Science.gov

Sample records for vehicle exhaust gases

  1. A death in a stationary vehicle whilst idling: unusual carbon monoxide poisoning by exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Motoki; Horiuchi, Hidekazu; Yoshida, Koutaro; Tada, Takeshi; Harada, Akira

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we describe an autopsy case in which death was due to accidental carbon monoxide poisoning occurring in a stationary vehicle idling in an open space. To investigate the source of the fatal fumes, the death scene situation was reconstructed using the vehicle. Exhaust gases were found to invade the interior through the floor from a defective exhaust system. CO gas was detected while idling and the level in the cabin gradually rose to 1.5% over a 2-h period. Since the 8-year-old motor vehicle seemed to have been defective for some months, it was concluded that stationary idling overnight caused an accumulation of toxic gases in the interior. PMID:12935571

  2. Nondispersive infrared monitoring of NO emissions in exhaust gases of vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, A. J.; Meneses, J.; Briz, S.; Lpez, F.

    1999-07-01

    Road traffic is one of the most important contributors to air pollution, being that a small fraction of the running vehicles is responsible for more than a half of the emissions. Roadside emission monitoring of individual cars appears to be an efficient way to identify these gross polluters. In this sense, nondispersive infrared (NDIR) systems have been developed to monitor the gas emissions of individual vehicles. However, these systems do not include NOx detection because of the strong interference of NO and NO2 absorption bands with the water band. This work is focused on the roadside monitoring of NO emissions by NDIR techniques. A theoretical study of the interference between NO and H2O absorption bands in the 1800-1950 cm-1 spectral region has been performed. Two absorption lines, centered at 1876 and 1900 cm-1 have been selected due to the very low water interference. The development of a new application based on the buildup of a high order interference filter, the solid state Fabry-Prot filter, is presented. Design of the filter system has been done, optimizing the transmittance at these two absorption lines. Finally, the ability of such a filter to discriminate NO absorption has been tested by using experimental absorption spectra measured by a commercial Fourier transform infrared spectroradiometer working in the active mode. The buildup of such a filter would permit us to increase the capabilities of on road exhaust monitoring systems using the NDIR technique, extending the range of analyzed gases to the nitrogen oxides.

  3. Apparatus for the catalytic purification of exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bozon, A.; Hensel, J.; Koberstein, E.; Volker, M.H.

    1982-03-09

    Baffle means coated with effective catalyts are positioned inside exhaust pipes to convert the harmful substances in said exhaust gases into harmless components. The baffle means impart a disturbed flow and/or change of the direction of flow of the exhaust gases in the exhaust pipe.

  4. Effluent sampling of Scout D and Delta launch vehicle exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulten, W. C.; Storey, R. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Woods, D. C.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Characterization of engine-exhaust effluents (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) has been attempted by conducting field experiments monitoring the exhaust cloud from a Scout-Algol III vehicle launch and a Delta-Thor vehicle launch. The exhaust cloud particulate size number distribution (total number of particles as a function of particle diameter), mass loading, morphology, and elemental composition have been determined within limitations. The gaseous species in the exhaust cloud have been identified. In addition to the ground-based measurements, instrumented aircraft flights through the low-altitude, stabilized-exhaust cloud provided measurements which identified CO and HCI gases and Al2O3 particles. Measurements of the initial exhaust cloud during formation and downwind at several distances have established sampling techniques which will be used for experimental verification of model predictions of effluent dispersion and fallout from exhaust clouds.

  5. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  6. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  7. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  8. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside...

  9. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside...

  10. Non-thermal plasma for exhaust gases treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva R., Elvia; Pacheco P., Marquidia; Gómez B., Fernando; Pacheco P., Joel; Colín C., Arturo; Sánchez-Mendieta, Víctor; Valdivia B., Ricardo; Santana D., Alfredo; Huertas C., José; Frías P., Hilda

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a study on a non-thermal plasma device to treat exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine. Several tests using a plasma device to treat exhaust gases are conducted on a Honda GX200-196 cm3 engine at different rotational speeds. A plasma reactor could be efficient in degrading nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Monoxide and carbon dioxide treatment is minimal. However, achieving 1%-3% degradation may be interesting to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

  11. Remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cadle, S.H.; Stephens, R.D. )

    1994-06-01

    We will briefly discuss vehicle emissions and the vehicle emissions inventory before reviewing remote-sensing technology for exhaust emissions and remote-sensing applications that help characterize and minimize exhaust emissions in the real world. Remote sensing is the only method available that can measure the HC and CO exhaust emission rates of large numbers of individual in-use vehicles. These measurements have helped focus attention on the problem of in-use emissions from malfunctioning and illegally altered vehicles. The method has a bright future as an aid in understanding in-use emissions, a monitor of progress in reducing fleet emission rates, and as an IM and enforcement tool. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  12. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

  13. Cleaning of exhaust gases in the mold core industry

    SciTech Connect

    Balabanov, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    Methods for detoxifying the exhaust gases in the core-making sections of the casting industry were studied. The gases generated when making cores from sand-resin mixtures based on oil-free binders and synthetic resins were evaluated. Tests were conducted on activated carbon AR-3, catalysts containing precious and nonprecious metals, and on solutions of sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorate. The absorption, adsorption, and catalytic methods of cleaning the gas discharges from toxic substances were comparatively assessed. Results show that sorption methods were unsuitable while catalytic methods achieved near-total detoxification.

  14. Measurement of VOCs in vehicle exhaust by extractive FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Bernhard; Paar, H.; Sturm, Peter J.

    2001-02-01

    12 The detection of benzene and other organic compounds in vehicle exhaust by FT-IR-spectroscopy is seriously limited by the strong interference of carbon dioxide and the rather weak absorption coefficient of the gases. Therefore, a measurement device was developed which separates the components of interest (mostly VOCs) from carbon dioxide, water and nitric oxide. In addition the VOCs have to be pre- concentrated. To avoid condensation of VOCs the measurements have to take place at higher temperatures. The vehicle exhaust was led through an activated charcoal tube where the organic compounds were adsorbed. Afterwards, the charcoal tube was heated in a furnace, the VOCs were desorbed thermically and were carried by (heated) nitrogen into a gas cell with a path-length of 10 m where the concentration of the different species was measured. With the help of this measurement device a lot of VOC- components like benzene, toluene, and xylene were detected successfully. Measurements were performed on an engine test bed and a chassis dynamometer for heavy duty vehicles. The detection limit of most of the VOCs was about 2 to 3 ppb for a sampling time of 20 min. Calibration measurements showed an accuracy of 15%.

  15. Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.; Small, J.H.; Sawyer, P.S.; Bigbie, J.R.; Anderson, M.T.

    1998-03-01

    Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and optimizing engine performance through feedback control. In this project, the authors adapted existing acoustic wave chemical sensor technology to the high temperature environment and investigated new robust sensor materials for improving gas detection sensitivity and selectivity. This report describes one new sensor that has potential use as an exhaust stream residual hydrocarbon monitor. The sensor consists of a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator coated with a thin mesoporous silica layer ion-exchanged with palladium ions. When operated at temperatures above 300 C, the high surface area film catalyzes the combustion of the hydrocarbon vapors in the presence of oxygen. The sensor acts as a calorimeter as the exothermic reaction slightly increases the temperature, stressing the sensor surface, and producing a measurable deviation in the resonator frequency. Sensitivities as high as 0.44 (ppm-{Delta}f) and (ppm-gas) have been measured for propylene gas, with minimum detectable signals of < 50 ppm of propylene at 500 C.

  16. Catalyst for purifying exhaust gases and method for manufacturing same

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Nishino, A.; Sonetaka, K.; Takeuchi, Y.

    1982-09-21

    A catalyst for purifying an exhaust gas comprising a carrier substantially composed of calcium aluminate and titanium oxide. The carrier is deposited with a platinum group metal or a metal oxide capable of oxidizing reductive gases into innoxious ones. The titanium oxide is applied on the surface of the carrier or incorporated in the carrier. The carrier may further comprise a transition metal oxide showing catalytic activity. A method of making a catalyst is also disclosed in which titanium oxide is applied on the surface of a solid mass of calcium aluminate.

  17. [Emission Factors of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-07-01

    Based on the investigation of basic data such as vehicle type composition, driving conditions, ambient temperature and oil quality, etc., emission factors of vehicle exhaust pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter(PM) were calculated using COPERT IV model. Emission factors of typical gasoline passenger cars and diesel trucks were measured using on-board measurement system on actual road. The measured and modeled emission factors were compared and the results showed that: the measured emission factors of CO, NOx and HC were 0. 96, 0. 64 and 4. 89 times of the modeled data for passenger cars conforming to the national IV emission standard. For the light, medium and heavy diesel trucks conforming to the national III emission standard, the measured data of CO emission factors were 1.61, 1. 07 and 1.76 times of the modeled data, respectively, the measured data of NOx emission factors were 1. 04, 1. 21 and 1. 18 times of the modeled data, and the measured data of HC emission factors were 3. 75, 1. 84 and 1. 47 times of the modeled data, while the model data of PM emission factors were 1. 31, 3. 42 and 6. 42 times of the measured data, respectively. PMID:26489301

  18. Absorption refrigeration system for mobile applications utilizing exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, J.; Tegethoff, W. J.; Westphalen, D.; Sonnekalb, M.

    A breadboard prototype of an absorption system for truck refrigeration using heat from the exhaust-gases was designed, built and tested. Measured COP values of the unoptimized single-stage ammonia-water absorption cycle varied between 23 and 30%, but system modeling shows that this can be improved to values considerably over 30%. Computer simulation for the system included cycle analysis as well as component modeling, using a detailed two-fluid model for flow of the ammonia-water mixture in the condenser and absorber. This detailed model was also validated using test data. In addition, the recoverable energy of the exhaust gases was analyzed for representative truck-driving conditions for city traffic, mountain roads and flat roads. The results show that the system is promising for long distance driving on flat roads. Zusammenfassung Es wurde ein Prototyp einer abgasbetriebenen Absorptionsklteanlage fr Transportkhlung ausgelegt, gebaut und getestet. Das gemessene Wrmeverhltnis der noch nicht optimierten einstufigen Ammoniak-Wasser Absorptionskltemaschine (AKM) liegt zwischen 23 und 30%. Simulationsrechnungen zeigen, da das Wrmeverhltnis auf deutlich ber 30% gesteigert werden kann. Die Simulationsrechnungen wurden sowohl fr den gesamten Kreisproze als auch fr einzelne Komponenten durchgefhrt. Insbesondere wurde fr den Verflssiger und Absorber ein detailiertes Zweifluidmodell fr die Strmung des Ammoniak-Wasser-Gemisches entwickelt und mit Hilfe der Medaten validiert. Zustzlich wurde fr reprsentative Lkw Fahrten im Stadtverkehr und auf gebirgigen und ebenen Auerortsstrecken die nutzbare Abgasenergie analysiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, da eine abgasbetriebene AKM besonders fr Langstreckenfahrten auf ebener Strecke geeignet ist.

  19. Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholence, F.; Norell, M.

    2005-02-01

    Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650 1050 °C for 50 h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (<20 μm) precipitated heterogeneously deep (600 μm at 950 °C) into SiMo. It is argued that the accommodation of volume change, preferential diffusion paths and increased N solubility as Si was depleted contribute to a self-accelerating process. The Si depletion around the coarse nitrides lowered the microhardness and the corrosion resistance of the alloy. In diesel and in normal petrol gases μ-sized MgSiN2 form in SiMo in cell boundaries where Mg segregates. This also occurs in Ni-Resist in both dry and normal petrol whereas no nitrides were observed in Ni-Resist exposed to diesel gases.

  20. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  1. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  2. Simulation of hypersonic scramjet exhaust. [pressure distribution on afterbody/nozzle sections of vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, R. A.; Foreman, K. M.; Leng, J.; Hopkins, H. B.

    1975-01-01

    A plan and some preliminary analysis for the accurate simulation of pressure distributions on the afterbody/nozzle portions of a hypersonic scramjet vehicle are described. The objectives fulfilled were to establish the standards of similitude for a hydrogen/air scramjet exhaust interacting with a vehicle afterbody, determine an experimental technique for validation of the procedures that will be used in conventional wind tunnel facilities, suggest a program of experiments for proof of the concept, and explore any unresolved problems in the proposed simulation procedures. It is shown that true enthalpy, Reynolds number, and nearly exact chemistry can be provided in the exhaust flow for the flight regime from Mach 4 to 10 by a detonation tube simulation. A detailed discussion of the required similarity parameters leads to the conclusion that substitute gases can be used as the simulated exhaust gas in a wind tunnel to achieve the correct interaction forces and moments.

  3. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  4. Vehicle engines produce exhaust nanoparticles even when not fueled.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Heikkilä, Juha; Karjalainen, Panu; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle engines produce submicrometer exhaust particles affecting air quality, especially in urban environments. In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that as much as 20-30% of the number of exhaust particles larger than 3 nm may be formed during engine braking conditions-that is, during decelerations and downhill driving while the engine is not fueled. Particles appeared at size ranges extending even below 7 nm and at high number concentrations. Their small size and nonvolatility, coupled with the observation that these particles contain lube-oil-derived metals zinc, phosphorus, and calcium, are suggestive of health risks at least similar to those of exhaust particles observed before. The particles' characteristics indicate that their emissions can be reduced using exhaust after-treatment devices, although these devices have not been mandated for all relevant vehicle types. Altogether, our findings enhance the understanding of the formation vehicle emissions and allow for improved protection of human health in proximity to traffic. PMID:24397401

  5. Modeling smog chamber measurements of vehicle exhaust VOC reactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.Y.; Nance, B.I.; Kelly, N.A.

    1997-12-31

    Vehicle exhaust VOC reactivities, measured at GM`s smog chamber facility, have been modeled using the SAPRC93 photochemical mechanism. The vehicle exhaust mixtures were generated by a single vehicle run over a portion of the Federal Test Procedure using three Auto/Oil reformulated test gasolines. For each run, up to 156 individual VOC species were identified. Initial HONO concentrations are needed to simulate reactivity measurement runs. (HONO is expected to be generated in a Tedlar bag holding the exhaust sample prior to its transfer to the smog chambers.) Measured and simulated relative incremental reactivities for the three exhaust mixtures are highly consistent. However, measured relative incremental reactivities are more sensitive to fuel effects than simulated ones. The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR)-based relative incremental reactivities, derived from individual species concentrations and MIR factors, are very close to simulated ones. A number of sensitivity simulation runs have been carried out to investigate the impact of HONO and other variables. Results show that relative reactivities of actual vehicle exhaust emissions can be measured by chamber runs in spite of the HONO effect.

  6. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  7. Lung Cancer and Vehicle Exhaust in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Rosner, Bernard; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Background An elevated risk of lung cancer in truck drivers has been attributed to diesel exhaust exposure. Interpretation of these studies specifically implicating diesel exhaust as a carcinogen has been limited because of limited exposure measurements and lack of work records relating job title to exposure-related job duties. Objectives We established a large retrospective cohort of trucking company workers to assess the association of lung cancer mortality and measures of vehicle exhaust exposure. Methods Work records were obtained for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. We assessed lung cancer mortality through 2000 using the National Death Index, and we used an industrial hygiene review and current exposure measurements to identify jobs associated with current and historical use of diesel-, gas-, and propane-powered vehicles. We indirectly adjusted for cigarette smoking based on an industry survey. Results Adjusting for age and a healthy-worker survivor effect, lung cancer hazard ratios were elevated in workers with jobs associated with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust. Mortality risk increased linearly with years of employment and was similar across job categories despite different current and historical patterns of exhaust-related particulate matter from diesel trucks, city and highway traffic, and loading dock operations. Smoking behavior did not explain variations in lung cancer risk. Conclusions Trucking industry workers who have had regular exposure to vehicle exhaust from diesel and other types of vehicles on highways, city streets, and loading docks have an elevated risk of lung cancer with increasing years of work. PMID:18941573

  8. Effects of vehicle exhaust emissions on urban wild plant species.

    PubMed

    Bell, J N B; Honour, S L; Power, S A

    2011-01-01

    Very few investigations have examined the direct impacts of vehicle exhausts on plants and attempted to separate out the key pollutants responsible for observed effects. This paper describes a multi-phase investigation into this topic, using 12 herbaceous species typical of urban areas and representing different functional groups. Fumigations were conducted in solardomes with diesel exhaust pollutants at concentrations designed to simulate those close to a major highway in inner London. A wide range of effects were detected, including growth stimulation and inhibition, changes in gas exchange and premature leaf senescence. This was complemented by controlled fumigations with NO, NO(2) and their mixture, as well as a transect study away from a busy inner London road. All evidence suggested that NO(x) was the key phytotoxic component of exhaust emissions, and highlights the potential for detrimental effects of vehicle emissions on urban ecosystems. PMID:21458124

  9. Effects of vehicle exhaust emissions on urban wild plant species.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Bell JN; Honour SL; Power SA

    2011-08-01

    Very few investigations have examined the direct impacts of vehicle exhausts on plants and attempted to separate out the key pollutants responsible for observed effects. This paper describes a multi-phase investigation into this topic, using 12 herbaceous species typical of urban areas and representing different functional groups. Fumigations were conducted in solardomes with diesel exhaust pollutants at concentrations designed to simulate those close to a major highway in inner London. A wide range of effects were detected, including growth stimulation and inhibition, changes in gas exchange and premature leaf senescence. This was complemented by controlled fumigations with NO, NO(2) and their mixture, as well as a transect study away from a busy inner London road. All evidence suggested that NO(x) was the key phytotoxic component of exhaust emissions, and highlights the potential for detrimental effects of vehicle emissions on urban ecosystems.

  10. The hydrocarbon composition of exhaust emitted from gasoline fuelled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. F.; Quigley, S. M.

    The non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) compositions of the exhausts from 67 vehicles in 'on the road' condition and driven through an urban driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer, have been determined. The major components were ethylene (11.2% w/w of NMHC), toluene (10.2%), acetylene (8.7%), m, p-Xylenes(6.5%), benzene (5.0%), propylene (5.0%) and i-pentane(4.8%). These compounds have also been reported as significant components in the exhausts from two similar populations of American vehicles. The NMHC compositions were found to be insensitive to the mass emission rates of hydrocarbons from the vehicles, except for the combustion-derived olefins, ethylene and propylene, which were affected by engine modifications introduced to satisfy emission control requirements. A close relationship was found between petrol composition and exhaust composition but this did not correspond simply to emissions of unburnt petrol. The aromatics are enriched relative to the alkanes in exhaust when compared with their proportions in the petrol.

  11. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  12. Wind tunnel tests of an 0.019-scale space shuttle integrated vehicle -2A configuration (model 14-OTS) in the NASA Ames 8 by 7 foot unitary wind tunnel (IA12C), volume 1. [torque and exhaust gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, R. B.; Burrows, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to determine the effects of cold jet gas plumes on (1) the integrated vehicle longitudinal and lateral-directional force data, (2) exposed wing hinge moment, (3) wing pressure distributions, (4) orbiter MPS external pressure distributions, and (5) model base pressure. The similarity between solid and gaseous plumes was investigated, and fluorescent oil flow visualization studies were conducted.

  13. SENSOR FOR MONITORING OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN DIESEL EXHAUST GASES - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Active Spectrum, Inc., proposes a novel, low-cost soot sensor for on-board measurement of soot emissions in diesel exhaust gases. The proposed technology is differentiated from existing methods by excellent sensitivity, high specificity to carbon particulates, and robustness ...

  14. Evolution of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Rahul; Guttikunda, Sarath K.

    2015-03-01

    For a 40-year horizon (1990-2030), on-road vehicle exhaust emissions were evaluated, retrospectively and prospectively, for the largest urban agglomeration in India - the Greater Delhi region with a combined population of 22 million in 2011 (Delhi along with Ghaziabad, Noida, Greater Noida, Faridabad and Gurgaon). Emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reached their peak during late 1990s through early 2000s after which they reduced significantly through year 2012. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide show an increasing trend. The most reduction in emissions between 1998 and 2012 occurred as a result of implementation of four sets of vehicular emission standards, removal of lead, reduction of sulfur content, mandatory retirement of older commercial vehicles, and conversion of diesel and petrol run public transport vehicles to compressed natural gas. In addition, changes in the vehicular technology have also contributed to controlling emissions especially in case of auto-rickshaws and motorized two-wheelers, which changed from two-stroke to four-stroke. The rising trend of NOx along with the presence of VOCs indicates increasing tendency to form ground-level ozone and as a result, smog in the region. We predict that the current regime of vehicle technology, fuel standards, and high growth rate of private vehicles, is likely to nullify all the past emission reductions by the end of 2020s.

  15. Positive Streamers and Glows in Air and Exhaust Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have been made of the effects of sub-microsecond voltage pulses on the plasma chemistry of real flue gases in a test cell. Chemical analysis shows that, for real flue gases, the pulsed system can remove up to 90 % of NO, and 30 % of SO_2, if a residence time of ~ 30s is used. We also find that (i) water vapour is essential to the removal of SO_2, but not for the removal of NO or NO_2; and (ii) that small quantities of N_2O are produced. The removal of SO2 is primarily due to reactions with OH radicals from water vapour, producing sulphuric acid, whereas nitrogen oxides are reduced by N atoms. When a positive voltage is abruptly applied to a point in air at atmospheric pressure, positive streamers are produced. A theory is presented for the development of the first such streamer by solving the continuity equations for electrons, positive ions and negative ions, including the effects of ionisation, attachment, recombination, electron diffusion, and photoionisation, simultaneously with Poisson's equation. With an applied voltage of 20 kV across a 50 mm gap, the streamer does not reach the cathode. When the voltage is sustained in the presence of free electrons, the electric field at the anode starts to recover until positive glow pulses develop at the anode. The presence of the positive glow corona precludes any further streamer formation; this limits the number of chemical reactions stimulated by the discharge because the positive glow is confined close to the anode. Thus, a limit is set for the voltage pulse width. A theory is also presented for the current and light pulses of positive glow corona from a point in air; results are obtained by solving the continuity equations, described above, in concentric sphere geometry. A series of ``saw--toothed'' current pulses of period ~ 1 ?s are predicted with a dc current level. Accompanying the current peaks are discrete 30 ns wide pulses of light. It is found that if, in the presence of a positive glow corona, the voltage is raised at a rate less than 1 kV/?s, the the positive glow corona adjusts to the positive glow corona conditions at a higher voltage; however, if the voltage is raised at a significantly faster rate, streamers develop and propagate out into the gap. Thus, the need for sub--microsecond voltage pulses in order to produce positive streamers can be shown theoretically, and limits determined for the rise time required for the stimulation of chemical reactions.

  16. Data from short-term tests on motor vehicle exhausts

    PubMed Central

    Rannug, Ulf

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of motor vehicle exhausts has been studied by using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Acetone extracts of the particulate phase and the gas phase have been tested in the presence and absence of a metabolizing system (S9). The particulate phases from medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested. The vehicles were driven according to a modified 13 mode test, and the particulate phase was sampled at mode 6 (maximum load and intermediate engine speed) and mode 12 (10% load and rated speed). In mode 6 all vehicles gave approximately the same mutagenicity in strain TA 98 (50,00090,000 revertants/kW-hr) as well as in TA 100 (200,000360,000 revertants/kW-hr). A higher mutagenic effect, in some cases up to 10 times, was seen with mode 12. Light-duty vehicles of different year models were tested using different fuel/engine combinations. The vehicles were driven according to FTP 72 or ECE driving cycle. Cold starts at two different temperature levels, approx. 0 C and 23 C, respectively, were also compared. Based on the mutagenicity of the particulate extracts (given as revertants per km), the light-duty vehicles could be divided into three main groups. The first group, the high mutagenicity group, giving 100,000700,000 revertants/km, consists only of diesel cars. In the medium mutagenicity group, giving between 20,000 and 100,000 revertants/km, different gasoline fuels are placed, i.e., leaded and lead-free gasoline as well as alcohol/gasoline fuels. Two other fuels, methanol (M95) and propane (LPG), constitute the low mutagenicity group, giving less than 20,000 revertants/km. Fuels from the medium effect group will produce a particulate phase with low mutagenicity if the vehicle is equipped with a three way catalyst with closed loop, or fuel injection. The cold start temperature did not change this classification, since all samples gave a somewhat higher mutagenic effect at the low temperature. With the ECE driving cycle, much lower mutagenicity was noted with the diesel cars than in the tests with the FTP-72 driving cycle, at least with tester strain TA 98. On strain TA 100 the diesel exhaust samples still showed a much higher mutagenicity than other samples. Acetone extracts of the gas phase from diesel and gasoline exhaust (trapped in ice/water condensers and CO2/ethanol condensers) also gave mutagenic effects. The contribution of the gas phase to the mutagenic effects seems to be more important in the absence of S9 and more important in the case of gasoline exhausts. PMID:6186476

  17. Data from short-term tests on motor vehicle exhausts.

    PubMed

    Rannug, U

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of motor vehicle exhausts has been studied by using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Acetone extracts of the particulate phase and the gas phase have been tested in the presence and absence of a metabolizing system (S9). The particulate phases from medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested. The vehicles were driven according to a modified 13 mode test, and the particulate phase was sampled at mode 6 (maximum load and intermediate engine speed) and mode 12 (10% load and rated speed). In mode 6 all vehicles gave approximately the same mutagenicity in strain TA 98 (50,000-90,000 revertants/kW-hr) as well as in TA 100 (200,000-360,000 revertants/kW-hr). A higher mutagenic effect, in some cases up to 10 times, was seen with mode 12.Light-duty vehicles of different year models were tested using different fuel/engine combinations. The vehicles were driven according to FTP 72 or ECE driving cycle. Cold starts at two different temperature levels, approx. 0 degrees C and 23 degrees C, respectively, were also compared. Based on the mutagenicity of the particulate extracts (given as revertants per km), the light-duty vehicles could be divided into three main groups. The first group, the high mutagenicity group, giving 100,000-700,000 revertants/km, consists only of diesel cars. In the medium mutagenicity group, giving between 20,000 and 100,000 revertants/km, different gasoline fuels are placed, i.e., leaded and lead-free gasoline as well as alcohol/gasoline fuels. Two other fuels, methanol (M95) and propane (LPG), constitute the low mutagenicity group, giving less than 20,000 revertants/km. Fuels from the medium effect group will produce a particulate phase with low mutagenicity if the vehicle is equipped with a three way catalyst with closed loop, or fuel injection. The cold start temperature did not change this classification, since all samples gave a somewhat higher mutagenic effect at the low temperature. With the ECE driving cycle, much lower mutagenicity was noted with the diesel cars than in the tests with the FTP-72 driving cycle, at least with tester strain TA 98. On strain TA 100 the diesel exhaust samples still showed a much higher mutagenicity than other samples. Acetone extracts of the gas phase from diesel and gasoline exhaust (trapped in ice/water condensers and CO(2)/ethanol condensers) also gave mutagenic effects. The contribution of the gas phase to the mutagenic effects seems to be more important in the absence of S9 and more important in the case of gasoline exhausts. PMID:6186476

  18. H-CANYON AIR EXHAUST TUNNEL INSPECTION VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R.; Fogle, R.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-05-24

    The H-Canyon at Savannah River Site is a large concrete structure designed for chemical separation processes of radioactive material. The facility requires a large ventilation system to maintain negative pressure in process areas for radioactive contamination control and personnel protection. The ventilation exhaust is directed through a concrete tunnel under the facility which is approximately five feet wide and 8 feet tall that leads to a sand filter and stack. Acidic vapors in the exhaust have had a degrading effect on the surface of the concrete tunnels. Some areas have been inspected; however, the condition of other areas is unknown. Experience from historical inspections with remote controlled vehicles will be discussed along with the current challenge of inspecting levels below available access points. The area of interest in the exhaust tunnel must be accessed through a 14 X 14 inch concrete plug in the floor of the hot gang valve corridor. The purpose for the inspection is to determine the condition of the inside of the air tunnel and establish if there are any structural concerns. Various landmarks, pipe hangers and exposed rebar are used as reference points for the structural engineers when evaluating the current integrity of the air tunnel.

