, F.; Garcea, G.P.

1981-11-24

174

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of a diesel vehicle: results of the prototype Volkswagen 1. 5-liter turbocharged rabbit tests. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were performed on a prototype Volkswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the Urban Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), Congested Urban Expressway (CUE), and New York City Cycle (NYCC). Steady state measurements were performed at three speeds. Particulate measurements were completed

R. A. Walter; S. S. Quayle; J. C. Sturm

1981-01-01

175

40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.240-94 Exhaust sample analysis....

2011-07-01

176

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-09-20

177

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01

178

Analysis of benzene emissions from vehicles and vehicle refueling  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, several investigators have characterized and measured hydrocarbon components, including benzene, in vehicle exhaust. An analysis is presented of benzene exhaust emission data reported from approximately 100 light-duty vehicles. Results indicate that on average, benzene exhaust emissions from catalyst-equipped vehicles are significantly less than those from non-catalyst vehicles. In addition, benzene exhaust emissions from 3-way catalyst vehicles appear to be significantly less than those from oxidation catalyst vehicles, on average. These observations parallel analogous average reductions in total hydrocarbons, indicating that modern catalyst-based exhaust emission controls reduce benzene emissions to approximately the same degree as they reduce total hydrocarbons. Also, benzene evaporative emissions from 3-way catalyst vehicles appear to be substantially less than those from oxidation catalyst vehicles. Finally, a benzene refueling emission rate was calculated. Its contribution to total benzene emissions appears to be very small.

Raley, D.L.; McCallum, P.W.; Shadis, W.J.

1984-01-01

179

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle highway carbon-related exhaust emissions...

2010-07-01

180

Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary

Fangqun Yu; Thomas Lanni; Brian P. Frank

2004-01-01

181

Control logic for exhaust gas driven turbocharger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of controlling an exhaust gas driven turbocharger supplying charge air for an internal combustion engine powering vehicle, the turbocharger being adjustable from a normal mode to a power mode in which the charge air available to the engine during vehicle acceleration is increased over that available when the turbocharger is in the normal mode, the

Adeff

1991-01-01

182

[Hygienic evaluation of photochemical transformation of automobile exhaust fumes as effected by ozone].  

PubMed

Ozonizing of exhausted motor transport gases increases their toxicity. The most dangerous of formed substances are: nonanal, acetophenon, octanal, benzaldehyde, heptanal, decanal, 2-butanone. PMID:7517909

Malysheva, A G

1993-09-01

183

US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

William E. Wallace

2006-09-30

184

Central Carolina Vehicle Particulate Emissions Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies on light-duty motor vehicle exhaust particles have been conducted on vehicle fleet in the western United States. Particulate emissions data from vehicle fleets in the southeastern United States were needed for comparison and for determini...

K. T. Knapp S. B. Tejada S. H. Cadle D. R. Lawson R. Snow B. Zielinska J. C. Sagebiel J. McDonald

2000-01-01

185

Reactivity of NO\\/NO 2–NH 3 SCR system for diesel exhaust aftertreatment: Identification of the reaction network as a function of temperature and NO 2 feed content  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a systematic study of the NH3-SCR reactivity over a commercial V2O5–WO3\\/TiO2 catalyst in a wide range of temperatures and NO\\/NO2 feed ratios, which cover (and exceed) those of interest for industrial applications to the aftertreatment of exhaust gases from diesel vehicles. The experiments confirm that the best deNOx efficiency is achieved with a 1\\/1 NO\\/NO2 feed ratio. The

Cristian Ciardelli; Isabella Nova; Enrico Tronconi; Daniel Chatterjee; Brigitte Bandl-Konrad; Michel Weibel; Bernd Krutzsch

2007-01-01

186

Modular exhaust gas steam generator with common boiler casing  

SciTech Connect

A modular exhaust gas steam generator is described wherein each module comprises: (a) an open box frame through which hot exhaust gases travel, a portion of the frame being in contact with the gases; (b) casing means fixedly secured to selected perimeter surfaces of the box frame thereby forming an integral part of the box frame for sealably closing the surface of the box frame and for retaining the gases within the box frame; (c) tubing means extending within and nearly the height of the box frame, the tubing means being in contact with the hot gases for generating steam in the steam generator; (d) header means within the box frame and connected to the tubing means for distributing fluid thereto, and; (e) connecting means secured to an upper region of the box frame for top supporting the header and the tubing means; whereby adjacent modules are sealably secured together forming a unitary gas tight enclosure through which exhaust gases travel.

Kidaloski, R.G.; Olinger, H.S.; Bryk, S.A.

1987-08-11

187

DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of a device that is capable of sampling gaseous emissions from automobiles. The device samples exhaust gases at a mass rate that is proportional to the total exhaust gas mass flow rate, which is measured using an ultrasonic vortex flowmeter. T...

188

Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described.

Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

1980-02-01

189

Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by

W. G. Colella; M. Z. Jacobson; D. M. Golden

2005-01-01

190

SST-1 Gas feed and Gas Exhaust system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SST-1 tokamak is a long pulse tokamak designed for the plasma operation up to 1000 sec duration. Gas feed system and gas exhaust management will play a very crucial role during plasma discharge. During the different type of operations of tokamak like wall conditioning, diverter operation and neutral beam injection, a large amount of gas will be fed into the vacuum chamber at different locations. Also during plasma operations, the gas will be fed both in continues and pulse mode. Gas feed will be carried out mainly using piezo-electric valves controlled by PXI based data acquisition and control system. Such operations will lead to a huge amount gas exhaust by the main system which requires good exhaust facility to searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Also initial pumping of cryostat and vacuum vessel of SST-1 will release a large amount of gas. Exhausted gases from SST -1 will be Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Mixture gases or some toxic gases. Dedicated exhaust system controlling the different gases are installed. Special treatment of hazardous/explosive gases is done before releasing to the atmosphere. This paper describes design and implementations of the complete gas feed and exhaust system of SST-1.

Raval, Dilip C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Manthena, Himabindu; Pradhan, Subrata

2012-11-01

191

Effects on symptoms and lung function in humans experimentally exposed to diesel exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Diesel exhaust is a common air pollutant made up of several gases, hydrocarbons, and particles. An experimental study was carried out which was designed to evaluate if a particle trap on the tail pipe of an idling diesel engine would reduce effects on symptoms and lung function caused by the diesel exhaust, compared with exposure to unfiltered exhaust. METHODS:

B Rudell; M C Ledin; U Hammarström; N Stjernberg; B Lundbäck; T Sandström

1996-01-01

192

Cooling liner for convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for recovering the energy of working medium gases compressed in the compression section of a gas turbine engine and utilized to cool a convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle in such an engine, comprising the steps of: flowing the working medium gases from the compression section to the convergent section of the convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle; passing the working medium beneath a liner in the upstream region of the convergent section to cool the exhaust nozzle; and discharging the working medium from the liner into the engine exhaust flow at the convergent section upstream of the nozzle throat at a point at which the static pressure of the working medium under the liner is substantially equal to the static pressure of the exhaust flow.

Holler, R.P.; McMath, C.W.

1987-02-17

193

Detection of aircraft exhaust in hyperspectral image data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a hyperspectral imaging system for the detection of gases has been investigated, and algorithms have been developed for various applications. Of particular interest here is the ability to use these algorithms in the detection of the wake disturbances trailing an aircraft. A dataset of long wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral datacubes taken with a Telops Hyper-Cam at Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia is investigated. The methodology presented here assumes that the aircraft engine exhaust gases will become entrained in wake vortices that develop; therefore, if the exhaust can be detected upon exiting the engines, it can be followed through subsequent datacubes until the vortex disturbance is detected. Gases known to exist in aircraft exhaust are modeled, and the Adaptive Coherence/Cosine Estimator (ACE) is used to search for these gases. Although wake vortices have not been found in the data, an unknown disturbance following the passage of the aircraft has been discovered.

Lane, Sarah E.; West, Leanne L.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Burdette, Edward M.

2011-09-01

194

40 CFR 86.338-79 - Exhaust measurement accuracy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures...percent of full scale. (4) For gasoline-fueled engines, the...

2013-07-01

195

Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

Mikkonen, Seppo

196

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2013-07-01

197

Economics of exhaustible resources  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation deals with various issues of resource depletion, beginning with a rather comprehensive review of the literature. The resource scarcity is the first issue dealt with, where differentiation is made between Ricardian and Pure scarcities of exhaustible resources. While the Ricardian scarcity is properly acknowledged and modeled in the resource literature, the fact that the resource stocks are always decreasing with extraction (i.e., the pure scarcity) is overlooked. One important conclusion of the scarcity analysis is that the steady-state point defining the equilibrium values for the nonresource output to capital and the resource flow to resource stock ratios, is found to be a moving one, as a result of the increasing scarcity mechanism. Another observation about the literature is that there is a marked bias in favor of long run, developed economies' problems and resource inputs as opposed to the problems of developing economies and resource exports. Thus, a theoretical framework is developed where not only resource inputs and exports are analyzed but resource exports are advanced as a vehicle for development. Within the context of this theoretical framework, it is concluded that optimality dictates that the resource inputs and exports, expressed per unit of the capital stock, be declining over time. Furthermore, the resource exports are proposed as the domestic substitute for foreign aid.

Rabhan, S.A.

1986-01-01

198

OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVELY FUELED VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Smog chamber tests were conducted using automobile exhaust gas generated during emission tests with a group of alternatively fueled vehicles. he tests were designed to evaluate the photochemical characteristics of organic emissions from vehicles operating on compressed natural ga...

199

Measurement of automobile exhaust emissions under realistic road conditions  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas measurement system for on-board use has been developed, which enables the direct and continuous determination of the exhaust mass emissions in vehicles on the road. Such measurements under realistic traffic conditions are a valuable supplement to measurements taken on test benches, the latter, however, still being necessary. In the last two years numerous test runs were undertaken. The reliability of the on-board system could be demonstrated and a very informative view of the exhaust emissions behavior of a vehicle on the road was obtained from the test results.

Staab, J.; Schurmann, D.

1987-01-01

200

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES USING METHANOL AND METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDED FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exhaust and evaporative emissions were examined from vehicles fueled with methanol or a gasoline-methanol blend. Regulated automobile pollutants, as well as detailed hydrocarbons, methanol, and aldehydes were measured, and exhaust emission trends were obtained for vehicle operati...

201

40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The...

2011-07-01

202

Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.  

PubMed

For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were not detectable. PMID:16265462

Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

2006-03-01

203

Marine exhaust manifold and elbow  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a marine propulsion system having an internal combustion engine exhausted through a water jacketed exhaust assembly. This patent describes improvement in a manifold portion having intake exhaust passages receiving engine exhaust; an elbow portion extending upwardly from the manifold portion and having transfer exhaust passages extending from the intake exhaust passages and communicating through a bend with a discharge exhaust passage, wherein exhaust flows upwardly from the manifold portion into the elbow portion and around the bend to the discharge exhaust passage; water jacket means around the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages and directing water along the exterior of the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages, wherein water flows upwardly along the manifold portion to the elbow portion and then upwardly and around the bend and then to the end of the discharge exhaust passage to mix with exhaust thereat; wall supports between the water jacket means and the elbow portion.

Lindstedt, D.H.

1992-05-05

204

Greenhouse Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the Earth would be ... regulated independently of its warming effects. More about greenhouse gases’ effect on the climate » Also on Energy Explained Energy ...

205

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks...exhaust formaldehyde sample, ml. (viii)(A) Q = Ratio of molecular weights of formaldehyde to its DNPH derivative. (B)...

2009-07-01

206

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks...exhaust formaldehyde sample, ml. (viii)(A) Q = Ratio of molecular weights of formaldehyde to its DNPH derivative. (B)...

2010-07-01

207

Technology and market assessment of gas-fueled vehicles in New York State. Volume II. Technology and economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Volume II deals primarily with the technology and economics of vehicle conversion, refueling equipment design, etc., for using gaseous fuels in transportation vehicles. Other issues explored include safety considerations, vehicle exhaust emissions when using gaseous fuels, sensitivity analyses of the economic parameters of fleet vehicle conversions, identification of the best fleets for conversion, new developments in gaseous fuel storage and compressor design plus research and development needs. The basics of vehicle conversion and refueling station design are explained in detail for compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and liquefied petroleum gases or propane (LPG). CNG is typically stored at 2,400 pounds per square inch (psi) in the vehicle while LNG is stored in cryogenic storage tanks at low pressure (60 psi or less). LPG pressure during storage can range as high as 200 psi. The advantages of operation using gaseous fuels include good cold starting characteristics, few engine deposits, improved vehicle energy consumption, and favorable exhaust emissions. Disadvantages include reduced vehicle performance, limited range on gaseous fuel (CNG only), and possibly reduced vehicle payload and cargo-carrying volume. The economic incentive for vehicle conversion to gaseous fuels is a direct consequence of these fuels' lower cost relative to current liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The safety of GFVs was explored using documented in-service records and analyses of state and national accident files. The exhaust emissions of GFVs are generally low in carbon monoxide; total unburned hydrocarbons generally are higher. Based on the technology and economic data considered, the fleets best suited to gaseous fuel conversion were determined. School bus fleets emerged as the best-suited fleets for conversion based on annual fuel use and vehicle operational characteristics. 60 figs., 36 tabs.

Not Available

1983-08-01

208

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

209

Comparison of Flexible Fuel Vehicle and Life-Cycle Fuel Consumption and Emissions of Selected Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases for Ethanol 85 Versus Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus

Haibo Zhai; H. Christopher Frey; Nagui M. Rouphail; Gonçalo A. Gonçalves; Tiago L. Farias; Veronica Figueroa; Kevin Mackie; Nick Guarriello; C. Cooper; Gary Bishop; Ryan Stadtmuller; Donald Stedman; John Ray; William Faulkner; L. Goodrich; Venkata Botlaguduru; Sergio Capareda; Calvin Parnell; Feng Zhen; Nigel Clark; Clinton Bedick; Mridul Gautam; W. Wayne; Gregory Thompson; Donald Lyons; Richard Atkinson; David McKain; Joo-Youp Lee; Kyungmin Cho; Lei Cheng; Tim Keener; Gautham Jegadeesan; Souhail Al-Abed; Raymond Hoff; Hai Zhang; Nikisa Jordan; Ana Prados; Jill Engel-Cox; Amy Huff; Stephanie Weber; Erica Zell; Shobha Kondragunta; James Szykman; Brad Johns; Fred Dimmick; Anthony Wimmers; Jay Al-Saadi; Chieko Kittaka; Shih-Chieh Hsu; Chungsying Lu; Vicente Martínez-Soria; Carmen Gabaldo´n; Josep Penya-Roja; Jordi Palau; F. lvarez-Hornos; Feliu Sempere; Carlos Soriano; Brett Grover; Norman Eatough; Woods Woolwine; Delbert Eatough; Robert Cary

2009-01-01

210

Exhaust gas purification device  

SciTech Connect

The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

1980-02-19

211

Laser Interaction with Jet Engine Exhaust Induced Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-based missile-defence systems are being increasingly employed on aircraft to provide protection when attacked by optically-guided weapons. In some engagements the laser beam must pass through the exhaust gases of the aircraft. To predict the increase in laser beam divergence and jitter of the laser beam direction, an understanding of the exhaust gas structure and its influence is required. A

W. M. Isterling; L. J. Cox; M. Dubovinsky; D. H. Titterton; T. Porter

212

Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a

Wijmans Johannes G; Timothy C. Merkel; Richard W. Baker

2012-01-01

213

Atmospheric gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which gases make up the atmosphere? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the gaseous components of the atmosphere. Students explore the main gases of the atmosphere using a pop-up pie chart. Descriptions of the gases and their percentages in the atmosphere are provided. Students read about water vapor in the atmosphere, and an animation shows a simplified process of precipitation. A pop-up window explains the effects of dust on the atmosphere, and a photograph shows how large amounts of dust in the atmosphere create the reds and oranges displayed in sunsets. Finally, ozone is introduced to students as a necessary component of human life on Earth. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

214

Exhaust gas recirculation control valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control valve for preventing carbon and the like contained in the exhaust gas from attaching to the inner wall surface of exhaust gas paths, through which the exhaust gas from an engine of a motor car passes, thus decreasing the diameters of the paths with time. This exhaust gas recirculation control valve is provided in a

Masuda

1982-01-01

215

Automobile exhaust gas cleaner  

SciTech Connect

A cleaner for exhaust gas is described comprising: first and second perforated baffle means supported in respective first and second housings, the first housing having an exhaust gas inlet, the second housing having an exhaust gas outlet, and the first housing being situated below the second housing and connected thereto to permit the flow of exhaust gas upwardly from the first housing to the second housing, means for spraying cleaning liquid onto the first perforated baffle means and for permitting the gas to permeate therethrough and then to flow downwardly around means for deflecting the gas before moving upwardly to the second housing, the sprayed liquid falling downwardly into sump means for receiving the sprayed liquid, means for spraying cleaning liquid onto the second perforated baffle means and for permitting the gas to permeate therethrough, the sprayed liquid falling downwardly into the sump means, and means for filtering pollutants from the exhaust gas.