  19. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C.; Anderson, J.A.; Howden, Kenneth C.

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  20. Synergistic effect of Brnsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brnsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brnsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  1. Synergistic effect of Brnsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brnsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brnsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  2. The effects of the exhaust plume on the lightning triggering conditions for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Frederick J.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

    1991-01-01

    Apollo 12 and Atlas Centaur 67 are two launch vehicles that have experienced triggered lightning strikes. Serious consequences resulted from the events; in the case of Atlas Centaur 67, the vehicle and the payload were lost. These events indicate that it is necessary to develop launch rules which would prevent such occurrences. In order to develop valid lightning related rules, it is necessary to understand the effects of the plume. Some have assumed that the plume can be treated as a perfect conductor, and have computed electric field enhancement factors on that basis. The authors have looked at the plume, and believe that these models are not correct, because they ignore the fluid motion of the conducting plates. The authors developed a model which includes this flow character. In this model, the external field is excluded from the plume as it would be for any good conductor, but, in addition, the charge must distribute so that the charge density is zero at some location in the exhaust. When this condition is included in the calculation of triggering enhancement factors, they can be two to three times larger than calculated by other methods which include a conductive plume but don't include the correct boundary conditions. Here, the authors review the relevant features of rocket exhausts for the triggered lightning problem, present an approach for including flowing conductive gases, and present preliminary calculations to demonstrate the effect that the plume has on enhancement factors.

  3. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system... schematic drawing of the CFV system (methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles may be tested using this test... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust...

  4. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system... schematic drawing of the CFV system (methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles may be tested using this test... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust...

  5. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system... schematic drawing of the CFV system (methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles may be tested using this test... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust...

  6. Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, R C; Backer, R C; Sopher, I M

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations. PMID:2464951

  7. Device for admitting exhaust gases and fuel-air mixtures into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, K.; Britsch, H.; Linder, E.; Muller, K.; Polach, W.

    1984-10-09

    A device is proposed for the supply of operating air-fuel mixtures including exhaust gases to internal combustion engines. Between the opening periods of the inlet valves of an internal combustion engine, precisely dispensed quantities of recirculated exhaust gas are pre-stored in the intake channel directly upstream of the inlet valve whereby a stratification of exhaust gas and fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber of the engine is obtained.

  8. Comparison of vehicle exhaust emissions from modified diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiping; Cao, Xu-Liang; Pigeon, Ren; Mitchell, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Three diesel fuels, one oil sand-derived (OSD) diesel serving as base fuel, one cetane-enhanced base fuel, and one oxygenate [diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEDM)]-blended base fuel, were tested for their emission characterizations in vehicle exhaust on a light-duty diesel truck that reflects the engine technology of the 1994 North American standard. Both the cetane-enhanced and the oxygenate-blended fuels were able to reduce regulated [CO, particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC)] and nonregulated [polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbonyls, and other volatile organic chemicals] emissions, except for nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), compared with the base fuel. Although burning a fuel that contains oxygen could conceivably yield more oxygenated compounds in emissions, the oxygenate-blended diesel fuel resulted in reduced emissions of formaldehyde along with hydrocarbons such as benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and PAHs. Reductions in nitro-PAH emissions have been observed in both the cetane-enhanced and oxygenated fuels. This further demonstrates the benefits of using a cetane enhancer and the oxygenated fuel component. PMID:12568255

  9. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  10. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.209-94 Exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.209-94 Exhaust...

  12. Exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles: chemical composition, impact of exhaust after treatment, and fuel parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, R; Egebck, K E

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results from the characterization of vehicle exhaust that were obtained primarily within the Swedish Urban Air Project, "Ttortsprojektet." Exhaust emissions from both gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles have been investigated with respect to regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], nitrogen oxides [NOx], and particulate), unregulated pollutants, and in bioassay tests (Ames test, TCDD receptor affinity tests). Unregulated pollutants present in both the particle- and the semi-volatile phases were characterized. Special interest was focused on the impact of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. It was confirmed that there exists a quantifiable relationship between diesel-fuel variables of the fuel blends, the chemical composition of the emissions, and their biological effects. According to the results from the multivariate analysis, the most important fuel parameters are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content, 90% distillation point, final boiling point, specific heat, aromatic content, density, and sulfur content. PMID:7529699

  13. Effects of bioreactive acrolein from automotive exhaust gases on human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jaganjac, Morana; Prah, Iva Ozana; Cipak, Ana; Cindric, Marina; Mrakovcic, Lidija; Tatzber, Franz; Ilincic, Petar; Rukavina, Vinko; Spehar, Branka; Vukovic, Jelena Parlov; Telen, Sanda; Uchida, Koji; Lulic, Zoran; Zarkovic, Neven

    2012-11-01

    Acrolein is a toxic unsaturated aldehyde and widespread environmental pollutant produced during lipid peroxidation and also by burning of tobacco or liquid fuels. Inhalation or dermal exposure to acrolein could be toxic to organisms. This very reactive aldehyde has a strong affinity for binding to proteins thus forming pathogenic protein-adducts. In the present study we have analyzed formation of bioreactive acrolein-protein adducts in bovine serum albumin solution exposed to exhaust gases of mineral diesel fuel and of mineral diesel fuel supplemented with different amounts of a novel diesel fuel additive denoted Ecodiesel (produced by a genuine procedure of recycling of plant oils used for food preparation). The effects of acrolein-protein adducts were tested on human microvascular endothelial cells and on human osteosarcoma cells that are sensitive to bioactivities of lipid peroxidation products. The results have shown a reduction of the bioreactive acrolein in exhaust gases when mineral diesel was supplemented with 5-20% Ecodiesel. Moreover, acrolein-protein adducts obtained from mineral diesel supplemented with Ecodiesel were less toxic than those obtained from mineral diesel alone. Thus, we assume that supplementing mineral diesel fuel with Ecodiesel would be of benefit for the use of renewable energy, for environment and for human health due to reduced environmental pollution with bioreactive acrolein. PMID:21374787

  14. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 234 225 33,000 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... and Related Requirements 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles....

  15. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 234 225 33,000 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... and Related Requirements 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles....

  16. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 225 33,000 CFR part 1036... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... and Related Requirements 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles....

  17. Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z.

    1995-06-01

    An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DUAL CATALYST EQUIPPED VEHICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was initiated to characterize exhaust gas emissions from an automobile equipped with a dual catalyst system. The dual catalyst system was designed by Gould, Inc. to reduce emissions of engine exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. It basically ...

  19. Analysis of drying wood waste fuels with boiler exhaust gases: simulation, performance, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, R.W.; Wilson, J.B.

    1984-09-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of retrofitting a rotary dryer to a hog fuel boiler, using the boiler exhaust gases as the drying medium. Two simulation models were developed. Each model accurately predicts system performance given site-specific parameters such as boiler steam demand, fue moisture content, boiler exhaust temperature and combustion excess air. Three rotary dryers/hog fuel boilers currently in operation in the forest products industry were analyzed. The data obtained were used to validate te accuracy of the simulation models and to establish the performance of boiler/dryer systems under field conditions. The boiler exhaust temperatures observed ranged from 340 to 500/sup 0/F and indicated that significant drying could be realized at moderate stack temperatures, as substantitated by experimental moisture content data. The simulation models were used to evaluate a general boiler/dryer system's sensitivity to variation in operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses indicated that under moderate conditions (400/sup 0/F boiler exhaust, etc.) the installation of a rotary dryer results in a 15% increase in boiler efficiency and a 13% decrease in fuel consumption. Both the field data and sensitivity analyses indicated that a greater increase in boiler efficiency could be realized at higher stack temperatures, approximately a 30% increase in boiler efficiency for a stack temperature of 600/sup 0/F. The cash flow basis payback periods based on hog fuel savings due to dryer installation ranged from 2.7 years for a used dryer to 3.9 years for a new dryer. The payback periods for equivalent BTU savings of gas and oil ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 for gas and from 1.3 to 2.1 years for oil. This study concludes that retrofitting a rotary dryer to an existing hog fuel boiler is an economically feasible option to the forest products industry. 31 references, 24 figures, 18 tables.

  20. Process of decreasing the sulfur content of exhaust gases obtained during the recovery of sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Schlauer, J.; Fischer, H.; Kriebel, M.

    1983-09-20

    In a process of decreasing the sulfur content of exhaust gases obtained during the recovery of sulfur from acid gases containing H/sub 2/S and other S-containing compounds in the Claus process, the acid gases which contain H/sub 2/S and other S-containing compounds are reacted in a Claus plant to form elemental sulfur. A gas which contains H/sub 2/S or SO/sub 2/ is subsequently added at a controlled rate to maintain a stoichiometric ratio of 2:1 of H/sub 2/S to SO/sub 2/ in the tail gas from the Claus plant. The gas which contains H/sub 2/S or SO/sub 2/ may be added to the tail gas from the Claus plant or before the last contacting stage of a multistage Claus plant. During the addition of a gas which contains H /sup 2/S the Claus plant can be operated at an H/sub 2/S to SO/sub 2/ ratio of or below 2:1. During the addition gas which contains SO/sub 2/ the Claus plant can be operated at an H/sub 2/S to SO/sub 2/ ratio of or above 2:1. The H/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ contained in the tail gas are chemically reacted to form elementary sulfur in a tail gas-desulfurizing plant and the sulfur is withdrawn.

  1. Measurement of primary exhaust particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1998-11-01

    An in-use fleet of 60 gasoline-fueled and 8 diesel-fueled vehicles was evaluated to characterize primary particulate exhaust emissions. The candidate vehicles included light-duty passenger cars and trucks, and passenger trucks with heavy-duty engines. The six visibly smoking gasoline-fueled vehicles were chosen from a pool of over 30 smoking vehicles because they emitted smoke during virtually all operating conditions (idle, acceleration, deceleration, and cruise). Primary particulate exhaust emission samples were characterized for total mass emission rate, PM-10, PM-2.5, organic and elemental carbon fraction, trace elements, sulfates, nitrates, and the presence of select polynuclear aromatics, hopanes, and steranes. In addition, particle mass size distribution and particle number concentration were measured for a subset of vehicles. Gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions were evaluated using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP).

  2. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  3. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  4. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  5. Catalyst for the purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bozon, A.; Koberstein, E.; Lakatos, E.; Pletka, H.; Volker, H.

    1981-10-13

    A three-way catalyst is described for the purification of automobile exhaust gases formed of an active substance of platinum and rhodium and possibly base metal(S) at a certain weight ratio between the two noble metals and at a certain atomic ratio between the noble and the base metal, which are precipitated onto active aluminum oxide containing certain quantities of CeO2, ZrO2 and Fe2O3, and whereby the catalyst is obtained by impregnating active aluminum oxide, possibly stabilized with alkaline earth metal, with a solution of cerium, zirconium and iron salt which is thereupon calcined in air at 500 degrees-700 degrees C. And then treated after application of impregnation of salts of the active substance components in a gas current containing hydrogen at temperatures below 650 degrees C.

  6. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  7. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  8. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles. 86.110-90 Section 86.110-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  9. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section 610.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria 610.31 Vehicle tests for...

  10. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  11. Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.

    1999-06-28

    A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.

  12. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles... system requirements of § 86.109-94 (which apply to Otto-cycle vehicles), also apply to diesel...

  13. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles... system requirements of § 86.109-94 (which apply to Otto-cycle vehicles), also apply to diesel...

  14. Impact of higher alcohols blended in gasoline on light-duty vehicle exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Luecke, Jon; Williams, Aaron; Christensen, Earl; Yanowitz, Janet; Reek, Aaron; McCormick, Robert L

    2013-12-01

    Certification gasoline was splash blended with alcohols to produce four blends: ethanol (16 vol%), n-butanol (17 vol%), i-butanol (21 vol%), and an i-butanol (12 vol%)/ethanol (7 vol%) mixture; these fuels were tested in a 2009 Honda Odyssey (a Tier 2 Bin 5 vehicle) over triplicate LA92 cycles. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, non-methane organic gases (NMOG), unburned alcohols, carbonyls, and C1-C8 hydrocarbons (particularly 1,3-butadiene and benzene) were determined. Large, statistically significant fuel effects on regulated emissions were a 29% reduction in CO from E16 and a 60% increase in formaldehyde emissions from i-butanol, compared to certification gasoline. Ethanol produced the highest unburned alcohol emissions of 1.38 mg/mile ethanol, while butanols produced much lower unburned alcohol emissions (0.17 mg/mile n-butanol, and 0.30 mg/mile i-butanol); these reductions were offset by higher emissions of carbonyls. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde were the most significant carbonyls from the n-butanol blend, while formaldehyde, acetone, and 2-methylpropanal were the most significant from the i-butanol blend. The 12% i-butanol/7% ethanol blend was designed to produce no increase in gasoline vapor pressure. This fuel's exhaust emissions contained the lowest total oxygenates among the alcohol blends and the lowest NMOG of all fuels tested. PMID:24180630

  15. Motor vehicle exhaust emissions and control in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Laurikko, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper outlines the status and trends of atmospheric pollution in Finland caused by motor vehicles and evaluates the effect of the current regulatory policy. Details of new emission regulations for passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles are given. Research activities and items of particular concern like the effect of low ambient temperature on emissions are also discussed.

  16. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 20202050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 20172021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

  17. Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

  18. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  19. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  20. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  1. Profile of PAH in the exhaust of gasoline driven vehicles in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Khillare, P S; Balachandran, S; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul

    2005-11-01

    A preliminary study to determine the profile of PAHs in the exhaust of gasoline vehicles in Delhi was conducted. Three different types of vehicles (cars, autorickshaws and scooters) were selected with different age groups for sampling purpose. The concentration of Total PAHs (Sigma12PAHs) was found to be 27.27 +/- 2.27, 28.61 +/- 3.70 and 29.81 +/- 3.57 mg/g in the exhaust of cars, auto- rickshaws (three wheelers) and two wheelers, respectively. The levels of PAHs were found to be high in scooter exhaust as compared to that of cars and autorickshaws. The total PAHs concentration in the present study was found to be higher as compared to other studies. Such a high concentration could be attributed to different parameters like the age of the vehicles, driving conditions, the fuel quality and the emission standards. PMID:16308788

  2. The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhys-Tyler, G. A.; Legassick, W.; Bell, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the research question "Are more stringent exhaust emissions standards, as applied to light vehicle type approval, resulting in reduced vehicle pollution in an urban area?" The exhaust emissions of a sample of over fifty thousand road vehicles operating in London were measured using roadside remote sensing absorption spectroscopy techniques (infrared and ultraviolet), combined with Automatic Number Plate Recognition for vehicle identification. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke (particulate) exhaust emissions are reported by vehicle class, fuel type, and Euro emissions standard. Emissions from petrol cars of each pollutant were all observed to display a statistically significant reduction with the introduction of each successive Euro emissions standard from Euro 1 onwards. However, Euro 2 diesel cars were observed to emit statistically higher rates of NO than either Euro 1 or Euro 3 standard diesel cars. The study also confirms the continuing 'dieselisation' of the UK passenger car fleet. Mean NO emissions from Euro 4 diesel cars were found to be 6 times higher than Euro 4 petrol cars, highlighting the need to develop a sound understanding of the current and future 'in-use' emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles, and their influence on local air quality. Smoke emissions from TXII London taxis (black cabs) were found to be statistically higher than either earlier TX1 or later TX4 model variants, with possible implications for local air quality policy interventions such as maximum age limits for taxis.

  3. Physicochemical characterisation of combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke

    PubMed Central

    Kocbach, Anette; Li, Yanjun; Yttri, Karl E; Cassee, Flemming R; Schwarze, Per E; Namork, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Particle characteristics such as size, surface area and chemistry seem to influence the negative effects of particles. In this study, combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and wood smoke, currently used in biological experiments, were analysed with respect to microstructure and chemistry. Methods Vehicle exhaust particles were collected in a road tunnel during two seasons, with and without use of studded tires, whereas wood smoke was collected from a stove with single-stage combustion. Additionally, a reference diesel sample (SRM 2975) was analysed. The samples were characterised using transmission electron microscopy techniques (TEM/HRTEM, EELS and SAED). Furthermore, the elemental and organic carbon fractions were quantified using thermal optical transmission analysis and the content of selected PAHs was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Carbon aggregates, consisting of tens to thousands of spherical primary particles, were the only combustion particles identified in all samples using TEM. The tunnel samples also contained mineral particles originating from road abrasion. The geometric diameters of primary carbon particles from vehicle exhaust were found to be significantly smaller (24 ± 6 nm) than for wood smoke (31 ± 7 nm). Furthermore, HRTEM showed that primary particles from both sources exhibited a turbostratic microstructure, consisting of concentric carbon layers surrounding several nuclei in vehicle exhaust or a single nucleus in wood smoke. However, no differences were detected in the graphitic character of primary particles from the two sources using SAED and EELS. The total PAH content was higher for combustion particles from wood smoke as compared to vehicle exhaust, whereas no source difference was found for the ratio of organic to total carbon. Conclusion Combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke differ in primary particle diameter, microstructure, and PAH content. Furthermore, the analysed samples seem suitable for assessing the influence of physicochemical characteristics of particles on biological responses. PMID:16390554

  4. Exhaust skimming

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, J.E.

    1982-02-09

    An exhaust gas treatment system and method, primarily for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine is disclosed. An expansion chamber is connected in a straight line to a first straight line portion of an exhaust conduit from the engine, with a second portion of the exhaust conduit extending in a straight line from the expansion chamber. The expansion chamber has a cross-sectional area 110% to 200% as large as the cross-sectional area of the exhaust conduit. First and second series of openings are provided in the expansion chamber substantially 180 degrees apart along the circumference of the expansion chamber, with the expansion chamber being mounted so that a plane containing the first and second series of openings is generally vertical. Pick-off conduits return carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon gases, and water vapors separated through the openings of the expansion chamber to the engine, the returning gases being filtered to at least remove the excess liquid therein. The excess liquid is vaporized, and the vapor is returned to the intake manifold of the engine, along with the hydrocarbon and/or carbon monoxide gases, which have a relative humidity of 60 to 100% wind return.

  5. [Experimental study on ultrafine particle characteristics exhausted from various fuelled vehicles].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-song; Chan, T L; Ning, Zhi; Cheung, C S; Huang, Zhen

    2006-12-01

    The fine particle size distribution characteristics obtained from a diesel taxi, a diesel light bus, a gasoline private car and a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuelled taxi were carried out on a chassis dynamometer system. The measurements were performed at different driving modes, i.e. , with low and high idling and from 10 kmxh(-1) to 70 kmxh(-1), 4 cruise operations using the instrument SMPS for collecting particles of 0.015-0.7microm diameter in range. It was found that different fuelled vehicles and different driving modes characterize considerable differences in size number and mass concentration distributions. Diesel vehicles contribute much more nuclei and accumulation mode particles of 30 - 150 nm, while LPG and gasoline fuelled vehicles exhaust much more nuclei mode particles of 15-30 nm. Overall, diesel-fuelled vehicles exhaust much more particles number and mass than gasoline and LPG fuelled vehicles; In the present study, diesel vehicles exhaust the ranges of total SMPS particle number, mass concentration with (0.3-3.6) x 10(8) number x cm(-3), 0.03 - 0.6 microg cm(- 3) respectively, and gasoline and LPG fuelled vehicles exhaust 2.3 x 10(4) - 1.2 x 10(7) number x cm(-3), 8 x 10(-5)-0.1 microgxcm(-3); 8.2 x 10(3)8.8 x 10(6) number x cm(-3), 1.7 x 10(-5) -0.09 microg x cm(-3), respectively; For all types of vehicles, the particle number and mass concentrations are small at low-idle and low-speed-driving modes, and are large at high-idle and high-speed-driving modes. They generally increase with the vehicle speed increasing from 10 to 70 kmx h(-1). PMID:17304827

  6. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for all fuel economy...

  7. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for all fuel economy...

  8. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for all fuel economy...

  9. Dilution rates for tailpipe emissions: effects of vehicle shape, tailpipe position, and exhaust velocity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor W C; Hildemann, Lynn M; Chang, Cheng-hisn

    2009-06-01

    The rate at which motor vehicle exhaust undergoes dilution with ambient air will greatly affect the size distribution characteristics of the particulate emissions. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of vehicle shape, tailpipe orientation, and exhaust exit velocity on the dilution profiles under steady driving conditions for three model vehicles: a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and a heavy-duty tractor head. A three dimensional array of 60 sensors provided simultaneous measurements of dilution ratios for the emissions in the near- and far-wake regions downstream of the vehicle. The processes underlying the observations were investigated via nondimensionalization. Many of the trends seen substantially downstream can be well generalized using a simple nondimensionalization technique; however, this is not true in the near-wake region (within a downstream distance equivalent to a few vehicle heights). In the near-wake region, using the vehicle width and length to normalize for the vehicle shape is not enough to fully account for the variations seen. Including the exhaust flow rate in the nondimensionalization process is effective further downwind but does not adequately capture the complexity in the near-wake region. Tailpipe orientation and location are also shown to be influential factors affecting the near-wake dilution characteristics. PMID:19603739

  10. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method in which all gaseous compounds are absorbed before particles are collected, and in which the volatile compounds are derivatized, would improve the precision and the accuracy of the data.

  11. Selective Transformation of Various Nitrogen-Containing Exhaust Gases toward N2 over Zeolite Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runduo; Liu, Ning; Lei, Zhigang; Chen, Biaohua

    2016-03-23

    In this review we focus on the catalytic removal of a series of N-containing exhaust gases with various valences, including nitriles (HCN, CH3CN, and C2H3CN), ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxides (NOx), which can cause some serious environmental problems, such as acid rain, haze weather, global warming, and even death. The zeolite catalysts with high internal surface areas, uniform pore systems, considerable ion-exchange capabilities, and satisfactory thermal stabilities are herein addressed for the corresponding depollution processes. The sources and toxicities of these pollutants are introduced. The important physicochemical properties of zeolite catalysts, including shape selectivity, surface area, acidity, and redox ability, are described in detail. The catalytic combustion of nitriles and ammonia, the direct catalytic decomposition of N2O, and the selective catalytic reduction and direct catalytic decomposition of NO are systematically discussed, involving the catalytic behaviors as well as mechanism studies based on spectroscopic and kinetic approaches and molecular simulations. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are given. In the present work, emphasis is placed on the structure-performance relationship with an aim to design an ideal zeolite-based catalyst for the effective elimination of harmful N-containing compounds. PMID:26889565

  12. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions..., determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the following equation: (1) CityCREE =...

  13. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions..., determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the following equation: (1) CityCREE =...

  14. Exhaust temperature profiles for application of passive diesel particulate filters to solid waste collection vehicles in California.

    PubMed

    Reul-Chen, Crystal K; Ross, Charles; Steele, Nancy L C; Winer, Arthur M

    2005-02-01

    To reduce public exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM), the California Air Resources Board has begun adoption of a series of rules to reduce these emissions from in-use heavy-duty vehicles. Passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) after-treatment technologies are a cost-effective method to reduce DPM emissions and have been used on a variety of vehicles worldwide. Two passive DPFs were interim-verified in California and approved federally for use in most 1994--2002 engine families for vehicles meeting min engine exhaust temperature requirements for successful filter regeneration. Some vehicles, however, may not be suited to passive DPFs because of lower engine exhaust temperatures. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of two types of passive DPFs to solid waste collection vehicles, the group of vehicles for which California recently mandated in-use DPM reductions. We selected 60 collection vehicles to represent the four main types of collection vehicle duty cycles--rolloffs, and front-end, rear, and side loaders--and collected second-by-second engine exhaust temperature readings for one week from each vehicle. As a group, the collection vehicles exhibited low engine exhaust temperatures, making the application of passive DPFs to these vehicles difficult. Only 35% of tested vehicles met the temperature requirements for one passive DPF, whereas 60% met the temperature requirements for the other. Engine exhaust temperatures varied by vehicle type. Side and front-end loaders met the engine exhaust temperature requirements in the greatest number of cases with approximately 50-90% achieving the required regeneration temperatures. Only 8-25% of the rear loader and roll-off collection vehicles met the engine exhaust temperature requirements. Solid waste collection vehicles represent a diverse fleet with a variety of duty cycles. Low engine exhaust temperatures will need to be addressed for successful use of passive DPFs in this application. PMID:15796114

  15. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.114-08 Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon... to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions values for the purpose of determining optional... each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the...

  16. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  17. Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

  18. The effect of gasoline RVP on exhaust emissions from current European vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.J.; Beckwith, P.; Goodfellow, C.L.; Skaardalsmo, K.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of gasoline RVP on regulated exhaust emissions has been investigated in a fleet consisting of five current European vehicles. The effects of MTBE with changing RVP and E70 were also studied. All vehicles were equipped with the standard OEM small carbon canisters and three-way catalytic converters and the regulated emissions measured over the new European test cycle. A rigorous refueling protocol was employed to ensure that the carbon canisters were loaded in a repeatable way before the emission tests. The results show that a reduction in RVP gave benefits in CO and NOx, but no effect on exhaust THC emissions. The benefits for CO and NOx were greater in non-oxygenated fuels. Of the five test vehicles, three showed CO emission benefits due to RVP reduction, while CO from the other two was insensitive to RVP changes. Four vehicles also showed NOx emission benefits due to RVP reduction while the NOx emissions from the other vehicle were insensitive to RVP changes. The benefits of reducing RVP were observed for the fleet over all three phases of the cycle, however, the largest percentage of changes were seen after the vehicles had warmed up. Although no significant overall effect of RVP on exhaust THC emissions was apparent, reductions in THC over the ECE 3+4 and EUDC phases were observed. At high RVP MTBE addition gave reductions in CO and NOx emissions, but at low RVP no emission reductions were observed. A reduction in E70 only influenced exhaust THC emissions, resulting in a small increase.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Exhaust Thermoelectric System and Application for Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, W. S.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this case study, an energy harvesting system using a thermoelectric power generator (TEG) has been constructed. Experimental investigation of the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric modules (TMs) in this system has been undertaken to assess the feasibility for automotive applications. Two test benches have been developed to analyze the TM performance and the TEG system characteristics, especially the temperature difference, open-circuit voltage, and maximum power output of the TM and TEG system. As the performance of a TM is most influenced by the applied pressure and the temperature difference, a thermostatic heater, thermostatic water tank, and clamping devices are used in our experimental apparatus, increasing the output power of the TEG system. Based on the test bench, a new system called the "four-TEGs" system was designed and assembled into a prototype vehicle called "Warrior," and the characteristics of the system such as the maximum power output have been studied in road tests. The results show great potential for application of this technology in future vehicles.

  20. Multicomponent remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions by dispersive IR and UV spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Marc M.; Kiyomiya, Eileen S.; Kumar, Sasi; Lappas, Anastasios M.; Lord, Harry C., III

    2000-12-01

    Direct remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions under real-world driving conditions is desirable for a number of reasons, including: identifying high emitters, investigating the chemical composition of the exhaust, and probing fast reactions in the plume. A remote sensor, incorporating IR and UV spectrometers, was developed. The IR spectrometer consists of a grating system mounted on a synchronous motor, optically interfaced to a room temperature PbSe detector. UV-vis measurements are made with a CCD array spectrometer. Eight optical passes through the exhaust plume allow rapid and sensitive monitoring of the exhaust stream emitted by moving vehicles on a car-by-car basis. The combination of these two techniques resulted in unprecedented, direct measurement capability of over 25 pollutants in the exhaust plume. Emissions from a fleet of vehicles powered by a range of fuels (gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and methanol) were tested. The exhaust from hot gasoline- and methanol-powered cars contained high levels of NH3, up to 1500 ppm. These emissions were up to 14 times higher than the corresponding NOx emissions. Unlike most previous work, NOx was measured as the sum of NO and NO2; N2O was also measured. Field testing at a southern California freeway on-ramp was conducted over a one week period, totaling >4,500 measurements. It was found that 66.4% of the emitted NH3 was produced by 10% of the fleet, following the (gamma) - distribution that has been reported for criteria pollutants. Mean NH3 emission rates were calculated at 138 mg km-1, nearly twice as high was previous estimates.

  1. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in vehicle exhaust using single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Kambe, Yasuaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    For the real-time measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in vehicle exhaust, we employed a vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). Exhaust measurements from gasoline and diesel engine vehicles were performed using a chassis dynamometer. Hydrocarbons such as alkylbenzenes, alkenes, alkanes, and dienes were the major organic compounds present in both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust. The concentrations of organic compounds in gasoline exhaust were higher under running conditions than during idling. The VOC concentrations in diesel exhaust were higher during idling than during running conditions. The VUV-SPI-TOFMS measured composition and emission profiles of many hydrocarbons, including aliphatics and aromatics, in vehicle exhaust simultaneously with real time response. PMID:22498466

  2. Nozzle exit exhaust products from space shuttle boost vehicle (November 1973 design)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Principal exhaust species emitted at various altitudes for two trajectories of the space shuttle vehicle are presented. The exhaust composition is given for the nozzle exit plane on the basis of equilibrium chemistry. Afterburning of excess H, H2, and CO in the plume is accounted for. Species considered include HCl and Al2O3, which have been recognized as environmentally significant, as well as others such as H2O (produced by both the solid rocket motor and the orbiter main engine) which, although innocuous, may participate in subsequent chemical reactions in the atmosphere.

  3. Black carbon concentrations in California vehicles and estimation of in-vehicle diesel exhaust particulate matter exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.; Rodes, Charles E.

    This research assessed in-vehicle exposures to black carbon (BC) as an indicator of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposures. Approximately 50 h of real-time Aethalometer BC measurements were made inside vehicles driven on freeway and arterial loops in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Video tapes of the driver's view were transcribed to record the traffic conditions, vehicles followed, and vehicle occupant observations, and these results were tested for their associations with BC concentration. In-vehicle BC concentrations were highest when directly following diesel-powered vehicles, particularly those with low exhaust pipe locations. The lowest BC concentrations were observed while following gasoline-powered passenger cars, on average no different than not following any vehicle. Because diesel vehicles were over-sampled in the field study, results were not representative of real-world driving. To calculate representative exposures, in-vehicle BC concentrations were grouped by the type of vehicle followed, for each road type and congestion level. These groupings were then re-sampled stochastically, in proportion to the fraction of statewide vehicle miles traveled (VMT) under each of those conditions. The approximately 6% of time spent following diesel vehicles led to 23% of the in-vehicle BC exposure, while the remaining exposure was due to elevated roadway BC concentrations. In-vehicle BC exposures averaged 6 μg m -3 in Los Angeles and the Bay Area, the regions with the highest congestion and the majority of the state's VMT. The statewide average in-vehicle BC exposure was 4 μg m -3, corresponding to DPM concentrations of 7-23 μg m -3, depending on the Aethalometer response to elemental carbon (EC) and the EC fraction of the DPM. In-vehicle contributions to overall DPM exposures ranged from approximately 30% to 55% of total DPM exposure on a statewide population basis. Thus, although time spent in vehicles was only 1.5 h day -1 on average, vehicles may be the most important microenvironment for overall DPM exposure.

  4. Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

    2012-10-01

    A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ≤ 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models. PMID:22894824

  5. [Direct-action mutagens in exhausts of vehicles with diesel engines].

    PubMed

    Makhover, M S; Khitrovo, I A; Khesina, A Ia; Belitski?, G A

    1990-01-01

    The genotoxic activity of exhausts from one-shaft gas-turbine GTE-5 engine (30 kW) and a standard D-54A diesel (40 kW) have been studied. Thus, the extracts of soot from GTE-5 and D-54A induced reversions in Salmonella typhimurium both with and without metabolic activation: furthermore, extracts of soot from GTE-5 demonstrated a higher mutagenic activity. The direct mutagenic effect of the exhausts depended neither on the presence of BP nor on the other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most probably, it was connected with the presence of nitro-PAHs. The need for studying the PAH content in vehicle engines' exhausts and for taking into account their effect in the control and standardization is established. PMID:1696198

  6. Formation potential of vehicle exhaust nucleation mode particles on-road and in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giechaskiel, Barouch; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Samaras, Zissis; Scheer, Volker; Casati, Roberto; Vogt, Rainer

    A mobile laboratory equipped with gas analysers, a particle number counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer was employed to measure the exhaust particle size distributions of a diesel Euro III passenger car, chasing its exhaust plume on a high-speed track at 50, 100 and 120 km h -1. Emissions from the same vehicle were also measured in the laboratory under the same driving conditions, using a partial flow sampling system with constant sampling conditions. The vehicle was equipped with an oxidation catalyst and was operated on diesel fuel with 280 ppm wt. sulphur content. Similar results for the exhaust aerosol behaviour were found in both sampling environments, despite the different dilution ratio, sampling temperature and residence time of the aerosol in dilute conditions. A relatively constant soot particle mode was formed in all cases and, in addition, a nucleation mode started to form at 100 km h -1 and became more stable at 120 km h -1. No nucleation mode was observed at 50 km h -1 road load. The similar behaviour of nucleation mode particles both in the chasing and the laboratory tests indicated that such small volatile particles are a true vehicle emission component and not a dilution artefact. Additional measurements in the laboratory with varying engine load revealed that the nucleation mode formation is sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and its occurrence in increased temperature is repeatable and stable for long sampling times. The findings of this study indicate that nucleation mode particles are an actual emission component of diesel passenger cars and they need to be considered in relevant exhaust aerosol characterization studies.

  7. [Ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution of vehicle exhaust ultrafine particles].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration. PMID:25518646

  8. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  9. Effects of Fresh and Aged Vehicular Exhaust Emissions on Breathing Pattern and Cellular Responses – Pilot Single Vehicle Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Edgar A.; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S.; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O3, OH and other radicals. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for five hours to either filtered room air (Sham) or one of two different atmospheres: 1. Diluted Car Exhaust (P) + Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); 2. P+MSHA+SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a non-selective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 hours after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363±66 μg/m3 P+MSHA and 212±95 μg/m3 P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in Total Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils in the BAL and in-vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

  10. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with naphthalene was estimated to be up to several orders of magnitude higher than any of the chemical species found in the PM phase. The highest PAH emission factors were registered for diesel-powered vehicles. The condition of the vehicle can exert a decisive influence on both element and PAH emissions. PMID:25827652

  11. Volatile organic compounds from the exhaust of light-duty diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Sheng-You; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2012-12-01

    The exhaust gas constituents of light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs), including total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by a dynamometer study following federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75) and highway fuel economy cycle. The average fuel consumption of these LDDVs was 0.126 L km-1 for FTP-75, with about 10% fuel consumption savings for highway driving. The average emission factors of NMHC, CO and NOx for light-duty vehicles were 0.158/0.132 (90% of THC), 1.395/1.138, and 1.735/1.907 g km-1 for FTP-75/Highway, respectively. Styrene, n-propylbenzene, n-undecane, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and ethylbenzene were the dominant VOCs of LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors were about 10-60 mg kg-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, butyraldehyde, and m-tolualdehyde were the major carbonyl species from LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors ranged from 1 to 10 mg km-1. The ozone formation potentials of m,p-xylene, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, o-xylene, n-propylbenzene, styrene, and isoprene were >50 mg-O3 km-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde revealed high ozone formation potential of carbonyl species, with values ranging from 10 to 95 mg-O3 km-1. Based on the exhaust constituents and ozone formation potential observed, diesel vehicles could be an important air pollution source for urban and industrial areas.

  12. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  13. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  14. Emissions and fuel economy effects of vehicle exhaust emission control device (revision). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.

    1998-10-01

    This report describes testing by EPA of the Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Device (VEECD) retrofit device under Section 32918 of Title 49 U.S.C. Retrofit Devices (RD). The VEECD is described by the developer in the international patent application as an embodiment of air bleed principle. It is intended to be retrofitted to vehicles produced without any, or with earlier-technology emission control systems. The developer claims (RD Application Appendix A) that the valve significantly reduces CO and HC emissions without substantially increasing CO{sub 2} or NOx emissions. Incidental city fuel economy enhancement was also claimed. Non-FTP test data obtained for 1986/87 European vehicles from two laboratories in the UK was submitted. This data (Appendix B) was analyzed using the t-test for the difference of constant speed data (30/60/85MPH) at 95% confidence level.

  15. Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 ?g/m3, and 0.06-19.13 ?g/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies. PMID:25411914

  16. Carbonyl emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust in China and the contribution to ozone formation potential.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dong; Shao, Min; Li, Yue; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Yanjun; Ji, Zhe; Tang, Dagang

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested on chassis dynamometer by using typical heavy duty driving cycle and fuel economy cycle. The air from the exhaust was sampled by 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine cartridge and 23 carbonyl compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The average emission factor of carbonyls was 97.2 mg/km, higher than that of light-duty diesel vehicles and gasoline-powered vehicles. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde were the species with the highest emission factors. Main influencing factors for carbonyl emissions were vehicle type, average speed and regulated emission standard, and the impact of vehicle loading was not evident in this study. National emission of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was calculated for China, 2011, based on both vehicle miles traveled and fuel consumption. Carbonyl emission of diesel vehicle was estimated to be 45.8 Gg, and was comparable to gasoline-powered vehicles (58.4 Gg). The emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were 12.6, 6.9, 3.8 Gg, respectively. The ozone formation potential of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was 537 mg O3/km, higher than 497 mg O3/km of none-methane hydrocarbons emitted from diesel vehicles. PMID:24649697

  17. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES...

  18. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES...

  19. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section 86.110-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND...

  20. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section 86.110-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND...

  1. Factors affecting cleanup of exhaust gases from a pressurized, fluidized-bed coal combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Kobak, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The cleanup of effluent gases from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal is examined. Testing conditions include the type and feed rate of the coal and the sulfur sorbent, the coal-sorbent ratio, the coal-combustion air ratio, the depth of the reactor fluidizing bed, and the technique used to physically remove fly ash from the reactor effluent gases. Tests reveal that the particulate loading matter in the effluent gases is a function not only of the reactor-bed surface gas velocity, but also of the type of coal being burnt and the time the bed is operating. At least 95 percent of the fly ash particules in the effluent gas are removed by using a gas-solids separator under controlled operating conditions. Gaseous pollutants in the effluent (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) are held within the proposed Federal limits by controlling the reactor operating conditions and the type and quantity of sorbent material.

  2. Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2011-09-01

    We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels. We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission standards to income levels, Africa introduces those standards 30-40 years later than other regions and thus makes a remarkable contribution to the global emissions in 2050 (almost half). All Asian regions (South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia) have a decreasing fractional contribution to global totals, from 32% in 2030 to around 22% in 2050. Total emissions from normal vehicles can decrease 1.3-2% per year. However, superemitters have a large effect on emission totals. They can potentially contribute more than 50% of global emissions around 2020, which suggests that they should be specifically addressed in modeling and mitigation policies. As new vehicles become cleaner, the majority of on-road emissions will come from the legacy fleet. This work establishes a modeling framework to explore policies targeted at that fleet.

  3. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  4. [Source profile and chemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds from vehicle exhaust].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yue-Zhen; Wang, Hong-Li; Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-Hong; Su, Lei-Yan; Zhou, Min; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Gang-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ran; Li, Li; Chen, Ming-Hua; Huang, Hai-Ying

    2012-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline taxis (LDGT) and passenger cars (LDGV), heavy-duty diesel buses (HDDB) and trucks (HDDT), gasoline motorcycles (MC) and LPG scooters (LPGS), were selected for tailpipe volatile organic compounds (VOCs) samplings by using transient dynamometer and on road test combined with SUMMA canisters technology. The samples were tested by GC-MS to analyze the concentration and species composition of VOCs. The results indicate that light-duty gasoline automobiles have higher fractions of aromatic hydrocarbons, which account for 43.38%-44.45% of the total VOCs, the main aromatic hydrocarbons are toluene and xylenes. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles have higher fractions of alkanes, which constitute 46.86%-48.57% of the total VOCs, the main alkanes are propane, n-dodecane and n-undecane. In addition, oxy-organics account for 13.28%-15.01% of the VOCs, the main oxy-organics is acetone. The major compound from MC and LPGS exhaust is acetylene, it accounts for 39.75% and 76.67% of the total VOCs, respectively. VOCs exhaust from gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles has a significantly higher chemical reactivity than those from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, which contribute 55% and 44% to the atmospheric chemical reactivity in Shanghai. The gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles are the key pollution sources affecting city and region ambient oxidation, and the key active species of toluene, xylenes, propylene, and styrene make the greatest contribution. PMID:22720548

  5. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

  6. Characterization of exhaust particles from military vehicles fueled with diesel, gasoline, and JP-8.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David A; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F; Rogers, C Fred; Sagebiel, John; Zielinska, Barbara; Arnott, W Pat; Palmer, Glenn

    2003-03-01

    Diluted exhaust from selected military aircraft ground-support equipment (AGE) was analyzed for particulate mass, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), SO4(2-), and size distributions. The experiments occurred at idle and load conditions and utilized a chassis dynamometer. The selected AGE vehicles operated on gasoline, diesel, and JP-8. These military vehicles exhibited concentrations, size distributions, and emission factors in the same range as those reported for nonmilitary vehicles. The diesel and JP-8 emission rates for PM ranged from 0.092 to 1.1 g/kg fuel. The EC contributed less and the OC contributed more to the particulate mass than reported in recent studies of vehicle emissions. Overall, the particle size distribution varied significantly with engine condition, with the number of accumulation mode particles and the count median diameter (CMD) increasing as engine load increased. The SO4(2-) analyses showed that the distribution of SO4(2-) mass mirrored the distribution of particle mass. PMID:12661687

  7. Formation of secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhausts when mixing with SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Deng, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, X.; Fu, X.; Bernard, F.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; He, Q.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.; Yu, J.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can enhance the formation of secondary aerosols from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but its influence on secondary aerosol formation from anthropogenic VOCs, particularly complex mixtures like vehicle exhausts, is still poorly understood. Here we directly co-introduced gasoline vehicles exhausts (GVE) and SO2, a typical pollutant from coal burning, into a smog chamber to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and sulfate aerosols through photooxidation. In the presence of high concentration of SO2, new particle formation was enhanced while substantial sulfate was formed through the oxidation of SO2. The homogenous oxidation by OH radicals contributed a negligible fraction to the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, and instead the oxidation by stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs), formed from alkenes in the exhaust reacting with ozone, dominated the conversion of SO2. After 5 h of photochemical aging, GVE's SOA production factor revealed an increase by 60-200 % in the presence of high concentration of SO2. This increase could largely be attributed to acid-catalyzed SOA formation, which was evidenced by the strong positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the SOA production factor and in-situ particle acidity calculated by AIM-II model. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) resolved OA's relatively lower oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) and higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C) molar ratios for the GVE/SO2 mixture, with a much lower estimated average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of -0.51 ± 0.06 than that of -0.19 ± 0.08 for GVE alone. The relative higher mass loading of OA in the experiments with SO2 might be the major reason for the lower oxidation degree of SOA.

  8. Formation of secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhaust when mixing with SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Deng, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, X.; Fu, X.; Bernard, F.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; He, Q.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.; Yu, J.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can enhance the formation of secondary aerosols from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but its influence on secondary aerosol formation from anthropogenic VOCs, particularly complex mixtures like vehicle exhaust, remains uncertain. Gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE) and SO2, a typical pollutant from coal burning, are directly co-introduced into a smog chamber, in this study, to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and sulfate aerosols through photooxidation. New particle formation was enhanced, while substantial sulfate was formed through the oxidation of SO2 in the presence of high concentration of SO2. Homogenous oxidation by OH radicals contributed a negligible fraction to the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, and instead the oxidation by stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs), formed from alkenes in the exhaust reacting with ozone, dominated the conversion of SO2. After 5 h of photochemical aging, GVE's SOA production factor revealed an increase by 60-200 % in the presence of high concentration of SO2. The increase could principally be attributed to acid-catalyzed SOA formation as evidenced by the strong positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the SOA production factor and in situ particle acidity calculated by the AIM-II model. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) resolved OA's relatively lower oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) (0.44 ± 0.02) and higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C) (1.40 ± 0.03) molar ratios for the GVE / SO2 mixture, with a significantly lower estimated average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of -0.51 ± 0.06 than -0.19 ± 0.08 for GVE alone. The relative higher mass loading of OA in the experiments with SO2 might be a significant explanation for the lower SOA oxidation degree.

  9. Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Pirjola, Liisa; Ketzel, Matthias; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticle emissions from road vehicles have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their dominant contribution towards the total airborne particle number concentrations (PNCs) found in the urban atmospheric environment. In view of upcoming tighter vehicle emission standards and adoption of cleaner fuels in many parts of the world, the contribution to urban nanoparticles from non-vehicle exhaust sources (NES) may become more pronounced in future. As of now, only limited information exists on nanoparticle emissions from NES through the discretely published studies. This article presents critically synthesised information in a consolidated manner on 11 NES (i.e. road-tyre interaction, construction and demolition, aircraft, ships, municipal waste incineration, power plants, domestic biomass burning, forest fires, cigarette smoking, cooking, and secondary formation). Source characteristics and formation mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted from each NES are firstly discussed, followed by their emission strengths, airborne concentrations and physicochemical characteristics. Direct comparisons of the strengths of NES are not straightforward but an attempt has been made to discuss their importance relative to the most prominent source (i.e. road vehicles) of urban nanoparticles. Some interesting comparisons emerged such as 1 kg of fast and slow wood burning produces nearly the same number of particles as for each km driven by a heavy duty vehicle (HDV) and a light duty vehicle, respectively. About 1 min of cooking on gas can produce the similar particle numbers generated by ˜10 min of cigarette smoking or 1 m travel by a HDV. Apportioning the contribution of numerous sources from the bulk measured airborne PNCs is essential for determining their relative importance. Receptor modelling methods for estimation of source emission contributions are discussed. A further section evaluates the likely exposure risks, health and regulatory implications associated with each NES. It is concluded that much research is needed to provide adequate quantification of all nanoparticle sources, and to establish the relative toxicity of nanosize particles from each.

  10. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  11. The trapping system for the recirculated gases at different locations of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) pipe of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piperel, A.; Montagne, X.; Dagaut, P.

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, in diesel engines, it is typical to recycle exhaust gases (EGR) in order to decrease pollutant emissions. However, few studies report the precisely measured composition of the recycled gases. Indeed, in order to know precisely the composition of the EGR gases, they have to be sampled hot and not diluted, in contrast to the usual practice. Thus, a new system to collect such samples was developed. With this new trapping system, it is possible to measure the concentrations of NOx, CO, CO2, O2, hydrocarbons (HCs) in the range C1-C9, aldehydes, ketones and PAHs. The trapping system and the analytical protocol used are described in this paper.

  12. Modelling aerosol number distributions from a vehicle exhaust with an aerosol CFD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albriet, B.; Sartelet, K. N.; Lacour, S.; Carissimo, B.; Seigneur, C.

    2010-03-01

    Vehicular traffic contributes significantly to the aerosol number concentrations at the local scale by emitting primary soot particles and forming secondary nucleated nanoparticles. Because of their potential health effects, more attention is paid to the traffic induced aerosol number distributions. The aim of this work is to explain the phenomenology leading to the formation and the evolution of the aerosol number distributions in the vicinity of a vehicle exhaust using numerical modelling. The emissions are representative of those of a light-duty diesel truck without a diesel particle filter. The atmospheric flow is modelled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to describe the dispersion of pollutants at the local scale. The CFD code, coupled to a modal aerosol model (MAM) describing the aerosol dynamics, is used to model the tailpipe plume of a vehicle with emissions corresponding to urban driving conditions. On the basis of available measurements in Schauer et al. (1999), three surrogate species are chosen to treat the semi-volatile organic compounds in the emissions. The model simulates the formation of the aerosol distribution in the exhaust plume of a vehicle as follows. After emission to the atmosphere, particles are formed by nucleation of sulphuric acid and water vapour depending strongly on the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and on the dilution conditions. The semi-volatile organic compounds are critical for the rapid growth of nanoparticles through condensation. The semi-volatile organic compounds are also important for the evolution of primary soot particles and can contribute substantially to their chemical composition. The most influential parameters for particle formation are the sulphur fuel content, the semi-volatile organic emissions and also the mass and initial diameter of the soot particles emitted. The model is able to take into account the complex competition between nucleation, condensation and dilution, as well as the interactions among the different aerosol modes. This type of model is a useful tool to better understand the dynamics leading to the formation of traffic induced aerosol distributions. However, some key issues such as the turbulence in the exhaust plume and in the wake of the car, the magnitude and chemical composition of semi-volatile organic emissions and the possible nucleation of organic species need to be investigated further to improve our understanding of ultrafine particle formation.

  13. Space shuttle SRM plume expansion sensitivity analysis. [flow characteristics of exhaust gases from solid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The exhaust plumes of the space shuttle solid rocket motors can have a significant effect on the base pressure and base drag of the shuttle vehicle. A parametric analysis was conducted to assess the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle of analytical solid rocket motor flow fields to various analytical input parameters and operating conditions. The results of the analysis are presented and conclusions reached regarding the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to each parameter investigated. Operating conditions parametrically varied were chamber pressure, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle throat radius of curvature ratio and propellant particle loading. Empirical particle parameters investigated were mean size, local drag coefficient and local heat transfer coefficient. Sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to gas thermochemistry model and local drag coefficient model assumptions were determined.

  14. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  15. Vehicle propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, S.L.

    1981-11-17

    A hybrid vehicle propulsion system is disclosed which utilizes an internal combustion engine, an afterburner, and a steam engine in combination for improved efficiency and reduced emission of pollutants. The afterburner is provided to reduce the level of pollutants emitted and to increase the temperature of the exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine. The heat from the exhaust gases, together with the heat removed from the internal combustion cylinders, is then utilized in the steam engine to provide additional propulsion.

  16. Temperature dependence of source specific volatility basis sets for motor vehicle exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anirban; Choi, Yunsoo

    2015-10-01

    Recent work on emissions testing has focused on developing source specific volatility distributions which could be used to improve emissions inventories. One problem about these volatility profiles is that they are evaluated only at one temperature which is usually 298 K. This study uses a simple statistical model to evaluate the temperature dependence of the source-resolved volatility basis set, considering gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust. The steps involved (a) fitting a distribution to the emissions data (b) evaluating the goodness of fit using a statistical test (c) updating the volatility bins using the Clausius-Clayperon equation; calculating the heats of vaporization of each volatility class using a regression model (d) assessing how the volatility of different VOC classes-Extremely Low Volatile, Low Volatile, Semi-Volatile, Intermediate Volatile and Volatile Organic Compounds - are affected by temperature. The results indicated that there could be significant changes in gas-particle partitioning of these emissions. For diesel exhaust at 298 K, the fractions are 5.4 × 10-4 (ELVOC), 0.074 (LVOC), 0.76 (SVOC), 0.17 (IVOC) and 10-5 (VOC) respectively. Looking at a window of ∓20 K, the partitioning for 278 K is 3 × 10-3 (ELVOC), 0.26 (LVOC), 0.67 (SVOC), 0.07 (IVOC) with no VOC fraction; while at 318 K it is 1.5 × 10-7 (ELVOC), 9 × 10-3 (LVOC), 0.64 (SVOC), 0.35 (IVOC) and 2 × 10-5 (VOC); demonstrating a significant change with temperature. The parameterizations developed in this work could be used to improve motor vehicle emissions inventory models such as MOVES.

  17. 40 CFR 86.140-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.140-94... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures 86.140-94 Exhaust sample analysis. The following sequence shall... at the same flow rates used to analyze the test sample. Span gases should have concentrations...

  18. 40 CFR 86.140-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.140-94... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures 86.140-94 Exhaust sample analysis. The following sequence shall... at the same flow rates used to analyze the test sample. Span gases should have concentrations...

  19. 40 CFR 86.140-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.140-94... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures 86.140-94 Exhaust sample analysis. The following sequence shall... at the same flow rates used to analyze the test sample. Span gases should have concentrations...

  20. Self-recovering soot detector, particularly to monitor carbon content in diesel engine exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sarholz, W.

    1981-12-22

    An insulating support body, for example an aluminum oxide ceramic, supports two electrodes spaced from each other by a small gap, for example 0.1 mm, which will have therebetween a high resistance. Upon collection of soot, the resistance between the electrodes across the gap will drop, which can be indicated by sensing current through the electrodes upon connection to a source of electrical energy. To remove soot upon termination of smoking, or soot contents in the gases, the electrodes are applied over, or embedded in a layer of essentially nonconducting catalyzing material which, in the presence of oxygen, catalyzes the oxidation of soot located in the gap between the electrodes to thereby remove the soot by oxidation and restore the resistance of the path between the electrodes and hence the sensitivity of the sensor for subsequent detection of accumulation of soot in the gap. Preferably, the non-conductive catalyzing material is a mixture of platinum, or a platinum metal , or a platinum metal alloy and a metal oxide which is compatible with, or identical to the ceramic base, for example aluminum oxide. The essentially electrically non-conductive layer can be applied by thick-film technology, and the electrodes also by thick-film technology thereover, or the electrodes may be in the form of fine platinum wires extending through the catalyzing electrically non-conductive layer. The sensing element can be held in a housing or socket, similar to a spark plug socket.

  1. Real-time measurement of nitrogen dioxide in vehicle exhaust gas by mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Sumizawa, H.; Yamada, H.; Tonokura, K.

    2011-12-01

    The application of pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was demonstrated for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in automotive exhaust gas. The transition of the ν 3 vibrational band assigned to the antisymmetric stretching mode of NO2 was probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed, mid-infrared, distributed feedback, quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 6.13 μm. The measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas from two diesel vehicles equipped with different aftertreatment devices was demonstrated using a CRDS-based NO2 sensor, which employs a HEPA filter and a membrane gas dryer to remove interference from water as well as particulates in the exhaust gas. Stable and sensitive measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas was achieved for more than 30 minutes with a time resolution of 1 s.