Pickering, J.J.

1989-04-18

216

Phase change thermal energy storage methods for combat vehicles. Final report on Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Three alternative cooling methods, based on latent heat absorption during phase changes, were studied for potential use in combat vehicle microclimate temperature control. Metal hydrides absorb heat as they release hydrogen gas. Plastic crystals change from one solid phase to another, absorbing heat in the process. Liquid air boils at cryogenic temperature and absorbs additional sensible heat as the cold gas mixes with the microclimate air flow. System designs were prepared for each of the three microclimate cooling concepts. These designs provide details about the three phase change materials, their containers and the auxiliary equipment needed to implement each option onboard a combat vehicle. The three concepts were compared on the basis of system mass, system volume, and the energy required to regenerate them after use. Metal hydrides were found to be the lightest and smallest option by a large margin. The energy needed to regenerate a hydride thermal-storage system can be extracted from the vehicle's exhaust gases.

Lynch, F.E.

1986-06-01

217

40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86...NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and...Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases....

2013-07-01

218

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99...the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks §...

2009-07-01

219

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99...the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks §...

2010-07-01

220

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section...CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel...

2011-07-01

221

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

222

Toxic gases.  

PubMed Central

An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given.

Matthews, G.

1989-01-01

223

Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the Earth and the rest of the inner solar were made by collecting the solids, to the rather efficient exclusion of the gases. In this grand separation the noble gases, because they are noble, were partitioned strongly into the gas phase. The resultant generalization is that the noble gases are very scarce in the materials of the inner solar system, whence their common synonym "rare gases."This scarcity is probably the most important single feature to remember about noble-gas cosmochemistry. As illustration of the absolute quantities, for example, a meteorite that contains xenon at a concentration of order 10 -10 cm3STP g -1 (4×10-15 mol g-1) would be considered relatively rich in xenon. Yet this is only 0.6 ppt (part per trillion, fractional abundance 10-12) by mass. In most circumstances, an element would be considered efficiently excluded from some sample if its abundance, relative to cosmic proportions to some convenient reference element, were depleted by "several" orders of magnitude. But a noble gas would be considered to be present in quite high concentration if it were depleted by only four or five orders of magnitude (in the example above, 10-10 cm3STP g-1 of xenon corresponds to depletion by seven orders of magnitude), and one not uncommonly encounters noble-gas depletion of more than 10 orders of magnitude.The second most important feature to note about noble-gas cosmochemistry is that while a good deal of the attention given to noble gases really is about chemistry, traditionally a good deal of attention is also devoted to nuclear phenomena, much more so than for most other elements. This feature is a corollary of the first feature noted above, namely scarcity. A variety of nuclear transmutation processes - decay of natural radionuclides and energetic particle reactions - lead to the production of new nuclei that are often new elements. Most commonly, the quantity of new nuclei originating in nuclear transmutation is very small compared to the quantity already present in the sample in question,

Podosek, F. A.

2003-12-01

224

PHYSIOLOGICAL, CELLULAR, AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust is a major source of pollution especially in urban areas. The contribution of the diesel exhaust particles and gases to increases in deaths, asthma symptoms, lung infections, and other health effects is unclear. This study will examine the lung, blood, heart, and o...

225

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST (Final 2002)  

EPA Science Inventory

This assessment examined information regarding the possible health hazards associated with exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DE), which is a mixture of gases and particles. The assessment concludes that long-term (i.e., chronic) inhalation exposure is likely to pose a l...

226

Design Study for Toxic Rocket Exhaust Gas Cleaning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature and equipment survey resulted in the selection of a high gas velocity chemical spray scrubber as the method for cleaning toxic products from rocket exhaust gases. The study included application of this type of system to 1,000-, 5,000-, 50,000...

J. W. Garrett

1972-01-01

227

Bag filter for cleaning gases after electric arc steel-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a large capacity bag filter for cleaning gases of electric arc steel-melting furnaces from highly dispersed dust particles. A sketch of the filter is provided and its technical characteristics are listed. Tests with the filter showed that in the process of cleaning the steel-melting shop exhaust gases, the dust content of gases at the filter exit is

I. K. Goryachev; V. P. Korsakov; A. D. Novikov

1987-01-01

228

Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

229

Exhaust emission testing of two ethanol variable fueled 1992 Chevrolet Luminas. Test results - 1993. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the exhaust emission testing results for two 1992 low-mileage Chevrolet Lumina ethanol variable fuel vehicles. The vehicles were tested on both Indolene and E85 fuel using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for exhaust emissions. In the future, the EPA will retest the Luminas at future mileage accumulations of 20,000, 50,000 and possibly 100,000. At these future mileage accumulations, the vehicles will also be tested using intermediate fuel blends for both exhaust and evaporative emissions.

Samulski, M.

1994-01-01

230

40 CFR 600.010 - Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements...AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.010 Vehicle test requirements and minimum data...

2013-07-01

231

40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. 600.006 Section 600.006 ...GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.006 ...information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. (a) For certification...

2013-07-01

232

On board measurement of carbon dioxide exhaust car emissions using a mid-infrared optical based fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the investigation of an optical sensor system for the online measurement of carbon dioxide emissions in the exhaust system of a motor vehicle. Current anti-pollution technology installed in motor vehicles fail to meet monitoring requirements as specified by the European Commission. A robust sensor design and construction have made it suitable for installation on the exhaust of

J. Clifford; J. Mulrooney; G. Dooly; C. Fitzpatrick; E. Lewis; E. Merlone-Borla; G. Flavia

2008-01-01

233

Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP ( n=806) were much higher than those of the controls ( n=413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who have indisposed sensation of nose or laryngopharynx, cough, phlegm and pharyngitis in the workers who were occupationally exposed to gasoline exhausts ( n=157) were also higher than those of controls ( n=121), the OR values were 2.43, 3.76, 2.58, and 3.70, respectively, and in the 40 gasoline exhausts exposed workers, the frequencies of 6-TG (thioguanine), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei in peripheral blood were markedly higher ( P<0.05) than those of controls. The SI (T lymphocytes transformation) activity, total E rosette, E active rosette, content of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and fibrin (FN) of the exposed group were significantly ( P<0.05) decreased compared with those of the control. All the results showed that vehicle emissions could not only induce adverse effects on respiratory and immune system of occupationally exposed people, but also have potential carcinogenicity to human beings.

Ye, Shun-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Song, Jian; Peng, Bao-Cheng; Yuan, Dong; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Qi, Ping-Ping

234

Self-propelled vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A self-propelled vehicle is described which includes a body and a set of four internal-force generating devices, each device having a central axis about which internal portions thereof rotate, the four devices being configured as two opposed pairs, the two devices of one pair having parallel axes, but turning in opposite directions, the two devices of the other pair also having parallel axes but turning in opposite directions the axes of the one pair being at right angles to the axes of the other pair. Each device consists of: stationary frame means, a stationary sun gear on the frame means, the sun gear being coaxial with the central axis of its respective device, a rotor pivoted about the axis of the sun gear, three crankshafts carried by the rotor at substantially 120/sup 0/ intervals, each having an eccentric portion, for each crankshaft a cylinder in the rotor, a piston mounted for riciprocation in each cylinder, and a connecting rod from the piston to the eccentric portion of the crankshaft, each crankshaft being fixed to rotate with a respective planetary gear, all planetary gears meshing with the sun gear and having the same pitch diameter as the sun gear, whereby any point on the pitch circle of a planetary gear describes a cardioid as the planetary gear rotates around the sun gear once, the crankshaft eccentricity being substantially 1/3 of the pitch radius of a planetary gear, fuel metering means for providing a combustible mixture for the cylinder, ignition means to ignite the combustible mixture in each cylinder, and valve means for admitting the combustible mixture to, and exhausting combustion gases from, each cylinder.

Morrison, R.D.

1986-03-04

235

The exhausted horse syndrome.  

PubMed

Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

Foreman, J H

1998-04-01

236

Dynamics, Transport and Chemical Kinetics of Compartment Fire Exhaust Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation focuses on the transport of carbon monoxide (CO) away from a burning compartment and the conditions necessary for the existence of fatally high concentrations of CO at remote locations. During the past year, the research has concentrated...

R. J. Roby U. Vandsburger

1996-01-01

237

Characterization of Emissions from Vehicles Using Methanol and Methanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust and evaporative emissions were examined from vehicles fueled with methanol or a gasoline-methanol blend. Regulated automobile pollutants, as well as detailed hydrocarbons, methanol, and aldehydes were measured, and exhaust emission trends were obtained for vehicle operation over five different driving cycles. Results indicated that use of the blended fuel does not generally have any significant effect on base-line exhaust

Peter A. Gabele; James O. Baugh; Frank Black; Richard Snow

1985-01-01

238

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of parti...

K. J. Nikula G. L. Finch R. A. Westhouse J. C. Seagrove J. L. Mauderly

1999-01-01

239

40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...exhaust system by sealing or plugging all detectable sources of exhaust gas leaks. The exhaust system...

2011-07-01

240

Auxiliary exhaust system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An auxiliary exhaust system for use with a flue includes a conduit communicating at one end with an opening formed in the flue wall and a blower operable to introduce auxiliary air into the flue through the conduit. The conduit is angled so that the auxiliary air enters the flue with a velocity component extending in the downstream direction of

G. T. Horvat; S. D. Horvat

1984-01-01

241

Influence of ethanol and methanol gasoline blends on the mutagenicity of particulate exhaust extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheSalmonella mutagenicity test was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol fuel extenders on the genetic toxicity of particulate exhaust extracts. Four spark-ignition engine equipped vehicles were operated on gasoline alone, 10% blends of ethanol or methanol in gasoline, and a commercially available “gasohol.” The tests were conducted on a chassis dynomometer and the particulate exhaust was collected on high

Charles R. Clark; John S. Dutcher; Roger O. McClellan; Ted M. Naman; Donald E. Seizingert

1983-01-01

242

Generation and Characterization of Diesel Exhaust in a Facility for Controlled Human Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An idling medium-duty diesel truck operated on ultralow sulfur diesel fuel was used as an emission source to generate diesel exhaust for controlled human exposure. Repeat tests were conducted on the Federal Test Procedure using a chassis dynamometer to demonstrate the reproducibility of this vehicle as a source of diesel emissions. Exhaust was supplied to a specially constructed exposure chamber

Aniket A. Sawant; David R. Cocker III; J. Wayne Miller; Tony Taliaferro; David Diaz-Sanchez; William S. Linn; Kenneth W. Clark; Henry Gong Jr; Michael Holdren; Kenneth Cowen; Alex Laskin; David Harris; Richard Shores; Robert Kagann; Ram Hashmonay; Francesca Sprovieri; Nicola Pirrone; Larry Jacobson; Brian Hetchler; David Schmidt; Richard Nicolai; Albert Heber; Ji-Qin Ni; Steven Hoff; Jacek Koziel; Yuanhui Zhang; David Beasley; David Parker; Roxolana Kashuba; Peter Scheff; Chitsan Lin; Naiwei Liou; Endy Sun; Kenneth Clark; Gustavo Olivares; Johan Strom; Christer Johansson; Lars Gidhagen

2008-01-01

243

40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. 86.160-00...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. (a)...

2013-07-01

244

DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A MILD HYBRID VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicles deliver the dual benefits of decreased fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Modern hybrid vehicles have many controllers for the different systems. For example a powertrain may have an engine, electric motor and gearbox controller (for automatic transmissions), all of which affect the performance of the vehicle. In addition, there are typically chassis and vehicle controllers present in the

John Ormerod; Peter Fussey

245

ROUND ROBIN ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOL AND CARBONYL SYNTHETIC EXHAUST SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent changes in regulatory practices have brought about a need for speciated analysis of the volatile organic components of vehicle exhaust. he purpose of this study was to allow interested laboratories to participate in a Round Robin so that each could assess their speciation ...

246

THERMOELECTRICAL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM THE EXHAUST OF A LIGHT TRUCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team formed by Clarkson University is engaged in a project to design, build, model, test, and develop a plan to commercialize a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system for recovering energy from the exhaust of light trucks and passenger cars. Clarkson University is responsible for project management, vehicle interface design, system modeling, and commercialization plan. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (sub-contractor to Clarkson)

M Karri; E Thacher; B Helenbrook; M Compeau; A Kushch; N Elsner; M Bhatti; J O Brien; F Stabler

2003-01-01

247

Latest techniques and equipment for the conversion of motor vehicles to LPG/petroleum use  

SciTech Connect

Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) has been used for transportation in Europe, the United States, Japan and to a much lesser extent in Australia for many years. In most cases, the vehicles have been powered by engines designed for petrol operation and subsequently converted to use LPG. The application of LPG as an automotive fuel in different countries depends heavily on the availability of the fuel and the tax policy of the government. The demand for dual fuel equipment is increasing. Some of the problems facing Australia to convert vehicles to LPG use emphasize the institutional and hardware obstacles. Before LPG can be considered to be a safe, viable alternative fuel to petrol, improvements will have to be made in safety standards, in reduced exhaust emissions, in increased fuel efficiency, and in the involvement of car manufacturers. (SAC)

Armstrong, R.

1980-01-01

248

Solids Liquids and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compare and contrast the three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases. First you will begin by looking at characteristics of each solids, liquids and gasesGases, Liquids and Solids Facts. Then you will look at examples of each stateSolids, Liquids and Gases Video. Demonstrate an understanding of solids, liquids and gases by playing interactive gameSolids, Liquids and Gases Game. Graphic Organizer is here to be filled out as you learn during this lesson. Use the red ...

Salter, Ms.

2009-10-22

249

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made

M. Tatur; H. Tyrer; D. Tomazic; M. Thornton; J. McDonald

2005-01-01

250

COMPRESSED MEDICAL GASES GUIDELINE  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... COMPRESSED MEDICAL GASES GUIDELINE. (REVISED) FEBRUARY 1989. ... COMPRESSED MEDICAL GASES GUIDELINE. INTRODUCTION. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

251

Automobile exhaust purifying system  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust purifying system is described for an automobile internal combustion engine which comprises, in combination; a catalytic converter disposed on an exhaust system of the engine and having a catalyst; a temperature detecting means for detecting a signal indicative of the temperature of the catalyst; a total engine operating hour detecting means for detecting a signal indicative of the total operating hour over which the engine has been operated; a spark timing control means for controlling the spark timing to retard when the temperature detecting means detects that the temperature of the catalyst is lower than a predetermined value; a retard time correcting means for increasing the amount of control performed by the spark timing control means with increase within a predetermined range detected by the total engine operating hour detecting means.

Hayama, N.; Yoshimura, T.; Tanikawa, Y.

1986-03-11

252

Diesel exhaust aftertreatment 1996  

SciTech Connect

The papers in this volume deal in the main with the two most common forms of aftertreatment technology. The first is the trap oxidizer, which is a system for trapping and filtering the particulate matter from the exhaust gas and periodically removing it by thermal oxidation. This process is commonly known as regeneration. The second is the diesel oxidation catalyst. Similar in many ways to the flow through a converter in passenger cars, it oxidizes the soluble organic fraction of the diesel exhaust as well as gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. This catalyst is being used in production volumes in heavy duty trucks in the US beginning in 1994. Several papers in this volume deal with the development experience of this converter application. There also is included a series of papers by trap and filter manufacturers dealing with improved materials, making their devices more durable. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-09-01

253

Exhaust gas filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas filter is described for removing diesel particulates comprising a honeycomb of porous sintered ceramic fiber composite sheets, the honeycomb having channels with alternate ends of the channels closed. The ceramic fiber composite sheets have a bulk density of from 0.1 to 0.8 g\\/cm³ and consists of from 40 wt. % to 96 wt. % ceramic fiber having

T. Kusuda; T. Mihara; M. Yonemura; S. Kuwano

1987-01-01

254

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two tracer gas studies, to quantify the extent to which exhaust gases from indoor radon reduction systems are re-entrained into pitched-roof houses (exposing persons indoors), and the manner in which the exhausts disperse outdoors (exposing persons outside the...