  2. Coupled turbulence and aerosol dynamics modeling of vehicle exhaust plumes using the CTAG model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan Jason; Zhang, K. Max

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of an environmental turbulent reacting flow model, the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model. CTAG is designed to simulate transport and transformation of multiple air pollutants, e.g., from emission sources to ambient background. For the on-road and near-road applications, CTAG explicitly couples the major turbulent mixing processes, i.e., vehicle-induced turbulence (VIT), road-induced turbulence (RIT) and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence with gas-phase chemistry and aerosol dynamics. CTAG's transport model is referred to as CFD-VIT-RIT. This paper presents the evaluation of the CTAG model in simulating the dynamics of individual plumes in the tailpipe-to-road stage, i.e., VIT behind a moving van and aerosol dynamics in the wake of a diesel car by comparing the modeling results against the respective field measurements. Combined with sensitivity studies, we analyze the relative roles of VIT, sulfuric acid induced nucleation, condensation of organic compounds and presence of soot-mode particles in capturing the dynamics of exhaust plumes as well as their implications in vehicle emission controls.

  3. Numerical simulation on pollutant dispersion from vehicle exhaust in street configurations.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohamed F; Kellnerov, R; Janour, Z

    2009-09-01

    The impact of the street configurations on pollutants dispersion from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using standard kappa - epsilon turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The concentration fields in the urban canyons were examined in three cases of street configurations: (1) a regular-shaped intersection, (2) a T-shaped intersection and (3) a Skew-shaped crossing intersection. Vehicle emissions were simulated as double line sources along the street. The numerical model was validated against wind tunnel results in order to optimize the turbulence model. Numerical predictions agreed reasonably well with wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicate that the mean horizontal velocity was very small in the center near the lower region of street canyon. The lowest turbulent kinetic energy was found at the separation and reattachment points associated with the corner of the down part of the upwind and downwind buildings in the street canyon. The pollutant concentration at the upwind side in the regular-shaped street intersection was higher than that in the T-shaped and Skew-shaped street intersections. Moreover, the results reveal that the street intersections are important factors to predict the flow patterns and pollutant dispersion in street canyon. PMID:18726702

  4. [Emission Characteristics of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing Based on Actual Traffic Flow Information].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-08-01

    The basic data of traffic volume, vehicle type constitute and speed on road networks in Beijing was obtained fly modei simulation and field survey. Based on actual traffic flow information and. emission factors data with temporal and spatial distribution features, emission inventory of motor vehicle exhaust in Beijing was built on the ArcGIS platform, meanwhile, the actual road emission characteristics and spatial distribution of the pollutant emissions were analyzed. The results showed that the proportion of passenger car was higher than 89% on each type of road in the urban, and the proportion of passenger car was the highest in suburban roads as well while the pickup truck, medium truck, heavy truck, motorbus, tractor and motorcycle also occupied a certain proportion. There was a positive correlation between the pollutant emission intensity and traffic volume, and the emission intensity was generally higher in daytime than nighttime, but the diurnal variation trend of PM emission was not clear for suburban roads and the emission intensity was higher in nighttime than daytime for highway. The emission intensities in urban area, south, southeast and northeast areas near urban were higher than those in the western and northern mountainous areas with lower density of road network. The ring roads in urban and highways in suburban had higher emission intensity because of the heavy traffic volume. PMID:26592000

  5. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  6. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  7. Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of exhaust gases (NOx , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6 × 10(3), 374, 1.2 × 10(3), and 5.6 × 10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7 × 10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67%) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

  8. Evaluation of gas removal and bacterial community diversity in a biofilter developed to treat composting exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a new, but simply constructed, biofilter system, developed to purify composting exhaust air, was evaluated. The biofilter was packed with mature compost mixed with activated carbon and sludge sourced from a wastewater treatment plant. An alternating air flow system and a bioaerosol reduction device were designed to prevent pressure drop and reduce bioaerosol release. Experimental results demonstrated that satisfactory removal efficiencies of nitrogen-containing compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, fatty acids, total hydrocarbon and odor were achieved at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 30s. No significant acidification or alkalinity in the biofilter was observed, and the system was characterized by a small pressure drop and a low level of bioaerosol emission. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used to uncover the changes in the bacterial community of the biofilter during the deodorization processes. A minimum of 16 bands were observed in the DGGE profile. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the phylum of Proteobacteria to be predominant, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, in descending order. However, the occurrence and predominance of specific bacterial species varied with the environmental conditions of the biofilter. Our results demonstrate - from both an engineering and biological point of view - the feasibility of the biofilter system described herein in purifying the gases derived from composting food waste. PMID:17113228

  9. Ions in motor vehicle exhaust and their dispersion near busy roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaratne, E. R.; Ling, X.; Morawska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Measurements in the exhaust plume of a petrol-driven motor car showed that molecular cluster ions of both signs were present in approximately equal amounts. The emission rate increased sharply with engine speed while the charge symmetry remained unchanged. Measurements at the kerbside of nine motorways and five city roads showed that the mean total cluster ion concentration near city roads (603 cm -3) was about one-half of that near motorways (1211 cm -3) and about twice as high as that in the urban background (269 cm -3). Both positive and negative ion concentrations near a motorway showed a significant linear increase with traffic density ( R2 = 0.3 at p < 0.05) and correlated well with each other in real time ( R2 = 0.87 at p < 0.01). Heavy duty diesel vehicles comprised the main source of ions near busy roads. Measurements were conducted as a function of downwind distance from two motorways carrying around 120-150 vehicles per minute. Total traffic-related cluster ion concentrations decreased rapidly with distance, falling by one-half from the closest approach of 2 m to 5 m of the kerb. Measured concentrations decreased to background at about 15 m from the kerb when the wind speed was 1.3 m s -1, this distance being greater at higher wind speed. The number and net charge concentrations of aerosol particles were also measured. Unlike particles that were carried downwind to distances of a few hundred metres, cluster ions emitted by motor vehicles were not present at more than a few tens of metres from the road.

  10. Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high-sulfur fuel, the chemical submicron aerosol fraction is mainly composed of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) species. These include PAHs that are adsorbed onto the high number of ultrafine particles. Nevertheless, the chemical composition, typical particle sizes as well as emitted gaseous components vary substantially dependent on the engine or ship type, engine operation condition and fuel mixture. This results in cargo vessels compared to tankers, passenger ships and river boats being the largest polluters influencing the Elbe shipping lane areas by high amounts of NOx, SO2, CO2, PAH, BC and ultrafine particulate matter. The tropospheric ozone chemistry in this area is also substantially affected particularly due to the increasing number of Elbe-passing ships. As onshore regions can be influenced by aged shipping plumes, trajectory pathways and transportation times were examined. As a consequence of the plumes' aging, variations of the organic fraction of the mass spectral fingerprints were found. Eyring, V. et al. (2010), Atmospheric Environment, 44, 4735-4771.

  11. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  12. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 μg km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 μg km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 μg km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

  13. Investigation of Variations in Suspended Particulate Matter with Enforcement of Regulations on Diesel Vehicle Exhaust in Suburban Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaowu; Wang, Qingyue; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiko; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    In the summers of 2003 and 2004, size-separated suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples were collected with a high-volume Andersen air sampler at a site adjacent to Saitama Prefectural Route 57 in Saitama City. This sampling site is in an atmospherically polluted area that is also one of the Specified Areas concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter from Automobiles established in October 2002. We investigated carbonaceous compounds in the SPM before and after the Regulation on Diesel Vehicle Exhaust came into effect in October 2003 in Tokyo Metropolis and Saitama, Chiba, and Kanagawa prefectures. At the sampling site, elemental carbon (EC) in the fine particles (< 2m) was derived mainly from diesel vehicle exhaust emissions, and crustal metals such as Al, Fe, and Mg in the coarse particles (> 2m) were generated as road dust by vehicular traffic and wind. Correlations among chemical components generated by heavy-duty diesel vehicles suggest that the air quality is improving at the sampling site as a result of the enforcement of the Regulations on Diesel Vehicle Exhaust.

  14. Light-Duty Drive Cycle Simulations of Diesel Engine-Out Exhaust Properties for an RCCI-Enabled Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuels to achieve low-temperature reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) can reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). Moreover, the dual-fueling RCCI is able to achieve these benefits by tailoring combustion reactivity over a wider range of engine operation than is possible with a single fuel. However, the currently demonstrated range of stable RCCI combustion just covers a portion of the engine speed-load range required in several light-duty drive cycles. This means that engines must switch from RCCI to CDC when speed and load fall outside of the stable RCCI range. In this study we investigated the impact of RCCI as it has recently been demonstrated on practical engine-out exhaust temperature and emissions by simulating a multi-mode RCCI-enabled vehicle operating over two urban and two highway driving cycles. To implement our simulations, we employed experimental engine maps for a multi-mode RCCI/CDC engine combined with a standard mid-size, automatic transmission, passenger vehicle in the Autonomie vehicle simulation platform. Our results include both detailed transient and cycle-averaged engine exhaust temperature and emissions for each case, and we note the potential implications of the modified exhaust properties on catalytic emissions control and utilization of waste heat recovery on future RCCI-enabled vehicles.

  15. Effect of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions from modern BMW vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, W.W.; Mueller, A.; Schaefer, V.; McArragher, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    In a cooperative program between BMW and Shell, the effects of gasoline properties and composition on regulated emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}), CO{sub 2}, fuel consumption and catalyst performance have been studied. The objective of the test program was to investigate the effect of different hydrocarbon groups from typical refinery streams on exhaust emissions with a detailed analysis not only of the tailpipe emissions but also engine out emissions and catalyst performance. In total thirteen fuels with widely varying physical properties and chemical composition were evaluated in a 1991 series production BMW 526i, and a subset of three of these fuels in two other BMW models to verify their sensitivity in fuel quality. The results for the BMW 525i showed that significant reductions in HC, CO, and NO{sub x} emissions were seen for fuels containing splashblended oxygenates and with aromatics replaced by isoparaffins. Similar reductions in HC and CO emissions were seen in the other two vehicles, although the BMW 525i was somewhat less sensitive to fuel changes. 12 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

  17. Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

  18. An evaluation of the environmental and health effects of vehicle exhaust catalysts in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Emma J; Pearson, Peter J G

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, all new gasoline-engine automobiles in the United Kingdom have been supplied with three-way vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs) containing platinum, palladium, and rhodium, to comply with European Commission Stage I limits on emissions of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. We conducted a physical and economic evaluation of the environmental and health benefits from a reduction in emissions through this mandated environmental technology against the costs, with reference to urban areas in Great Britain. We made both an ex post assessment--based on available data to 1998--and an ex ante assessment--projected to 2005, the year when full penetration of VECs into the fleet is expected. Substantial health benefits in excess of the costs of VECs were indicated: By 1998 the estimated net societal health benefits were approximately 500 million British pounds, and by 2005 they were estimated to rise to as much as 2 billion British pounds. We also found through environmental surveys that although lead in road dust has fallen by 50% in urban areas, platinum accumulations near roads have risen significantly, up to 90-fold higher than natural background levels. This rapid accumulation of platinum suggests further monitoring is warranted, although as yet there is no evidence of adverse health effects. PMID:14754566

  19. Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

    An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local authorities.

  20. Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2013-02-01

    Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 μg/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 μg/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (∑ B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 μg/m3and 37.652 μg/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

  1. A comparative study on the ultrafine particle episodes induced by vehicle exhaust: A crude oil refinery and ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzlez, Yenny; Rodrguez, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    A study on the contribution of vehicle exhausts, ships and an oil refinery emission to the ambient air concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) is presented. It is based on a data set of particle number coarser than 2.5 nm (N), black carbon (BC), gaseous pollutants (NOx, SO2, CO and O3), PM2.5 and PM10 measured from 2008 to 2010 in the ambient air of Santa Cruz de Tenerife City, where a previous study found an association between hospitalizations due to heart failure and exposure to UFPs in the ambient air. The observed relationship between N, BC and gaseous pollutants allowed segregating UFP concentrations in a set of components linked to each source. It was found that vehicle exhausts contribute to the background of UFPs, whereas high UFP episodes were due to the emissions of the refinery and ships. The concentration of UFP linked to vehicle exhaust emissions maximized in the morning (07:00-09:00 GMT, 5000-25,000 cm- 3 = 25th-75th percentile), whereas those linked to ship (15,000-45,000 cm- 3) and refinery (25,000-95,000 cm- 3) emissions maximized in the 10:00-17:00 GMT period due to the effects of meteorology and photochemistry. It was found that the UFP concentrations were more sensitive to the fresh emissions of the three sources than PM2.5, which was mostly linked to aged fine particles (0.1-1 ?m) of the urban background. BC was the better tracer of vehicle exhaust emissions. It was concluded that the simultaneous monitoring of UFP, BC and PM2.5 is a suitable strategy of tracing aerosol pollutants of different nature (fresh vs. aged) and from different sources.

  2. Trends in exhaust emissions from in-use Mexico City vehicles, 2000-2006. A remote sensing study.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Daz, L; Rodrguez, R; Durn, J; Chvez, O

    2008-02-01

    A remote sensing study was conducted in year 2006 in four locations of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). Two of the sites were the same studied back by us in year 2000 and by others in year 1994. A database was compiled containing 11,289 valid measurements for the carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitric oxide (NO) exhaust vehicles emissions. Valid measurements were binned for each pollutant by the vehicle specific power (between -5 and 20 kW tonne(-1)) for the 2000 and 2006 databases. The mean average CO, THC, and NO emissions for year 2006 were determined to be 1.10 +/- 0.18 vol.%, 299 +/- 88.4 ppm, and 610 +/- 115.0 ppm, respectively. Matching the vehicle driving patterns of the fleet measured in year 2000 with the emissions factors obtained in this work, allows estimating the trends in the exhaust emissions of vehicles in the MAMC. The adjusted results of the remote sensing study performed in year 2006 shows that the fleet has decrease 22% in CO and 17% in NO emissions, with small change in total hydrocarbons emissions. The improvements could be related with the introduction in year 2001 of vehicles that met tighter emissions standards, particularly for nitrogen oxides. PMID:17503197

  3. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  4. Emission projection and uncertainty analysis of exhaust emissions from global and Asian on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Bond, T.; Streets, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Two of the most notable impacts from emissions of air pollutants are climate change and hemispheric or intercontinental transport. Global emission projections are identified as critical elements in understanding these large-scale impacts. Such projections are required to understand the net response of climate to combined emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and other trace species in the next 30 to 50 years. Emissions from vehicles vary with introduction of advanced technology and implementation of stringent environmental regulations. We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter emissions including the aerosol components black and organic carbon, from on-road vehicles from 2010 to 2050. These projections are based on a new model of technology that responds to socioeconomic conditions in different economic and mitigation scenarios. The model contains detail about technology stock, such as vintage, and applies exogenous data from economic scenarios to choose new technologies and retire old ones. The driving factors involved in the transitions of technology decision-making include consumption growth rates, retirement rates, timing of emission standards, and generation of superemitters. Asia is a significant contributor to global emissions and its growth rate is expected to be high, so we emphasize the trajectories in this region. Before 2030, the tradeoff between decreasing emission intensity and increasing fuel consumption results in relatively lower rates of increase of PM emissions, although emissions are still increasing. After 2030, we expect that standards will have cleaned up normal vehicles, so emission projections are highly dependent on the behavior of superemitters. Changes of technology and policy in the future are uncertain, and their relationship with socioeconomic variables is not well known. This lack of knowledge raises the question: What can be known about future emissions and air quality? We also present sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations to explore the impacts of these uncertainties on emission projection. We identify the most critical factors affecting our knowledge of emission pathways; these are targets for future research on the interaction between social and economic conditions and technological response

  5. PM-10 exhaust samples collected during IM-240 dyanamometer tests of in-service vehicles in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Sagebiel, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Walsh, P.A.; Chow, J.C.; Cadle, S.H.; Mulawa, P.A.; Knapp, K.T.; Zweidinger, R.B.; Snow, R.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three vehicles that were recruited by remote sensing and roadside inspection and maintenance (I/M) checks during the 1994 Clark and Washoe Remote Sensing Study (CAWRSS) were tested on the IM240 cycle using a transportable dynamometer. Six of these vehicles emitted visible smoke. Total gas-phase hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) exhaust concentrations were continuously measured in the diluted exhaust stream from the constant volume sampler (CVS) during IM240 testing. Two isokinetic PM-10 samples were collected simultaneously using cyclones and filter holders connected to a dilution tube. Teflon filters were collected for total mass and then extracted for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions. Quartz filters were analyzed by the thermal/optical reflectance method for organic and elemental carbon. The quartz filters and backup vapor traps were then extracted and analyzed by GC/MS for 28 separate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass emission rates of PM-10 per vehicle ranged from 5.6 to over 1300 mg/mi, with most of the mass attributable to carbon. Except for one vehicle with high sulfate emissions, the ion emissions were relatively low. Total PAH emissions were in the range of 10-200 mg/mi. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. On-line monitoring of perfluoro compounds in exhaust gases during semiconductor manufacture: Use of Li+ ion attachment mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Megumi

    2001-09-01

    Li+ ion attachment mass spectrometry was used to continuously measure trace amounts of perfluoro compounds (PFCs) and byproducts in exhaust gas during semiconductor manufacture. Effluents were characterized to assess the environmental impact of dry-etching processes and operations. The feasibility of performing real-time measurements of PFCs in exhaust gas at the parts per billion level by direct introduction of the Li+ ion attachment source was demonstrated.

  7. Exhaust gas recirculation control

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltman, D.D.

    1983-08-23

    In an internal combustion engine, recirculation of exhaust gases is controlled to maintain the control pressure in a zone of the recirculation passage proportional to a reference pressure and thus to provide exhaust gas recirculation as a proportion of induction air flow. A duty cycle modulated valve controls an exhaust backpressure port and an atmospheric pressure port to create the reference pressure, whereby the proportion of exhaust gases recirculated is established by the duty cycle and is independent of the induction air flow.

  8. Size-Resolved Ultrafine Particle Deposition and Brownian Coagulation from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust in an Environmental Test Chamber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Jianing

    2015-10-20

    Size-resolved deposition rates and Brownian coagulation of particles between 20 and 900 nm (mobility diameter) were estimated in a well-mixed environmental chamber from a gasoline vehicle exhaust with a total peak particle concentration of 10(5)-10(6) particles/cm(3) at 12.24-25.22 C. A deposition theory with modified friction velocity and coagulation model was also employed to predict particle concentration decay. Initially during particle decay, approximately 85% or more of the particles had diameters of <100 nm. Particle deposition rates with standard deviations were highly dependent on particle size ranges, and varied from 0.012 0.003 to 0.48 0.02 h(-1). In the experiment, the friction velocity obtained was in the range 1.5-2.5 cm/s. The most explainable fractal dimension and Hamaker constant in coagulation model were 2.5-3 and 20 kT, respectively, and the contribution from coagulation dominated the total particle decay during the first 1 h of decay. It is considered that the modified friction velocity and best fitted fractal dimension and Hamaker constants could be further used to analyze gasoline vehicle exhaust particle dynamics and assess human exposure to vehicle particle pollutants in urban areas, tunnels, and underground parking lots. PMID:26402743

  9. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles...

  13. Secondary organic aerosol formation from photochemical aging of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhausts in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Deng, W.; Hu, Q.; Ding, X.; Zhang, Y.; He, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Yu, J.

    2015-04-01

    In China, fast increase in passenger vehicles has procured the growing concern about vehicle exhausts as an important source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in megacities hard-hit by haze. However, there are still no chamber simulation studies in China on SOA formation from vehicle exhausts. In this study, the SOA formation of emissions from two idling light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) (Euro 1 and Euro 4) in China was investigated in a 30 m3 smog chamber. Five photo-oxidation experiments were carried out at 25 °C with the relative humidity around 50%. After aging at an OH exposure of 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h, the formed SOA was 12-259 times as high as primary OA (POA). The SOA production factors (PF) were 0.001-0.044 g kg-1 fuel, comparable with those from the previous studies at the quite similar OH exposure. This quite lower OH exposure than that in typical atmospheric condition might however lead to the underestimation of the SOA formation potential from LDGVs. Effective SOA yield data in this study were well fit by a one-product gas-particle partitioning model and quite lower than those of a previous study investigating SOA formation form three idling passenger vehicles (Euro 2-Euro 4). Traditional single-ring aromatic precursors and naphthalene could explain 51-90% of the formed SOA. Unspeciated species such as branched and cyclic alkanes might be the possible precursors for the unexplained SOA. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize the chemical composition of SOA. The relationship between f43 (ratio of m/z 43, mostly C2H3O+, to the total signal in mass spectrum) and f44 (mostly CO2+) of the gasoline vehicle exhaust SOA is similar to the ambient semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA). We plot the O : C and H : C molar ratios of SOA in a Van Krevelen diagram. The slopes of ΔH : C/ΔO : C ranged from -0.59 to -0.36, suggesting that the oxidation chemistry in these experiments was a combination of carboxylic acid and alcohol/peroxide formation.

  14. Speciated hydrocarbon profiles and calculated reactivities of exhaust and evaporative emissions from 82 in-use light-duty Australian vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.; Ye, Y.; Weeks, I. A.

    Mass emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) from 26 pre-1986 and 56 post-1985 catalyst-equipped in-service vehicles were determined from measurements made on a chassis dynamometer using an urban drive cycle. Evaporative emissions were measured on a subset (4 pre-1986 and 8 post-1985) of these vehicles. Average ADR emissions (mg/km) of the individual HCs from the older pre-1986 vehicles were generally 4-7 times the emissions from newer catalyst-equipped vehicles. Evaporative emissions from the older vehicles are also much higher than those of newer vehicles. Exhaust from newer catalyst-equipped vehicles had lower proportions of substituted aromatics and alkenes and higher proportions of lower molecular weight alkanes. The effect of fuel type on the exhaust emissions was also investigated by refuelling 9 of the pre-1986 vehicles with both unleaded and leaded petrol. A 20-40% reduction in HC mass emissions was observed when unleaded petrol was used instead of leaded petrol. Reactivities of the emissions and the contributions from different classes of compounds are also reported. The specific reactivity of the exhaust emissions from newer vehicles was lower than that for older vehicles owing to the smaller proportions of highly reactive alkenes and substituted aromatic species. Moreover, as older vehicles have higher average mass emissions, when considered on a per-km basis, the pre-1986 vehicles have a greater ozone-forming potential than post-1985 vehicles. The specific reactivities of the NMHC (gO 3/gNMHC) of both the heat build and hot soak evaporative emissions were much lower than the exhaust emissions.

  15. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178.337 Section 178.337 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  16. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178.337 Section 178.337 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  17. Procedures for safe handling of off-gases from electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during overcharge

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, S.J.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Loutfy, R.O.; Varma, R.

    1980-01-25

    The potential for generation of toxic gases from lead-acid batteries has long been recognized. Prior to the current interest in electric vehicles, there were no studies specificaly oriented to toxic gas release from traction batteries, however. As the Department of Energy Demonstration Project (in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program) progresses, available data from past studies and parallel health effects programs must be digested into guidance to the drivers and maintenance personnel, tailored to their contact with electric vehicles. The basic aspects of lead-acid battery operation, vehicle use, and health effects of stibine and arsine to provide electric vehicle users with the information behind the judgment that vehicle operation and testing may proceed are presented. Specifically, it is concluded that stibine generation or arsine generation at rapid enough rates to induce acute toxic response is not at all likely. Procedures to guard against low-level exposure until more definitive data on ambient concentrations of the gases are collected are presented for both charging the batteries and driving the vehicles. A research plan to collect additional quantitative data from electric traction batteries is presented.

  18. Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the active charcoal combination filter appeared less inflammatory to A549 cells. Conclusions A cabin air inlet particle filter including an active charcoal component was highly effective in reducing both DE particulate and gaseous components, with reduced exhaust-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of cabin filters to protect subjects travelling in vehicles from diesel exhaust emissions. PMID:24621126

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

  20. Ammonia exhaust emissions from spark ignition vehicles over the New European Driving Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2014-11-01

    A study aiming to measure ammonia emissions from light duty vehicles has been performed in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Ammonia, known for being toxic and dangerous for the environment, also contributes to the formation of particulate matter that has been related with adverse health and environmental effects. Nine modern light duty vehicles tested over the New European Driving Cycle showed that ammonia emissions are considerable for gasoline and ethanol flexi-fuel vehicles and also for one diesel vehicle equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system, ranging from 4 mg/km to 70 mg/km. Real-time ammonia emission profiles were monitored at the tailpipe by a High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer during tests at 22 and/or -7 °C. Ammonia emissions are thoroughly discussed and compared to those of its precursors, CO and NO, and other regulated compounds.

  1. On-line measurements of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel vehicle exhaust by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fujitani, Yuji; Sekimoto, Kanako; Sato, Kei; Fushimi, Akihiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hori, Shigeo; Kumazawa, Yasuko; Shimono, Akio; Hikida, Toshihide

    2013-07-01

    Nitro-organic compounds, some of which cause adverse health effects in humans, are emitted in diesel engine exhaust. Speciation and quantification of these nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust particles have been extensively conducted; however, investigations into the emissions of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust have not. In the present study, the properties of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust were investigated through time-resolved measurement with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer. Three diesel trucks were tested, each with a different type of exhaust-gas treatment system (i.e., aftertreatment). Among the nitro-organic compounds detected, the emission of nitromethane was commonly observed and found to be related to the emissions of carbon monoxide, benzene, and acetone. The emission of other nitro-organic compounds, such as nitrophenol, depended on the vehicle, possibly due to the type of aftertreatment installed.

  2. Secondary organic aerosol formation from photochemical aging of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhausts in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Deng, W.; Hu, Q.; Ding, X.; Zhang, Y.; He, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Yu, J.

    2015-08-01

    In China, a rapid increase in passenger vehicles has led to the growing concern of vehicle exhaust as an important source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in megacities hard hit by haze. In this study, the SOA formation of emissions from two idling light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) (Euro 1 and Euro 4) operated in China was investigated in a 30 m3 smog chamber. Five photo-oxidation experiments were carried out at 25 °C with relative humidity at around 50 %. After aging at an OH exposure of 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h, the formed SOA was 12-259 times as high as primary organic aerosol (POA). The SOA production factors (PF) were 0.001-0.044 g kg-1 fuel, comparable with those from the previous studies at comparable OH exposure. This quite lower OH exposure than that in typical atmospheric conditions might however lead to the underestimation of the SOA formation potential from LDGVs. Effective SOA yields in this study were well fit by a one-product gas-particle partitioning model but quite lower than those of a previous study investigating SOA formation from three idling passenger vehicles (Euro 2-4). Traditional single-ring aromatic precursors and naphthalene could explain 51-90 % of the formed SOA. Unspeciated species such as branched and cyclic alkanes might be the possible precursors for the unexplained SOA. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize the chemical composition of SOA. The relationship between f43 (ratio of m/z 43, mostly C2H3O+, to the total signal in mass spectrum) and f44 (mostly CO2+) of the gasoline vehicle exhaust SOA is similar to the ambient semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA). We plot the O : C and H : C molar ratios of SOA in a Van Krevelen diagram. The slopes of ΔH : C / ΔO : C ranged from -0.59 to -0.36, suggesting that the oxidation chemistry in these experiments was a combination of carboxylic acid and alcohol/peroxide formation.