255

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

2010-07-01

256

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

2010-07-01

257

Vehicle propulsion system with external propellant supply  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle propulsion system is described, comprising: a vehicle designed for travel along an arranged travel path in a single extended surrounding medium; propellant depositing means for distributing propellant into a propellant trail having no structural constraint in the extended medium and extending along at least part of the travel path in advance of the vehicle; and the vehicle having combustion means for immediate combustion and expansion of at least some of the propellant distributed along the path to produce thrust on the vehicle, and exhaust means for expelling burnt propellant from the vehicle.

Criswell, D.R.

1993-07-06

258

Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees  

PubMed Central

Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide.

Girling, Robbie D.; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A.; Poppy, Guy M.

2013-01-01

259

Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees.  

PubMed

Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide. PMID:24091789

Girling, Robbie D; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A; Poppy, Guy M

2013-10-03

260

40 CFR 86.1713-99 - Light-duty exhaust durability programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Light-duty exhaust durability programs. 86.1713-99...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1713-99 Light-duty...

2013-07-01

261

Characterization of Submicron Exhaust Particles from Engines Operating Without Load on Diesel and JP-8 Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diluted exhaust from a selection of Air Force ground support vehicles was subjected to gravimetric, carbon, and size distribution analyses in September 1999. The vehicles operated on diesel and JP-8 fuels. In most cases, the engines involved were similar to civilian counterparts. The tests involved \\

C. Fred Rogers; John C. Sagebiel; Barbara Zielinska; W. Patrick Arnott; Eric M. Fujita; Jacob D. McDonald; James Brian Griffin; Kerry Kelly; Dana Overacker; David Wagner; JoAnn S. Lighty; Adel Sarofim; Glenn Palmer

2003-01-01

262

Heat recovery device for exhaust flues  

SciTech Connect

A device is described for recovering and recirculating heat normally lost from the exhaust flue of a stove, furnace or the like having a cylindrical flue. The device consisting of: a section of cylindrical flue pipe which has opposite ends adapted for connection to the existing flue, which has an inside diameter substantially the same as that of the existing cylindrical flue and through which the hot flue gases flow; heating tubes extending diametrically through the flue pipe section so that the hot flue gases flow over the outer surfaces thereof, the heating tubes having opposite air inlet and discharge ends and being disposed in a single row; a housing defining an air flow chamber surrounding the portion of the flue pipe section containing the heating tubes, the housing having an ambient air inlet on the same side of the flue pipe section as the inlet ends of the heating tubes and a heated air outlet on the same side of the flue pipe section as the discharge ends of the heating tubes; fan means inside the housing for drawing ambient air into the housing through the air inlet and propelling a flow air toward the heated air outlet, both through the heating tubes and over the outer surface of the portion of the flue pipe section; and a disc-shaped catalytic combustor mounted inside the flue pipe section upstream of the heating tubes for rotational movement between a starting position generally parallel to the flow of flue gases and an operating position generally perpendicular to the flow of the flue gases.

Knoch, D.G.

1986-06-24

263

Device for exhaust gas recycling  

SciTech Connect

A device for exhaust gas recycling is proposed which controls the amount of recycled exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine equipped with an injection unit so that a certain air factor is attained. The device comprises a closing element for the exhaust gas return conduit, which latter terminates into the intake manifold, this closing element being suitably constituted by a throttle valve and being directly connected to the adjusting lever or control rod of the injection pump. If this connection is established via a resilient linkage between the adjusting lever and the exhaust gas return valve, then the thus-recycled amount of exhaust gas can be dimensioned so that a specific quantity of recycled exhaust gas is associated with a specific angular position of the adjusting lever.

Banzhaf, W.; Stumpp, G.

1980-10-28

264

Exhaust gas recirculation valve assembly  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an exhaust gas recirculation valve assembly. It comprises: a base having an exhaust gas chamber through which exhaust gas passes; a pintle valve assembly having a valve member disposed within the exhaust gas chamber and a valve stem extending outwardly of the chamber through an opening therein; an actuator, maintained in a fixed relationship to the base, coupling means, extending between the valve stem and the armature and configured to allow lateral movement of the valve stem relative to the armature to compensate for misalignment of the actuator relative to the base thereby preventing the misalignment from affecting the reciprocal operation of the pintle valve assembly relative to the base.

Grey, T.J.; Braun, C.N.; Palmer, D.O.

1991-06-04

265

Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.  

PubMed

General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust. PMID:6193022

Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

266

40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-12...GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating...

2013-07-01

267

Exhaust gas sensors  

SciTech Connect

The automotive industry needed a fast, reliable, under-the-hood method of determining nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust. Several technologies were pursued concurrently. These sensing technologies were based on light absorption, electrochemical methods, and surface mass loading. The Y-12 plant was selected to study the methods based on light absorption. The first phase was defining the detailed technical objectives of the sensors--this was the role of the automobile companies. The second phase was to develop prototype sensors in the laboratories--the national laboratories. The final phase was testing of the prototype sensors by the automobile industries. This program was canceled a few months into what was to be a three-year effort.

Hiller, J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miree, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Allen Park, MI (United States)

1997-02-09

268

Determination of the Effects of Speed, Temperature, and Fuel Factors on Exhaust Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provided a comprehensive approach to examining the relative significance and possible synergistic effects of speed, temperature, and fuel on mobile source emissions modeling. Eleven passenger vehicles from three fuel delivery system control groups were tested, namely, three from carburetor (CARBU), three from throttle body injection (TBI), and five from multi-port fuel injection (MPFI) group. A minimum of 90 tests were conducted on each vehicle with a random combination of three fuel types (Phase 1, Phase 2, and Indolene), three temperatures (50 F, 75 F, and 100 F), and ten speed cycles. Each vehicle was repeated for ten speed cycles (75 F and Indolene). In general, exhaust emissions descended in the order of CARBU, TBI, and MPFI. All vehicles in the CARBU group contained a "dead" catalyst, which probably explained why vehicles in CARBU were "high emitters.". Results from the paired t-test indicated that exhaust emissions difference between Phase 1 and Phase 2 fuels for all vehicles was significant. The net exhaust emissions reduction of Phase 2 over Phase 1 fuel for HC and NOx was 21% and 12%, respectively; which is in good agreements with the CARB projected 17% HC (including evaporative and exhaust emissions) and 11% CO emissions reduction based on 1996 calendar year when Phase 2 fuel is introduced. Temperature had minimal effects on exhaust emissions especially the test cycles were in hot-stabilized mode. Nevertheless, exhaust emissions from cold-start mode were higher than hot-start mode because the catalyst had not reached to optimal operating temperature during the cold-start mode. The relative contributions of speed, temperature, and fuel to exhaust emissions were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and it was found interaction terms among fuel, speed, and temperature were statistically insignificant. Individually, the temperature and fuel factor played a minor role in exhaust emission modeling. Speed and vehicle type were the two dominant factors determining exhaust emissions. These results suggested that more resources should be allocated to cycle related research. Future studies will investigate the second-by-second data including: vehicle speed, engine rpm, exhaust oxygen content, catalyst temperature, HC, CO, NOx, and CO_2 collected from the present study.

Chou, Chia-Yang David

269

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission...New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...the exhaust of either gasoline-fueled,...

2013-07-01

270

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will be introduced to solids, liquids, and gases. Students will identify key characteristics of the three states of matter. Everything is made of matter. Matter is made of atoms. Matter makes up solids, liquids, and gases. What are some similarities and differences between solids, liquids, and gases? Follow the link below to find out. Characteristics of the States of Matter The previous website gave some general characteristics for solids, liquids, and gases. Now ...

Rohlfing, Mrs.

2010-10-22

271

A self manufacturing Hybrid Electric Vehicle using magnetic clutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing exhaustion of natural oil resources, along with a heightened concern about the oil price, has LED to research alternative energy source for automotive vehicles. One of these alternatives is Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). An HEV is a hybrid vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move; generally an internal combustion engine and one or more

Hack Sun Kim; Chan Se Jeong; Chang Don Lee; Soon Yong Yang

2009-01-01

272

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, S.

1986-08-19

273

BASSTEGG (Bay Area Simplified Simulation of Travel, Energy and Greenhouse Gases) Sketch Planning Charrette\\/GIS Models for Predicting Household Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) and Greenhouse Gas (CO 2) Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased interest in the interactions of land use and transportation and their related impacts on global warming, there is now a warranted need for improved and quicker techniques for simulating mobile source based, regional and sub-regional greenhouse gas emissions. The Bay Area Simplified Simulation of Travel, Energy and Greenhouse Gases (BASTEGG) is a GIS-based tool for calculating automobile

H. M. Brazil; C. L. Purvis

274

Review of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Programs  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) and its predecessor organizations have maintained aggressive projects in diesel exhaust aftertreatment since 1993. The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 2027, specifically authorized DOE to help accelerate the ability of U. S. diesel engine manufacturers to meet emissions regulations while maintaining the compression ignition engines inherently high efficiency. A variety of concepts and devices have been evaluated for NOx and Particulate matter (PM) control. Additionally, supporting technology in diagnostics for catalysis, PM measurement, and catalyst/reductant systems are being developed. This paper provides a summary of technologies that have been investigated and provides recent results from ongoing DOE-sponsored R and D. NOx control has been explored via active NOx catalysis, several plasma-assisted systems, electrochemical cells, and fuel additives. Both catalytic and non-catalytic filter technologies have been investigated for PM control.

Ronald L. Graves

1999-04-26

275

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter  

SciTech Connect

Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2001-03-05

276

46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations and associated...

2011-10-01

277

46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations and associated...

2012-10-01

278

Effectiveness of mandated oxygenated fuel usage to reduce carbon monoxide exhaust levels in Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of Colorado Automobile Inspection and Readjustment (A.I.R.) two-speed exhaust emissions testing results was undertaken to evaluate changes in carbon monoxide exhaust levels due to the use of oxygenated fuels. Vehicles utilized within the study were separated according to their various emission control technologies: precatalyst (1938 to 1974), catalyst (1975 to 1980), and closed-loop (1981 to 1988). It was

Cagle

1989-01-01

279

Supporting design information for portable exhauster installation at tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, S-107  

SciTech Connect

This document provides supporting calculations and equipment dedication plans for portable exhausters and ductwork installed on tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, and S-107. The exhausters will ventilate the tanks during saltwell pumping to prevent the potential accumulation of flammable gases.

Keller, C.M.

1997-10-09

280

Control of benzene emissions from light-duty motor vehicles. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strategies to reduce the total amount of exhaust and evaporative benzene emissions from light-duty gasoline-fueled vehicles have been investigated. A literature search was performed to determine automotive benzene emission levels and technologies for benzene emission control. Laboratory vehicle emission tests were performed to demonstrate benzene control technologies. Exhaust benzene emission control was addressed by reducing total hydrocarbon emissions (including

Heimrich

1991-01-01

281

PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY IN THE EXHAUST OF SMALL SOLID ROCKET MOTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combusting environments where high velocities are encountered present a very challenging environment for the application of the Particle image Velocimetry (PIV) method. The physical features of the flow - background irradiance from burning gases, dense smoke, compressibility effects, inability to control seeding densities and inherent CCD limitations - make the measurement process difficult in the exhaust plume of solid rocket

B. J. BALAKUMAR; R. J. ADRIAN

282

Payload Dose Rate from Direct Beam Radiation and Exhaust Gas Fission Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in th...

M. A. Capo R. Mickle

1975-01-01

283

40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations...Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium...response. 98 to 100 percent hydrogen fuel may be used with...

2013-07-01

284

Control of Benzene Emissions from Light-Duty Motor Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several strategies to reduce the total amount of exhaust and evaporative benzene emissions from light-duty gasoline-fueled vehicles have been investigated. A literature search was performed to determine automotive benzene emission levels and technologies ...

M. J. Heimrich

1991-01-01

285

Investigation of On-Vehicle Fuel Catalyst System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On-vehicle pre-combustion fuel catalytic devices have the potential to improve fuel performance in the areas of decreased fuel consumption reduced exhaust emissions and restored fuel properties. SwRI/TFLRF subcontracted with Advanced Power Systems Incorpo...

E. A. Frame

2004-01-01

286

Stirling engines for hybrid electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and vehicle chassis dynamometer test data based on natural gas fuel are presented for kinematic Stirling engine emissions levels over a range of air\\/fuel ratios and exhaust gas recirculation levels. It is concluded that the natural-gas-fired Stirling engine is capable of producing exhaust pipe emissions levels significantly below those of other engines. The projected emissions levels are found to

William D. Ernst

1992-01-01

287

Commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems  

SciTech Connect

This article addresses design requirements for commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems. The topics of the article include design considerations, toilet exhaust, dishwasher exhaust, grease hood exhaust, codes and standards, design concerns, common problems, and fire suppression. A side bar on ducts, plenums and housings is also included.

McGuire, A.B. (McGuire Engineers, Chicago, IL (United States))

1993-05-01

288

Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

289

Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere is documented. A kinetic condensation model was implemented to predict heterogeneous condensation in the plume regime behind an HSCT flying in the lower stratosphere. Simulations were performed to illustrate the parametric dependence of contrail droplet growth on the exhaust condensation nuclei number density and size distribution. Model results indicate that the condensation of water vapor is strongly dependent on the number density of activated CN. Incorporation of estimates for dilution factors into a Lagrangian box model of the far-wake regime with scale-dependent diffusion indicates negligible decrease in ozone and enhancement of water concentrations of 6-13 times background, which decrease rapidly over 1-3 days. Radiative calculations indicate a net differential cooling rate of the plume about 3K/day at the beginning of the wake regime, with a total subsidence ranging between 0.4 and 1 km. Results from the Lagrangian plume model were used to estimate the effect of repeated superposition of aircraft plumes on the concentrations of water and NO(y) along a flight corridor. Results of laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry are also described. Kinetics of HCl, N2O5 and ClONO2 uptake on liquid sulfuric acid were measured as a function of composition and temperature. Refined measurements of the thermodynamics of nitric acid hydrates indicate that metastable dihydrate may play a role in the nucleation of more stable trihydrates PSC's.

Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R.-L.

1993-07-01

290

Dilution and aerosol dynamics within a diesel car exhaust plume—CFD simulations of on-road measurement conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle particle emissions are studied extensively because of their health effects, contribution to ambient PM levels and possible impact on climate. The aim of this work was to obtain a better understanding of secondary particle formation and growth in a diluting vehicle exhaust plume using 3-d information of simulations together with measurements. Detailed coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and aerosol

U. Uhrner; S. von Löwis; H. Vehkamäki; B. Wehner; S. Bräsel; M. Hermann; F. Stratmann; M. Kulmala; A. Wiedensohler

2007-01-01

291

Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum reactivity, but with the use of pure biodiesel and diesel, the most hydrocarbons are from unburned fuel and they have a less reactivity. The best composition in the fuel, for the control of the hydrocarbon emissions reactivity, needs to be a fuel with high-saturated fatty acid content.

Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

292

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide is one of the trace gases that contribute to greenhouse warming as well as stratospheric ozone depletion. The role of vehicular emissions in the global N2O budget is currently in doubt due to two recent findings: (1) catalytic converters increase the levels of N2O emissions from vehicles, and (2) past measurements are questionable due to the discovery of

Jean Muhlbaier Dasch

1992-01-01

293

Method and system to control ignition timing of an internal combustion engine in dependence on an exhaust gas composition signal  

SciTech Connect

The composition of exhaust gases from an ic engine is dependent on ignition timing; to control the composition, therefore, ignition timing is adjusted in accordance with sensed exhaust gas composition signals. To prevent abrupt change of ignition timing, as the exhaust gas composition signal changes upon change of exhaust gases between reducing and oxidizing state, a limit stage is included which limits the change of ignition timing between succeeding ignition events to a predetermined incremental crankshaft angle, for example 2*. The ignition angle adjustment may be nonsymmetrical in adding and subtracting direction, and, in any event, is limited to a maximum adjustment angle beyond which undesirable or unsafe operating conditions of the engine might obtain. In a preferred digital form, the count number of an accumulator counter, the output signal of which determines the occurrence of an ignition event, is modified, in said incremental steps, to thereby control the timing of the ignition event.

Gorille, I.

1981-01-13

294

Noble gases in meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of isotopic abundances of the noble gases in meteorites and other extraterrestrial samples became a large and active field during the past decade, especially within the last four years. The five stable noble gases proved to be excellent keys for unlocking the secrets of past physical events in the solar system and are used in studies of such

Donald D. Bogard

1971-01-01

295

ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOL GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1992, EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory initiated a nationwide QA program on the suppliers of EPA Protocol Gases. he program has three goals: to increase the acceptance and use of Protocol Gases by the air monitoring community, to provide a QA check...

296

Mack LNG vehicle development  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

Southwest Research Institute

2000-01-05

297

Stirling engines for hybrid electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory and vehicle chassis dynamometer test data based on natural gas fuel are presented for kinematic Stirling engine emissions levels over a range of air/fuel ratios and exhaust gas recirculation levels. It is concluded that the natural-gas-fired Stirling engine is capable of producing exhaust pipe emissions levels significantly below those of other engines. The projected emissions levels are found to be compliant with the 1995 California Air Resources Board Mobile Source Emission Standards for ultra-low-emissions vehicles.

Ernst, William D.

298

Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-06-14

299

Determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in vehicles escape fumes by GF-AAS and ICP-OES.  

PubMed

Automotive exhaust gases from vehicles using catalytic converters were filtered through cellulose filter papers to collect suspended particles expulsed along with the engine's escape fumes. A specially designed sample collector was used for supporting the filter papers during collection. The collector was manufactured from a new car's exhaust pipe. A cellulose circular paper filter, 11 cm diameter, was attached to one end of the pipe and kept centered by pressing it against the borders of the pipe by means of a perforated aluminum cap, slightly wider than the pipe, used to cover this end of the collector. Filter papers loaded with the solid particles were acid-digested using a modified domestic microwave oven to bring the solid material into solution. The resulting solutions were analyzed for Pt by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) and for Pd and Rh by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Results indicate that concentration of these analytes in the particulate is higher for new vehicles, having new catalytic converters, than for old ones. Maximum Pd, Pt and Rh in the samples analyzed were found to be 5.36, 12.60 and 1.03 microg g(-1), respectively. PMID:18371916

Goncalves, Antonio; Domínguez, José R; Alvarado, José

2007-11-29

300

Electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewed interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in the wake of the California Air Resources Board mandate that 2% of the vehicles lighter than 3750 lb (1700 kg) sold by each manufacturer in that state in 1998 be zero-emission vehicles is examined. The reasons why replacing an internal combustion vehicle (ICV) with an electrically powered equivalent greatly reduces air pollution,

M. J. Riezenman

1992-01-01

301

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of

Neil A Buzzard; Nigel N Clark; Steven E Guffey

2009-01-01

302

Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems  

DOEpatents

A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01

303

Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems  

DOEpatents

A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1995-12-26

304

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas

M. Q. Wang; W. W. Marr

1994-01-01

305

Jet Engine Exhaust Aerosol Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet engine exhaust aerosol was characterized with respect to mass concentration and composition of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction and the particulate sulfate as a function of engine power setting for fuel with low-sulfur content (6 ppm) and high-sulfur content (3000 ppm). The ratio of black carbon (BC) to total carbon (TC) varied from 11% with the engine in idle run

A. Petzold; F. P. Schröder

1998-01-01

306

Ultracold gases: Atom SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superfluid ultracold gases in designer potentials are analogous to superconducting electronic circuits. The study of these systems refines our understanding of flow and dissipation in quantum fluids, and has applications for inertial sensing and metrology.

Edwards, Mark

2013-02-01

307

Electrochemistry of Dissolved Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrochemistry of various dissolved gases has been investigated as a function of the gas, solution pH, supporting electrolyte, electrode material, and the preconditioning of the electrode surfaces. These investigations have been conducted through th...

D. T. Sawyer

1965-01-01

308

Regulating Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video highlights the work of climate scientists in the Amazon who research the relationship between deforestation, construction of new dams, and increased amounts of greenhouse gases being exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

Kqed; Domain, Teachers'

309

Exhaust elbow for marine propulsion system  

SciTech Connect

A marine propulsion system is described having an internal combustion engine exhausted through a water jacketed exhaust elbow, an improved exhaust elbow: consisting of: an intake exhaust passage communicating through a bend with a discharge exhaust passage; water jacket means around the exhaust passages; central channel means extending longitudinally along the exterior of the discharge exhaust passage to guide water therealong in the water jacket means to the end of the discharge exhaust passage to mix with exhaust thereat; and means for maintaining the end tip of the discharge exhaust passage dry to prevent water ingestion and creeping back into the discharge exhaust passage due to pulsations of the engine, the last mentioned means comprising transition means at the end of the central channel means creating an outward draw from the central channel means to minimize break-up of outward water flow from the central channel means at the end tip of the discharge exhaust passage which may otherwise deposit water on the end tip of the discharge exhaust passage.

Entringer, D.C.; Gruenwald, D.J.; Felix, D.K.

1986-03-04

310

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Automobile Engine Adjustments to Reduce Exhaust Emissions and An Evaluation of the Training Required to Develop Personnel Competent to Make the Adjustments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to explore two approaches for the control of exhaust emissions from used motor vehicles. The first approach involved the upgrading of Class A stations with exhaust analyzers and the training of Class A mechanics to perform low-emissi...

J. L. Cockel

1973-01-01

311

40 CFR 86.094-13 - Light-duty exhaust durability programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Light-duty exhaust durability programs. 86.094-13...Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and...

2013-07-01

312

Comparison of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Airborne and Automobile Exhaust Particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) in airborne particulates collected simultaneously at downtown and suburban sites and in exhaust particulates from diesel and gasoline engine vehicles were determined. The mean concentrations of all compounds in the atmosphere were lower at the suburban site. The differences between the two sites were smaller in airborne particulates than in the

Kazuichi Hayakawa; Tsuyoshi Murahashi; Kazuhiko Akutsu; Tetsuo Kanda; Ning Tang; Hitoshi Kakimoto; Akira Toriba; Ryoichi Kizu

2000-01-01

313

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-01-01

314

Energy consumption and exhaust emissions in mechanized timber harvesting operations in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents an estimation of the energy input and the amount of emissions to air due to fuel, chainsaw and hydraulic oil consumption by heavy duty diesel engine vehicles operating in forest logging operations in Sweden. Exhaust concentrations are given for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter. Three fuel types (rapeseed methyl ester, environmental class

Dimitris Athanassiadis

2000-01-01

315

Development of quantitative measuring technique to find critical flow conditions for preventing soot deposit accumulated in the diesel exhaust system using main muffler composed of three chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

If a vehicle that meets emission regulations operates sufficiently for a long time under low speed and low load conditions,\\u000a soot contained in the exhaust gas is accumulated on the inner surface of the exhaust system. This soot deposition problem\\u000a occurs frequently in all diesel cars. However, when a vehicle is placed under the conditions of sudden start and sudden

B.-H. Song; Y.-H. Choi

2009-01-01

316

40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, last aftertreatment...pressure downstream of any turbocharger. If the manufacturer...exhaust system for emission measurement. If the engine is not already...crankcase emissions for emission measurement, route open crankcase...

2009-07-01

317

Three-dimensional pollutant concentration dispersion of a vehicular exhaust plume in the real atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pollutant dispersion process from the vehicular exhaust plume has a direct impact on human health, particularly on vehicle drivers and passengers, bicyclists, motorcyclists, pedestrians and people working nearby. A three-dimensional vehicular pollutant dispersion numerical model was developed based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a k-? turbulence model to simulate the initial pollutant dispersion process of carbon monoxide, CO, from a vehicular exhaust plume in the real atmospheric environment. Since the ambient wind direction and velocity are stochastic and uncontrollable in the real atmospheric environment, a wind-direction-frequency-weighted (WDFW) approach was used to obtain the real pollutant concentration dispersion along with the development of the vehicular exhaust plume. Within the specified sampling period, the ambient windflow conditions are transformed into the corresponding frequencies of wind directions and averaged magnitudes of wind velocities from directions N, E, S or W. Good agreement between the calculated and measured data for two diesel-fuelled vehicles indicates that with the WDFW approach the initial dispersion of pollutant concentration from a vehicular exhaust plume in the real atmospheric environment can be truly reflected. The present study shows that the dispersion process in the near region for the relative concentration of CO, from R=0.1 (or 10%) to 1 (or 100%), is less influenced by the ambient wind velocity than by the vehicular exhaust velocity, but it is vice versa in the far region from R=0 (or 0%) to 0.1 (or 10%). It implies that the effect of vehicular exhaust exit velocity on the dispersion process is more pronounced than that of ambient wind velocity at the vicinity of the exhaust tailpipe exit, while the effect of ambient wind velocity gradually shows a significant role for the dispersion process along with the development of a vehicular exhaust plume.

Wang, J. S.; Chan, T. L.; Cheung, C. S.; Leung, C. W.; Hung, W. T.

318

Combustion-derived nanoparticulate induces the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation  

PubMed Central

Aim Exposure to road traffic and air pollution may be a trigger of acute myocardial infarction, but the individual pollutants responsible for this effect have not been established. We assess the role of combustion-derived-nanoparticles in mediating the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Methods and results To determine the in vivo effects of inhalation of diesel exhaust components, 16 healthy volunteers were exposed to (i) dilute diesel exhaust, (ii) pure carbon nanoparticulate, (iii) filtered diesel exhaust, or (iv) filtered air, in a randomized double blind cross-over study. Following each exposure, forearm blood flow was measured during intra-brachial bradykinin, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and verapamil infusions. Compared with filtered air, inhalation of diesel exhaust increased systolic blood pressure (145 ± 4 vs. 133 ± 3 mmHg, P< 0.05) and attenuated vasodilatation to bradykinin (P= 0.005), acetylcholine (P= 0.008), and sodium nitroprusside (P< 0.001). Exposure to pure carbon nanoparticulate or filtered exhaust had no effect on endothelium-dependent or -independent vasodilatation. To determine the direct vascular effects of nanoparticulate, isolated rat aortic rings (n= 6–9 per group) were assessed in vitro by wire myography and exposed to diesel exhaust particulate, pure carbon nanoparticulate and vehicle. Compared with vehicle, diesel exhaust particulate (but not pure carbon nanoparticulate) attenuated both acetylcholine (P< 0.001) and sodium-nitroprusside (P= 0.019)-induced vasorelaxation. These effects were partially attributable to both soluble and insoluble components of the particulate. Conclusion Combustion-derived nanoparticulate appears to predominately mediate the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation. This provides a rationale for testing environmental health interventions targeted at reducing traffic-derived particulate emissions.

Mills, Nicholas L.; Miller, Mark R.; Lucking, Andrew J.; Beveridge, Jon; Flint, Laura; Boere, A. John F.; Fokkens, Paul H.; Boon, Nicholas A.; Sandstrom, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Duffin, Rodger; Donaldson, Ken; Hadoke, Patrick W.F.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Newby, David E.

2011-01-01

319

Reduction in (pro-)inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust treated with a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly stringent regulation of particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles has led to the widespread use of diesel particle filters (DPFs), the effect of which on exhaust toxicity is so far poorly understood. We exposed a cellular model of the human respiratory epithelium at the air-liquid interface to non-catalyzed wall-flow DPF-filtered diesel exhaust and compared the resulting biological responses to the ones observed upon exposure to unfiltered exhaust. Filtered diesel exhaust acted highly oxidative, even though to a lesser extent than unfiltered exhaust (quantification of total reduced glutathione), and both exhaust types triggered comparable responses to oxidative stress (measurement of heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD1) gene expression). Further, diesel exhaust filtration significantly reduced pro-inflammatory responses (measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and quantification of the secretion of their gene products TNF-? and IL-8). Because inflammatory processes are central to the onset of adverse respiratory health effects caused by diesel exhaust inhalation, our results imply that DPFs may make a valuable contribution to the detoxification of diesel vehicle emissions. The induction of significant oxidative stress by filtered diesel exhaust however, also implies that the non-particulate exhaust components also need to be considered for lung cell risk assessment.

Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Müller, Loretta L.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

320

Exposure to diesel exhaust particulates induces cardiac dysfunction and remodeling.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in urban residents, predisposing them to the development of several cardiovascular stresses, including myocardial infarctions, arrhythmias, thrombosis, and heart failure. DEP contain a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We hypothesize that exposure to DEP elicits ventricular remodeling through the activation of the AHR pathway, leading to ventricular dilation and dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by nose-only nebulization to DEP (SRM 2975, 0.2 mg/ml) or vehicle for 20 min/day × 5 wk. DEP exposure resulted in eccentric left ventricular dilation (8% increased left ventricular internal diameter at diastole and 23% decreased left ventricular posterior wall thickness at diastole vs. vehicle), as shown by echocardiograph assessment. Histological analysis using Picrosirius red staining revealed that DEP reduced cardiac interstitial collagen (23% decrease vs. vehicle). Further assessment of cardiac function using a pressure-volume catheter indicated impaired diastolic function (85% increased end-diastolic pressure and 19% decreased Tau vs. vehicle) and contractility (57 and 48% decreased end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and maximum change in pressure over time vs. end-diastolic volume compared with vehicle, respectively) in the DEP-exposed animals. Exposure to DEP significantly increased cardiac expression of AHR (19% increase vs. vehicle). In addition, DEP significantly decreased the cardiac expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1?, the competitive pathway to the AHR, and vascular endothelial growth factor, a downstream mediator of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (26 and 47% decrease vs. vehicle, respectively). These findings indicate that exposure to DEP induced left ventricular dilation by loss of collagen through an AHR-dependent mechanism. PMID:23887904

Bradley, Jessica M; Cryar, Kipp A; El Hajj, Milad C; El Hajj, Elia C; Gardner, Jason D

2013-07-25

321

40 CFR 600.010-08 - Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements...CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related...Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.010-08 Vehicle test requirements and minimum data...

2011-07-01

322

Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Converting all U.S. onroad vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCVs) may improve air quality, health, and climate significantly, whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust. Wind and natural gas HFCVs offer the greatest potential health benefits and could save 3700 to 6400

M. Z. Jacobson; W. G. Colella; D. M. Golden

2005-01-01

323

46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...valves are fitted in the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests, turbine casings, exhaust piping and shutoff valves, is not designed for the full inlet pressure, the exhaust side must be...

2011-10-01

324

46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...valves are fitted in the exhaust lines of machinery, and the exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests, turbine casings, exhaust piping and shutoff valves, is not designed for the full inlet pressure, the exhaust side must be...

2012-10-01

325

Organic-rich nanoparticles (diameter: 10–30 nm) in diesel exhaust: Fuel and oil contribution based on chemical composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distribution of particle number concentrations and comprehensive chemical composition (elemental and organic carbon, elements, ions, and organic compounds) by particle size (diameter: 0.010–10 ?m) were measured under no-load and transient conditions in the exhaust from an 8-L diesel engine with no exhaust after-treatment system and from a 3-L diesel vehicle equipped with an oxidation catalyst. High concentrations of nuclei-mode

Akihiro Fushimi; Katsumi Saitoh; Yuji Fujitani; Shuichi Hasegawa; Katsuyuki Takahashi; Kiyoshi Tanabe; Shinji Kobayashi

2011-01-01

326

Vehicle Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1966, a decision was made to go on a plant-wide pooling basis with no vehicles assigned to individuals. After investigation, it was decided that some of the vehicles formerly used as pools should be classified as functional. Pool vehicles are...

J. E. Harding

1976-01-01

327

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

328

SIGIS HR: a system for measurement of aircraft exhaust gas under normal operating conditions of an airport  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gather information about the impact on the environment caused by airport operations, knowledge about the amount of gases such as CO or NOX emitted by aircraft engines on the ground is important. In order to avoid influences on airport operations an analysis system for this application has to enable measurements on the hot jet engine exhaust gas from a

Peter Rusch; Roland Harig; Gerhard Matz; Klaus Schäfer; Carsten Jahn; Selina Utzig

2005-01-01

329

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will research solids, liquids, and gases. By the end of this project you will be able to answer the question: Can you tell what is alike and different between solids, liquids, and gases? Read the song about matter. song with music about matter Record your observations on the organizer provided by the teacher. On the diagram write the word solid in one of the circles. Write liquid in one of the circles and write gas in the last circle. As you collect your information write your information under ...

Sibley, Ms.