  3. A quantitative description of vehicle exhaust particle size distributions in a highway tunnel.

    PubMed

    Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Rogers, C Fred; Gertler, Alan W

    2004-03-01

    During the period May 18-May 22, 1999, a comprehensive study was conducted in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel on the Pennsylvania Turnpike to measure real-world motor-vehicle emissions. As part of this study, size distributions of particle emissions were determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Each measured size distribution consisted of two modes: a nucleation mode with midpoint diameter less than 20 nm and an accumulation mode with midpoint diameter less than 100 nm. The nucleation and accumulation components in some distributions also exhibited second maxima, which implies that such particle size distributions are superpositions of two particle size distributions. This hypothesis was utilized in fitting the particle size distributions that exhibited second maxima with four lognormal distributions, two for the nucleation mode and two for the accumulation mode. The fitting assumed that the observed particle size distribution was a combination of two bimodal log-normal distributions, one attributed to the heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles and another attributed either to a different class of HDD vehicles or to the light-duty spark ignition vehicles. Based on this method, estimated particle production rates were 1.8 x 10(13) and 2.8 x 10(14) particles/vehicle-km for light-duty spark ignition and HDD vehicles, respectively, which agreed with independently obtained estimates. PMID:15061617

  4. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Anderson, Ren

    2001-01-01

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  5. Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): II. Uncertainty analyses of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2014-04-01

    Estimates of future emissions are necessary for understanding the future health of the atmosphere, designing national and international strategies for air quality control, and evaluating mitigation policies. Emission inventories are uncertain and future projections even more so, thus it is important to quantify the uncertainty inherent in emission projections. This paper is the second in a series that seeks to establish a more mechanistic understanding of future air pollutant emissions based on changes in technology. The first paper in this series (Yan et al., 2011) described a model that projects emissions based on dynamic changes of vehicle fleet, Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard-Trend, or SPEW-Trend. In this paper, we explore the underlying uncertainties of global and regional exhaust PM emission projections from on-road vehicles in the coming decades using sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. This work examines the emission sensitivities due to uncertainties in retirement rate, timing of emission standards, transition rate of high-emitting vehicles called superemitters, and emission factor degradation rate. It is concluded that global emissions are most sensitive to parameters in the retirement rate function. Monte Carlo simulations show that emission uncertainty caused by lack of knowledge about technology composition is comparable to the uncertainty demonstrated by alternative economic scenarios, especially during the period 2010-2030.

  6. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Barone, Teresa L; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

  7. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices including diesel particulate filters (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep+idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photo-oxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary and secondary fine particulate matter from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after three hours of oxidation at typical urban VOC : NOx ratios (3:1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the non-methane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas-chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species, such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep+idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

  8. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The unspeciated organics - likely comprising less volatile species such as intermediate volatility organic compounds - appear to be important SOA precursors; we estimate that the effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to reacted precursor mass) was 9 6% if both speciated SOA precursors and unspeciated organics are included in the analysis. SOA production from creep + idle operation was 3-4 times larger than SOA production from the same vehicle operated over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Fuel properties had little or no effect on primary PM emissions or SOA formation.

  9. Primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation from the exhaust of a flex-fuel (ethanol) vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Platt, S. M.; Hellebust, S.; Pieber, S. M.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Baltensperger, U.; Marchand, N.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Astorga, C.

    2015-09-01

    Incentives to use biofuels may result in increasing vehicular emissions of compounds detrimental to air quality. Therefore, regulated and unregulated emissions from a Euro 5a flex-fuel vehicle, tested using E85 and E75 blends (gasoline containing 85% and 75% of ethanol (vol/vol), respectively), were investigated at 22 and -7 °C over the New European Driving Cycle, at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre Ispra, Italy. Vehicle exhaust was comprehensively analyzed at the tailpipe and in a dilution tunnel. A fraction of the exhaust was injected into a mobile smog chamber to study the photochemical aging of the mixture. We found that emissions from a flex-fuel vehicle, fueled by E85 and E75, led to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, despite the low aromatic content of these fuel blends. Emissions of regulated and unregulated compounds, as well as emissions of black carbon (BC) and primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA formation were higher at -7 °C. The flex-fuel unregulated emissions, mainly composed of ethanol and acetaldehyde, resulted in very high ozone formation potential and SOA, especially at low temperature (860 mg O3 km-1 and up to 38 mg C kg-1). After an OH exposure of 10 × 106 cm-3 h, SOA mass was, on average, 3 times larger than total primary particle mass emissions (BC + POA) with a high O:C ratio (up to 0.7 and 0.5 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) typical of highly oxidized mixtures. Furthermore, high resolution organic mass spectra showed high 44/43 ratios (ratio of the ions m/z 44 and m/z 43) characteristic of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol. We also hypothesize that SOA formation from vehicular emissions could be due to oxidation products of ethanol and acetaldehyde, both short-chain oxygenated VOCs, e.g. methylglyoxal and acetic acid, and not only from aromatic compounds.

  10. Real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions of light-duty diesel vehicles and their correlation with road conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingnan; Wu, Ye; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Haitao; Bao, Xiaofeng; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    The real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emission profiles of CO, HC and NOx for light-duty diesel vehicles were investigated. Using a portable emissions measurement system, 16 diesel taxies were tested on different roads in Macao and the data were normalized with the vehicle specific power bin method. The 11 Toyota Corolla diesel taxies have very good fuel economy of (5.9 +/- 0.6) L/100 km, while other five diesel taxies showed relatively high values at (8.5 +/- 1.7) L/100 km due to the variation in transmission systems and emission control strategies. Compared to similar Corolla gasoline models, the diesel cars confirmed an advantage of ca. 20% higher fuel efficiency. HC and CO emissions of all the 16 taxies are quite low, with the average at (0.05 +/- 0.02) g/km and (0.38 +/- 0.15) g/km, respectively. The average NOx emission factor of the 11 Corolla taxies is (0.56 +/- 0.17) g/km, about three times higher than their gasoline counterparts. Two of the three Hyundai Sonata taxies, configured with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) + diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) emission control strategies, indicated significantly higher NO2 emissions and NO2/NOx ratios than other diesel taxies and consequently trigger a concern of possibly adverse impacts on ozone pollution in urban areas with this technology combination. A clear and similar pattern for fuel consumption and for each of the three gaseous pollutant emissions with various road conditions was identified. To save energy and mitigate CO2 emissions as well as other gaseous pollutant emissions in urban area, traffic planning also needs improvement. PMID:22893964

  11. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  12. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  13. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., tests using engine dynamometers are adequate for determining the effect of a device. Examples of such... engine dynamometer will permit a less expensive and better controlled durability and economy test than one in which a vehicle must be driven on a durability route and then tested on a chassis...

  14. Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2013-10-01

    The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987-2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions - temperatures of 25-100 C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1-600 ?g m-3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

  15. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from light-duty diesel vehicles exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abrantes, Rui; de Assuno, Joo V.; Pesquero, Clia R.

    Standardised tests were performed on four light-duty diesel vehicles running in a chassis dynamometer at a vehicular emission laboratory, using the FTP-75 test cycle procedure. The aim was to characterise emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), substances that create health hazards and are, as yet, unregulated. The pollutants were analysed in both solid and gaseous phases using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total PAH values ranged from 1.133 to 5.801 mg km -1. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene were detected in all tests. In addition, PAH emission was observed to be inversely related to emission of CO 2.

  16. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Thermal Spray: Application to Vehicle Exhaust Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longtin, Jon P.; Zuo, Lei; Hwang, David; Fu, Gaosheng; Tewolde, Mahder; Chen, Yikai; Sampath, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Thermoelectric devices produce electricity directly from heat; they are small, have no moving parts, and are quiet. Commercially available thermoelectric devices, however, are expensive and labor intensive to produce, and come in very limited form factors. This article presents initial results for the use of thermal spray to directly fabricate thermoelectric devices. The target application is automotive exhaust systems and other high-volume heat sources. In this work, FeSi2 and Mg2Si metal silicides were sprayed. Characterization of the Mg2Si deposits indicates that both the thermal conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient are roughly one half the values of bulk Mg2Si. The electrical conductivity, however, is several orders of magnitude lower than bulk measurements in the literature, with likely reasons including impurities in the starting powder, oxidation during spraying, and using an undoped material. Fe x Co4- x Sb12 skutterudite material has also been sprayed; however, not enough powder was available to fabricate samples large enough for characterization. The steps required to fabricate a thermoelectric device are presented, including the formation of the bottom and top metallic layers and the thermoelectric legs using thermal spray and laser micromachining. A technique for bridging the air gap between adjacent thermoelectric elements for the top layer based on a sacrificial filler material has also been demonstrated.

  17. A case study for removal of sulphur-di-oxide from exhaust flue gases at thermal power plant, Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Acharya, Shveta; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reduce the percent SO2 in environment and to produce a byproduct with SO2, to control air pollution. The present work envisages a situation that compares the efficiency of three different reagents, viz. sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and waste product of water treatment plant containing CaO in removal of SO2 that would be generated in this situation. Various parameters were also observed with variation involving percent concentration of reactants, pH of the solution, time for reaction , temperature of solution and flow of flue gas in impingers. Pet coke with lime stone is being used for power generation in power plant during the experiment, the pet coke having 6% sulphur resulting in emission of SO2. Hence experiments have been conducted to trap these gases to produce sulphates. Waste product of water treatment plant, calcium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide in various permutation and combination have been used with control flow by SO2 monitoring kit for preparation of calcium sulphate and sodium sulphate. Thus sodium hydroxide turned out to be better as compared to calcium hydroxide and sludge. It is also concluded that pH of the solution should be alkaline for good absorption of SO2 and maximum absorption of SO2 found in direct passing of SO2 in impinger as compared to indirect passing of SO2 in impingers. Good absorption of SO2 found at temperature range between 20-25 degrees C and it seems to be optimum. Maximum recovery of SO2 was obtained when the reaction took place for long time period. PMID:22324143

  18. Real-time Characterization of Particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Aerosols and From Motor-Vehicles Exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Sioutas, C.

    2007-12-01

    During the spring of 2007 a diffusion charger (DC), a photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS), and a condensation particle counter (CPC) were operated a) in Wilmington (CA), an urban area near the Los Angeles port heavily influenced by a mix of industrial and gasoline- / diesel-fuelled vehicle emissions, and b) at the California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Test Laboratory (HDETL), a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA). During the dynamometer tests, we characterized the exhausts of several individual types of vehicles, equipped with different emission control technologies, and operated under different driving conditions. Information about the chemical composition, active surface area, and particle number concentration from the PAS, DC, and CPC were combined to identify the main chemical and physical characteristics of the studied aerosols. In particular, the ratio between the PAS and the DC signals (PAS/DC) provided a reliable measurement of the amount of particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pPAH) per unit area of the active surface of the particles. This quantity may be directly related to the amount of pPAHs transported into the human respiratory tract. Plots of the PAS/DC ratio versus the average surface particle diameter (Dp; estimated by combining DC and CPC measurements) were then used to distinguish between the presence/absence of nuclei mode particles and the presence/absence of an adsorbed layer on accumulation mode particles, for both ambient and dynamometer-tests data. All results were then complemented with measurements of the particle size distribution (SMPS) and of the black carbon (BC) aerosol content to obtain further insights on the pPAHs emitted by motor-vehicles and other sources. Integrated 24-h filter samples were also collected in Wilmington, solvent extracted and analyzed by GC/MS to determine the relative concentrations of the 11 most abundant pPAHs found at the urban site. Finally, these results were used to establish correlations between the concentrations of each individual PAH species and the measured PAS signal (from fA to μ g/m3).

  19. Impacts of the vehicle's fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on the trip cost allowing late arrival under car-following model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Qiang; Yang, Shi-Chun; Ding, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we apply car-following model to study the influences of the vehicle's fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on each commuter's trip cost allowing late arrival. Our results show that considering each commuter's fuel cost and emission cost only enhances his trip cost and the system's total cost, but does not influence on his optimal time headway at the origin under the minimum total cost. The results can help commuters to optimize their time headway at the origin.

  20. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide as a biomarker of exposure to various vehicle exhausts among highway toll-station workers in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Hsiao-Lung; Buckley, Timothy J; Strickland, Paul T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2004-02-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the authors evaluated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHP-gluc) as a potential biomarker of exposure to various traffic exhausts. Subjects were 47 female highway toll-station workers and 27 female office workers in training for toll-station employment in Taipei, Taiwan. The mean concentration of urinary 1 -OHP-gluc was 0.117 micromol/mol creatinine in the exposed group and 0.073 micromol/mol creatinine in the reference group (difference in mean concentrations: 0.044 micromol/mol creatinine [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.015, 0.072). In the lanes where tolls were collected from passenger cars, there was a significant relationship between cumulative traffic and 1-OHP-gluc concentration (i.e., average increase of 0.015 micromol/mol creatinine [95% CI: 0.003, 0.027] per 1,000 vehicles). The average increase for truck/bus lanes was similar to that identified for the car lanes (i.e., average increase of 0.011 micromol/mol creatinine [95% Cl: -0.024, 0.045] per 1,000 vehicles). The authors determined that exposure to various traffic exhausts increased the urinary concentration of 1-OHP-gluc in a dose-response pattern, which suggests that this chemical may be a useful biomarker for exposure to vehicle exhausts. PMID:16075899

  1. Flow control device for exhaust gas recycling system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, R.

    1982-04-06

    Several embodiments of exhaust gas recirculation systems for internal combustion engines are described. In each embodiment an arrangement is provided for cooling at least a portion of the recirculated exhaust gases during at least some running conditions prior to reintroduction into the combustion chamber. In one embodiment, the cooled exhaust gases are mixed with uncooled exhaust gases to provide the desired temperature of exhaust gas recirculation. In another embodiment, the exhaust gases are cooled by a fan that is operated in response to the engine running condition. In addition , a device is incorporated for controlling the cooling of the exhaust gases in response to engine temperature.

  2. Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, J. R.; Dumbauld, R. K.; Cheney, C. S.; Geary, H. V.

    1985-01-01

    Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model (REEDM) predicts concentrations, dosages, and depositions downwind from normal and abnormal launches of rocket vehicles at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. REEDM written in FORTRAN IV for interactive execution.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall not be greater than... are incorporated by reference (see § 86.1). (v) Hybrid electric vehicle requirements. Deterioration... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall not be greater than... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program... rows designated with the applicable vehicle emission category. These standards shall apply equally...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall not be greater than... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program... rows designated with the applicable vehicle emission category. These standards shall apply equally...

  6. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels. The scooters were the main emitters of aromatic compounds, followed by the gasoline vehicle, the diesel vehicles and the HDDV.

  7. The effect of exhaust plume/afterbody interaction on installed Scramjet performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas Alan

    1988-01-01

    Newly emerging aerospace technology points to the feasibility of sustained hypersonic flight. Designing a propulsion system capable of generating the necessary thrust is now the major obstacle. First-generation vehicles will be driven by air-breathing scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engines. Because of engine size limitations, the exhaust gas leaving the nozzle will be highly underexpanded. Consequently, a significant amount of thrust and lift can be extracted by allowing the exhaust gases to expand along the underbody of the vehicle. Predicting how these forces influence overall vehicle thrust, lift, and moment is essential to a successful design. This work represents an important first step toward that objective. The UWIN code, an upwind, implicit Navier-Stokes computer program, has been applied to hypersonic exhaust plume/afterbody flow fields. The capability to solve entire vehicle geometries at hypersonic speeds, including an interacting exhaust plume, has been demonstrated for the first time. Comparison of the numerical results with available experimental data shows good agreement in all cases investigated. For moderately underexpanded jets, afterbody forces were found to vary linearly with the nozzle exit pressure, and increasing the exit pressure produced additional nose-down pitching moment. Coupling a species continuity equation to the UWIN code enabled calculations indicating that exhaust gases with low isentropic exponents (gamma) contribute larger afterbody forces than high-gamma exhaust gases. Moderately underexpanded jets, which remain attached to unswept afterbodies, underwent streamwise separation on upswept afterbodies. Highly underexpanded jets produced altogether different flow patterns, however. The highly underexpanded jet creates a strong plume shock, and the interaction of this shock with the afterbody was found to produce complicated patterns of crossflow separation. Finally, the effect of thrust vectoring on vehicle balance has been shown to alter dramatically the vehicle pitching moment.

  8. Effect of Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicles -- Final Report: Phase 3; July 28, 2008 - July 27, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.

    2014-05-01

    This report covers work the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Office of Automotive Engineering has conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) in support of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct). Section 1506 of EPAct requires EPA to produce an updated fuel effects model representing the 2007 light - duty gasoline fleet, including determination of the emissions impacts of increased renewable fuel use. This report covers the exhaust emissions testing of 15 light-duty vehicles with 27 E0 through E20 test fuels, and 4 light-duty flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on an E85 fuel, as part of the EPAct Gasoline Light-Duty Exhaust Fuel Effects Test Program. This program will also be referred to as the EPAct/V2/E-89 Program based on the designations used for it by the EPA, NREL, and CRC, respectively. It is expected that this report will be an attachment or a chapter in the overall EPAct/V2/E-89 Program report prepared by EPA and NREL.

  9. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    PubMed Central

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  10. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  11. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  12. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  13. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  14. Near-vent measurements of volcanic gases and aerosols with multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Schumann, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic phenomena occurring on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere are almost always distributed over a volume or area that changes progressively over time (e.g., explosive eruption plumes, lava flows, floods, toxic materials releases, wildfires). 'Snapshot' views of such phenomena traditionally capture a small part of the area or volume of the event in successive time slices. Such time series are fundamentally limited in providing accurate boundary conditions for models of such processes, or even to create descriptions or observations at spatial scales relevant to the characteristic dimensions of the process. High spatial resolution (e.g., ~1-3m/pixel) imaging views of such spatially extended phenomena that capture the entire extent of the event are not usually possible with a single low altitude aircraft, for instance. Synoptic satellite and high altitude airborne views are often at spatial resolutions that an order of magnitude coarser. Airborne in situ sampling faces a similar problem in that point measurements are acquired along a flight line in a time-series. Source conditions changing at timescales shorter than an airborne sortie interval (typical for most dynamic phenomena) render such flight line observations incomplete. The ability to capture hi-spatial resolution, synchronous, full volume or area data over dynamically evolving (possibly hazardous) features (e.g., volcanic plumes, air pollution layers, oil slicks, wildfires) requires a distributed 2D or 3D mesh of observation platforms. Small (e.g., <25kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology that can provide distributed formations or networks of observation platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured to encompass areas or volumes of interest for imaging or other kinds of in situ observations (e.g., SO2 or CO2 sampling of volcanic gas emissions). Such data are crucial for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed concentration retrievals (e.g., from multi/hyperspectral imaging platforms) or for transport modeling based on data from such platforms. For instance, for volcanic plumes, in situ cal/val data are rare to non-existent. Nevertheless, such data were in high demand during the airborne volcanic ash crisis that shut down European airspace for weeks at a time after the early 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland. Particularly for low altitude applications, small UAVs, such as the Aerovironment-built Dragon Eye (~2.5kg gross weight) or its equivalent, with small payloads (e.g., 0.5-1kg), can be economically deployed in formations or 'swarms' to provide simultaneous multiple observations over an areally or volumetrically distributed temporally evolving feature, such as a lava flow or a volcanic plume. We discuss our recent experiences and challenges in the use of such small platforms, the challenges in providing low mass sensors for such aircraft, and future applications for self-organizing airborne sensor networks. This work was carried out, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology.

  15. Methods of characterizing the distribution of exhaust emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles in the U.S. fleet.

    PubMed

    Fulper, Carl R; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, Jim; Fujit, Eric M; Scarbro, Carl; Crews, William S; Snow, Richard; Gabele, Peter; Santos, Robert; Tierney, Eugene; Cantrell, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    Mobile sources significantly contribute to ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM). Source apportionment studies for PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) indicate that mobile sources can be responsible for over half of the ambient PM measured in an urban area. Recent source apportionment studies attempted to differentiate between contributions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicle combustion. Several source apportionment studies conducted in the United States suggested that gasoline combustion from mobile sources contributed more to ambient PM than diesel combustion. However, existing emission inventories for the United States indicated that diesels contribute more than gasoline vehicles to ambient PM concentrations. A comprehensive testing program was initiated in the Kansas City metropolitan area to measure PM emissions in the light-duty, gasoline-powered, on-road mobile source fleet to provide data for PM inventory and emissions modeling. The vehicle recruitment design produced a sample that could represent the regional fleet, and by extension, the national fleet. All vehicles were recruited from a stratified sample on the basis of vehicle class (car, truck) and model-year group. The pool of available vehicles was drawn primarily from a sample of vehicle owners designed to represent the selected demographic and geographic characteristics of the Kansas City population. Emissions testing utilized a portable, light-duty chassis dynamometer with vehicles tested using the LA-92 driving cycle, on-board emissions measurement systems, and remote sensing devices. Particulate mass emissions were the focus of the study, with continuous and integrated samples collected. In addition, sample analyses included criteria gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons), air toxics (speciated volatile organic compounds), and PM constituents (elemental/organic carbon, metals, semi-volatile organic compounds). Results indicated that PM emissions from the in-use fleet varied by up to 3 orders of magnitude, with emissions generally increasing for older model-year vehicles. The study also identified a strong influence of ambient temperature on vehicle PM mass emissions, with rates increasing with decreasing temperatures. PMID:21141431

  16. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as 1051.615, but not including vehicles certified under other parts in this chapter (such as 40 CFR... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL...

  17. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as 1051.615, but not including vehicles certified under other parts in this chapter (such as 40 CFR... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL...

  18. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as 1051.615, but not including vehicles certified under other parts in this chapter (such as 40 CFR... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL...

  19. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as 1051.615, but not including vehicles certified under other parts in this chapter (such as 40 CFR... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL...

  20. Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

    2011-06-01

    Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

  1. Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 3: Experimental technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    The jet induced effects of several exhaust nozzle configurations (axisymmetric, and vectoring/modulating varients) on the aeropropulsive performance of a twin engine V/STOL fighter design was determined. A 1/8 scale model was tested in an 11 ft transonic tunnel at static conditions and over a range of Mach Numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. The experimental aspects of the static and wind-on programs are discussed. Jet effects test techniques in general, fow through balance calibrations and tare force corrections, ASME nozzle thrust and mass flow calibrations, test problems and solutions are emphasized.

  2. Similar cellular effects induced by diesel exhaust particles from a representative diesel vehicle recovered from filters and Standard Reference Material 1650.

    PubMed

    Boland, S; Baeza-Squiban, A; Bonvallot, V; Houcine, O; Pain, C; Meyer, M; Marano, F

    2001-01-01

    Standard reference diesel exhaust particles (DEP) SRM 1650 are often used to evaluate the toxicity of DEP. However, these particles did not necessarily reflect the effects of DEP representative of present diesel automobiles. This study was designed to compare the effects of SRM 1650 to DEP from representative cars (RC-DEP) on airway epithelial cells. Therefore we established a method to recover RC-DEP impacted on filters after emission from diesel automobiles on test beds. Electron microscopy and flow cytometry showed that these two types of particles were phagocytosed to the same extent by epithelial cells. This phagocytosis is not dependent on the adsorbed organic compounds in contrast to the cytotoxic effect evaluated by measurements of LDH release. This is emphasized by the fact that RC-DEP equipped with an oxidation catalyst are less cytotoxic than particles from a non-equipped vehicle or SRM 1650. This type of catalyst also reduces significantly the release of GM-CSF by bronchial epithelial cells. We have shown in the present paper that SRM 1650 may be used as a surrogate of DEP. However, exhaust gas post-treatment devices of current diesel automobiles reduce the cytotoxicity as well as the inflammatory response of these particles. PMID:11566567

  3. PM2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995.

    PubMed

    Watson, J G; Chow, J C; Houck, J E

    2001-06-01

    PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microm) chemical source profiles applicable to speciated emissions inventories and receptor model source apportionment are reported for geological material, motor vehicle exhaust, residential coal (RCC) and wood combustion (RWC), forest fires, geothermal hot springs; and coal-fired power generation units from northwestern Colorado during 1995. Fuels and combustion conditions are similar to those of other communities of the inland western US. Coal-fired power station profiles differed substantially between different units using similar coals, with the major difference being lack of selenium in emissions from the only unit that was equipped with a dry limestone sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubber. SO2 abundances relative to fine particle mass emissions in power plant emissions were seven to nine times higher than hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abundances from geothermal springs, and one to two orders of magnitude higher than SO2 abundances in RCC emissions, implying that the SO2 abundance is an important marker for primary particle contributions of non-aged coal-fired power station contributions. The sum of organic and elemental carbon ranged from 1% to 10% of fine particle mass in coal-fired power plant emissions, from 5% to 10% in geological material, >50% in forest fire emissions, >60% in RWC emissions, and >95% in RCC and vehicle exhaust emissions. Water-soluble potassium (K+) was most abundant in vegetative burning profiles. K+/K ratios ranged from 0.1 in geological material profiles to 0.9 in vegetative burning emissions, confirming previous observations that soluble potassium is a good marker for vegetative burning. PMID:11368231

  4. Development of a Simple Field Test for Vehicle Exhaust to Detect Illicit Use of Dyed Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Wright, Bob W.

    2011-10-30

    The use of tax-free dyed fuel on public highways in the United States provides a convenient way of evading taxes. Current enforcement involves visual inspection for the red azo dye added to the fuel to designate its tax-free status. This approach has shortcomings such as the invasive nature of the tests and/or various deceptive tactics applied by tax evaders. A test designed to detect dyed fuel use by analyzing the exhaust would circumvent these shortcomings. This paper describes the development of a simple color spot test designed to detect the use of tax-free (dyed) diesel fuel by analyzing the engine exhaust. Development first investigated the combustion products of C.I. Solvent Red 164 (the azo dye formulation used in the United States to tag tax-free fuel). A variety of aryl amines were identified as characteristic molecular remnants that appear to survive combustion. A number of microanalytical color tests specific for aryl amines were then investigated. One test based on the use of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde seemed particularly applicable and was used in a proof-of-principle experiment. The 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde color spot test was able to clearly distinguish between engines burning regular and dyed diesel fuel. Further development will refine this color spot test to provide an easy-to-use field test for Internal Revenue Service Field Compliance specialists.

  5. System for the incineraton of refuse and the treatment of the incineration exhaust gasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes a method for the incineration of refuse and the treatment of incineration exhaust gases, it comprises: incinerating the refuse in a fire box having air intake means, oil decomposition product removal means, and exhaust gas off take means, directing the gases from the off take means to cooling means, treating the exhaust gases in the cooling means by heat exchange with a cooling liquid, passing the exhaust gases through filtration means whereby particulates are removed from the exhaust gases, subjecting the exhaust gases to after-burning in a closed after-burner chamber, passing the exhaust gases through a wash assembly whereby the exhaust gases are passed through a water bath and subjected to a water spray, and discharging the cleaned exhaust gases to the atmosphere.

  6. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as § 1051.615, but not including vehicles certified under other parts in this chapter (such as 40 CFR....-directed production that must comply with the emission standards for those model years. Calculate this compliance percentage based on a simple count of your U.S.-directed production units within each...