2009-10-22

330

Pressure mediated diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diesel engine includes an air intake system, an exhaust system , and an exhaust gas recirculation conduit which leads from the exhaust system to the intake system. An exhaust gas recirculation control valve, which includes a first diaphragm chamber, is mounted in the exhaust gas recirculation conduit so as to regulate the flow of exhaust gas through it. The

1983-01-01

331

Sampling of vehicle emissions for chemical analysis and biological testing.  

PubMed Central

Representative dilution tube sampling techniques for particulate and gas phase vehicle emissions are described using Teflon filter media and XAD-2 resin. More than 90% of the total gas (C8-C18) and particulate direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity (TA 98) was found in the particulate phase. The gas and particulate phase material was fractionated by HPLC into nonpolar, moderately polar and highly polar chemical fractions. The moderately polar chemical fraction of the particulates contained more than 50% of the direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity for the total extract. The concentration of oxygenated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAH) and nitrated PAH (nitro-PAH) identified in the moderately polar particulate fractions are given. Nitro-PAH account for most of the direct-acting (TA 98) Ames assay mutagenicity in these moderately polar fractions. Reactions and kinetic expressions for chemical conversion of PAH are presented. Chemical conversion of PAH to nitro-PAH during dilution tube sampling of particulates on Teflon filters and gases on XAD-2 resin is a minor problem (representing 10-20%, on the average, of the 1-nitropyrene found in extracts) at short (46 min) sampling times, at low sampling temperatures (42 degrees C), and in diluted exhaust containing 3 ppm NO2. Particulate emissions collected from dilution tubes on filter media appear to be representative of what is emitted in the environment as based upon a comparison of highway and laboratory studies.

Schuetzle, D

1983-01-01

332

Characterization of model automotive exhaust catalysts: Pd on ceria and ceria–zirconia supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure cerias, silica-doped ceria, ceria–zirconia solid solutions, and ceria–zirconia solid solutions with partial incorporation of praseodymium in the structure were prepared by Rhodia as high-surface-area powders and used as supports in model Pd automotive three-way catalysts prepared at Ford. The catalysts were aged for 12h at 1050°C, both in air and under redox conditions simulating automotive exhaust gases. Both the

H.-W Jen; G. W Graham; W Chun; R. W McCabe; J.-P Cuif; S. E Deutsch; O Touret

1999-01-01

333

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do you know about the 3 states of matter? Good Morning 2nd graders! Today we will be learning about the different states of matter : solids, liquids, and gases . Have fun working with your partner and follow directions carefully! First, make sure you get a 3 column graphic organizer and fill ...

Swaim, Mrs.

2012-12-01

334

Strongly interacting Fermi gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

Bakr, W.; Cheuk, L. W.; Ku, M. J.-H.; Park, J. W.; Sommer, A. T.; Will, S.; Wu, C.-H.; Yefsah, T.; Zwierlein, M. W.

2013-08-01

335

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

Walker, R.J.

1988-06-16

336

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

1989-01-01

337

Use of gas turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to evaluate the merits of using natural gas-fired gas turbine exhaust to directly dry food products. A survey of drying practices utilized in the food industry and a detailed review of worldwide regulatory drying practices were completed. An investigation of the economic advantages associated with direct drying was also considered. Four drying scenarios were used as part of the analysis: Dilution - hot turbine exhaust gases were diluted with ambient air to achieve temperatures suitable for food product drying; Indirect Heat Exchanger - gas turbine exhaust was directed through an intermediate heat exchanger to avoid flue-gas contamination of the ambient air; Tri-Generation - exhaust gases from the gas turbine were first directed to a heat recovery boiler and then through the drying system to dry the food product; and Conventional Cogeneration - the most conventional simple cycle gas turbine cogeneration (this scenario served as the baseline for all evaluations). Although the economics associated with direct drying appear attractive, the principal concern of any potential use would be the extraordinarily high NO/sub x/ levels and the potential nitrate and nitrosamine (potential carcinogens and carcinogenic precursors) contamination in food products. 21 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

Not Available

1988-06-01

338

Electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

1990-03-01

339

Electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

Not Available

1990-03-01

340

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... Please see the web article, " Volcanic Gases and Climate Change Overview " for additional information. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) ... Please see the web article, " Volcanic Gases and Climate Change Overview " for more information on Volcanic versus anthropogenic ...

341

Road vehicle emissions of molecular hydrogen (H 2) from a tunnel study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicle combustion emissions of molecular hydrogen (H 2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) were measured during a 6-week period from November 2004 to January 2005 in Gubrist Tunnel, Switzerland, to determine vehicle emission factors for these trace gases and the ratios of the concentration growths ?H2/?CO and ?H2/?CO2 in the tunnel under real-world highway driving conditions. For H 2, molar mixing ratios at the tunnel exit were found to be 7-10 ppm (parts-per-million, 10-6) during rush hours. Mean emission factors of E=49.7(±16.5)mgkm-1, ECO=1.46(±0.54)gkm-1, and E=266(±69)gkm-1 were calculated. E was largest during weekday rush-hour traffic, a consequence of the more frequent accelerations in congested traffic when fuel combustion is not optimal. E was smaller for heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) compared to light-duty vehicles (LDV), a finding which was attributed to the diesel vs. gasoline engine technology. The mean ?H2/?CO molecular ratio was 0.48±0.12. This ratio increased to ˜0.6 during rush hours, suggesting that H 2 yield is favored relative to CO under fuel-rich conditions, presumably a consequence of an increasing contribution of the water-gas-shift reaction. The mean ?H2/?CO2 molecular ratio was 4.4×10-3 but reduced to 2.5×10-3 when the relative HDV abundance was at maximum. Using three different approaches, road traffic H 2 emissions were estimated for 2004 for Switzerland at 5.0-6.6 Gg and globally at 4.2-8.1 Tg. Despite projections of increasing traffic, Swiss H 2 emissions are not expected to change significantly in the near future, and global emissions are likely to decrease due to improved exhaust gas clean-up technologies.

Vollmer, Martin K.; Juergens, Niklas; Steinbacher, Martin; Reimann, Stefan; Weilenmann, Martin; Buchmann, Brigitte

342

Ginsenoside-Rg1 Protects the Liver against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Despite regular exercise benefits, acute exhaustive exercise elicits oxidative damage in liver. The present study determined the hepatoprotective properties of ginsenoside-Rg1 against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. Forty rats were assigned into vehicle and ginsenoside-Rg1 groups (0.1?mg/kg bodyweight). After 10-week treatment, ten rats from each group performed exhaustive swimming. Estimated oxidative damage markers, including thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (67%) and protein carbonyls (56%), were significantly (P < 0.01) elevated after exhaustive exercise but alleviated in ginsenoside-Rg1 pretreated rats. Furthermore, exhaustive exercise drastically decreased glutathione (GSH) content (?79%) with concurrent decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. However, these changes were attenuated in Rg1 group. Additionally, increased xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) levels after exercise were also inhibited by Rg1 pretreatment. For the first time, our findings provide strong evidence that ginsenoside-Rg1 can protect the liver against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative damage.

Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Hou, Chien-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da; Hsu, Ming-Fen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Chen, Chung-Yu; Liu, Yung-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

2012-01-01

343

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

2009-03-11

344

Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator  

SciTech Connect

A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter (Peter) Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

2012-09-04

345

Chemical Species in Engine Exhaust and Their Contribution to Exhaust Odor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of the identification and characterization of compounds responsible for the odor of diesel engine exhaust. High-resolution gas chromatography was used to separate the organic components of diesel engine exhaust and evaluate their contribu...

J. Stockham A. O'Donnell A. Dravnieks

1969-01-01

346

High performance modeling of atmospheric re-entry vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-entry vehicles designed for space exploration are usually equipped with thermal protection systems made of ablative material. In order to properly model and predict the aerothermal environment of the vehicle, it is imperative to account for the gases produced by ablation processes. In the case of charring ablators, where an inner resin is pyrolyzed at a relatively low temperature, the

Alexandre Martin; Leonardo C Scalabrin; Iain D Boyd

2012-01-01

347

Combination of Methods for Characterization Diesel Engine Exhaust Particulate Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a study of the exhaust aerosols produced by a diesel engine. A combination of techniques for collecting and measure particulate matter in a diluted exhaust gases are presented. Three techniques have been used: a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI), a Low Pressure Impactor (LPI) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). A direct injection naturally aspirated diesel engine was used in the study at three different equivalance ratios: 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 at an engine speed of 1400 rpm which is rated torque speed. Mass concentration measurements made with the MOUDI were in qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with those calculated from the aerosol volume concentrations measured by the SMPS. The particulate matter obtained from the LPI was analyzed using transmission electron microscope and was found to be comprised of individual spherical particles ranging from 10 nm to 50 nm with a mean size of approximately 25 nm. Some conclusions about the size distribution measurement possibilities can be drawn.

Abu-Qudais, Moh'D.; Matson, Andreas; Kittelson, David

348

Vehicle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

1993-02-01

349

40 CFR Appendix V to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Guidelines for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles V Appendix V to Part 600 Protection...CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. V Appendix V to...Guidelines for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles A. Format Guidelines for...

2011-07-01

350

40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. 600.308-12 Section 600.308-12...GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.308-12...requirementsâplug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Fuel economy labels for...

2013-07-01

351

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the project is to assess the impact of heavy-duty hybrid vehicles on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants associated with internal combustion engines. The study also quantifies the fuel economy benefits of various...

1998-01-01

352

Exhaust pressure pulsation observation from turbocharger instantaneous speed measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In internal combustion engines, instantaneous exhaust pressure measurements are difficult to perform in a production environment. The high temperature of the exhaust manifold and its pulsating character make its application to exhaust gas recirculation control algorithms impossible. In this paper an alternative method for estimating the exhaust pressure pulsation is presented. A numerical model is built which enables the exhaust

V. Macián; J. M. Luján; V. Bermúdez; C. Guardiola

2004-01-01

353

Corrosion of hot end automotive exhaust components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different stainless steels often employed in hot end exhaust components. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper evaluated the outcomes of the hot salt test and the cyclic oxidation test on four different stainless steels, used as hot end exhaust components. The specimens were analyzed by means of SEM for surface changes and the

J. H. Potgieter; M. Sephton; Z. W. Nkosi

2007-01-01

354

Exhaust Hydrocarbon Relationships with Photochemical Aerosol Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of photochemically derived aerosols from auto exhaust vapors has been studied in the Battelle-Columbus smog chamber for several years, and this paper summarizes our principal findings on the subject. In leading up to conclusions regarding exhaust composition effects on aerosol formation, salient features of secondary aerosol growth and the measurement of these aerosols by light scattering methods are

David F. Miller; Arthur Levy

1976-01-01

355

Ultrapure gases for GERDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. A major reduction of background is envisaged by operating almost bare germanium diodes in ultrapure liquid nitrogen or liquid argon. The purity of the cryogenic liquid in terms of 222Rn is crucial for the success of the experiment. In this work techniques for measuring 222Rn in nitrogen and argon at the ?Bq/m3 level are presented. It is shown that the required purity can be obtained for both gases, nitrogen and argon.

Simgen, H.

2006-07-01

356

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air,

J. I. Daniels; R. L. Baskett

1995-01-01

357

A COMPACT CORONA DISCHARGE DEVICE (CDD{trademark}) FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA GENERATION IN GASOLINE OR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher fuel economy targets and hybrid vehicles are increasing the marketability of diesel engines. But in order to implement the growth of diesels to achieve the fuel economy benefits, all emission regulation issues must be met. To do this traps and catalysts are being utilized. One of the main problems is finding a technology that enables the exhaust emission system

Victor J

2000-01-01

358

Comparison of Gas Phase Hydrocarbon Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles and Light-Duty Vehicles Equipped with Diesel Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to consolidate much of the existing data on gas phase hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from both gasoline vehicles and vehicles equipped with diesel engines. This subject is of interest because new studies have shown diesel em...

P. Carey J. Cohen

1980-01-01

359

Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from a heavy-duty hybrid bus. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of prototype heavy-duty hybrid vehicles introduces a number of challenges in assessing emissions performance compared to conventionally powered diesel or gasoline-fueled, heavy-duty vehicles. Difficulty is encountered because the engine may be operated on an intermittent basis (as a function of load or state of charge of the energy storage system) and in a narrow speed/load range. Therefore, in this project, heavy-duty chassis dynamometer emission measurements were used to benchmark the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty hybrid vehicle against a conventionally powered vehicle. The hybrid bus was powered with a CNG-fueled, VW 2.0L engine. Exhaust emissions from the hybrid bus were compared to a 1996 model year diesel-powered bus operated over the same driving cycles, and using the same inertia weight and road load as the hybrid bus. SwRI noted that the aftermarket CNG fuel system installed on the 2.0L VW engine did not function adequately; therefore, the exhaust emissions from the hybrid bus could have been much better if detailed optimization had been performed. In fact, NO{sub x} emissions were 25 to 30 percent higher than for the diesel bus. However, even with the non-optimum CNG fuel system, the exhaust emissions of NMHC and CO were significantly lower than observed for a comparable diesel bus. Although not directly measured, PM emissions from the hybrid bus were assumed to be essentially zero. Another significant finding was that the fuel consumption of the hybrid bus was 13 to 30 percent better than the diesel bus over the CBD-14 cycle, and 38 to 45 percent better than the diesel bus over the HDCC.

Fritz, S.G.; Bass, E.A.; Steiber, J.; Tobin, A.

1999-07-01

360

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis.  

PubMed

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Smith, Thomas J; Blicharz, Andrew P; Deminter, Jeffrey T

2008-03-05

361

Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis  

PubMed Central

Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal?exposure=urban?background+work?site?background+personal?activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples.

SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

2008-01-01

362

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01

363

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

364

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6-11, 1991, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control was included in the performance testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W.; Davies, J.; Zammit, M.; Patterson, P.

1992-02-01

365

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

366

14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25...System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine...apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and...

2009-01-01

367

14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23...System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine...apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and...

2010-01-01

368

14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29...System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine...apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and...

2010-01-01

369

14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23...System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine...apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and...

2009-01-01

370

14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29...System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine...apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and...

2009-01-01

371

14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25...System § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine...apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and...

2010-01-01

372

Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

Dingle, A.N.

1982-01-01

373

Organic microporous materials and their interactions with different gases  

SciTech Connect

This work explored the interactions of various organic microporous materials with different gases. The authors were attempting to make substances that could separate gases through differential adsorption or store gases at reduced pressures. They synthesized xerogels that were highly crosslinked, allowing relatively large amounts of micro- and mesopores within the organic polymers. The monomers were polymerized in a solvent which was removed forming xerogels. Then exhaustive drying was performed to yield the tested microporous materials. The xerogels were exposed to four gases to observe their gas adsorption affinities (methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and isobutane). For each microporous polymer the authors measured BET surface area, nitrogen isotherm, bulk density, pycnometric density, and equilibrium gas adsorption. Pore volume and pore size distribution were also calculated for some samples. Adsorption characteristics paralleled, but were not directly proportional to surface area or pore size distribution changes. Changes in adsorption magnitude and selectivity have been made through various formulations and derivatization. Increasing polarity showed increased affinities towards carbon dioxide, slightly increased affinities towards isobutane, and unchanged affinities towards methane and hydrogen. These materials could adsorb significant amounts of gas; about half the amount of some commercial carbons. Considering the minimal processing involved in their synthesis, these materials could be cost effective replacements for carbons in low-cost applications where high adsorption efficiencies are not a priority.

Shepodd, T.J.; Miller, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Chemistry Dept.; Lagasse, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

1997-04-01

374

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1997-02-11

375

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

Box, W.D.

1998-08-11

376

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

377

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

378

Special considerations for conducting permeation testing of protective clothing materials with gases and chemical vapors.  

PubMed

Testing the permeation resistance of protective clothing materials against chemical gases and vapors requires attention to additional factors over conventional material permeation testing with liquids. Permeation testing factors relevant to gas and vapor challenges are described, and results for testing various material-gas combinations are reported. Challenging protective clothing materials with gases presents a series of special problems including gas delivery, cell integrity, sufficient analytical detection, and disposal. The concentration and other properties of gases and vapors are very sensitive to small changes in temperature and pressure. The method of delivering gases or vapors to the test cell must provide for careful regulation of these variables and maintain homogeneous contact of the chemical with the material over the test period. While many organic vapors are easily and directly detectable by gas chromatographic methods, several gases require special collection media and analytical procedures to achieve detection limits below 1 ppm. Handling of exhaust gas from the challenge chamber of the test cell must reflect safe laboratory practices without creating unnecessary chemical waste. Recommended procedures and results are presented for the six new gases added to ASTM Standard Guide F1001, Selection of Chemical Liquids and Gases to Evaluate Protective Clothing Materials, as well as for other difficult test gases used in evaluating protective clothing materials. PMID:2346117

Stull, J O; Pinette, M F

1990-05-01

379

Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

Pitstick, M.E.

1992-01-01

380

Non-C02 greenhouse gases; all gases count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Kyoto Protocol, a group of countries commit themselves to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to some 5% below the 1990 level. Countries can decide to spread their reduction commitment over several gases to lower compliance costs. Employing a multi-gas strategy can offer considerable efficiency gains because of the widely diverging marginal abatement cost for the different emission

Willemien Kets; Gerard Verweij

2005-01-01

381

PM10 emission factors for non-exhaust particles generated by road traffic in an urban street canyon and along a freeway in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown clear contributions of non-exhaust emissions to the traffic related PM10 load of the ambient air. These emissions consist of particles produced by abrasion from brakes, road wear, tire wear, as well as vehicle induced resuspension of deposited road dust. The main scope of the presented work was to identify and quantify the non-exhaust fraction of traffic related PM10 for two roadside locations in Switzerland with different traffic regimes. The two investigated locations, an urban street canyon with heavily congested traffic and an interurban freeway, are considered as being typical for Central Europe. Mass-relevant contributions from abrasion particles and resuspended road dust mainly originated from particles in the size range 1-10 ?m. The results showed a major influence of vehicle induced resuspension of road dust. In the street canyon, the traffic related PM10 emissions (LDV: 24 ± 8 mg km -1 vehicle -1, HDV: 498 ± 86 mg km -1 vehicle -1) were assigned to 21% brake wear, 38% resuspended road dust and 41% exhaust emissions. Along the freeway (LDV: 50 ± 13 mg km -1 vehicle -1, HDV: 288 ± 72 mg km -1 vehicle -1), respective contributions were 3% brake wear, 56% resuspended road dust and 41% exhaust emissions. There was no indication for relevant contributions from tire wear and abrasion from undamaged pavements.

Bukowiecki, N.; Lienemann, P.; Hill, M.; Furger, M.; Richard, A.; Amato, F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Buchmann, B.; Gehrig, R.

2010-06-01

382

Diffusivity of Lattice Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider one-component lattice gases with local dynamics and a stationary product Bernoulli measure on {{Z}^d}. We study the scaling exponents of the space-time correlations of the system in equilibrium at a given density. We consider a variance-like quantity computed from the correlations called the diffusivity (connected to the Green-Kubo formula) and give rigorous upper and lower bounds on it that depend on the dimension and the local behavior of the macroscopic flux function. Our results identify the cases in which the system scales superdiffusively; these cases have been predicted before, using non-rigorous scaling arguments. Our main tool is the resolvent method: the estimates are the result of a careful analysis of a complicated variational problem.

Quastel, Jeremy; Valkó, Benedek

2013-10-01

383

A stochastic control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supervisory control strategy of a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of vehicle sub-systems to achieve performance targets such as maximizing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions. This high-level control problem is commonly referred as the power management problem. In the past, many supervisory control strategies were developed on the basis of a few pre-defined driving cycles, using intuition and

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Pengl; J. W. Grizzle

2004-01-01

384

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

385

Power and particle exhaust in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The status of power and particle exhaust research in tokamaks is reviewed in the light of ITER requirements. There is a sound basis for ITER`s nominal design positions; important directions for further research are identified.

Stambaugh, R.D.

1998-01-01

386

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

EIA Publications

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program established a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., can report to the EIA, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

Information Center

2011-02-01

387

The physics of ionized gases  

SciTech Connect

This volume reports the proceedings of the symposium on physics of ionized gases. The program emphasized physical processes associated with the physics of ionized gases: atomic collision processes, particle and laser beam interaction with solids, low temperature plasmas and general plasma theory.

Tanovic, L.; Konjevic, N.; Tanovic, N.

1989-01-01

388

Isothermal compressors for process gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on isothermal compressors which are more efficient for all gases. The study of several representative gases considered stage efficiencies, pressure ratios and pressure losses of the intercoolers. Generally there are two ways to reduce power consumption of a gas compression process: minimize losses of the compressor or improve the thermodynamics of the process. But there are some

E. Wiederuh; D. Meinhart

1992-01-01

389

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various countries and US cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies have shown that use of electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled internal-combustion-engine vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel

M. Q. Wang; W. W. Marr

1994-01-01

390

40 CFR 86.153-98 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preconditioning; refueling test. 86.153-98...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission...Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures ...(b) Seal test. The...Non-integrated system seal testing shall...exhaust emission test. The Administrator...seconds after the engine starts,...

2010-07-01

391

40 CFR 86.153-98 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preconditioning; refueling test. 86.153-98...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission...Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures ...(b) Seal test. The...Non-integrated system seal testing shall...exhaust emission test. The Administrator...seconds after the engine starts,...

2009-07-01

392

Remote Sensing Measurements of Carbon Monoxide Emissions from On-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes instrumentation that remotely measures the CO emissions from thousands of vehicles per day with a sensitivity of ± 1 percent CO in the exhaust, which is approximately 13 grams per mile of CO for new vehicles. A prototype of this instrument was used in Denver, Colorado in January 1989 during a study conducted in conjunction with researchers

Robert D. Stephens; Steven H. Cadle

1991-01-01

393

On-Road measurement of particulate matter emissions from vehicles: particle concentration, size distribution and morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer 2010, we conducted a field experiment in Southern Michigan to measure on-road vehicle emissions. During the campaign, particulate matter (PM) concentrations were monitored with a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) and transmissometer system. The Lidar and transmissometer system measures PM mass concentration of vehicle exhaust using backscatter and extinction of an ultraviolet laser beam directed across the road.

N. Salvadori; S. China; J. Cook; H. D. Kuhns; H. Moosmuller; C. Mazzoleni

2010-01-01

394

A Study of Emissions from 1966-1972 Light-Duty Vehicles in Washington, D.C..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the 1972 Emission Factors Program (Six Cities Program), one hundred and seventy privately owned passenger vehicles from the Metropolitan Washington, D.C. area were tested for exhaust emission levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarb...

A. R. Martin R. A. Herrick

1973-01-01

395

Long-term methanol vehicle test program. Final subcontract report, 1 November 1992--1 February 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work was sperformed to determine effects of methanol fuel on engine performance and exhaust emissions during long-term use in a 1988 Chevrolet Corsica. Engine wear, gasket performance, fuel economy, emissions level, oil consumption, and overall vehicle pe...

J. C. Jones T. T. Maxwell

1995-01-01

396

Characterization and analysis of diesel exhaust odor  

SciTech Connect

An instrumental method known as the Diesel Odor Analysis System or DOAS, has been developed at A.D. Little, Inc. for measuring diesel exhaust odor. It was of interest to determine which compound or compounds in the oxygenated fraction of the exhaust were primarily responsible for the odor correlation as developed at A.D. Little, Inc. This was accomplished by observing how the measurement of the exhaust odor intensity and number of chemical constituents of the oxygenate fraction were changing with respect to the odor values as measured by the DOAS. Benzaldehyde was found to give the best correlation (R = 0.98) with odor. A quantitative relationship between exhaust odor as measured by the total intensity of aroma (TIA) and the benzaldehyde concentration (B) in ppm in the exhaust is given by: TIA = 1.11 log/sub 10/(B) + 4.10. This correlation was supported by results obtained from two other diesel engine exhaust sources. A methyl benzaldehyde isomer also yielded a good correlation (R = 0.90) with odor. Air to fuel ratio correlations were determined for the tentatively identified compounds, cinnamaldehyde (R = 0.94) and a C2-benzaldehyde isomer (R = 0.94).

Shala, F.J.

1983-01-01

397

Gases in Seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual gross and net primary productivity of the surface oceans is similar in size to that on land (IPCC, 2001). Marine productivity drives the cycling of gases such as oxygen (O2), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methyl iodide (CH3I) which are of fundamental importance in studies of marine productivity, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health, respectively. For example, ˜30% of the world's population (1,570 million) is thought to be at risk of iodine-deficiency disorders that impair mental development (WHO, 1996). The main source of iodine to land is the supply of volatile iodine compounds produced in the ocean and then transferred to the atmosphere via the air-surface interface. The flux of these marine iodine species to the atmosphere is also thought to be important in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere by the production of the iodine oxide radical ( Alicke et al., 1999). A further example is that the net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean, ˜1.7±0.5 Gt C yr-1, represents ˜30% of the annual release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). This net flux is superimposed on a huge annual flux (90 Gt C yr-1) of CO2 that is cycled "naturally" between the ocean and the atmosphere. The long-term sink for anthropogenic CO2 is recognized as transfer to the ocean from the atmosphere. A final example is the emission of volatile sulfur, in the form of DMS, from the oceans. Not only is an oceanic flux from the oceans needed to balance the loss of sulfur (a bioessential element) from the land via weathering, it has also been proposed as having a major control on climate due to the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (Charlson et al., 1987). Indeed, the existence of DMS and CH3I has been used as evidence in support of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979).There are at least four main processes that affect the concentration of gases in the water column: biological production and consumption, photochemistry, air-sea exchange, and vertical mixing. We will not discuss the effect of vertical mixing on gases in seawater and instead refer the reader to Chapter 6.08. Nor will we consider the deeper oceans as this region is discussed in chapters on benthic fluxes and early diagenesis (Chapter 6.11), the biological pump (Chapter 6.04), and the oceanic calcium carbonate cycle (Chapter 6.19) all in this volume. We will discuss the cycling of gases in surface oceans, including the thermocline, and in particular concentrate on the exchange of various volatile compounds across the air-sea interface.As we will show, while much is known about the cycling of gases such as CO2 and DMS in the water column, frustratingly little is known about many of the chemical species for which the ocean is believed to be a significant source to the atmosphere. We suspect the passage of time will reveal that the cycling of volatile compounds containing selenium and iodine may well prove as complex as that of DMS. Early studies of DMS assumed that it was produced from a precursor compound, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), known to be present in some species of phytoplankton, and that the main sink in the water column was exchange across the air-sea interface. We now know that DMSP and DMS are both rapidly cycled in water column by a complex interaction between phytoplankton, microzooplankton, bacteria, and viruses (see Figure 1). Some detailed process experiments have revealed that only ˜10% of the total DMS produced (and less than 1.3% of the DMSP produced) is transferred to the atmosphere, with the bulk of the DMS and DMSP, either being recycled in the water column or photo-oxidized (Archer et al., 2002b).

Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

2003-12-01

398

NOX REDUCTION FOR LEAN EXHAUST USING PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Currently CARB estimates on road diesel vehicles contribute 50% of the NOX and 78% of the particulates being discharged from mobile sources. Diesel emissions obviously must be reduced if future air quality targets are to be met. A critical technological barrier exists because there are no commercial technologies available, which can reduce NOX from diesel (lean), exhaust containing 5-15% O2 concentration. One promising approach to reducing NOX and particulates from diesel exhaust is to use a combination of plasma with catalyst. Plasma can be generated thermally or non-thermally. Thermal plasma is formed by heating the system to an exceedingly high temperature (>2000 C). High temperature requirements for plasma makes thermal plasma inefficient and requires skillful thermal management and hence is considered impractical for mobile applications. Non-thermal plasma directs electrical energy into the creation of free electrons, which in turn react with gaseous species thus creating plasma. A combination of non-thermal plasma with catalysts can be referred to Plasma Assisted Catalysts or PAC. PAC technology has been demonstrated in stationary sources where non-thermal plasma catalysis is carried out in presence of NH3 as a reductant. In stationary applications NO is oxidized to HNO3 and then into ammonium nitrate where it is condensed and removed. This approach is impractical for mobile application because of the ammonia requirement and the ultimate mechanism by which NOX is removed. However, if a suitable catalyst can be found which can use onboard fuel as reductant then the technology holds a considerable promise. NOX REDUCTION FOR LEAN EXHAUST USING PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS Ralph Slone, B. Bhatt and Victor Puchkarev NOXTECH INC. In addition to the development of an effective catalyst, a non-thermal plasma reactor needs be scaled and demonstrated along with a reliable and cost effective plasma power source and onboard HC source needs to be proven. Under the work sponsored by DOE and SCAQMD Noxtech is developing a cost effective and reliable PAC system for mobile applications. The goal of the program is to develop a suitable catalyst with the ability to remove high levels of NOx at reasonable space velocities. This new catalyst will then be used to scale the technology to treat exhaust from 80Hp engine and eventually to demonstrate the technology on 200 and 400 Hp engine applications. Using the 2004 EPA proposed regulation as a standard, it is clear in order for PAC system to be commercially viable it needs to remove NOX by 70% or better. It is further assumed from past experience that 30,000 HR-1 space velocities are necessary to ensure a good compact design.

Bhatt, B.

2000-08-20

399

Exhaust characteristics during the pyrolysis of ZnCl2 immersed biosludge.  

PubMed

Biosludge can be reused as an adsorbent after ZnCl(2) activation, pyrolysis, washing with HCl and distilled water, and drying. But the pyrolysis exhaust of ZnCl(2) immersed sludge can be hazardous to human health and the environment. The chemical composition, including carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur and 21 trace elements, as well as the physical characteristics, including specific surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution and pore diameter of pyrolytic residue, were investigated in this work. In addition, the components of pyrolytic exhaust including 30 VOC species and 5 odorous sulfur gases were determined to evaluate the exhaust characteristics. The results indicated that the pyrolytic temperature was higher than 500°C, the specific surface area could be over 900 m(2)/g, and the total pore volume could be up to 0.8 cm(3)/g at 600°C. Exhaust concentration fractions of VOC groups were about 65-71% oxygenated VOCs, 18-21% chlorinated VOCs, 4-6% aromatic VOCs, and 6-10% acrylonitrile and cyclohexane under the specific conditions in this study. PMID:22738773

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chiu, Hua-Hsien

2012-06-07

400

Scaling of infrared remote sensor hydrocarbon measurements for motor vehicle emission inventory calculations  

SciTech Connect

Infrared (IR) remote sensors calibrated with propane understate volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in vehicle exhaust by 30--70% when compared to flame ionization detectors (FID). The difference depends on VOC composition and arises because many organic compounds in vehicle exhaust absorb less IR radiation than propane on a per-carbon basis. This study demonstrates an approach for scaling infrared measurements to reflect more accurately total exhaust VOC emissions from on-road motor vehicle fleets. Infrared versus flame ionization detector response to individual VOC was measured in the laboratory for methyl tert-butyl ether and a range of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics that are prominent in vehicle exhaust. Overall IR/FID response to real exhaust mixtures was calculated by summing the response contributions of all individual VOC constitutents. Average IR/FID response factors were calculated for typical on-road vehicle fleets based on VOC speciation profiles measured in several US roadway tunnels. Results indicate that hydrocarbon concentrations measured by remote sensors with 3.5 {micro}m filters should be multiplied by a factor of 2.0 {+-} 0.1 for light-duty vehicles using either California or federal reformulated gasoline blends and by 2.2 {+-} 0.1 when conventional gasoline is used.

Singer, B.C.; Harley, R.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Littlejohn, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Ho, J.; Vo, T. [California Air Resources Board, El Monte, CA (United States). Mobile Source Operations Div.