  7. Rocket motor exhaust products generated by the space shuttle vehicle during its launch phase (1976 design data)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.

  8. Emission factors for high-emitting vehicles based on on-road measurements of individual vehicle exhaust with a mobile measurement platform.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Suk; Kozawa, Kathleen; Fruin, Scott; Mara, Steve; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Jakober, Chris; Winer, Arthur; Herner, Jorn

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-based emission factors for 143 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and 93 heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) were measured in Wilmington, CA using a zero-emission mobile measurement platform (MMP). The frequency distributions of emission factors of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particle mass with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 microm (PM2.5) varied widely, whereas the average of the individual vehicle emission factors were comparable to those reported in previous tunnel and remote sensing studies as well as the predictions by Emission Factors (EMFAC) 2007 mobile source emission model for Los Angeles County. Variation in emissions due to different driving modes (idle, low- and high-speed acceleration, low- and high-speed cruise) was found to be relatively small in comparison to intervehicle variability and did not appear to interfere with the identification of high emitters, defined as the vehicles whose emissions were more than 5 times the fleet-average values. Using this definition, approximately 5% of the LDGVs and HDDTs measured were high emitters. Among the 143 LDGVs, the average emission factors of NO(x), black carbon (BC), PM2.5, and ultrafine particle (UFP) would be reduced by 34%, 39%, 44%, and 31%, respectively, by removing the highest 5% of emitting vehicles, whereas CO emission factor would be reduced by 50%. The emission distributions of the 93 HDDTs measured were even more skewed: approximately half of the NO(x) and CO fleet-average emission factors and more than 60% of PM2.5, UFP, and BC fleet-average emission factors would be reduced by eliminating the highest-emitting 5% HDDTs. Furthermore, high emissions of BC, PM2.5, and NO(x) tended to cluster among the same vehicles. PMID:22070037

  9. Effectiveness of mitigation measures in reducing future primary particulate matter emissions from on-road vehicle exhaust.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C; Streets, David G

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa. PMID:25393452

  10. Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures in Reducing Future Primary Particulate Matter Emissions from On-Road Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa

  11. Emission factors of fine particles, carbonaceous aerosols and traces gases from road vehicles: Recent tests in an urban tunnel in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Li, Guanghui; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zhonghui; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Xinyu; Deng, Wei; Liu, Tengyu; Huang, Zuzhao; Zhang, Zhanyi

    2015-12-01

    Motor vehicles contribute primarily and secondarily to air quality problems due to fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) pollution in China's megacities. Characterizing vehicle emission with the rapid change of vehicle numbers and fleet compositions is vital for both bottom-up emission survey and top-down source apportioning. To obtain emission factors (EFs) of PM2.5, carbonaceous aerosols and trace gases for road vehicles, in urban Guangzhou we conducted a field campaign in 2014 in the Zhujiang Tunnel, a heavily burdened tunnel with about 40,000 motor vehicles passing through each of its two separated bores per day. PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled for offline analysis while trace gases including SO2, NOx and CO were measured online and in situ. An eddy covariance system with an integrated 3-D sonic anemometer was also adopted to measure CO2 and winds inside the tunnel. We recorded an average fleet composition of 61% light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) + 12% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs) + 27% liquefied petroleum gas vehicles (LPGVs), and EFs of 82.7 ± 28.3, 19.3 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 3.3 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively, for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). These EFs were respectively 23.4%, 18.3% and 72.3% lower when compared to that measured in the same tunnel in 2004. EFs of PM2.5, OC and EC were higher at night time (148 ± 126, 29 ± 24 and 21 ± 18 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively) due to significantly elevated fractions of HDVs in the traffic fleets. An average ratio of OC to EC 1.45 from this tunnel study was much higher than that of ∼0.5 in previous tunnel studies. The EFs of SO2, NOx, CO, CO2 and NMHCs for road traffic were also obtained from our tunnel tests, and they were 20.7 ± 2.9, (1.29 ± 0.2)E+03, (3.10 ± 0.68)E+03, (3.90 ± 0.49)E+05, and 448 ± 39 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively.

  12. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  13. Development of Hot Exhaust Emission Factors for Iranian-Made Euro-2 Certified Light-Duty Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Banitalebi, Ehsan; Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Emission factors (EFs) are fundamental, necessary data for air pollution research and scenario implementation. With the vision of generating national EFs of the Iranian transportation system, a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to develop the basic EFs for a statistically significant sample of Iranian gasoline-fueled privately owned light duty vehicles (LDVs) operated in Tehran. A smaller sample size of the same fleet was examined by chassis dynamometer (CD) bag emission measurement tests to quantify the systematic differences between the PEMS and CD methods. The selected fleet was tested over four different routes of uphill highways, flat highways, uphill urban streets, and flat urban streets. Real driving emissions (RDEs) and fuel consumption (FC) rates were calculated by weighted averaging of the results from each route. The activity of the fleet over each route type was assumed as a weighting factor. The activity data were obtained from a Tehran traffic model. The RDEs of the selected fleet were considerably higher than the certified emission levels of all vehicles. Differences between Tehran real driving cycles and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) was attributed to the lower loading of NEDC. A table of EFs based on RDEs was developed for the sample fleet. PMID:26595364

  14. Vehicle non-exhaust emissions from the tyre-road interface - effect of stud properties, traction sanding and resuspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupiainen, Kaarle J.; Pirjola, Liisa

    2011-08-01

    In Northern cities respirable street dust emission levels (PM 10) are especially high during spring. The spring time dust has been observed to cause health effects as well as discomfort among citizens. Major sources of the dust are the abrasion products from the pavement and traction sand aggregates that are formed due to the motion of the tyre. We studied the formation of respirable abrasion particles in the tyre-road interface due to tyre studs and traction sanding by a mobile laboratory vehicle Sniffer. The measurements were preformed on a test track, where the influence of varying stud weight and stud number per tyre on PM 10 emissions was studied. Studded tyres resulted in higher emission levels than studless tyres especially with speeds 50 km h -1 and higher; however, by using light weight studs, which approximately halves the weight of studs, or by reducing the number of studs per tyre to half, the emission levels decreased by approximately half. Additionally measurements were done with and without traction sand coverage on the pavement of a public road. After traction sanding the emission levels were not affected by tyre type but by formation and suspension of traction sand related dust from the road surface. The emissions after traction sanding decreased as a function of time as passing vehicles' motion shifted the sand grains away from the areas with most tyre-road contact.

  15. Homogeneous production and removal of NO/sub x/ from combustion exhaust gases. Seventh quarterly technical summary report, 1 March-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, J.A.; Gozewski, C.M.; Kolb, C.E.

    1980-06-01

    The rate constants for the reaction OH + NH/sub 3/ ..-->.. NH/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/O have been measured over the temperature range 294 - 1075 K. The data can be fit by the Arrhenius expression k(cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) = 5.41 +- 0.86 x 10/sup -12/ exp(-2120 +- 143 kcal mol/sup -1//RT). A chemical model of the NO/sub x/ chemistry has been developed which includes 54 reactions. Although not yet complete, the reaction set clearly indicates the key reaction is NH/sub 2/ + NO. The determination of the product channels and their branching ratios is of utmost importance in understanding the effect of NH/sub 3/ addition to combustor exhaust streams for removal of NO/sub x/.

  16. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  17. Quick Access Rocket Exhaust Rig Testing of Coated GRCop-84 Sheets Used to Aid Coating Selection for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation of reusable launch vehicles calls for using GRCop-84 copper alloy liners based on a composition1 invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center: Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb. Many of the properties of this alloy have been shown to be far superior to those of other conventional copper alloys, such as NARloy-Z. Despite this considerable advantage, it is expected that GRCop-84 will suffer from some type of environmental degradation depending on the type of rocket fuel utilized. In a liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid oxygen (LO2) booster engine, copper alloys undergo repeated cycles of oxidation of the copper matrix and subsequent reduction of the copper oxide, a process termed "blanching". Blanching results in increased surface roughness and poor heat-transfer capabilities, local hot spots, decreased engine performance, and premature failure of the liner material. This environmental degradation coupled with the effects of thermomechanical stresses, creep, and high thermal gradients can distort the cooling channel severely, ultimately leading to its failure.

  18. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 ?g g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  19. Internal combustion engine exhaust gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Baresel, D.

    1980-03-25

    To detect substantial deviation of operation of the engine with fuel-air mixtures from stoichiometric relationships, particularly extended operation under very lean or enriched supply mixtures, the exhaust gases are conducted past a first sensor which provides a clearly defined voltage jump upon change of the exhaust gases between reducing and oxidizing state; and, additionally, to a second exhaust gas sensor and preferably to a third sensor, the second and third sensors being, respectively, responsive to the oxygen level in the exhaust gases and to the CO (or hydrocarbon) level in the exhaust gases, respectively, and additionally modifying the relative proportion of fuel and air of the mixture being fed to the engine.

  20. Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Stupfel, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

  1. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks. PMID:25938939

  2. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ? 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. PMID:24095967

  3. Explosion protection for vehicles intended for the transport of flammable gases and liquids--an investigation into technical and operational basics.

    PubMed

    Förster, Hans; Günther, Werner

    2009-05-30

    In Europe, the transport of flammable gases and liquids in tanks has been impacted by new developments: for example, the introduction of the vapour-balancing technique on a broad scale and the steady increase in the application of electronic components with their own power sources; furthermore, new regulatory policies like the ATEX Directives are being enforced in the European Union. With this background in mind, the present investigation aims to provide a basis for future developments of the relevant explosion protection regulations in the safety codes for the transport of dangerous goods (RID/ADR). Specifically, the concentration of gas in the air was measured under various practical conditions while tank vehicles were being loaded with flammable gases or liquids. These spot-test data were supplemented by systematic investigations at a road tanker placed in our test field. With respect to non-electrical ignition sources, a closer investigation of the effect of hot surfaces was carried out. With regard to improving the current regulations, the results of our investigation show that it would be reasonable to implement a stronger differentiation of the characteristics of the dangerous goods (gaseous/liquid, flashpoint) on the one hand and of the techniques applied (loading with and without vapour-balancing system) on the other hand. Conclusions for the further development of the current international regulations are proposed. PMID:18922633

  4. Analysis of motor vehicle emissions over eastern Los Angeles, California from in-situ airborne measurements of trace gases and particulates during CalNex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Perring, A.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    In-situ measurements of trace gases and particulates were acquired on the instrumented NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field study in May and June 2010. Multiple daytime research flights under similar meteorological conditions provide a sufficient data set for characterizing automobile emissions over the eastern Los Angeles (eLA) area of the South Coast air basin. Ratios of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) to carbon monoxide (CO) are used to isolate emissions of light duty vehicles from those of medium/heavy duty diesel trucks. Observations in the mixed boundary layer for the eLA area are separated according to latitude, longitude, and altitude. Industrial influences are eliminated by filtering the data according to SO2 mixing ratio and wind direction. The resulting correlations show weekday-to-weekend differences in enhancement ratios of NOx to CO and BC to CO, indicating a general tendency for higher emissions from heavy duty vehicles during the week. The CalNex data over eLA in 2010 will be compared to eLA data from a research flight in May 2002 by the WP-3D aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) field study.

  5. Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

  6. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.509-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.509-90 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system is designed to measure the true mass emissions of vehicle exhaust....

  7. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.509-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.509-90 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system is designed to measure the true mass emissions of vehicle exhaust....

  8. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.509-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.509-90 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system is designed to measure the true mass emissions of vehicle exhaust....

  9. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.509-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.509-90 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system is designed to measure the true mass emissions of vehicle exhaust....

  10. First online measurements of sulfuric acid gas in modern heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust: implications for nanoparticle formation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, F; Pirjola, L; Rnkk, T; Reichl, U; Schlager, H; Lhde, T; Heikkil, J; Keskinen, J

    2012-10-16

    To mitigate the diesel particle pollution problem, diesel vehicles are fitted with modern exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS), which efficiently remove engine-generated primary particles (soot and ash) and gaseous hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, ATS can promote formation of low-vapor-pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to formation of nucleation particles (NUP). The chemical nature and formation mechanism of these particles are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, online measurements of low-vapor-pressure gases were performed for exhaust of a modern heavy-duty diesel engine operated with modern ATS and combusting low and ultralow sulfur fuels and also biofuel. It was observed that the gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) concentration varied strongly, although engine operation was stable. However, the exhaust GSA was observed to be affected by fuel sulfur level, exhaust after-treatment, and driving conditions. Significant GSA concentrations were measured also when biofuel was used, indicating that GSA can be originated also from lubricant oil sulfur. Furthermore, accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations were performed. We found that the exhaust GSA promotes NUP formation, but also organic (acidic) precursor gases can have a role. The model results indicate that that the measured GSA concentration alone is not high enough to grow the particles to the detected sizes. PMID:23035617

  11. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

  12. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  13. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROCKET EXHAUST SCRUBBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an engineering study and design of methods for scrubbing the exhaust of static-tested solid rockets. Pollutants of major concern were hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases. The best process for removing these gases was found to be a gas-atomize...

  14. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future ... effects. More about how greenhouse gases affect the climate » Also on Energy Explained Energy and the Environment ...

  15. Quasi non-intrusive sampling and analysis of gases associated with the boundary layer on the tethered satellite and similar supersonic and hypersonic research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishel, C.; Niederriter, S.; Brown, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect that one candidate inlet, an assembly of capillary openings in a thin glass plate (a multichannel plate), might have on the overall sampling process is considered. The flow characteristics of the plate, under a variety of conditions of external pressure and mass flow, is evaluated. A review of capillary flow theory is presented with some development of the pertinent equations. The predicted mass flow will be compared to that determined perimentally to assess the effect that mass flow through one capillary might have upon a neighboring capillary. Mass spectrometric measurements of mixtures flowing through the multichannel plate (MCP) is also considered. In the first part of the experiments, the flow was in a direction normal to the surface of the plate. The experimental gases were Argon and mixtures of carbon dioxide in air. Ongoing experiments are discussed which are conducted with the flow parallel to the surface of the plate, a simulation of the kind of flow that a flight vehicle would experience.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1811-17 - Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures of 40 CFR part 1066, as follows: (i) Establish appropriate load settings based on loaded vehicle..., the US06 driving schedule, and the SC03 driving schedule. See 40 CFR 1066.801 for further information... substitute for the SC03 value in the equation for the types of vehicles identified in 40 CFR 600.115...

  17. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  18. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  19. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  20. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  1. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  2. Method of controlling exhaust gas emissions from an electric arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Squibbs, J.D.

    1980-12-30

    A method for controlling exhaust gases emitted from a direct arc furnace melting furnace is described. Prior to cleaning the temperature of the gases is sensed and the arc power is regulated in response to the sensed exhaust gas temperature. Also, the cleaning process of the gases is changed depending upon the sensed gas temperature.

  3. Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 2: Analysis of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation, employing a 1/8 scale model in an 11 foot transonic wind tunnel (Mach 0.4-1.4), was conducted to determine the jet effects of several exhaust nozzles on the aeropropulsive performance of a V/STOL fighter design. The force and pressure data show that significant differences in aeropropulsion performance can be expected by varying the exhaust nozzle type, jet area and deflection angle on an underwing nacelle installation. At unvectored conditions, the single expansion ramp nozzles show large performance gains relative to a circular nozzle installation. Additionally, a further drag reduction is realized when the nonaxisymmetric nozzle is vectored through a 10 degree deflection angle. The combined payoff of the vectored nonaxisymmetric nozzle over the baseline circular nozzle installation is equivalent to 25 percent of zero lift drag.

  4. Axisymmetric & non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced-effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 1: Data presentation. [conducted in Ames 11-foot transonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, W. C.; Ordonez, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A 1/8 scale jet-effects model was tested in the NASA Ames 11 ft transonic tunnel at static conditions and over a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. The data presented show that significant differences in aeropropulsion performance can be expected by varying the exhaust nozzle type and its geometric parameters on a V/STOL underwing nacelle installation.

  5. NOBLE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Noble Gases symposium, on which this report is based, provided comprehensive coverage of the noble gases. The coverage included, but was not limited to, the properties, biokinetics, bioeffects, production and release to the environment, detection techniques, standards, and ap...

  6. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated aftertreatment, high-molecular-weight fuel components and unburned lubricant were emitted at higher rates than in vehicles in good repair, with functioning emissions systems. Light-duty gasoline, medium-duty diesel, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles produced more particles with fresh oil than with aged oil. The opposite trend was observed in light- and medium-duty high PM emitters. This effect was not readily apparent with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, perhaps because the lubricant represented a much smaller fraction of the total PM in those trucks.

  7. Effects of jet exhaust gas properties on exhaust simulation and afterbody drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1975-01-01

    The effect of varying the jet exhaust's ratio of specific heats, gas constant, and temperature on airplane afterbody drag was investigated. Jet exhaust simulation parameters were evaluated also. Subsonic and transonic tests were made using a single nacelle model with afterbodies having boattail angles of 10 deg and 20 deg. Besides air, three other jet exhaust gases were investigated. The ratios of specific heats, gas constants, and total temperatures of the four exhaust gases ranged from 1.40 to 1.26, 287 to 376 J/kg-K, and 300 to 1013 K, respectively. For steep boattail angles, and transonic speeds and typical turbojet pressure ratios, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a dry turbojet exhaust can result in an overprediction of afterbody drag as high as 17 percent of the dry turbojet value.

  8. Engine control with exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, K.; Yamazoe, H.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes an apparatus for controlling the amount of exhaust gases to be recirculated from an exhaust passage of an internal combustion engine to an intake passage of the same, comprising: (a) means for detecting various engine parameters; (b) gas sensor means for detecting the concentration of an exhaust gas in the exhaust passage; (c) means for forcibly interrupting exhaust gas recirculation when the engine is under air/fuel ratio feedback control and exhaust gas recirculation is being performed; and (d) computing means for computing a value representing a desired amount of exhaust to be recirculated using engine parameters and for: (1) producing a correction factor using an output signal from the gas sensor means; (2) obtaining a first mean value of a first plurality of feedback correction factor values during feedback control of air/fuel ratio and during exhaust gas recirculation control; (3) interrupting exhaust gas recirculation during air/fuel ratio feedback control; and (4) obtaining a second mean value of second feedback correction factor values when exhaust gas recirculation is being interrupted.

  9. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures 600.112-08 Exhaust sample analysis. The...

  10. 40 CFR 600.112-78 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures 600.112-78 Exhaust sample analysis. The...

  11. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08 Section 600.112-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures ...

  12. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.211-94 Exhaust gas... optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  13. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

  14. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quayle, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

  15. The effects of neat biodiesel and biodiesel and HVO blends in diesel fuel on exhaust emissions from a light duty vehicle with a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Zaciera, Marzena; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph

    2015-06-16

    The influence of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel blends on the exhaust emissions from a passenger car was examined. The impact of FAME for the cold urban phase (UDC) was increased CO and HC emissions, probably due to blend physical properties promoting incomplete combustion. The HVO blend caused the lowest CO and HC emissions for the UDC. NOx emissions did not change significantly with the fuel used, however the UDC was characterized by lower NOx emission for FAME blends. Particle emissions were highest with standard diesel. Emissions of carbonyl compounds increased as fuel biodiesel content increased, especially during the UDC. HVO in diesel fuel decreased carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the exhaust gas. Total particle-bound PAH emissions were variable, the emission of heavier PAHs increased with blend biodiesel content. The HVO blend increased emission of lighter PAHs. Nitro-PAHs were identified only during the UDC and not for all blends; the highest emissions were measured for pure diesel. The results showed that emission of nitro-PAHs may be decreased to a greater extent by using biodiesel than using a HVO blend. PMID:25993509

  16. 40 CFR 1037.104 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2, CH4, and N2O for heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of 40 CFR 86.1818. To do this, calculate the CH4 and/or N2O emission credits needed (negative... certification. You must adjust the calculated emissions by the global warming potential (GWP): GWP equals 25 for... CFR 86.1818-12(f) does not apply for vehicles subject to the standards of this section....

  17. Injection of Nuclear Rocket Engine Exhaust into Deep Unsaturated Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. A.; Decker, D.

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear rocket engine technology is being considered as a means of interplanetary vehicle propulsion for a manned mission to Mars. To achieve this, a test and development facility must be constructed to safely run nuclear engines. The testing of nuclear engines in the 1950's and 1960's was accomplished by exhausting the engine gases into the atmosphere, a practice that is no longer acceptable. Injection into deep unsaturated zones of radioactive exhaust gases and water vapor associated with the testing of nuclear rocket engines is being considered as a way of sequestering radionuclides from the environment. Numerical simulations were conducted to determine the ability of an unsaturated zone with the hydraulic properties of Frenchman Flat alluvium at the Nevada Test Site to contain gas-phase radionuclides. Gas and water vapor were injected for two hours at rates of 14.5 kg s-1 and 15 kg s-1, respectively, in an interval between 100 and 430 m below the land surface into alluvium with an intrinsic permeability of 10-11 m2 and porosity of 0.35. The results show that during a test of an engine, radionuclides with at least greater than 10-year half-lives may reach the land surface within several years after injection. Radionuclide transport is primarily controlled by the upward pressure gradient from the point of injection to the lower (atmospheric) pressure boundary condition at the land surface. Radionuclides with half-lives on the order of days should undergo enough decay prior to reaching the land surface. A cooling water vapor injected into the unsaturated zone simultaneously with the exhaust gas will condense within several meters of the injection point and drain downward toward the water table. However, the nearly horizontal hydraulic groundwater gradient present in several of the basins at NTS should limit lateral migration of radionuclides away from the vicinity of injection.

  18. Gas exhaust nozzle for ARC furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Buhler, K.

    1984-10-09

    Arc furnace has a furnace shell, a furnace lid with lid ring and a lid lifting and swivelling means as well as a lid opening in the furnace lid for exhausting the flue gas from the interior of the furnace and a flue gas exhaust nozzle for removing the flue gases above the lid opening, the nozzle being supported on the furnace lid ring. By means of this design feature as well as a guide arrangement and a locking means the flue gas exhaust nozzle can be completely integrated into the operating steps of the arc furnace in a simple and economical fashion.

  19. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  20. Exhaust gas heat recovery system in internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y.; Sasaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.

    1983-07-26

    An exhaust gas heat recovery system is disclosed wherein: the system comprises an exhaust gas economizer having of heat transfer sections including a preheating section, an evaporating section and a superheating section, a feed water heater, a steam separation drum, a low pressure steam generator; and a mixed-pressure turbine; a temperature gradient of circulating water and a temperature gradient of exhaust gases are made substantially equal to each other in the preheating section of the exhaust gas economizer to prevent an exhaust gas economizer tube from being corroded by generated sulfuric acid; and low pressure steam can be effectively utilized by use of the mixed-pressure turbine.

  1. 102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  3. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to its gaseous state, thereby increasing atmospheric concentrations. Water Vapor Water Vapor is the most abundant greenhouse ... human processes. The exhaust emissions from automobiles and pollution from factories (as well as burning vegetation) leads ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a device that is capable of sampling gaseous emissions from automobiles. The device samples exhaust gases at a mass rate that is proportional to the total exhaust gas mass flow rate, which is measured using an ultrasonic vortex flowmeter. T...

  5. Rocket Engine Clustering and Vehicle Integration as Influenced by Base Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; McAnelly, William B.

    1966-01-01

    Clustered rocket engines create severe thermal environments in the base of rocket vehicle stages. Boosters burning hydrocarbon fuels experience severe radiant heating early in flight; as the plumes interact at higher altitudes, convective heating becomes significant. For hydrogen-fueled upper stages radiation is not important, but convective heating is severe during the entire stage operation. Predicted and measured heating rates are discussed. The base region thermal environments of stages with clustered engines present a variety of engine/vehicle interaction problems. Components and structures in the base region, including the rocket engines, cannot survive radiant and convective heating from engine exhausts without such remedies as protective insulation, shielding, air-scooping, and proper disposal of the fuel-rich turbine exhaust gases. Different thermal protection concepts evolve for booster and upper stages due to the differences in ground test and flight environments. Solutions to the engine/vehicle interaction and design integration problems are described.

  6. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  7. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1976-01-01

    Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions.

  8. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  9. Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1980-02-01

    This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described.

  10. Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of our understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region O/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, we include a computation representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85...

  13. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  14. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  18. Oxidant gases

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The acute and chronic action of the oxidant gases ozone, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen on the morphological appearance of cells of the alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium is reviewed. Type I cells of the alveolar and ciliated cells of the bronchiolar epithelium appear to be sensitive targets for the oxidant gases. The degree of damage is influenced by age, nutritional status and the development of tolerance.

  19. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.240-94 Exhaust sample analysis....

  20. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.240-94 Exhaust sample analysis....

  1. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.240-94 Exhaust sample analysis....

  2. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.240-94 Exhaust sample analysis....

  3. SST-1 Gas feed and Gas Exhaust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raval, Dilip C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Manthena, Himabindu; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 tokamak is a long pulse tokamak designed for the plasma operation up to 1000 sec duration. Gas feed system and gas exhaust management will play a very crucial role during plasma discharge. During the different type of operations of tokamak like wall conditioning, diverter operation and neutral beam injection, a large amount of gas will be fed into the vacuum chamber at different locations. Also during plasma operations, the gas will be fed both in continues and pulse mode. Gas feed will be carried out mainly using piezo-electric valves controlled by PXI based data acquisition and control system. Such operations will lead to a huge amount gas exhaust by the main system which requires good exhaust facility to searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Also initial pumping of cryostat and vacuum vessel of SST-1 will release a large amount of gas. Exhausted gases from SST -1 will be Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Mixture gases or some toxic gases. Dedicated exhaust system controlling the different gases are installed. Special treatment of hazardous/explosive gases is done before releasing to the atmosphere. This paper describes design and implementations of the complete gas feed and exhaust system of SST-1.

  4. Method of controlling exhaust-gas recirculation in internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Narasaka, S.; Kishida, E.; Otsuka, K.

    1984-10-23

    A method of controlling the recirculation of exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine provided with an exhaust-gas recirculation system by which the exhaust gases emitted from the exhaust manifold are partially recirculated into the intake manifold of the engine, comprising cutting off the recirculation of exhaust gases to the intake manifold of the engine when the engine is being warmed up, recirculating exhaust gases to the intake manifold of the engine at a rate variable in a predetermined required exhaust-gas recirculation ratio to the rate at which air is circulated to the intake manifold of the engine after the engine is warmed up, and recirculating exhaust gases to the intake manifold of the engine with a reduced exhaust-gas recirculation ratio lower than said required exhaust-gas recirculation ratio during a transient period of time intervening the conditions in which the engine is being warmed up and the conditions in which the engine has been warmed up.

  5. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at...

  6. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at...

  7. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at...

  8. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at...

  9. 40 CFR 86.140-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.140-94... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.140-94 Exhaust sample analysis. The following sequence shall.... This concentration is CFS in the calculations. (e) For CH4 analysis: (1) In the event that...

  10. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08 Section 600.112-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and...

  11. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08 Section 600.112-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and...

  12. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonalves, Gonalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82%, respectively. PMID:19728485

  13. Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

  14. Developing a "Research Test Bed" to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Stephen J.

    2012-05-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's "clean and green" image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water & Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal "vehicle emissions research environment" supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  15. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  16. Marine exhaust manifold and elbow

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstedt, D.H.