1998-11-01

401

Impact of reformulated fuels on motor vehicle emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicles continue to be an important source of air pollution. Increased vehicle travel and degradation of emission control systems have offset some of the effects of increasingly stringent emission standards and use of control technologies. A relatively new air pollution control strategy is the reformulation of motor vehicle fuels, both gasoline and diesel, to make them cleaner- burning. Field experiments in a heavily traveled northern California roadway tunnel revealed that use of oxygenated gasoline reduced on-road emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) by 23 +/- 6% and 19 +/- 8%, respectively, while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions were not significantly affected. The introduction of reformulated gasoline (RFG) in California led to large changes in gasoline composition including decreases in alkene, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur contents, and an increase in oxygen content. The combined effects of RFG and fleet turnover between summers 1994 and 1997 were decreases in on-road vehicle exhaust emissions of CO, non-methane VOC, and NOx by 31 +/- 5, 43 +/- 8, and 18 +/- 4%, respectively. Although it was difficult to separate the fleet turnover and RFG contributions to these changes, it was clear that the effect of RFG was greater for VOC than for NOx. The RFG effect on exhaust emissions of benzene was a 30-40% reduction. Use of RFG reduced the reactivity of liquid gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors by 23 and 19%, respectively. Increased use of methyl tert-butyl ether in gasoline led to increased concentrations of highly reactive formaldehyde and isobutene in vehicle exhaust. As a result, RFG reduced the reactivity of exhaust emissions by only about 5%. Per unit mass of fuel burned, heavy-duty diesel trucks emit about 25 times more fine particle mass and 15-20 times the number of fine particles compared to light-duty vehicles. Exhaust fine particle emissions from heavy-duty diesels contain more black carbon than particulate matter emissions from light-duty vehicles (52 vs. 32% of PM2.5 mass). Sulfate emission rates measured for heavy-duty diesel trucks fueled with low- sulfur, low-aromatic diesel are significantly lower than emission rates reported before the introduction of cleaner-burning diesel fuel. Statewide fuel consumption and measured emission rates indicate that diesel vehicles in California are responsible for nearly half of NOx emissions and greater than three quarters of exhaust fine particle emissions from on-road motor vehicles.

Kirchstetter, Thomas

402

Catalytic reduction system of NO x in exhaust gases from diesel engines with secondary fuel injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic NOx reduction system with secondary fuel injection was studied not only in a laboratory scale, but also in a large bench scale. Diesel fuel was injected before the catalyst bed, and the activity and durability of the catalyst for the NOx reduction were tested. Using the fuel as a reductant, silver aluminate supported on alumina was selected as the

T Nakatsuji; R Yasukawa; K Tabata; K Ueda; M Niwa

1998-01-01

403

[Measurement of exhaust gases of cars in the neighbourhood of roads (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Air samples were collected in plastic bags simultaneously at various measuring points in the close range of streets. When examining the various bag materials, Teflon bags showed the smallest deviations in direct analyses and in analyses of up to two hours after the drawing of samples. The following methods were used for the analysis of the air samples collected in the bags: coulometry for CO and SO2, chemiluminescence for NO/NO2, chromotropic acid for CH2O and flame ionization for hydrocarbon. The various components were measured close to a highway and near streets in residential and business areas. PMID:63198

Wanner, H U; Deuber, A; Satish, J; Meier, M; Sommer, H

1976-07-01

404

Volatile nanoparticle formation and growth within a diluting diesel car exhaust.  

PubMed

A major source of particle number emissions is road traffic. However, scientific knowledge concerning secondary particle formation and growth of ultrafine particles within vehicle exhaust plumes is still very limited. Volatile nanoparticle formation and subsequent growth conditions were analyzed here to gain a better understanding of "real-world" dilution conditions. Coupled computational fluid dynamics and aerosol microphysics models together with measured size distributions within the exhaust plume of a diesel car were used. The impact of soot particles on nucleation, acting as a condensational sink, and the possible role of low-volatile organic components in growth were assessed. A prescribed reduction of soot particle emissions by 2 orders of magnitude (to capture the effect of a diesel particle filter) resulted in concentrations of nucleation-mode particles within the exhaust plume that were approximately 1 order of magnitude larger. Simulations for simplified sulfuric acid-water vapor gas-oil containing nucleation-mode particles show that the largest particle growth is located in a recirculation zone in the wake of the car. Growth of particles within the vehicle exhaust plume up to detectable size depends crucially on the relationship between the mass rate of gaseous precursor emissions and rapid dilution. Chassis dynamometer measurements indicate that emissions of possible hydrocarbon precursors are significantly enhanced under high engine load conditions and high engine speed. On the basis of results obtained for a diesel passenger car, the contributions from light diesel vehicles to the observed abundance of measured nucleation-mode particles near busy roads might be attributable to the impact of two different time scales: (1) a short one within the plume, marked by sufficient precursor emissions and rapid dilution; and (2) a second and comparatively long time scale resulting from the mix of different precursor sources and the impact of atmospheric chemistry. PMID:21516935

Uhrner, Ulrich; Zallinger, Michael; von Löwis, Sibylle; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wehner, Birgit; Stratmann, Frank; Wiedensohler, Alfred

2011-04-01

405

A novel four-way combining catalysts for simultaneous removal of exhaust pollutants from diesel engine.  

PubMed

A novel four-way combining catalysts containing double layers was applied to simultaneously remove four kinds of exhaust pollutants (NOx, CO, HC and PM) emitted from diesel engine. The four-way catalysts were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). Their catalytic performances were evaluated by temperature-programmed reaction technology. The double layer catalysts could effectively remove the four main pollutants. The highest catalytic activity was given by the two-layered catalysts of La0.6K0.4CoO3/Al2O3 and W/HZSM-5. Under the simulated exhaust gases conditions, the peak temperature of the soot combustion was 421 degrees C, the maximal conversion of NO to N2 was 74%, the temperature of the HC total conversion was 357 degrees C, and the maximum conversion ratio of CO was 99%. PMID:21175003

Liu, Jian; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Zhen; Duan, Aijun; Jiang, Guiyuan; Jing, Yanni

2010-01-01

406

Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Tailpipe Exhaust for Several Automobiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automotive catalytic converter reduces or eliminates the emission of various chemical species (e.g. CO, hydrocarbons, etc.) that are the products of combustion from automobile exhaust. However, these units are only effective once they have reached operating temperature. The design and placement of catalytic converters has changed in order to reduce both the quantity of emissions and the time that is required for the converter to be effective. In order to compare the effectiveness of catalytic converters, time-resolved measurements were performed on several vehicles, including a 2010 Toyota Prius, a 2010 Honda Fit, a 1994 Honda Civic, and a 1967 Oldsmobile 442 (which is not equipped with a catalytic converter but is used as a baseline). The newer vehicles demonstrate bot a reduced overall level of CO and hydrocarbon emissions but are also effective more quickly than older units. The time-resolved emissions will be discussed along with the impact of catalytic converter design and location on the measured emissions.

White, Allen R.; Allen, James; Devasher, Rebecca B.

2011-06-01

407

Vehicle structure  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a vehicle which includes a frame, a steerable wheel mounted on the frame and at least one further wheel mounted for free rotation on the frame. A flywheel is mounted for rotation adjacent one of the wheels. The vehicle includes means for imparting rotation to the flywheel, and a clutch plate rotatably and coaxially mounted adjacent the same wheel to which the flywheel is adjacent. Speed-reduction means allows rotation of the flywheel to rotate the clutch plate at a faster rate than the flywheel, and a frictionless clutch is provided between the clutch plate and the adjacent wheel.

Stroud, E.A.

1984-05-01

408

Development of a CNGDI-Electric Hybrid Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for automotive engines. The combustion of natural gas produces mainly water and CO2 and significantly less CO and UHC emissions. In many cases, CNG vehicles generate fewer exhaust and greenhouse gas emissions than their gasoline or diesel-powered counterparts. While it is clean burning and in plentiful supply with a reasonably

Z. Taha; R. Ariffin; N. Ahmad; Y. H. Jen; T. Yusuf; S. Z. Dawal

2006-01-01

409

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM A METHANOL FUELED VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exhaust, evaporative, and refueling emissions were examined from a methanol fueled Ford Escort operated with M-85 (85% methanol - 15% gasoline) and M-l00 (100% methanol) fuels. xhaust and evaporative emissions were examined for vehicle operation at summer and winter ambient tempe...

410

CENTRAL CAROLINA VEHICLE PARTICULATE EMISSION STUDY (FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

A study to characterize the exhaust emissions from a light-duty fleet of in-use vehicles representative of central North Carolina was conducted in 1999 during both a winter phase (February) and a summer phase (June - July). Summer temperatures averaged 78 F, while the winter te...

411

Drivers’ psychological and physical reactions after motor vehicle accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate if drivers that reported being in at least one motor vehicle accident (MVA) within the past five years would report greater psychological and physical reactions than drivers not being in an accident. Of particular interest were psychological conditions such as greater fears for personal safety, worries about driving, driver stress, exhaustion, and

Jennifer L. Lucas

2003-01-01

412

Lifetime emissions for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The report presents EPA's current estimates for the exhaust emissions produced by several types of motor vehicles which may be purchased in response to the Clean Air Act Fuel Fleet Program. The appendices include a detailed explanation of the calculation methodology used and potential future changes.

Not Available

1993-10-01

413

14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23... Exhaust System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine...following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and...

2013-01-01

414

Removal of C2F6 from semiconductor process flue gases by ferro-electric packed-bed barrier discharge reactor-adsorbent hybrid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of greenhouse gases from semiconductor process flue gas is becoming a significant problem since not only methane and\\/or nitrous oxide are exhausted but also high concentrations of fluoride and para-fluorocarbons (PFCs) such as NF3, C2F6 , SF6, and CF4, are exhausted during the wafer etching or PECVD chamber cleaning processes. In this work, the removal of C2F6 from a

K. Urashima; K. G. Kostov; J. S. Chang; Y. Okayasu; T. Iwaizumi; K. Yoshimura; T. Kato

1999-01-01

415

Study on the determination of PCDDs/Fs and HCB in exhaust gas.  

PubMed

The subject of this study was to develop a method of simultaneous determination of PCDDs/PCDFs and HCB in exhaust gases from industrial installations. Sampling to determine PCDDs/PCDFs was conducted using the method described in PN-EN 1948-1: 2006, where the sorption material is polyurethane foam (PUF). In order to simultaneously collect PCDDs/PCDFs and HCB and to avoid sorbent bed breakthrough, it was necessary to apply an additional polyurethane sorption layer. Twenty-seven samples of exhaust gases from various cement plants and 40 samples of exhaust gases from hospital and industrial waste incineration plants collected in 2009/2010 in the entire territory of Poland were examined. The average content of PCDDs/Fs in samples from cement plants amounted to 0.076 ng I-TEQ N m(-3) (range of 0.002-0.62 ng I-TEQ N m(-3)), while the average content of HCB amounted to 10 ng N m(-3) (range of 0.98-60.5 ng N m(-3)). In the case of samples collected from waste incineration plants, the average concentration of PCDDs/Fs was 0.39 ng I-TEQN m(-3) (range of 0.002-5.68 ng I-TEQ N m(-3)). In the case of HCB, the average concentration was 238 ng N m(-3) (range of 3.21-2500 ng N m(-3)). Also, the interdependence of the concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs and HCB was determined in the analysed samples, with the ranges of low and high content of PCDDs/PCDFs being examined separately. In all cases, the determined values of the r correlation coefficient were within the range of 0.7-1.0, which indicates a good correlation between the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and HCB. PMID:21925704

W?giel, Ma?gorzata; Chrz?szcz, Ryszard; Ma?lanka, Anna; Grochowalski, Adam

2011-09-16

416

40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and...GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy...Values § 600.209-12 Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy...

2013-07-01

417

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section...GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy...and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel...

2013-07-01

418

Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases  

SciTech Connect

Feshbach resonances are the essential tool to control the interaction between atoms in ultracold quantum gases. They have found numerous experimental applications, opening up the way to important breakthroughs. This review broadly covers the phenomenon of Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases and their main applications. This includes the theoretical background and models for the description of Feshbach resonances, the experimental methods to find and characterize the resonances, a discussion of the main properties of resonances in various atomic species and mixed atomic species systems, and an overview of key experiments with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and ultracold molecules.

Chin Cheng; Grimm, Rudolf; Julienne, Paul; Tiesinga, Eite [Department of Physics and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Center for Quantum Physics and Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria) and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Otto-Hittmair-Platz 1, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Maryland, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8423 (United States)

2010-04-15

419

Environmental Implications of Anesthetic Gases  

PubMed Central

For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment.

Yasny, Jeffrey S.; White, Jennifer

2012-01-01

420

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

Box, W.D.

1996-03-12

421

Vehicle emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air pollution in the United States is a major problem; transportation plays a major role in air pollution. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, provides students with data on pollution caused by vehicles. Pollutants covered include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, among others. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

422

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

Box, W.D.

1994-03-15

423

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

424

Robotic vehicle  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

Box, W. Donald (115 Newhaven Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1994-01-01

425

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

2009-01-22

426

Materials for temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for combustion exhaust gas control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptor and donor doped SrTi1?xFexO3?? materials for novel temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for lean-burn engine exhaust gases were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Their electrical resistance, R, was investigated in the oxygen partial pressure range from 10?4 to 1 bar between 700°C and 1000°C. Doped and undoped samples with x=0.3 obey an R?pO2?1\\/5 power law. Undoped samples show

Ralf Moos; Wolfgang Menesklou; Hans-Jürgen Schreiner; Karl Heinz Härdtl

2000-01-01

427

High Temperature Corrosion of Cast Alloys in Exhaust Environments I-Ductile Cast Irons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation behavior of two ductile cast irons was investigated in synthetic diesel and gasoline exhaust gases. The alloys\\u000a were a SiMo (Fe3.86Si0.6Mo3C) and a Ni-Resist (Fe32Ni5.3Si2.1C). Polished sections were exposed at temperatures between 650\\u000a and 1,050 °C, mostly for 50 h. The oxidation product was characterized by means of SEM\\/EDX, AES, XPS and XRD. Iron oxides\\u000a nodules formed above a continuous

F. Tholence; M. Norell

2008-01-01

428

Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production  

SciTech Connect

A method of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The method includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream my be converted into ammonia.

Robel, Wade J. (Peoria, IL); Driscoll, James Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Helpston, GB)

2010-10-12

429

Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production  

DOEpatents

A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

Robel, Wade J. (Peoria, IL); Driscoll, James Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB)

2008-05-13

430

Effects of emissions standards on methanol vehicle-related ozone, formal dehyde, and methanol exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPA is in the process of establishing emission standards to remove a potential regulatory barrier to the production of methanol vehicles. The proposed emissions standards were published in 1986. These standards would, with few exceptions, apply the current exhaust emission standards for petroleum-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel vehicles to methanol- fueled vehicles with Otto-cycle or diesel-like combustion processes. The current hydrocarbon

M. D. Gold; C. E. Moulis

1988-01-01

431

Analysis of motorcycle exhaust regular testing data--a case study of Taipei City.  

PubMed

In Taiwan, a continuous increase in the number of motorcycles has made exhaust pollution one of the major emission sources of air pollutants. The regular testing program carried out by the Republic of China Environmental Protection Agency was designed to reduce air pollutant emissions by enhancing maintenance and repair. During the execution period, abundant testing results were accumulated to discuss pollutant emissions from motorcycles. Exhaust testing data of motorcycles in Taipei City from 1996 to 2005 were chosen as the basic data to survey changes in motorcycle exhaust. Effects of motorcycle age and mileage on exhaust pollution were studied. The introduction of advanced emission standards enhances the elimination of high-emitting motorcycles. The testing data indicate that the testing rate rose from approximately 50 to 70% and the failure rate changed from approximately 15 to 10%. The operation cycles of two-stroke motorcycles make them high-emitting vehicles. Concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are higher in two-stroke motorcycle exhaust than that in four-stroke motorcycles. In contrast, the concentration of carbon dioxide produced from complete oxidation processes is lower in exhaust from two-stroke motorcycles. Therefore, failure rates of two-stroke motorcycles are higher than those of four-stroke motorcycles and were also observed to deactivate more easily. On the basis of analytical results of testing data, we found that failure rates show a gradually increasing trend for motorcycles older than 3 yr or used for mileages greater than 10,000 km, and failure rates are highly correlated to the age/mileage of motorcycles. We reason that the accumulation of age or mileage means accumulating usage time of engines and emission control systems. Concentrations of pollutant emissions would increase because of engine wear and emission control system deactivation. After discussing changes of failure rates and pollutant emissions, some suggestions are proposed to improve the testing rate and effectiveness of regular testing. PMID:19603743

Chen, Yi-Chi; Chen, Lu-Yen; Jeng, Fu-Tien

2009-06-01

432

Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices  

SciTech Connect

The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

2011-11-01

433

Effect of exhaustive exercise on myocardial performance  

SciTech Connect

Possible changes in cardiac functional capacity in the intact heart following prolonged exhaustive exercise are investigated. Cardiac output, coronary blood flow, aortic blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development and maximum rate of left ventricular pressure relaxation were measured in eight chronically instrumented adult mongrel dogs run at a constant work load to exhaustion signalled by the animals' refusal or inability to continue. All cardiovascular parameters, with the exception of stroke volume, are found to increase significantly during the transition from rest to steady-state exercise at about 75% of maximum heart rate. In the transition from steady state to exhaustion, only the maximum rates of left ventricular pressure development and relaxation are observed to increase significantly, while all other values exhibited no significant change. Similarly, no significant changes are observed in measurements of maximum cardiac parameters before and after exhaustion. Results indicate that cardiac function and hemodynamic parameters are not depressed at exhaustion in dogs despite observed ultrastructural changes.