    1992-05-05

    This patent describes a marine propulsion system having an internal combustion engine exhausted through a water jacketed exhaust assembly. This patent describes improvement in a manifold portion having intake exhaust passages receiving engine exhaust; an elbow portion extending upwardly from the manifold portion and having transfer exhaust passages extending from the intake exhaust passages and communicating through a bend with a discharge exhaust passage, wherein exhaust flows upwardly from the manifold portion into the elbow portion and around the bend to the discharge exhaust passage; water jacket means around the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages and directing water along the exterior of the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages, wherein water flows upwardly along the manifold portion to the elbow portion and then upwardly and around the bend and then to the end of the discharge exhaust passage to mix with exhaust thereat; wall supports between the water jacket means and the elbow portion.

  17. 40 CFR 1066.816 - Vehicle preconditioning for FTP testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for Motor Vehicles... measurement as described in 40 CFR 86.132. ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning for...

  18. OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVELY FUELED VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smog chamber tests were conducted using automobile exhaust gas generated during emission tests with a group of alternatively fueled vehicles. he tests were designed to evaluate the photochemical characteristics of organic emissions from vehicles operating on compressed natural ga...

  19. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A.; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M. C.; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. RESULTS: The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel exhaust. Further studies are warranted to evaluate more efficient treatment devices to reduce adverse reactions to diesel exhaust in the airways. PMID:10492649

  20. Analysis of a Temperature-Controlled Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator During a Driving Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, F. P.; Alves, A.; Pires, J. M.; Martins, L. B.; Martins, J.; Oliveira, J.; Teixeira, J.; Goncalves, L. M.; Hall, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used in automotive exhaust energy recovery. As car engines operate under wide variable loads, it is a challenge to design a system for operating efficiently under these variable conditions. This means being able to avoid excessive thermal dilution under low engine loads and being able to operate under high load, high temperature events without the need to deflect the exhaust gases with bypass systems. The authors have previously proposed a thermoelectric generator (TEG) concept with temperature control based on the operating principle of the variable conductance heat pipe/thermosiphon. This strategy allows the TEG modules’ hot face to work under constant, optimized temperature. The variable engine load will only affect the number of modules exposed to the heat source, not the heat transfer temperature. This prevents module overheating under high engine loads and avoids thermal dilution under low engine loads. The present work assesses the merit of the aforementioned approach by analysing the generator output during driving cycles simulated with an energy model of a light vehicle. For the baseline evaporator and condenser configuration, the driving cycle averaged electrical power outputs were approximately 320 W and 550 W for the type-approval Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure Class 3 driving cycle and for a real-world highway driving cycle, respectively.

  1. Compensation of the exhaust gas transport dynamics for accurate instantaneous emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Ajtay, Delia; Weilenmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Instantaneous emission models of vehicles describe the amount of emitted pollutants as a function of the driving state of the car. Emission measurements of chassis dynamometer tests with high time resolution are necessary for the development of such models. However, the dynamics of gas transport in both the exhaust system of the car and the measurement line last significantly longer than 1 s. In a simplified approach, the transport dynamics can be divided into two parts: a perfect time delay, corresponding to a piston-like transport of the exhaust gas, and a dynamic part, corresponding to the mixing of gases by turbulence along the way. This determines the occurrence of emission peaks that are longer in time and lower in height at the analyzer than they actually are in the vehicle at their location of formation. It is shown here how the sharp emission signals at their location of formation can be reconstructed from the flattened emission signals recorded at the analyzer by using signal theory approaches. A comparison between the reconstructions quality when using the raw or the dilution analyzer system is also given. PMID:15506210

  2. Analysis of a Temperature-Controlled Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator During a Driving Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, F. P.; Alves, A.; Pires, J. M.; Martins, L. B.; Martins, J.; Oliveira, J.; Teixeira, J.; Goncalves, L. M.; Hall, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used in automotive exhaust energy recovery. As car engines operate under wide variable loads, it is a challenge to design a system for operating efficiently under these variable conditions. This means being able to avoid excessive thermal dilution under low engine loads and being able to operate under high load, high temperature events without the need to deflect the exhaust gases with bypass systems. The authors have previously proposed a thermoelectric generator (TEG) concept with temperature control based on the operating principle of the variable conductance heat pipe/thermosiphon. This strategy allows the TEG modules’ hot face to work under constant, optimized temperature. The variable engine load will only affect the number of modules exposed to the heat source, not the heat transfer temperature. This prevents module overheating under high engine loads and avoids thermal dilution under low engine loads. The present work assesses the merit of the aforementioned approach by analysing the generator output during driving cycles simulated with an energy model of a light vehicle. For the baseline evaporator and condenser configuration, the driving cycle averaged electrical power outputs were approximately 320 W and 550 W for the type-approval Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure Class 3 driving cycle and for a real-world highway driving cycle, respectively.

  3. Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

    2006-03-01

    For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were not detectable. PMID:16265462

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES USING METHANOL AND METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDED FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions were examined from vehicles fueled with methanol or a gasoline-methanol blend. Regulated automobile pollutants, as well as detailed hydrocarbons, methanol, and aldehydes were measured, and exhaust emission trends were obtained for vehicle operati...

  5. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  6. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measured. (e) For vehicles to be tested for running loss emissions, prepare the exhaust system by sealing or plugging all detectable sources of exhaust gas leaks. The exhaust system shall be tested or...-fueled vehicles prepare the fuel tank(s) for recording the temperature of the prescribed test fuel,...

  7. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measured. (e) For vehicles to be tested for running loss emissions, prepare the exhaust system by sealing or plugging all detectable sources of exhaust gas leaks. The exhaust system shall be tested or...-fueled vehicles prepare the fuel tank(s) for recording the temperature of the prescribed test fuel,...

  8. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measured. (e) For vehicles to be tested for running loss emissions, prepare the exhaust system by sealing or plugging all detectable sources of exhaust gas leaks. The exhaust system shall be tested or...-fueled vehicles prepare the fuel tank(s) for recording the temperature of the prescribed test fuel,...

  9. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measured. (e) For vehicles to be tested for running loss emissions, prepare the exhaust system by sealing or plugging all detectable sources of exhaust gas leaks. The exhaust system shall be tested or...-fueled vehicles prepare the fuel tank(s) for recording the temperature of the prescribed test fuel,...

  10. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measured. (e) For vehicles to be tested for running loss emissions, prepare the exhaust system by sealing or plugging all detectable sources of exhaust gas leaks. The exhaust system shall be tested or...-fueled vehicles prepare the fuel tank(s) for recording the temperature of the prescribed test fuel,...

  11. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  12. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  13. On-Road Exhaust Emissions from Passenger Cars Fitted with a Start-Stop System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Pielecha, Ireneusz; Pielecha, Jacek; Brudnicki, Kamil

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents the results of on-road (city traffic) exhaust emission and fuel consumption tests related to a vehicle fitted with a start-stop system. The tests of different types of vehicle cruise cycles were performed on road portions of several kilometers under different traffic conditions. For the tests a portable exhaust analyzer SEMTECH DS was used. It measured the concentrations of the exhaust components and the exhaust gas mass flow. As a result the authors determined the usefulness of the engine disengaging systems in vehicles under the conditions of city traffic.

  14. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle as well as the design tolerances. (iv) In the case of electric vehicles, the manufacturer should... vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission test results, applicable deterioration factors, and adjusted exhaust emission levels. (ii) A statement of the origin of the vehicle including...

  15. 40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled vehicles, if selected), average hydrocarbon concentration of... exhaust sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction, in ppm. (B) COconc = COe −...

  16. 40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled vehicles, if selected), average hydrocarbon concentration of... exhaust sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction, in ppm. (B) COconc = COe −...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  19. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  20. Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kammel, R.A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

  1. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  2. Suicidal carbon monoxide inhalation of exhaust fumes. Investigation of cases.

    PubMed

    Tsunenari, S; Yonemitsu, K; Kanda, M; Yoshida, S

    1985-09-01

    The inhalation of automobile exhaust gases is a relatively frequent suicidal method. Two such cases of special interest to forensic pathology and toxicology have been introduced. In case 1, a suicide note disclosed the victim's mental state, the inside conditions of the car, and toxic effects of automobile exhaust. In case 2, a reconstruction experiment has revealed important factors for the investigation of the scene, such as the size of a vinyl hose, the conditions of connecting site of the hose with the exhaust pipe, etc. PMID:2446495

  3. Suicidal carbon monoxide inhalation of exhaust fumes. Investigation of cases

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunenari, S.; Yonemitsu, K.; Kanda, M.; Yoshida, S.

    1985-09-01

    The inhalation of automobile exhaust gases is a relatively frequent suicidal method. Two such cases of special interest to forensic pathology and toxicology have been introduced. In case 1, a suicide note disclosed the victim's mental state, the inside conditions of the car, and toxic effects of automobile exhaust. In case 2, a reconstruction experiment has revealed important factors for the investigation of the scene, such as the size of a vinyl hose, the conditions of connecting site of the hose with the exhaust pipe, etc.

  4. 40 CFR 1066.415 - Vehicle operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle operation. 1066.415 Section 1066.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Preparing Vehicles and Running an Exhaust Emission Test § 1066.415 Vehicle operation. This section describes how to test...

  5. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.007 Vehicle... this chapter), are considered to have met the requirements of this section. (b) Any vehicle not...

  6. Exhaust purification apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.; Ushimura, S.

    1987-05-05

    An exhaust purification apparatus is described for use in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust conduit through which exhaust particles are discharged together with exhaust gas to the atmosphere. Included is an outer shell having an inlet connected to the exhaust conduit and an outlet connected to the atmosphere. The outer shell contains a trap element and a regenerative burner located upstream of the trap element, the regenerative burner comprising: a cylindrical hollow member fixed to the liner and extending within a combustion chamber to define an evaporation chamber, a glow plug for igniting the mixture supplied into the evaporated chamber when actuated; and a control unit responsive to a regeneration requirement for actuating the glow plug and supplying an air-fuel mixture into the evaporation chamber through the mixture conduit.

  7. Vehicle suspension apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Chikamori, S.; Harara, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Suzumura, M.; Tatemoto, M.; Kumagai, N.; Abe, H.

    1986-07-29

    A vehicle suspension apparatus is described comprising: front and rear wheel suspension units arranged at wheel positions and having fluid spring chambers, respectively; fluid supply means for supplying a fluid to the fluid spring chambers in the front and rear wheel suspension units, respectively, through front and rear wheel fluid supply valves; fluid exhaust means for exhausting the fluid from the fluid spring chambers in the front and rear wheel suspension units, respectively, through front and rear wheel suspension units, respectively, through front and rear wheel fluid exhaust valves; position control means for controlling the front and rear wheel fluid supply valves and the front and rear wheel fluid exhaust valves; an accelerator pedal sensor for detecting a state of an accelerator pedal of a vehicle engine and supplying a detection signal to the position control means; and a gear position sensor for detecting a gear change position of a transmission of a vehicle and supplying a detection signal to the position control means. The position control means supplies a control start signal to open the front wheel fluid exhaust valves and the rear wheel fluid supply valves for a predetermined period of time when a rapid acceleration of the vehicle is detected by the accelerator pedal sensor and the gear position sensor.

  8. Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicle emission (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6 h/d × 50 d, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein, 3-nitrotyrosine and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

  9. Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

  10. Exhaust gas afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, S.J. Jr.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an exhaust gas afterburner device adapted for installation between an exhaust manifold and a corresponding portion of the engine block of an internal combustion engine. The device comprises: a spacer sandwiched between portions of two sheet metal members forming a gasket section of the device, the gasket section surrounding at least one exhaust gas port, a plenum section formed by remaining portions of the members, and wall sections defining passageways extending from the interior of the plenum section to the port and an air supply inlet on the plenum.

  11. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  12. Handbook of infrared radiation from combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Reardon, J. E.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Goulard, R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of radiant emission and absorption by combustion gases are discussed. Typical applications include: (1) rocket combustion chambers and exhausts, (2) turbojet engines and exhausts, and (3) industrial furnaces. Some mention is made of radiant heat transfer problems in planetary atmospheres, in stellar atmospheres, and in reentry plasmas. Particular consideration is given to the temperature range from 500K to 3000K and the pressure range from 0.001 atmosphere to 30 atmospheres. Strong emphasis is given to the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen, specifically to carbon dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxide. In addition, species such as HF, HC1, CN, OH, and NO are treated.

  13. Phase change thermal energy storage methods for combat vehicles, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, F. E.

    1986-06-01

    Three alternative cooling methods, based on latent heat absorption during phase changes, were studied for potential use in combat vehicle microclimate temperature control. Metal hydrides absorb heat as they release hydrogen gas. Plastic crystals change from one solid phase to another, absorbing heat in the process. Liquid air boils at cryogenic temperature and absorbs additional sensible heat as the cold gas mixes with the microclimate air flow. System designs were prepared for each of the three microclimate cooling concepts. These designs provide details about the three phase change materials, their containers and the auxiliary equipment needed to implement each option onboard a combat vehicle. The three concepts were compared on the basis of system mass, system volume and the energy required to regenerate them after use. Metal hydrides were found to be the lightest and smallest option by a large margin. The energy needed to regenerate a hydride thermal storage system can be extracted from the vehicle's exhaust gases.

  14. Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NOT drink alcohol or caffeinated drinks (such as soda). These can make heat exhaustion worse. Take a ... that contain caffeine (such as tea, coffee and soda) or alcohol. Schedule vigorous outdoor activities for cooler ...

  15. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL, CELLULAR, AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust is a major source of pollution especially in urban areas. The contribution of the diesel exhaust particles and gases to increases in deaths, asthma symptoms, lung infections, and other health effects is unclear. This study will examine the lung, blood, heart, and o...

  17. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST (Final 2002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment examined information regarding the possible health hazards associated with exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DE), which is a mixture of gases and particles.

    The assessment concludes that long-term (i.e., chronic) inhalation exposure is likely to pose a l...

  18. Lethal methemoglobinemia and automobile exhaust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Vevelstad, Merete; Morild, Inge

    2009-05-30

    Inhalation of automobile exhaust gas often leads to death by CO intoxication. In some cases the measured carbon monoxide hemoglobin saturation level (COHb) is considerably below what is considered to be lethal. The death in such cases has been attributed to a combination of a high CO2 and a low O2 tension. In a recent case the deceased was found dead in a car equipped with a catalytic converter, with a hose leading exhaust from the engine to the interior of the car. Analysis revealed a moderately elevated COHb and a high methemoglobin saturation level (MetHb) in peripheral blood. No ethanol, narcotics or drugs were detected. Reports mentioning MetHb or methemoglobinemia in post-mortem cases are surprisingly scarce, and very few have related exhaust gas deaths to methemoglobinemia. High-degree methemoglobinemia causes serious tissue hypoxia leading to unconsciousness, arrhythmia and death. The existing literature in this field and the knowledge that exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) that by inhalation and absorption can result in severe methemoglobinemia, led us to postulate that this death could possibly be attributed to a combination of methemoglobinemia and a moderately high COHb concentration. PMID:19261402

  19. 40 CFR 1066.405 - Vehicle preparation and preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Preparing Vehicles and Running an Exhaust Emission Test 1066.405 Vehicle preparation and preconditioning. Prepare the vehicle for testing (including... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle preparation...

  20. Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

  1. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission test results, applicable deterioration factors, and adjusted exhaust emission levels. (ii) A statement of the origin of the vehicle including total mileage accumulation, and modifications (if any) from the vehicle configuration in which the mileage...

  2. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.310 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.710 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  3. Ionospheric effects of rocket exhaust products (HEAO-C, Skylab and SPS-HLLV)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, J; Sutherland, D; Stone, S N; Duncan, L M; Behnke, R

    1980-10-01

    This paper reviews the current state of our understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit-circularization maneuver at apogee. The second-stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 56 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit-circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. Also described are experimental airglow and incoherent-scatter radar measurements performed in conjunction with the 1979 launch of satellite HEAO-C, together with prelaunch and post-launch computations of the ionospheric effects. Several improvements in the model have been driven by the experimental observations. The computer model is described in some detail.

  4. Self-propelled vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.D.

    1986-03-04

    A self-propelled vehicle is described which includes a body and a set of four internal-force generating devices, each device having a central axis about which internal portions thereof rotate, the four devices being configured as two opposed pairs, the two devices of one pair having parallel axes, but turning in opposite directions, the two devices of the other pair also having parallel axes but turning in opposite directions the axes of the one pair being at right angles to the axes of the other pair. Each device consists of: stationary frame means, a stationary sun gear on the frame means, the sun gear being coaxial with the central axis of its respective device, a rotor pivoted about the axis of the sun gear, three crankshafts carried by the rotor at substantially 120/sup 0/ intervals, each having an eccentric portion, for each crankshaft a cylinder in the rotor, a piston mounted for riciprocation in each cylinder, and a connecting rod from the piston to the eccentric portion of the crankshaft, each crankshaft being fixed to rotate with a respective planetary gear, all planetary gears meshing with the sun gear and having the same pitch diameter as the sun gear, whereby any point on the pitch circle of a planetary gear describes a cardioid as the planetary gear rotates around the sun gear once, the crankshaft eccentricity being substantially 1/3 of the pitch radius of a planetary gear, fuel metering means for providing a combustible mixture for the cylinder, ignition means to ignite the combustible mixture in each cylinder, and valve means for admitting the combustible mixture to, and exhausting combustion gases from, each cylinder.

  5. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2) = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. PMID:24134551

  6. 40 CFR 86.1724-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles certified to the SFTP exhaust emission standards, if air conditioning is projected to be available... which have air conditioning available and would require that any vehicle selected under this section has air conditioning installed and operational....

  7. 40 CFR 86.1724-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicles certified to the SFTP exhaust emission standards, if air conditioning is projected to be available... which have air conditioning available and would require that any vehicle selected under this section has air conditioning installed and operational....

  8. 40 CFR 86.1724-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicles certified to the SFTP exhaust emission standards, if air conditioning is projected to be available... which have air conditioning available and would require that any vehicle selected under this section has air conditioning installed and operational....

  9. Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shun-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Song, Jian; Peng, Bao-Cheng; Yuan, Dong; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Qi, Ping-Ping

    In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP ( n=806) were much higher than those of the controls ( n=413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who have indisposed sensation of nose or laryngopharynx, cough, phlegm and pharyngitis in the workers who were occupationally exposed to gasoline exhausts ( n=157) were also higher than those of controls ( n=121), the OR values were 2.43, 3.76, 2.58, and 3.70, respectively, and in the 40 gasoline exhausts exposed workers, the frequencies of 6-TG (thioguanine), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei in peripheral blood were markedly higher ( P<0.05) than those of controls. The SI (T lymphocytes transformation) activity, total E rosette, E active rosette, content of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and fibrin (FN) of the exposed group were significantly ( P<0.05) decreased compared with those of the control. All the results showed that vehicle emissions could not only induce adverse effects on respiratory and immune system of occupationally exposed people, but also have potential carcinogenicity to human beings.

  10. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  11. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  13. Results of an investigation of jet plume effects on an 0.010-scale model (75-OTS) of the space shuttle integrated vehicle in the 9 x 7-foot leg of the NASA/Ames unitary wind tunnel (IA82B), volume 1. [an exhaust flow simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    The base pressure environment was investigated for the first and second stage mated vehicle in a supersonic flow field from Mach 1.55 through 2.20 with simulated rocket engine exhaust plumes. The pressure environment was investigated for the orbiter at various vent port locations at these same freestream conditions. The Mach number environment around the base of the model with rocket plumes simulated was examined. Data were obtained at angles of attack from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero yaw, and at yaw angles from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero angle of attack, with rocket plume sizes varying from smaller than nominal to much greater than nominal. Failed orbiter engine data were also obtained. Elevon hinge moments and wing panel load data were obtained during all runs. Photographs of the tested configurations are shown.

  14. Results of an investigation of jet plume effects on a 0.010-scale model (75-OTS) of the space shuttle integrated vehicle in the 8 x 7-foot leg of the NASA/Ames unitary wind tunnel (IA82C), volume 1. [(an exhaust flow simulation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    The primary test objective was to define the base pressure environment of the first and second stage mated vehicle in a supersonic flow field from Mach 2.60 through 3.50 with simulated rocket engine exhaust plumes. The secondary objective was to obtain the pressure environment of the Orbiter at various vent port locations at these same freestream conditions. Data were obtained at angles of attack from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero yaw, and at yaw angles from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero angle of attack, with rocket plume sizes varying from smaller than nominal to much greater than nominal. Failed Orbiter engine data were also obtained. Elevon hinge moments and wing panel load data were obtained during all runs. Photographs of test equipment and tested configurations are shown.

  15. Exhaustion, a guide to transportation emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This publication contains a series of fact sheets on the environmental impact of the automobile, addressing the issues of vehicle exhaust and its impact, alternative and cleaner fuels, and alternative forms of transportation. The sheets are intended to serve as background information and reference material. Specific topics of the sheets include: Components of car exhaust and other automobile-related emissions; air quality in Canada; smog; climate change and the greenhouse effect; acid rain; stratospheric ozone depletion; hazardous air pollutants and the automobile; health impacts; modifications and improvements to diesel fuels; reformulated gasoline; alternative fuels such as propane, ethanol, natural gas, hydrogen, and methanol; emissions standards and controls; inspection and maintenance programs; transportation demand management; driving behavior and the environment; and indirect costs of the automobile.

  16. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  17. Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  18. Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  19. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. ); Wuebbles, D. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1514 Section 86.1514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1514 Section 86.1514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines,...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1514 Section 86.1514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines,...

  3. 40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.214-94 Section 86.214-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The provisions of ...

  4. 40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.214-94 Section 86.214-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The provisions of ...

  5. 40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.214-94 Section 86.214-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The provisions of ...

  6. 40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.214-94 Section 86.214-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The provisions of ...

  7. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08... GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.207-08 Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel...

  8. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08... GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.207-08 Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1713-99 - Light-duty exhaust durability programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Light-duty exhaust durability programs. 86.1713-99 Section 86.1713-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks 86.1713-99 Light-duty exhaust durability programs. The provisions of ...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. 86.1823-01 Section 86.1823-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  11. 40 CFR 1037.102 - Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Related Requirements § 1037.102 Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO. See 40 CFR part 86 for the exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO that apply for heavy-duty vehicles. ..., PM, and CO. 1037.102 Section 1037.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 40 CFR 1037.102 - Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Related Requirements § 1037.102 Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO. See 40 CFR part 86 for the exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO that apply for heavy-duty vehicles. ..., PM, and CO. 1037.102 Section 1037.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. 40 CFR 1037.102 - Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Related Requirements § 1037.102 Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO. See 40 CFR part 86 for the exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO that apply for heavy-duty vehicles. ..., PM, and CO. 1037.102 Section 1037.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system. 86.1511 Section 86.1511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines,...

  15. ROUND ROBIN ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOL AND CARBONYL SYNTHETIC EXHAUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent changes in regulatory practices have brought about a need for speciated analysis of the volatile organic components of vehicle exhaust. he purpose of this study was to allow interested laboratories to participate in a Round Robin so that each could assess their speciation ...

  16. 40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.144-94 Section 86.144-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation; idle exhaust emissions. 86.1544 Section 86.1544 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle...

  18. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.111-94 Section 86.111-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.1342-90 Section 86.1342-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle...

  20. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.111-94 Section 86.111-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  1. 40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.144-94 Section 86.144-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  2. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.111-90 Section 86.111-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.1509 Section 86.1509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  4. 40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...=Total hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled..., water vapor, and CO2 extraction, in ppm. (B) COconc = COe − COd(1 − (1/DF)). Where: (iv)(A) COe =...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1342-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.1342-94 Section 86.1342-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculation; idle exhaust emissions. 86.1544 Section 86.1544 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines,...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.1509 Section 86.1509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines,...

  8. 40 CFR 86.140-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.140-94 Section 86.140-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New...

  9. 40 CFR 86.540-90 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.540-90 Section 86.540-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles;...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions. 86.1343-88 Section 86.1343-88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1828-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Cold CO testing. For cold temperature CO exhaust emission compliance for each durability group, the... of vehicles under this section. (g) Cold temperature NMHC testing. For cold temperature NMHC exhaust... paragraph (a) of this section. When the expected worst-case cold temperature NMHC vehicle is also...

  12. 40 CFR 86.532-78 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appendix I). The vehicle need not be cold, and may be used to set dynamometer horsepower. (b) Within five... the following times prior to the cold start exhaust test. Hours Class I 6 Class II 8 Class III 12 In no case shall the vehicle be stored for more than 36 hours prior to the cold start exhaust test....

  13. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1979-01-01

    Current design philosophy for hydrogen-fueled, scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with strong couplings between the engine plume and vehicle aerodynamics. The experimental verification of the scramjet exhaust simulation is described. The scramjet exhaust was reproduced for the Mach 6 flight condition by the detonation tube simulator. The exhaust flow pressure profiles, and to a large extent the heat transfer rate profiles, were then duplicated by cool gas mixtures of Argon and Freon 13B1 or Freon 12. The results of these experiments indicate that a cool gas simulation of the hot scramjet exhaust is a viable simulation technique except for phenomena which are dependent on the wall temperature relative to flow temperature.

  14. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    DOEpatents

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  15. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the “General vehicle handling requirements” per 40 CFR 86.132-96, up to and including the completion of the hot start exhaust test. (b) The preconditioning procedure prescribed at 40 CFR...

  16. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicles may be tested for their exhaust THC emissions using the Federal test procedure as detailed in 40 CFR part 86, with gasoline conforming to requirements detailed in 40 CFR 86.113-90. The results shall... following test procedures must be used to screen candidate vehicles for their exhaust THC emissions to...

  17. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicles may be tested for their exhaust THC emissions using the Federal test procedure as detailed in 40 CFR part 86, with gasoline conforming to requirements detailed in 40 CFR 86.113-90. The results shall... following test procedures must be used to screen candidate vehicles for their exhaust THC emissions to...

  18. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicles may be tested for their exhaust THC emissions using the Federal test procedure as detailed in 40 CFR part 86, with gasoline conforming to requirements detailed in 40 CFR 86.113-90. The results shall... following test procedures must be used to screen candidate vehicles for their exhaust THC emissions to...

  19. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles may be tested for their exhaust THC emissions using the Federal test procedure as detailed in 40 CFR part 86, with gasoline conforming to requirements detailed in 40 CFR 86.113-90. The results shall... following test procedures must be used to screen candidate vehicles for their exhaust THC emissions to...

  20. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles may be tested for their exhaust THC emissions using the Federal test procedure as detailed in 40 CFR part 86, with gasoline conforming to requirements detailed in 40 CFR 86.113-90. The results shall... following test procedures must be used to screen candidate vehicles for their exhaust THC emissions to...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  5. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  6. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  7. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  8. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by a microcomputer for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, T.; Yuzawa, H.

    1981-03-24

    An exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by a microcomputer for an internal combustion engine is comprised of a pressure sensor for measuring the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of an orifice disposed in the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a microcomputer for electrically controlling an electromagnetic valve which fluidly controls an exhaust gas recirculation control valve arranged in the exhaust gas recirculation passage, in view of the comparison of an optimal pressure of the exhaust gases, derived from the engine parameters, and the actual pressure measured by the sensor. The gear position of the transmission, engine temperature, engine speed, and the intake airflow rate are used in the microcomputer to produce an output signal with which the electromagnetic valve is controlled.