Grimditch, G.K.; Barnard, R.J.; Duncan, H.W.

1981-11-01

434

Stratospheric plume dispersion: Measurements from STS and Titan solid rocket motor exhaust. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Plume expansion was measured from nine Space Shuttle and Titan IV vehicles at altitudes of 18, 24, and 30 km in the stratosphere. The plume diameters were inferred from electronic images of polarized, near-infrared solar radiation scattered from the exhaust particles, and these diameters were found to increase linearly with time. The expansion rate was measured for as long as 50 min after the vehicle reached altitude. Measurements made simultaneously at multiple altitudes showed that the expansion rate increased with increasing altitude for six measurements made at Cape Canaveral but decreased between 24 and 30 km for the one measurement made at Vandenberg AFB. The average expansion rates for all measurements are 4.3 {+-} 1.0 m/s at 18 km, 6.8 {+-} 1.9 m/s at 24 km, and 8.7 {+-} 2.5 m/s at 30 km. Expansion rates varied from launch to launch by as much as a factor of 1.6 at 18 km, 2.2 at 24 km, and 2.7 at 30 km. No correlation between the expansion rate and wind speed or shear was evident. These data are compared to several models for diffusivity and are used to update a comprehensive particle model of solid rocket motor exhaust in the stratosphere. The expansion rates are required by models to calculate the spatial extent and temporal persistence of the local stratospheric ozone depletion cause by solid rocket exhaust.

Beiting, E.J.

1999-04-20

435

Different Fuels and Greenhouse gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Peter Hall (a senior scientist in the field of bioenergy research at Crown Research Institute Scion) describes how different products (e.g. coal, wood) produce differing amounts of greenhouse gases.

Waikato, The U.; Hub, Science L.

436

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

437

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle and imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure thereby adjusting flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-04-22

438

Generation and characterization of radiolabeled diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential health risks associated with increased use of diesel engines, information is needed on the biological fate of inhaled diesel exhaust components. Appropriately radiolabeled exhaust produced by burning radiolabeled fuel could be used to gain this information. The purpose of this study was to characterize different radiolabeled diesel exhausts with respect to their potential use in studies of the biological fate of exhaust carbon particles and particle-associated organic compounds (particle extracts). A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to burn diesel fuel containing trace amounts of 14C-labeled hexadecane, dotriacontane, benzene, phenanthrene or benzo(a)pyrene. Greater than 98% of the 14C in all additives was converted to volatile materials upon combustion. The remainder was distributed in varying amounts between the carbon particles and particle extracts. Aromatic additives labeled carbon particles more efficiently than aliphatic additives. Column chromatography of the particle extracts showed that, in most cases, the majority of the radioactivity eluted in fractions identical to the specific fuel additive employed, suggesting that a large amount of the particle-associated organic compounds consisted of uncombusted fuel constituents. Applying an electrical load to the engine-electrical generator increased carbon particle radioactivity, but had variable effects on the amount of radioactivity in the particle extracts. 67Ga-tetramethylheptanedione was also studied as a fuel additive to label carbon particles. 67Ga was incorporated into the exhaust particles and lung deposition of particles in rats was found to be approximately 10%. However, the 67Ga-radiolabel was found to separate from the particles in vivo, making it an unsuitable radiolabel for studying the long-term lung retention of diesel exhaust carbonaceous particles. PMID:6205579

Dutcher, J S; Sun, J D; Lopez, J A; Wolf, I; Wolff, R K; McClellan, R O

1984-07-01

439

Evaluation of response time of a portable system for in-use vehicle tailpipe emissions measurement.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to quantify and evaluate the effects of response time of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). The PEMS measures tailpipe emissions and vehicle dynamics on a second-by-second basis. Response times of the PEMS for exhaust concentrations were quantified on the basis of fixed periods of measurement of calibration gases for NO, hydrocarbons (HC), CO, and CO2. The time constant was quantified on the basis of the time to reach 63% of the maximum measured value when calibration gas was continuously administered for a period of typically 20 s or more. The time constant was found to be 6 s for NO and 3 s each for CO, HC, and CO2. Measurement errors associated with the response time of the PEMS were quantified. A first-order dynamic discrete model was developed to simulate the instrument measurements. Simulations showed that correction improves the measurement accuracy. Correction with smoothing better improves the measurement accuracy, especially when the noise is relatively large. On a trip level, the average error of the simulated measurements relative to the simulated signal before correction is -4%, which is deemed to be acceptable. For real-world data, smoothing and correction is recommended for major peaks to improve the measurement accuracy. PMID:18350900

Zhang, Kaishan; Frey, Christopher

2008-01-01

440

Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.  

PubMed Central

Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer.

Arnold, D R

1975-01-01

441

PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment.

Blackaby, W.B.

1997-10-07

442

Exhaust gas turbocharger for diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas turbocharger is described for a diesel engine, the turbocharger including a compressor, an exhaust gas turbine, and a shaft joining the compressor and turbine. A flywheel is mounted on another shaft, and a device, such as a freewheel, alternatively couples and uncouples the flywheel shaft and turbocharger shaft. The flywheel shaft is in two sections, and a summation mechanism, such as a planetary gear arrangement, is between the two shaft sections. The summation mechanism is controlled by a hydrostatic device and/or an electronic device. A brake is provided for selectively preventing rotation of the flywheel shaft section between the summation mechanism and the turbocharger shaft.

Regar, K.N.

1982-01-26

443

Assessment of the 3430 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack Sampling Probe Location  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed a demonstration to determine the acceptable location in which to place an air sampling probe for emissions monitoring for radionuclides in the exhaust air discharge from the new 3430 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack. The method was to adopt the results of a previously performed test series for a system of similar configuration, followed by a partial test on the actual system to verify the applicability of previously performed tests. The qualification criteria included 1) a uniform air velocity, 2) an average flow angle that does not deviate from the axis of the duct by more than 20°, 3) a uniform concentration of tracer gases, and 4) a uniform concentration of tracer particles. Section 1 provides background information for the demonstration, and Section 2 describes the test strategy, including the criteria for the applicability of model results and the test matrix. Section 3 describes the flow -angle test and the velocity uniformity test, Section 4 provides the test results, and Section 5 provides the conclusions. Appendix A includes the test data sheets, and Appendix B gives applicable qualification results from the previously tested model stack. The data from the previously tested and similarly designed stack was demonstrated to be applicable to the current design for the 3430 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack. The 3430 stack was tested in both January and May of 2010 to document the results of several changes that were made to the exhaust system after the January tests. The 3430 stack meets the qualification criteria given in the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1 standard. Changes to the system configuration or operations outside of the bounds of this report (e.g., exhaust velocity increases, relocation of sample probe) will require retesting/reevaluation to determine compliancewith the requirements.

Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

2010-07-16

444

Divergent electrocardiographic responses to whole and particle-free diesel exhaust inhalation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to traffic-related fine particulate matter (PM)(2.5). Although inroads have been made in understanding the mechanisms of PM-related health effects, DE's complex mixture of PM, gases, and volatile organics makes it difficult to determine how the constituents contribute to DE's effects. We hypothesized that exposure to particle-filtered DE (fDE; gases alone) will elicit less cardiac effects than whole DE (wDE; particles plus gases). In addition, we hypothesized that spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats will be more sensitive to the electrocardiographic effects of DE exposure than Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; background strain with normal blood pressure). SH and WKY rats, implanted with telemeters to monitor electrocardiogram and heart rate (HR), were exposed once for 4 h to 150 ?g/m(3) or 500 ?g/m(3) of wDE (gases plus PM) or fDE (gases alone) DE, or filtered air. Exposure to fDE, but not wDE, caused immediate electrocardiographic alterations in cardiac repolarization (ST depression) and atrioventricular conduction block (PR prolongation) as well as bradycardia in SH rats. Exposure to wDE, but not fDE, caused postexposure ST depression and increased sensitivity to the pulmonary C fiber agonist capsaicin in SH rats. The only notable effect of DE exposure in WKY rats was a decrease in HR. Taken together, hypertension may predispose to the potential cardiac effects of DE and components of DE may have divergent effects with some eliciting immediate irritant effects (e.g., gases), whereas others (e.g., PM) trigger delayed effects potentially via separate mechanisms. PMID:22052608

Lamb, Christina M; Hazari, Mehdi S; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P; Krantz, Q Todd; King, Charly; Winsett, Darrell W; Cascio, Wayne E; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

2011-11-02

445

Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

446

Vehicle Controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

1985-01-01

447

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.  

Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

448

Method of producing monolithic catalyst for purification of exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of producing a monolithic catalyst for simultaneous oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, the method including the steps of providing an active alumina base coating to a monlithic carrier by treating the monolithic carrier with a coating slip in which an active alumina powder containing cerium oxide, which is formed by thermal decomposition of a cerium salt applied to the active alumina as a solution, is dispersed and then baking the treated carrier, and depositing at least one noble metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Rh and Pd on the coating by thermal decomposition of an aqueous solution of a compound of each selected noble metal on the coating, characterized in that a ceria powder is additionally dispersed in the coating slip; wherein the amount of the ceria powder is such that, in the coating, Ce of the ceria powder amounts to 5 to 50% by weight of the coating, and wherin the content of Ce in the active alumina powder is in the range from 1 to 5% by weight.

Sawamura, K.; Eto, Y.; Mine, J.; Masuda, K.

1986-05-06

449

Physiological changes in certain test plants under automobile exhaust pollution.  

PubMed

Plants are the only living organisms which have to suffer a lot from automobile exhaust pollution because they remain static at their habitat. But such roadside plants like Nerium indicum Mill., Boerhaavia diffusa L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cephalandra indica Naud., and Tabemaemontana divaricata L. can easily avoid the effects of air pollution by altering their physiological pathways pertaining to photosynthesis and respiration. Stomatal closure in Boerhaavia, Amaranthus, Cephlandra and stomatal clogging in Nerium and Tabemaemontana help these plants in preventing the entry of poisonous gases. The increased activity of the enzyme Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase (PEPCase) belonging to C4 pathway helps Nerium and Boerhaavia (both C3 plants) in carbon fixation under stress condition. Photorespiration is favoured in Amaranthus, Cephalandra and Tabernaemontana to compensate for the over production of ATP in them. Owing an inefficient gaseous exchange in Boerhaavia and Tabemaemontana, the activity of Glucose 6--Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6-PD) also increases for the preferential shift to Pentose Phosphate Pathway to produce excess NADPH+H+ which are likely to re-oxidize by metabolic reactions not linked to electron transport chain. PMID:16850874

Mandal, Madhumanjari

2006-01-01

450

Laser Beam Propagation Through Jet Exhausts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CO2 (10.6 micrometer) and He-Ne (6328A) laser beams were passed through the highly turbulent region in the exhaust of a jet engine (J-57 with afterburner). Experimental information was obtained on the absorption, scattering and turbulence effects of the j...

K. G. Gilbert C. B. Hogge W. L. Visinsky

1970-01-01

451

Prediction of Minuteman Exhaust Plume Electrical Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a comprehensive investigation of Minuteman exhaust plume electrical properties are presented. Electron density and electron-neutral collision frequency profiles are given for the Stage 1 plume at 100 kft and the Stage 2 plume at 118,200 and 300...

H. S. Pergament R. R. Mikatarian

1973-01-01

452

Approved Fume Exhaust Duct - Beyond Minimum Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facility cost and building code requirements impose more stringent criteria on fume exhaust duct design for semiconductor fabrication facilities than is generally seen in the rest of the chemical process industry. This article summarizes the requirements. Lined stainless steel and fiberglass—reinforced plastic choices available to the designer or facility manager to satisfy these requirements are compared and contrasted. Significant differences

John McCloskey

453

49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location immediately below the...gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the...than gasoline shall discharge to the atmosphere either: (1) At or within 15...

2012-10-01

454

49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location immediately below the...gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the...than gasoline shall discharge to the atmosphere either: (1) At or within 15...

2011-10-01

455

PISTON ENGINE INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance. A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on predictive modelling of acoustic behaviour. Virtually any system geometry can be modelled by breaking it

P. O. A. L. Davies

1996-01-01

456

Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of

Hirohumi Shinjoh

2006-01-01

457

Apparatus for totally recycling engine exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of burning fuel in the combustion chamber of an engine using an apparatus of the type which comprises an electrostatic precipitator connected to the exhaust manifold of the engine; a dissociation chamber connected to the electrostatic precipitator and to the intake manifold of the engine and including a dissociated gas control reservoir connected to the dissociation

Suzuki

1986-01-01

458

Reduced Radar Cross Section Exhaust Nozzle Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exhaust nozzle assembly includes a plurality of interfitting flap assemblies that are moveable between a maximum area ratio and a minimum area ratio. Each of the pluralities of flap assemblies includes a slot and a wing. The wing fits within an adjacen...

J. Allore J. A. Arbona M. Harris S. Laporte

2005-01-01

459

OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS USING AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...

460

Interlaboratory Test of Exhaust PM Using ELPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) works on the development of an improved method for the exhaust particulate matter (PM) measurement, which can include, if feasible and necessary, the measurement of particle number. The French PMP subgroup, composed of IFP, PSA Peugeot-Citroën, Renault, and UTAC, has defined a measurement protocol based on electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and conducted an interlaboratory test

E. Zervas; P. Dorlhène; L. Forti; C. Perrin; J. C. Momique; R. Monier; H. Ing; B. Lopez

2005-01-01

461

Distribution control at Exhaust Systems Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the selection of distribution control techniques for a manufacturer of exhaust systems. A method for this selection process is proposed and worked out for the case study company. Argues that selecting one control technique for a complete company is not advisable. Distribution control should be differentiated to clusters of products that have a similar set of product, process and

1996-01-01

462

Silver Doped Catalysts for Treatment of Exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of making an exhaust treatment catalyst includes dispersing a metal-based material in a first solvent to form a first slurry and allowing polymerization of the first slurry to occur. Polymerization of the first slurry may be quenched and the firs...

C. L. Boyer P. W. Park

2004-01-01

463

Compact de-NOxer for automotive exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our two year project concluded with mixed results. The basic idea of using ozone and hydroxyl radical in a two stage plasma chemical reactor to remove NO(sub x) from automotive exhaust proved to be correct. However we found the energy needed to operate th...

B. Chang M. Garcia

1996-01-01

464

Combination Exhaust and Relief/Venting Valve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document discloses a steam valve for use on the low pressure exhaust side of a steam turbine including a housing having an inlet and two outlets with valves upstream of the outlets for selectively permitting steam flow from the inlet to either or bot...

J. E. Kelly

1980-01-01

465

Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants.

Gaines, L.

1998-04-16

466

Diesel injector additives for a clean exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Increased public awareness of clean air is causing closer examination of potential health problems associated with diesel exhaust particulates. Recently, the EPA published standards mandating a sixfold reduction in diesel exhaust particulates for heavy duty engines from 0.60 gm/bhp-hr in 1988-1990 to 0.10 gm/bhp-hr in 1994. NOx exhaust concentrations were also reduced. For some time now, we have been interested in ways to reduce black smoke from diesel engines since it is one of the prime contributors to exhaust particulates. One of its causes is dirty or clogged fuel injectors due to deposit buildup. During operation with dirty injectors, the spray pattern of fuel into the combustion chamber is distorted, usually resulting in a fuel-rich environment. Incomplete burning of the rich fuel mixture results in an excess of carbonaceous material which is discharged in the exhaust as black smoke. We are engaged in evaluating additives with detergency and antioxidant properties to reduce deposit buildup in the injectors. Long chain alkylamines, and other types of surfactant molecules have been reported as active in preventing deposit buildup. However, little practical information was available concerning structure-activity relationships for use in developing a commercially acceptable additive package. We decided to investigate additives which are active either as gasoline carburetor detergents or as lubricant dispersants; both categories appear to have the necessary surfactant behavior and oil solubility to satisfy our needs for a diesel injector keep clean agent. Our approach to the problem was to develop an additive package for future use in Texaco fuels to reduce black smoke.

Herbstman, S.; Virk, K.S.

1988-08-01