  10. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  11. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  12. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

  13. Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Robbie D.; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide. PMID:24091789

  14. Summary of nozzle-exhaust plume flowfield analyses related to space shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penny, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    Exhaust plume shape simulation is studied, with the major effort directed toward computer program development and analytical support of various plume related problems associated with the space shuttle. Program development centered on (1) two-phase nozzle-exhaust plume flows, (2) plume impingement, and (3) support of exhaust plume simulation studies. Several studies were also conducted to provide full-scale data for defining exhaust plume simulation criteria. Model nozzles used in launch vehicle test were analyzed and compared to experimental calibration data.

  15. A comparison of the cellular toxicity of exhausts from cars driven on present and future fuels.

    PubMed

    Bernson, V

    1983-01-01

    A cellular test system (brown-fat-cell-test) (BFC-test) has been used to evaluate the toxicity of the particulate phase of exhaust emission from vehicles fuelled with gasoline and alcohol-mixed fuels. The results were evaluated by an analysis of variance with multiple contrasts. The exhaust extracts from cars driven on commercially available gasoline were found to be significantly more toxic to the cellular oxygen consumption than a similar extract of exhausts from cars driven on alcohol-mixed fuels. The lowest toxicity was found with extracts from catalyst processed exhausts. PMID:6197769

  16. Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Harig, Roland; Aleyt, Christian; Rusch, Peter

    Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts of this kind than other measurement systems as e.g. in situ techniques. Within the scope of aircraft emission investigations the measurements were performed from a measurement van which is equipped with an FTIR spectrometer of high spectral resolution coupled with a telescope and a two-axis movable mirror for rapid orientation towards the emission sources. At airports the emission indices of CO2, CO and NO of main engines and auxiliary power units of standing aircraft were determined. The measurement time is about one minute. The accuracy is better than 30 % as found from burner experiments with calibration gases (CO and NO). The method is also applied to detect exhausts of flares and smoke stacks. Currently, a new scanning FTIR-system is developed. The system allows imaging of the exhaust gas and rapid automated alignment of the field of view. The goal of the new development is to measure aircraft exhausts during normal operations at the airport. The spectrometer is coupled with a camera giving an image of the scenery so that a rapid selection of the hottest exhaust area is possible. It is planned to equip the system with an infrared camera for automatic tracking of this area with the scanning mirror so that measurements of the exhausts of a moving aircraft are possible.

  17. A portable fiber-optic chemical device for the quantitative determination of carbon monoxide from automobile exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Matias, F A; Tubino, M

    2001-07-01

    A colorimetric method for the quantitative determination of CO by diffuse reflectance is described. This method is based on the reduction by CO of Mo (VI) from the indicator reagent molybdosilicic acid (H8Si[Mo2O7]6). The reduction yielded a change of color from clear yellow to dark green on white disk filter chart paper wetted with reagent indicator solution. The gaseous mixture containing CO was forced to pass through this chart paper, initiating the reaction. The intensity of the color produced, measured by diffuse reflectance, was proportional to the CO concentration present in exhaust gases in the range from 0.02 to 12% volume/volume (v/v). A 650-nm light-emitting diode was used as a light source. A two-fiber-optic system carried the light from the source to the detection system, which was composed of a photodiode, an amplification circuit, and a digital display. The method was applied with success in field measurements for automobiles in the Otto cycle. In a previous paper, this method was used for the quantitative determination of exhaust emissions from diesel-fueled vehicles. PMID:15658214

  18. Heat recovery device for exhaust flues

    SciTech Connect

    Knoch, D.G.

    1986-06-24

    A device is described for recovering and recirculating heat normally lost from the exhaust flue of a stove, furnace or the like having a cylindrical flue. The device consisting of: a section of cylindrical flue pipe which has opposite ends adapted for connection to the existing flue, which has an inside diameter substantially the same as that of the existing cylindrical flue and through which the hot flue gases flow; heating tubes extending diametrically through the flue pipe section so that the hot flue gases flow over the outer surfaces thereof, the heating tubes having opposite air inlet and discharge ends and being disposed in a single row; a housing defining an air flow chamber surrounding the portion of the flue pipe section containing the heating tubes, the housing having an ambient air inlet on the same side of the flue pipe section as the inlet ends of the heating tubes and a heated air outlet on the same side of the flue pipe section as the discharge ends of the heating tubes; fan means inside the housing for drawing ambient air into the housing through the air inlet and propelling a flow air toward the heated air outlet, both through the heating tubes and over the outer surface of the portion of the flue pipe section; and a disc-shaped catalytic combustor mounted inside the flue pipe section upstream of the heating tubes for rotational movement between a starting position generally parallel to the flow of flue gases and an operating position generally perpendicular to the flow of the flue gases.

  19. Device for exhaust gas recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Banzhaf, W.; Stumpp, G.

    1980-10-28

    A device for exhaust gas recycling is proposed which controls the amount of recycled exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine equipped with an injection unit so that a certain air factor is attained. The device comprises a closing element for the exhaust gas return conduit, which latter terminates into the intake manifold, this closing element being suitably constituted by a throttle valve and being directly connected to the adjusting lever or control rod of the injection pump. If this connection is established via a resilient linkage between the adjusting lever and the exhaust gas return valve, then the thus-recycled amount of exhaust gas can be dimensioned so that a specific quantity of recycled exhaust gas is associated with a specific angular position of the adjusting lever.

  20. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C.; Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven

    2002-06-01

    Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  1. Vehicle propulsion system with external propellant supply

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, D.R.

    1993-07-06

    A vehicle propulsion system is described, comprising: a vehicle designed for travel along an arranged travel path in a single extended surrounding medium; propellant depositing means for distributing propellant into a propellant trail having no structural constraint in the extended medium and extending along at least part of the travel path in advance of the vehicle; and the vehicle having combustion means for immediate combustion and expansion of at least some of the propellant distributed along the path to produce thrust on the vehicle, and exhaust means for expelling burnt propellant from the vehicle.

  2. Natural Cycles, Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Rood, R. B.; Aikin, A. C.; Stolarski, R. S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Fahey, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The major gaseous components of the exhaust of stratospheric aircraft are expected to be the products of combustion (CO2 and H2O), odd nitrogen (NO, NO2 HNO3), and products indicating combustion inefficiencies (CO and total unburned hydrocarbons). The species distributions are produced by a balance of photochemical and transport processes. A necessary element in evaluating the impact of aircraft exhaust on the lower stratospheric composition is to place the aircraft emissions in perspective within the natural cycles of stratospheric species. Following are a description of mass transport in the lower stratosphere and a discussion of the natural behavior of the major gaseous components of the stratospheric aircraft exhaust.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall be not greater than... are incorporated by reference (see § 86.1). (v) Hybrid electric vehicle requirements. Deterioration... Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1709-99 Exhaust emission standards...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall be not greater than... Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1709-99 Exhaust emission standards for... exceed the standards in Tables R99-8 and R99-9 in rows designated with the applicable vehicle...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall be not greater than... Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1709-99 Exhaust emission standards for... exceed the standards in Tables R99-8 and R99-9 in rows designated with the applicable vehicle...

  6. Trends in source gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

  7. Prediction of Launch Vehicle Ignition Overpressure and Liftoff Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The LAIOP (Launch Vehicle Ignition Overpressure and Liftoff Acoustic Environments) program predicts the external pressure environment generated during liftoff for a large variety of rocket types. These environments include ignition overpressure, produced by the rapid acceleration of exhaust gases during rocket-engine start transient, and launch acoustics, produced by turbulence in the rocket plume. The ignition overpressure predictions are time-based, and the launch acoustic predictions are frequency-based. Additionally, the software can predict ignition overpressure mitigation, using water-spray injection into the rocket exhaust stream, for a limited number of configurations. The framework developed for these predictions is extensive, though some options require additional relevant data and development time. Once these options are enabled, the already extensively capable code will be further enhanced. The rockets, or launch vehicles, can either be elliptically or cylindrically shaped, and up to eight strap-on structures (boosters or tanks) are allowed. Up to four engines are allowed for the core launch vehicle, which can be of two different types. Also, two different sizes of strap-on structures can be used, and two different types of booster engines are allowed. Both tabular and graphical presentations of the predicted environments at the selected locations can be reviewed by the user. The output includes summaries of rocket-engine operation, ignition overpressure time histories, and one-third octave sound pressure spectra of the predicted launch acoustics. Also, documentation is available to the user to help him or her understand the various aspects of the graphical user interface and the required input parameters.

  8. Biofilters remove VOCs from stack gases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Weyerhaeuser's strandboard plant in Grayling, Mich., is using biofiltration to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the site. Primary constituents in the Weyerhaeuser stack gases are alcohols, aldehydes, organic acids, benzene and toluene. The alternative to biofiltration is incineration, but because the concentration of VOCs in the stack gases is so dilute, natural gas would be required. Incineration would be costly, and could introduce pollution problems by generating excess carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) and possibly nitrogen oxides. Two pilot biofilters, each about 20ft by 100ft in area, with 4-ft thick media of bark and ground trim ends, are using naturally occurring bacteria to destroy VOCs emanating from a wood panel press and a wood flake dryer. The press offgas biofilter, activated February 1993, had risen to 93% efficiency in removing VOCs by mid-May. The flake dryer exhaust biofilter, placed in service in April, already was more than 80% efficient.

  9. 40 CFR 600.006-08 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle as well as the design tolerances. (iv) In the case of electric vehicles, a copy of calibrations... vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission test results, applicable deterioration factors... statement of the origin of the vehicle including total mileage accumulation, and modification (if any)...

  10. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicle as well as the design tolerances. (iv) In the case of electric vehicles, a copy of calibrations... information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission test... origin of the vehicle including total mileage accumulation, and modifications (if any) from the...

  11. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... components on the test vehicle as well as the design tolerances. (iv) In the case of electric vehicles, the... information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission test... origin of the vehicle including total mileage accumulation, and modifications (if any) from the...

  12. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  13. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  14. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  15. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  16. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  17. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  18. Exhaust gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, J.; Miree, T.J.

    1997-02-09

    The automotive industry needed a fast, reliable, under-the-hood method of determining nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust. Several technologies were pursued concurrently. These sensing technologies were based on light absorption, electrochemical methods, and surface mass loading. The Y-12 plant was selected to study the methods based on light absorption. The first phase was defining the detailed technical objectives of the sensors--this was the role of the automobile companies. The second phase was to develop prototype sensors in the laboratories--the national laboratories. The final phase was testing of the prototype sensors by the automobile industries. This program was canceled a few months into what was to be a three-year effort.

  19. Low-cost sensor for online detection of harmful diesel combustion gases in UV-VIS region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degner, Martin; Ewald, Hartmut

    2006-04-01

    Online detection of harmful exhaust gases is necessary for optimal engine control to reduce the polluting emissions of diesel cars. Optical detection methods in the UV-VIS range enable the simultaneous characterisation of various gases such as NO, NO II and SO II. Additionally this technique is fast and has a low cross-sensitivity to other exhaust components. First results show the advantages for the optical approach compared with standard electrochemical gas sensors.

  20. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007 Section 600.007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.007...

  1. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007 Section 600.007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.007...

  2. Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tatur, M.; Tyrer, H.; Tomazic, D.; Thornton, M.; McDonald, J.

    2005-01-01

    Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure, common-rail fuel systems, low-sulfur diesel fuel, NO{sub x} adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has engaged in several test projects under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) activity. The primary technology being addressed by these projects are the sulfur tolerance and durability of the NAC/DPF system. The project investigated the performance of the emission control system and system desulphurization effects on regulated and unregulated emissions. Emissions measurements were conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET). Testing was conducted after the accumulation of 150 hours of engine operation calculated to be the equivalent of approximately 8,200 miles. For these evaluations three out of six of the FTP test cycles were within the 50,000-mile Tier 2 bin 5 emission standards (0.05 g/mi NO{sub x} and 0.01 g/mi PM). Emissions over the SC03 portion of the SFTP were within the 4,000-mile SFTP standards. The emission of NO{sub x}+NMHC exceeded the 4,000-mile standard over the US06 portion of the SFTP. Testing was also conducted after the accumulation of 1,000 hours of engine operation calculated to be the equivalent of approximately 50,000 miles. Recalibrated driveability maps resulted in more repeatable NOs{sub x} emissions from cycle to cycle. The NO{sub x} level was below the Tier 2 emission limits for 50,000 and 120,000 miles. NMHC emissions were found at a level outside the limit for 120,000 miles.

  3. Secondary organic aerosol formation from road vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieber, Simone M.; Platt, Stephen M.; El Haddad, Imad; Zardini, Alessandro A.; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Slowik, Jay G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Drinovec, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadogna; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Organic aerosol particles (OA) are a major fraction of the submicron particulate matter. OA consists of directly emitted primary (POA) and secondary OA (SOA). SOA is formed in-situ in the atmosphere via the reaction of volatile organic precursors. The partitioning of SOA species depends not only on the exposure to oxidants, but for instance also on temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the absorptive mass chemical composition (presence of inorganics) and concentration. Vehicle exhaust is a known source of POA and likely contributes to SOA formation in urban areas [1;2]. This has recently been estimated by (i) analyzing ambient data from urban areas combined with fuel consumption data [3], (ii) by examining the chemical composition of raw fuels [4], or (iii) smog chamber studies [5, 6]. Contradictory and thus somewhat controversial results in the relative quantity of SOA from diesel vs. gasoline vehicle exhaust were observed. In order to elucidate the impact of variable ambient conditions on the potential SOA formation of vehicle exhaust, and its relation to the emitted gas phase species, we studied SOA formed from the exhaust of passenger cars and trucks as a function of fuel and engine type (gasoline, diesel) at different temperatures (T 22 vs. -7oC) and RH (40 vs. 90%), as well as with different levels of inorganic salt concentrations. The exhaust was sampled at the tailpipe during regulatory driving cycles on chassis dynamometers, diluted (200 - 400x) and introduced into the PSI mobile smog chamber [6], where the emissions were subjected to simulated atmospheric ageing. Particle phase instruments (HR-ToF-AMS, aethalometers, CPC, SMPS) and gas phase instruments (PTR-TOF-MS, CO, CO2, CH4, THC, NH3 and other gases) were used online during the experiments. We found that gasoline emissions, because of cold starts, were generally larger than diesel, especially during cold temperatures driving cycles. Gasoline vehicles also showed the highest SOA formation. Furthermore, we observed that vehicle emissions and SOA are significantly affected by temperature and RH: doubling the RH in the chamber resulted in significantly increased SOA formation. Primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation from diesel and gasoline vehicles will be compared at different temperature and RH. Also the interaction and influence of inorganics on organics will be discussed. References: [1] Robinson, A.L., et al. (2007) Science 315, 1259. [2] Weitkamp, E.A., et al. (2007) Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 6969. [3] Bahreini, R., et al. (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L06805. [4] Gentner, D.R. et al. (2012) PNAS 109, 18318. [5] Gordon, T.D. et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 13, 23173. [6] Platt, S.M., et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 12, 28343.

  4. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Koermer, Gerald (Basking Ridge, NJ)

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  5. Exhaust control for cryogenic freezer

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, D. J.

    1985-07-16

    An exhaust system for a cryogenic freezer is set forth wherein the system senses the temperature of an aperture in the freezer to detect any outward passage of cryogenic vapors and based upon that sensing, controllably operates an exhaust fan to remove such cryogenic vapors.

  6. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust...

  11. Corrosion of Exhaust and Filtration Equipment in a Radioactive Waste Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.

    2003-10-31

    Condensation in the exhaust gas system of an incinerator burning low activity radioactive wastes led to numerous corrosion developments and rapid failure of the discharge filters. The problem was traced to insufficient reheat of the exhaust gases following scrubbing. Rust particulate and moisture loaded the filters, leading to water accumulation, chloride cracking of the filter housings, and plugging and tearing of the filter media itself. To mitigate the problem, the exhaust gas temperature was increased, thermal insulation was installed on the ductwork, and the interiors of the ducts and new filter housings were lined with a protective coating.

  12. Analysis Technique for Exhaust Gas Including PFCs from Microelectronics Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Nobuyasu; Isaki, Ryuichiro

    In the manufacturing processes of Semiconductor and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), Perfluorocompounds (PFCs), Sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) and Nitrogenfluoride (NF3), which have high Green house effect,are used in large quantities. As emission reduction of these gases, the following countermeasures are taken. 1. Opimization of PFCs usage 2. Utilization of alternative gas 3. Instllation of Scrubber for exhaust gas treatment To inspect the effect of countermeasure that are introduced for these PFCs emission reduction, it is necessary to analyze PFCs in exhaust gas. In this report, we will discribe about analysis technique for exhaust gas including PFCs from microelectornics manufacturing processes.

  13. Analysis of generic scramjet external nozzle flowfields employing simulant gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.; Monta, William J.; Witte, David W.; Walters, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and computational results are presented for a generic scramjet nozzle/afterbody model. Mixtures of argon and Freon were employed as simulant scramjet exhaust gases because they correctly model the inviscid simulation parameters of actual scramjet combustion products, allowing test and analysis at significantly reduced temperatures. Air was also employed as an exhaust gas to provide experimental and computational comparisons with simulant gas effects. Several computational aerodynamic analysis codes, employing different levels of theoretical modeling, were applied to compute solutions about the scramjet geometry. The solutions are compared with measured surface static and flowfield pitot pressure data taken in a Mach 6 freestream.

  14. Flow analysis and design optimization methods for nozzle afterbody of a hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, Oktay

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods developed for the aerodynamic analysis and the shape optimization of the nozzle-afterbody section of a hypersonic vehicle. Initially, exhaust gases were assumed to be air. Internal-external flows around a single scramjet module were analyzed by solving the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Then, exhaust gases were simulated by a cold mixture of Freon and Argon. Two different models were used to compute these multispecies flows as they mixed with the hypersonic airflow. Surface and off-surface properties were successfully compared with the experimental data. In the second phase of this project, the Aerodynamic Design Optimization with Sensitivity analysis (ADOS) was developed. Pre and post optimization sensitivity coefficients were derived and used in this quasi-analytical method. These coefficients were also used to predict inexpensively the flow field around a changed shape when the flow field of an unchanged shape was given. Starting with totally arbitrary initial afterbody shapes, independent computations were converged to the same optimum shape, which rendered the maximum axial thrust.

  15. Flow analysis and design optimization methods for nozzle-afterbody of a hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, O.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods developed for the aerodynamic analysis and the shape optimization of the nozzle-afterbody section of a hypersonic vehicle. Initially, exhaust gases were assumed to be air. Internal-external flows around a single scramjet module were analyzed by solving the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. Then, exhaust gases were simulated by a cold mixture of Freon and Ar. Two different models were used to compute these multispecies flows as they mixed with the hypersonic airflow. Surface and off-surface properties were successfully compared with the experimental data. The Aerodynamic Design Optimization with Sensitivity analysis was then developed. Pre- and postoptimization sensitivity coefficients were derived and used in this quasi-analytical method. These coefficients were also used to predict inexpensively the flow field around a changed shape when the flow field of an unchanged shape was given. Starting with totally arbitrary initial afterbody shapes, independent computations were converged to the same optimum shape, which rendered the maximum axial thrust.

  16. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  17. 40 CFR 86.423-78 - Test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test vehicles. 86.423-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.423-78 Test vehicles. (a)(1) Before beginning service accumulation on a test vehicle, the manufacturer may perform a zero-kilometer exhaust emission test. (2)...

  18. 40 CFR 86.423-78 - Test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test vehicles. 86.423-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.423-78 Test vehicles. (a)(1) Before beginning service accumulation on a test vehicle, the manufacturer may perform a zero-kilometer exhaust emission test. (2)...

  19. EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Su

    1999-09-29

    The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

  20. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions. 600.510-12 Section 600.510-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  1. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 44-57, 2016. PMID:25045158

  2. Review of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Graves

    1999-04-26

    The DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) and its predecessor organizations have maintained aggressive projects in diesel exhaust aftertreatment since 1993. The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 2027, specifically authorized DOE to help accelerate the ability of U. S. diesel engine manufacturers to meet emissions regulations while maintaining the compression ignition engines inherently high efficiency. A variety of concepts and devices have been evaluated for NOx and Particulate matter (PM) control. Additionally, supporting technology in diagnostics for catalysis, PM measurement, and catalyst/reductant systems are being developed. This paper provides a summary of technologies that have been investigated and provides recent results from ongoing DOE-sponsored R and D. NOx control has been explored via active NOx catalysis, several plasma-assisted systems, electrochemical cells, and fuel additives. Both catalytic and non-catalytic filter technologies have been investigated for PM control.

  3. Hydrophobic Catalysts For Removal Of NOx From Flue Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Improved catalysts for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) from combustion flue gases formulated as composites of vanadium pentoxide in carbon molecular sieves. Promotes highly efficient selective catalytic reduction of NOx at relatively low temperatures while not being adversely affected by presence of water vapor and sulfur oxide gases in flue gas. Apparatus utilizing catalyst of this type easily integrated into exhaust stream of power plant to remove nitrogen oxides, generated in combustion of fossil fuels and contribute to formation of acid rain and photochemical smog.

  4. Implementation of microwave transmissions for rocket exhaust plume diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutu, Nicholas George

    Rocket-launched vehicles produce a trail of exhaust that contains ions, free electrons, and soot. The exhaust plume increases the effective conductor length of the rocket. A conductor in the presence of an electric field (e.g. near the electric charge stored within a cloud) can channel an electric discharge. The electrical conductivity of the exhaust plume is related to its concentration of free electrons. The risk of a lightning strike in-flight is a function of both the conductivity of the body and its effective length. This paper presents an approach that relates the electron number density of the exhaust plume to its propagation constant. Estimated values of the collision frequency and electron number density generated from a numerical simulation of a rocket plume are used to guide the design of the experimental apparatus. Test par meters are identified for the apparatus designed to transmit a signal sweep form 4 GHz to 7 GHz through the exhaust plume of a J-class solid rocket motor. Measurements of the scattering parameters imply that the transmission does not penetrate the plume, but instead diffracts around it. The electron density 20 cm downstream from the nozzle exit is estimated to be between 2.7x1014 m--3 and 5.6x10 15 m--3.

  5. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures. PMID:15901550

  6. Diesel-exhaust emissions-toxicology program. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, R.O.

    1980-07-01

    This document reports the current status of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment (EV) research programs to assess the potential health impacts of increased use of diesel engines. The EV research effort consists of activities in five inter-related areas: (1) studies to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of emissions from different vehicles over a range of operating conditions, fuel types and control devices; (2) evaluations to predict the transport and transformation of diesel exhaust as it moves from vehicles to the breathing zone of man; (3) research to predict the inhalation, deposition, retention and fate in the body of diesel exhaust particles and the organic compounds that are an integral part of the particles; (4) chronic exposure of laboratory animals to graded levels of diesel exhaust to determine the potential of these exposures for causing cancer or functional disorders, especially the respiratory tract, over the lifetime of the animals; and (5) development of an integrated risk assessment that brings together all relevant information to predict (a) emissions, (b) exposure atmospheres, (c) effective dose to critical tissues, and (d) health effects in man for various scenarios of diesel vehicle production and deployment.

  7. Reale Gase, tiefe Temperaturen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Wir werden uns in diesem Kapitel zunchst mit der van der Waals'schen Zustandsgleichung befassen. In dieser Gleichung wird versucht, die Abweichungen, die reale Gase vom Verhalten idealer Gase zeigen, durch physikalisch motivierte Korrekturterme zu bercksichtigen. Es zeigt sich, dass die van derWaals-Gleichung geeignet ist, nicht nur die Gasphase, sondern auch die Phnomene bei der Verflssigung von Gasen und den kritischen Punkt zu beschreiben.

  8. Fact Program - distributed exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Futuristic Airframe Concepts & Technology (FACT): Distributed exhaust nozzle mounted in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel. Angle is zero degrees with respect to microphones. Photographed in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel, Jet Noise Lab, building 1221-A.

  9. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI); Koskinen, Jari (Karhula, FI)

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  10. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  11. Supporting design information for portable exhauster installation at tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, S-107

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-10-09

    This document provides supporting calculations and equipment dedication plans for portable exhausters and ductwork installed on tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, and S-107. The exhausters will ventilate the tanks during saltwell pumping to prevent the potential accumulation of flammable gases.

  12. Divergent Electrocardiographic Responses to Whole and Particle-Free Diesel Exhaust Inhalation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to traffic-related fine PM2.5. While inroads have been made in understanding the mechanisms of PM related health effects, DEs complex mixture of PM, gases and volatile organics makes it difficult to determine how the constituents contri...

  13. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundExposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

  14. Divergent Electrocardiographic Responses to Whole and Particle-Free Diesel Exhaust Inhalation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to traffic-related fine PM2.5. While inroads have been made in understanding the mechanisms of PM related health effects, DE’s complex mixture of PM, gases and volatile organics makes it difficult to determine how the constituents contri...

  15. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background–Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective–1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

  16. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure. PMID:26179557

  17. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere. Estimates are given for the emissions, summarizing relevant earlier work (CIAP) and reviewing current propulsion research efforts. The chemical evolution and the mixing and vortical motion of the exhaust are analyzed to track the exhaust and its speciation as the emissions are mixed to atmospheric scales. The species tracked include those that could be heterogeneously reactive on the surfaces of the condensed solid water (ice) particles and on exhaust soot particle surfaces. Dispersion and reaction of chemical constituents in the far wake are studied with a Lagrangian air parcel model, in conjunction with a radiation code to calculate the net heating/cooling. Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous chemistry of aqueous sulfuric acid and nitric acid hydrates are also described. Results include the solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid which is a key parameter for modeling stratospheric processing. We also report initial results for condensation of nitric acid trihydrate from gas phase H2O and HNO3.

  18. Detection of soot particles in gas turbine engine combustion gases using nonintrusive FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Moira; Black, John D.

    1998-12-01

    Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy for making non- intrusive measurements of gas turbine exhaust gases and laser induced incandescence for measuring soot content are being evaluated in EU Brite EuRam project AEROJET. Soot concentrations in modern aero-engine exhausts are very low with mean particle sizes < 100 nm. The standard extractive filter paper soot measurement gives results expressed in terms of SAE smoke number, typically < 10 SAE for modern engines.

  19. Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in unleaded petrol and diesel exhaust emission.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinay Kumar; Prasad, Sahdeo; Patel, Devendra K; Khan, Altaf Husain; Tripathi, Madhu; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of emissions from petrol and diesel exhaust particulates is associated with potentially severe biological effects. In the present study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified from smokes released by the automobile exhaust from petrol and diesel. Intensive sampling of unleaded petrol and diesel exhaust were done by using 800-cm(3) motor car and 3,455-cm(3) vehicle, respectively. The particulate phase of exhaust was collected on Whatman filter paper. Particulate matters were extracted from filter paper by using Soxhlet. PAHs were identified from particulate matter by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography using C(18) column. A total of 14 PAHs were identified in petrol and 13 in case of diesel sample after comparing to standard samples for PAH estimation. These inhalable PAHs released from diesel and petrol exhaust are known to possess mutagenic and carcinogenic activity, which may present a potential risk for the health of inhabitants. PMID:19629732

  20. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a)...